SENATE BILL 5905
State of Washington 52nd Legislature 1991 Regular Session
By Senators Nelson, Owen, Amondson, McCaslin and Stratton.
Read first time March 4, 1991. Referred to Committee on Law & Justice.
AN ACT Relating to intercepting, transmitting, or recording conversations concerning sexual abuse of children; amending RCW 9.73.090; adding a new section to chapter 9.73 RCW; creating a new section; and prescribing penalties.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
NEW SECTION. Sec. 1. Due to the heinous nature of sexual abuse of children and the difficulty in securing evidence against perpetrators, the legislature finds that conversations regarding illegal sexual contact with minors should be intercepted, transmitted, and recorded in certain circumstances without prior judicial approval in order to enhance prosecution of sexual offenses against children, and that the interception and transmission can be done without violating the constitutional guarantees of privacy.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 2. A new section is added to chapter 9.73 RCW to read as follows:
(1) As part of a bona fide criminal investigation, the chief law enforcement officer of a law enforcement agency or his or her designee above the rank of first line supervisor may authorize the interception, transmission, or recording of a conversation or communication by officers under the following circumstances:
(a) At least one party to the conversation or communication has consented to the interception, transmission, or recording: PROVIDED, That if the consenting party is a minor, the minor's parent, guardian, or guardian ad litem has also consented to the interception, transmission, or recording;
(b) Probable cause exists to believe that the conversation or communication involves the rape of a child, child molestation, sexual misconduct with a minor, or indecent liberties as defined in chapter 9A.44 RCW, or incest as defined in chapter 9A.64 RCW; and
(c) A written report has been completed as required by subsection (2) of this section.
(2) The agency's chief officer or designee authorizing an interception, transmission, or recording under subsection (1) of this section, shall prepare and sign a written report at the time of authorization indicating:
(a) The circumstances that meet the requirements of subsection (1) of this section;
(b) The names of the authorizing and consenting parties, except that in those cases where the consenting party is a confidential informant, the name of the confidential informant need not be divulged;
(c) The names of the officers authorized to intercept, transmit, and record the conversation or communication;
(d) The identity of the particular person or persons, if known, who may have committed or may commit the offense;
(e) The details of the particular offense or offenses that may have been or may be committed and the expected date, location, and approximate time of the conversation or communication; and
(f) Whether there was an attempt to obtain authorization pursuant to RCW 9.73.090(2) and, if there was such an attempt, the outcome of the attempt.
(3) An authorization under this section is valid in all jurisdictions within Washington state and for the interception of communications from additional persons if the persons are brought into the conversation or transaction by the nonconsenting party or if the nonconsenting party or such additional persons cause or invite the consenting party to enter another jurisdiction.
(4) The recording of any conversation or communication under this section shall be done in such a manner that protects the recording from editing or other alterations.
(5) An authorization made under this section is valid for no more than twenty-four hours from the time it is signed by the authorizing officer, and each authorization shall independently meet all of the requirements of this section. The authorizing officer shall sign the written report required under subsection (2) of this section, certifying the exact date and time of his or her signature. An authorization under this section may be extended not more than twice for an additional consecutive twenty-four hour period based upon the same probable cause regarding the same suspected transaction. Each such extension shall be signed by the authorizing officer.
(6) Within fifteen days after the signing of an authorization that results in any interception, transmission, or recording of a conversation or communication pursuant to this section, the law enforcement agency which made the interception, transmission, or recording shall submit a report including the original authorization under subsection (2) of this section to a judge of a court having jurisdiction which report shall identify (a) the persons, including the consenting party, who participated in the conversation, and (b) the date, location, and approximate time of the conversation.
In those cases where the consenting party is a confidential informant, the name of the confidential informant need not be divulged.
A monthly report shall be filed by the law enforcement agency with the administrator for the courts indicating the number of authorizations granted, the date and time of each authorization, interceptions made, arrests resulting from an interception, and subsequent invalidations.
(7) (a) Within two judicial days of receipt of a report under subsection (6) of this section, the court shall make an ex parte review of the authorization, but not of the evidence, and shall make a determination whether the requirements of subsection (1) of this section were met. If the court determines that any of the requirements of subsection (1) of this section were not met, the court shall order that any recording and any copies or transcriptions of the conversation or communication be destroyed. Destruction of recordings, copies, or transcriptions shall be stayed pending any appeal of a finding that the requirements of subsection (1) of this section were not met.
(b) Absent a continuation under (c) of this subsection, six months following a determination under (a) of this subsection that probable cause did not exist, the court shall cause a notice to be mailed to the last known address of any nonconsenting party to the conversation or communication that was the subject of the authorization. The notice shall indicate the date, time, and place of any interception, transmission, or recording made pursuant to the authorization. The notice shall also identify the agency that sought the authorization and shall indicate that a review under (a) of this subsection resulted in a determination that the authorization was made in violation of this section.
(c) An authorizing agency may obtain six-month extensions to the notice requirement of (b) of this subsection in cases of active, ongoing criminal investigations that might be jeopardized by sending the notice.
(8) In any subsequent judicial proceeding, evidence obtained through the interception or recording of a conversation or communication pursuant to this section shall be admissible only if:
(a) The court finds that the requirements of subsection (1) of this section were met and the evidence is used in prosecuting an offense listed in subsection (1)(b) of this section; or
(b) The evidence is admitted with the permission of the person whose communication or conversation was intercepted, transmitted, or recorded; or
(c) The evidence is admitted in a prosecution for a "serious violent offense" as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 in which a party who consented to the interception, transmission, or recording was a victim of the offense; or
(d) The evidence is admitted in a civil suit for personal injury or wrongful death arising out of the same incident, in which a party who consented to the interception, transmission, or recording was a victim of a serious violent offense as defined in RCW 9.94A.030.
Nothing in this subsection bars the admission of testimony of a party or eyewitness to the intercepted, transmitted, or recorded conversation or communication when that testimony is unaided by information obtained solely by violation of RCW 9.73.030.
(9) Any determination of invalidity of an authorization under this section shall be reported by the court to the office of the administrator for the courts.
(10) Any person who intentionally intercepts, transmits, or records or who intentionally authorizes the interception, transmission, or recording of a conversation or communication in violation of this section, is guilty of a class C felony punishable according to chapter 9A.20 RCW.
(11) An authorizing agency is liable for twenty-five thousand dollars in exemplary damages, in addition to any other damages authorized by this chapter or by other law, to a person whose conversation or communication was intercepted, transmitted, or recorded pursuant to an authorization under this section if:
(a) In a review under subsection (7) of this section, or in a suppression of evidence proceeding, it has been determined that the authorization was made without the probable cause required by subsection (1)(b) of this section; and
(b) The authorization was also made without a reasonable suspicion that the conversation or communication would involve the unlawful acts identified in subsection (1)(b) of this section.
Sec. 3. RCW 9.73.090 and 1989 c 271 s 205 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) The provisions of RCW 9.73.030 through 9.73.080 shall not apply to police, fire, emergency medical service, emergency communication center, and poison center personnel in the following instances:
(a) Recording incoming telephone calls to police and fire stations, licensed emergency medical service providers, emergency communication centers, and poison centers;
(b) Video and/or sound recordings may be made of arrested persons by police officers responsible for making arrests or holding persons in custody before their first appearance in court. Such video and/or sound recordings shall conform strictly to the following:
(i) The arrested person shall be informed that such recording is being made and the statement so informing him shall be included in the recording;
(ii) The recording shall commence with an indication of the time of the beginning thereof and terminate with an indication of the time thereof;
(iii) At the commencement of the recording the arrested person shall be fully informed of his constitutional rights, and such statements informing him shall be included in the recording;
(iv) The recordings shall only be used for valid police or court activities.
(2) It shall not be unlawful for a law enforcement officer acting in the performance of the officer's official duties to intercept, record, or disclose an oral communication or conversation where the officer is a party to the communication or conversation or one of the parties to the communication or conversation has given prior consent to the interception, recording, or disclosure: PROVIDED, That prior to the interception, transmission, or recording the officer shall obtain written or telephonic authorization from a judge or magistrate, who shall approve the interception, recording, or disclosure of communications or conversations with a nonconsenting party for a reasonable and specified period of time, if there is probable cause to believe that the nonconsenting party has committed, is engaged in, or is about to commit a felony: PROVIDED HOWEVER, That if such authorization is given by telephone the authorization and officer's statement justifying such authorization must be electronically recorded by the judge or magistrate on a recording device in the custody of the judge or magistrate at the time transmitted and the recording shall be retained in the court records and reduced to writing as soon as possible thereafter.
Any recording or interception of a communication or conversation incident to a lawfully recorded or intercepted communication or conversation pursuant to this subsection shall be lawful and may be divulged.
All recordings of communications or conversations made pursuant to this subsection shall be retained for as long as any crime may be charged based on the events or communications or conversations recorded.
(3) Communications or conversations authorized to be intercepted, recorded, or disclosed by this section shall not be inadmissible under RCW 9.73.050.
(4) Authorizations issued under subsection (2) of this section shall be effective for not more than seven days, after which period the issuing authority may renew or continue the authorization for additional periods not to exceed seven days.
the judge or magistrate determines that there is probable cause to believe that
the communication or conversation concerns (a) the unlawful manufacture,
delivery, sale, or possession with intent to manufacture, deliver, or sell,
controlled substances as defined in chapter 69.50 RCW, or legend drugs as
defined in chapter 69.41 RCW, or imitation controlled substances as defined in
chapter 69.52 RCW((
,)); or (b) the rape of a child, child
molestation, sexual misconduct with a minor, indecent liberties as defined in
RCW 9A.44.100, or incest as defined in RCW 9A.64.020; the judge or
magistrate may authorize the interception, transmission, recording, or
disclosure of communications or conversations under subsection (2) of this
section even though the true name of the nonconsenting party, or the particular
time and place for the interception, transmission, recording, or disclosure, is
not known at the time of the request, if the authorization describes the
nonconsenting party and subject matter of the communication or conversation
with reasonable certainty under the circumstances. Any such communication or
conversation may be intercepted, transmitted, recorded, or disclosed as
authorized notwithstanding a change in the time or location of the
communication or conversation after the authorization has been obtained or the
presence of or participation in the communication or conversation by any
additional party not named in the authorization.
Authorizations issued under this subsection shall be effective for not more than fourteen days, after which period the issuing authority may renew or continue the authorization for an additional period not to exceed fourteen days.