SENATE BILL 5216
State of Washington 52nd Legislature 1991 Regular Session
By Senators McMullen, Moore and A. Smith; by request of Department of Labor & Industries.
Read first time January 24, 1991. Referred to Committee on Commerce & Labor.
AN ACT Relating to industrial insurance coverage; amending RCW 51.08.070, 51.08.180, 51.12.020, 51.12.100, and 51.12.110; adding a new section to chapter 51.08 RCW; and repealing RCW 51.12.115.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
NEW SECTION. Sec. 1. A new section is added to chapter 51.08 RCW to read as follows:
(1) "Employment," subject only to the provisions of this title, means personal service, of whatever nature, unlimited by the relationship of master and servant as known to the common law or any other legal relationship, including service in interstate commerce, performed for wages or under contract calling for the performance of personal services, written or oral, express or implied.
Except as expressly provided in this title, personal services are considered employment by the employer if the personal services are performed for an employing unit by one or more contractors or subcontractors, acting individually or as a partnership, and do not meet the provisions of subsection (2) of this section. However, the contractor or subcontractor is an employer under this title with respect to personal services performed by individuals for the contractor or subcontractor.
(2) Services performed by an individual in the course of employment by an employer under this title, whether by way of manual labor or otherwise, including all services performed by an individual for remuneration, whether direct or indirect, constitute employment unless and until it is shown to the satisfaction of the department that:
(a) The individual has been and will continue to be free from control or direction over the performance of the service, both under the contract of service and in fact; and
(b) The service is either outside the usual course of business for which the service is performed, or the service is performed outside all of the places of business of the enterprise for which the service is performed; and
(c) The individual is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation, profession, or business, of the same nature as that involved in the contract of service.
Sec. 2. RCW 51.08.070 and 1981 c 128 s 1 are each amended to read as follows:
means any person, body of persons, corporate or otherwise, and the legal
representatives of a deceased employer, all while engaged in this state in any
work covered by the provisions of this title, by way of trade or business, or
who contracts ((
with one or more workers, the essence of which is the
personal labor of such worker or workers)) or agrees to remunerate the
services performed by an individual, as provided in section 1 of this act.
For the purposes of this title, a contractor registered under chapter 18.27 RCW or licensed under chapter 19.28 RCW is not an employer when:
(1) Contracting with any other person, firm, or corporation currently engaging in a business which is, at the time of signature of the contract and during all periods of performance, registered under chapter 18.27 RCW or licensed under chapter 19.28 RCW;
(2) The person, firm, or corporation has a principal place of business which would be eligible for a business deduction for internal revenue service tax purposes other than that furnished by the contractor for which the business has contracted to furnish services;
(3) The person, firm, or corporation maintains a separate set of books or records that reflect all items of income and expenses of the business; and
(4) The work which the person, firm, or corporation has contracted to perform is:
(a) The work of a contractor as defined in RCW 18.27.010; or
(b) The work of installing wires or equipment to convey electric current or installing apparatus to be operated by such current as it pertains to the electrical industry as described in chapter 19.28 RCW.
Sec. 3. RCW 51.08.180 and 1987 c 175 s 3 are each amended to read as follows:
"Worker" means every person in this state who is engaged in the
employment of an employer under this title, whether by way of manual labor or
otherwise in the course of his or her employment; ((
also every person in
this state who is engaged in the employment of or who is working under an
independent contract, the essence of which is his or her personal labor for an
employer under this title, whether by way of manual labor or otherwise, in the
course of his or her employment)) and includes all individuals who, for
remuneration, perform any services, as provided in section 1 of this act, for
any person, body of persons, corporate or otherwise, or the legal
representative thereof: PROVIDED, That a person is not a worker for the
purpose of this title, with respect to his or her activities attendant to
operating a truck which he or she owns, and which is leased to a common or
(2) For the purposes of this title, any person, firm, or corporation currently engaging in a business which is registered under chapter 18.27 RCW or licensed under chapter 19.28 RCW is not a worker when:
Contracting to perform ((
work)) services for any other
contractor registered under chapter 18.27 RCW or licensed under chapter 19.28
(b) The person, firm, or corporation has a principal place of business which would be eligible for a business deduction for internal revenue service tax purposes other than that furnished by the contractor for which the business has contracted to furnish services;
(c) The person, firm, or corporation maintains a separate set of books or records that reflect all items of income and expenses of the business; and
work)) service which the person, firm, or corporation has
contracted to perform is:
(i) The work of a contractor as defined in RCW 18.27.010; or
(ii) The work of installing wires or equipment to convey electric current or installing apparatus to be operated by such current as it pertains to the electrical industry as described in chapter 19.28 RCW.
Any person, firm, or corporation registered under chapter 18.27 RCW or licensed
under chapter 19.28 RCW including those performing ((
for any contractor registered under chapter 18.27 RCW or licensed under chapter
19.28 RCW is a worker when the contractor (( supervises)) directs
or controls, under the contract or in fact, the means by which the
result is accomplished or the manner in which the (( work)) service
(4) For the purposes of this title, any person participating as a driver or back‑up driver in commuter ride sharing, as defined in RCW 46.74.010(1), is not a worker while driving a ride‑sharing vehicle on behalf of the owner or lessee of the vehicle.
Sec. 4. RCW 51.12.020 and 1987 c 316 s 2 are each amended to read as follows:
The following are the only employments which shall not be included within the mandatory coverage of this title:
(1) Any person employed as a domestic servant in a private home by an employer who has less than two employees regularly employed forty or more hours a week in such employment.
(2) Any person employed to do gardening, maintenance, repair, remodeling, or similar work in or about the private home of the employer.
(3) A person whose employment is not in the course of the trade, business, or profession of his or her employer and is not in or about the private home of the employer.
(4) Any person performing services in return for aid or sustenance only, received from any religious or charitable organization.
Sole proprietors or partners((
: PROVIDED, That after July 26, 1981, sole
proprietors or partners who for the first time register under chapter 18.27 RCW
or become licensed for the first time under chapter 19.28 RCW shall be included
under the mandatory coverage provisions of this title subject to the provisions
of RCW 51.32.030. These persons may elect to withdraw from coverage under RCW
(6) Any child under eighteen years of age employed by his parent or parents in agricultural activities on the family farm.
(7) Jockeys while participating in or preparing horses for race meets licensed by the Washington horse racing commission pursuant to chapter 67.16 RCW.
(8) Any officer of a corporation elected and empowered in accordance with the articles of incorporation or bylaws of a corporation who at all times during the period involved is also a director and shareholder of the corporation.
Officers that may be excluded under this subsection are:
(a) A maximum of four officers; or
(b) Officers owning at least ten percent of the corporation's voting stock; or
(c) Officers owning voting stock equal to or greater than the average ownership percentage of all voting stockholders.
However, any corporation may elect to cover such officers who are in fact employees of the corporation in the manner provided by RCW 51.12.110.
(9) Services rendered by a musician or entertainer under a contract with a purchaser of the services, for a specific engagement or engagements when such musician or entertainer performs no other duties for the purchaser and is not regularly and continuously employed by the purchaser. A purchaser does not include the leader of a group or recognized entity who employs other than on a casual basis musicians or entertainers.
Sec. 5. RCW 51.12.100 and 1988 c 271 s 2 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) The provisions of this title shall not apply to a master or member of a crew of any vessel, or to employers and workers for whom a right or obligation exists under the maritime laws or federal employees' compensation act for personal injuries or death of such workers.
(2) If an accurate segregation of payrolls of workers for whom such a right or obligation exists under the maritime laws cannot be made by the employer, the director is hereby authorized and directed to fix from time to time a basis for the approximate segregation of the payrolls of employees to cover the part of their work for which no right or obligation exists under the maritime laws for injuries or death occurring in such work, and the employer, if not a self-insurer, shall pay premiums on that basis for the time such workers are engaged in their work.
(3) Where two or more employers are simultaneously engaged in a common enterprise at one and the same site or place in maritime occupations under circumstances in which no right or obligation exists under the maritime laws for personal injuries or death of such workers, such site or place shall be deemed for the purposes of this title to be the common plant of such employers.
(4) In the event payments are made under this title prior to the final determination under the maritime laws or federal employees' compensation act, such benefits shall be repaid by the worker or beneficiary if recovery is subsequently made under the maritime laws or federal employees' compensation act.
Sec. 6. RCW 51.12.110 and 1982 c 63 s 17 are each amended to read as follows:
employer who has in his or her employment any person or persons excluded from
mandatory coverage pursuant to RCW 51.12.020 ((
(1), (2), (3), (4), (6), (7),
(8), or (9))) may file notice in writing with the director, on such forms
as the department may provide, of his or her election to make such persons
otherwise excluded subject to this title. The employer shall forthwith display
in a conspicuous manner about his or her works, and in a sufficient number of
places to reasonably inform his or her workers of the fact, printed notices
furnished by the department stating that he or she has so elected. Said
election shall become effective upon the filing of said notice in writing. The
employer and his or her workers shall be subject to all the provisions of this
title and entitled to all of the benefits thereof: PROVIDED, That those who
have heretofore complied with the foregoing conditions and are carried and
considered by the department as within the purview of this title shall be
deemed and considered as having fully complied with its terms and shall be
continued by the department as entitled to all of the benefits and subject to
all of the liabilities without other or further action. Any employer who has
complied with this section may withdraw his or her acceptance of liability
under this title by filing written notice with the director of the withdrawal
of his or her acceptance. Such withdrawal shall become effective thirty days
after the filing of such notice or on the date of the termination of the
security for payment of compensation, whichever last occurs. The employer
shall, at least thirty days before the effective date of the withdrawal, post
reasonable notice of such withdrawal where the affected worker or workers work
and shall otherwise notify personally the affected workers. Withdrawal of
acceptance of this title shall not affect the liability of the department or
self-insurer for compensation for any injury occurring during the period of
The department shall have the power to cancel the elective adoption coverage if any required payments or reports have not been made. Cancellation by the department shall be no later than thirty days from the date of notice in writing by the department advising of cancellation being made.