(1) This section applies to licensees or registrants with sources of radiation in nonself-shielded irradiators. This section does not apply to sources of radiation that are used in teletherapy, in industrial radiography, or in completely self-shielded irradiators in which the source of radiation is both stored and operated within the same shielding radiation barrier and, in the designed configuration of the irradiator, is always physically inaccessible to any individual and cannot create a radiation level of five Gy (500 rad) or more in one hour at one meter in an area that is accessible to any individual.
(2) Each area in which there may exist radiation levels in excess of five Gy (500 rad) in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation that is used to irradiate materials shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Each entrance or access point shall be equipped with entry control devices which:
(i) Function automatically to prevent any individual from inadvertently entering a very high radiation area; and
(ii) Permit deliberate entry into the area only after a control device is actuated that causes the radiation level within the area, from the source of radiation, to be reduced below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour; and
(iii) Prevent operation of the source of radiation if it would produce radiation levels in the area that could result in a deep dose equivalent to an individual in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour.
(b) Additional control devices shall be provided so that, upon failure of the entry control devices to function as required by (a) of this subsection:
(i) The radiation level within the area, from the source of radiation, is reduced below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour; and
(ii) Conspicuous visible and audible alarm signals are generated to make an individual attempting to enter the area aware of the hazard and at least one other authorized individual, who is physically present, familiar with the activity, and prepared to render or summon assistance, aware of the failure of the entry control devices.
(c) The licensee or registrant shall provide control devices so that, upon failure or removal of physical radiation barriers other than the sealed source's shielded storage container:
(i) The radiation level from the source of radiation is reduced below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour; and
(ii) Conspicuous visible and audible alarm signals are generated to make potentially affected individuals aware of the hazard and the licensee or registrant or at least one other individual, who is familiar with the activity and prepared to render or summon assistance, aware of the failure or removal of the physical barrier.
(d) When the shield for stored sealed sources is a liquid, the licensee shall provide means to monitor the integrity of the shield and to signal, automatically, loss of adequate shielding.
(e) Physical radiation barriers that comprise permanent structural components, such as walls, that have no credible probability of failure or removal in ordinary circumstances need not meet the requirements of (c) and (d) of this subsection.
(f) Each area shall be equipped with devices that will automatically generate conspicuous visible and audible alarm signals to alert personnel in the area before the source of radiation can be put into operation and in time for any individual in the area to operate a clearly identified control device, which must be installed in the area and which can prevent the source of radiation from being put into operation.
(g) Each area shall be controlled by use of such administrative procedures and such devices as are necessary to ensure that the area is cleared of personnel prior to each use of the source of radiation.
(h) Each area shall be checked by a radiation measurement to ensure that, prior to the first individual's entry into the area after any use of the source of radiation, the radiation level from the source of radiation in the area is below that at which it would be possible for an individual to receive a deep dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour.
(i) Entry and exit portals that are used in transporting materials to and from the irradiation area, and that are not intended for use by individuals, shall be controlled by such devices and administrative procedures as are necessary to physically protect and warn against inadvertent entry by any individual through these portals. Exit portals for irradiated materials shall be equipped to detect and signal the presence of any loose radioactive material that is carried toward such an exit and automatically to prevent loose radioactive material from being carried out of the area.
(3) The entry control devices required in subsection (2)(a) of this section shall be tested for proper functioning:
(a) Prior to initial operation with the source of radiation on any day, unless operations were continued uninterrupted from the previous day; and
(b) Prior to resumption of operation of the source of radiation after any unintentional interruption; and
(c) In accordance with a schedule for periodic tests of the entry control and warning systems submitted by the licensee or registrant and approved by the department.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall not conduct operations, other than those necessary to place the source of radiation in safe condition or to effect repairs on controls, unless control devices are functioning properly.
(5) Licensees, registrants, or applicants for licenses or registrations for sources of radiation within the purview of subsection (2) of this section which will be used in a variety of positions or in locations, such as open fields or forests, that make it impracticable to comply with certain requirements of subsection (2) of this section, such as those for the automatic control of radiation levels, may apply to the department for approval of alternative safety measures. Alternative safety measures shall provide personnel protection at least equivalent to those specified in subsection (2) of this section. At least one of the alternative measures shall include an entry-preventing interlock control based on a measurement of the radiation that ensures the absence of high radiation levels before an individual can gain access to the area where such sources of radiation are used.
(6) The entry control devices required by subsections (2) and (3) of this section shall be established in such a way that no individual will be prevented from leaving the area.
(7) The licensee shall maintain records of tests made pursuant to subsection (3) of this section on entry control devices for very high radiation areas. These records shall include the date, time, and results of each such test of function.