LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed January 15, 1997, 11:20 a.m.]
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 96-14-118 on July 3, 1996; WSR 96-24-033 on November 26, 1996; WSR 96-24-036 on November 26, 1996; and WSR 96-24-084 on December 3, 1996.
Title of Rule: Cranes and derricks; confidential witness statements; hazard communication; PPE-Gen. Industry.
Purpose: Chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, federal-initiated amendments, as published in Federal Register Volume 61, Number 86, dated May 2, 1996, and Federal Register Volume 61, Number 91, dated May 9, 1996, are made to be identical to the federal standard. These federal-initiated amendments will establish additional compliance requirements.
WAC 296-24-07801 Eye and face protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments are made:
To add the words "The employer shall ensure" that employees use eye and face protection where needed; that employees use side protection when needed on safety glasses, that the use of prescription lenses is addressed, and that employees use proper filter lenses when exposed to injurious light radiation.
WAC 296-24-084 Occupational head protection, federal-initiated amendments are made:
To add the words, "The employer shall ensure" that employees wear protective helmets when needed, including helmets designed to reduce electrical shock hazards.
WAC 296-24-088 Occupational foot protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments are made to:
Add the words, "The employer shall ensure" that employees wear protective footwear when needed.
Chapter 296-27 WAC, Safety standards for recordkeeping and reporting.
WAC 296-27-15503 Special exemptions for confidential reports within the department's files, state-initiated proposed amendments are made to:
Correct a housekeeping error with respect to the release of confidential information when confidential witness statements are part of an investigative report that is available to the public upon request. This amendment will prohibit the release of confidential sources.
Chapter 296-62 WAC, Occupational safety and health standards, federal-initiated proposed amendments relating to the hazard communication standard are being made as a result of OSHA letter dated February 20, 1996, which stated the current WISHA standard is not at- least-as-effective-as the federal standard as published in Federal Register Volume 59, Number 245, dated December 12, 1994. Proposed amendments are identical to the federal standard and add additional compliance requirements.
WAC 296-62-05413 Material safety data sheets, federal-initiated proposed amendments are made to:
Require wholesale distributors provide material safety data sheets (MSDS) upon request to employers who purchase hazardous chemicals over the counter.
Require wholesale distributors to post a sign informing such employers that material safety data sheets are available.
Chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction, federal-initiated proposed amendments to crane standards in construction are made as a result of OSHA letter dated March 21, 1996, which identified this standard as not at-least-as-effective-as the federal standard. The following federal-initiated amendments will make the standard as effective as the federal standard and will not establish additional compliance requirements.
WAC 296-155-527 Appendix A to WAC 296-155-525, federal-initiated proposed amendments are made to:
Correct a table chart reference which is used in selecting cable size from "1/6" inch to "1/16" inch.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Statute Being Implemented: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050, [49.17].060.
Summary: See Purpose above.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, 7273 Linderson Way, Tumwater, WA, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Frank Leuck, 7273 Linderson Way, Tumwater, WA, (360) 902-5495.
Name of Proponent: Department of Labor and Industries, governmental.
Rule is necessary because of federal law, Federal Register Volume 61, Number 86, dated May 2, 1996; Federal Register Volume 61, Number 91, dated May 9, 1996; OSHA letter dated February 20, 1996; and OSHA letter dated March 21, 1996.
Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: See Purpose above.
Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: See Purpose above.
No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. Small business economic impact statements are not required because the proposed amendments do not place more than minor impact on business (RCW 19.85.061).
Section 201, chapter 403, Laws of 1995, does not apply to this rule adoption. Significant rule-making criteria does not apply to these rule amendments because they meet the exempt criteria outlined in RCW 34.05.328 (5)(b)(iii) and (iv). Significant rule-making criteria does not apply when adopting federal statutes or regulations without material change, when amending interpretive rules, or when adopting rules to correct information that is housekeeping in nature (typographical errors, address/name changes, or clarification of rule language without changing its effect).
Hearing Location: On February 26, 1997, at 9:30 a.m., at the Department of Labor and Industries Building, Auditorium, 7273 Linderson Way, Tumwater, WA.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Linda Dausener by February 14, 1997, (360) 902-5516.
Submit Written Comments to: Tracy Spencer, Standards Supervisor, Division of Consultation and Compliance, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, by March 5, 1997.
In addition to written comments, the department will accept comments submitted to FAX (360) 902-5529 (comments submitted by FAX must be ten pages or less).
Date of Intended Adoption: May 20, 1997.
January 15, 1997
Mark O. Brown
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-16, filed 9/30/94, effective
WAC 296-24-07801 General. (1) The employer shall ensure that each
affected employee ((
shall)) uses appropriate eye or face protection when
exposed to eye or face hazards from flying particles, molten metal,
liquid chemicals, acids or caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors, or
potentially injurious light radiation.
(2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee ((
uses eye protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard
from flying objects. Detachable side protectors (e.g., clip-on or
slide-on side shields) meeting the pertinent requirements of this section
(3) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee who wears
prescription lenses while engaged in operations that involve eye hazards
shall)) wears eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its
design, or (( shall)) wears eye protection that can be worn over the
prescription lenses without disturbing the proper position of the
prescription lenses or the protective lenses.
(4) Eye and face PPE shall be distinctly marked to facilitate identification of the manufacturer.
(5) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee ((
uses equipment with filter lenses that have a shade number appropriate
for the work being performed for protection from injurious light
radiation. The following is a listing of appropriate shade numbers for
Size 1/32 Protective
Operations (inches) Arc Current Shade
arc welding Less than 3 Less than 60 7
3-5 60-160 8
5-8 160-250 10
More than 8 250-550 11
Gas metal arc welding
and flux cored arc Less than 60 7
welding 60-160 10
Gas Tungsten arc Less than 50 8
welding 50-150 8
Air carbon (Light) Less than 500 10
Arc cutting (Heavy) 500-1000 11
Plasma arc welding Less than 20 6
Plasma arc cutting (Light) Less than 300 8
(Medium)** 300-400 9
(Heavy)** 400-800 10
Torch brazing 3
Torch soldering 2
Carbon arc welding 14
Plate Plate Minimum*
thickness thickness Protective
Operations (inches) (mm) Shade
Light Under 1/8 Under 3.2 4
Medium 1/8 to 1/2 3.2 to 12.7 5
Heavy Over 1/2 Over 12.7 6
Light Under 1 Under 25 3
Medium 1 to 6 25 to 150 4
Heavy Over 6 Over 150 5
* As a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the (spectrum) operation.
** These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Experience has shown that lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workpiece.
(6) Criteria for protective eye and face devices.
(a) Protective eye and face devices purchased after February 20, 1995, shall comply with ANSI Z87.1-1989, "American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection," which is incorporated by reference, or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be equally effective.
(b) Eye and face protective devices purchased before February 20,
1995, shall comply with the ANSI standard "American National Standard
Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection," ANSI
Z87.1-1968 or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be equally
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-20-057 (Order 94-16),
296-24-07801, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 73-5, 296-24-07801, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-07801, filed 5/7/73.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-09-030, filed 4/10/96, effective
WAC 296-24-084 Occupational head protection. (1) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee ((
wears a protective helmet(( s)) when working in areas where there is a
potential for injury to the head from falling or flying objects.
(b) The employer shall ensure that a protective helmet((
to reduce electrical shock hazard (( shall be)) is worn by each such
affected employee when near exposed electrical conductors which could
contact the head.
(2) Criteria for protective helmets.
(a) Protective helmets purchased after February 20, 1995, shall comply with ANSI Z89.1-1986, "American National Standard for Personnel Protection--Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers- Requirements," which is incorporated by reference, or shall be demonstrated to be equally effective.
(b) Protective helmets purchased before February 20, 1995, shall comply with the ANSI standard "American National Standard Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection," ANSI Z89.1-1969, or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be equally effective.
(3) Persons working in the shops around machinery or in locations
which present a hair catching or fire hazard shall wear caps or other
type of head covering which completely covers the hair. Caps with metal
buttons or metal visors shall not be worn around electrical hazards.
Note 1: The following will define hair lengths considered hazardous:
(a) When the length would exceed the circumference of exposed revolving shafts or tools in fixed machines by 200 percent.
(b) When the length would exceed the radius of pressure rolls with exposed in-running nip points.
(c) When the employee is exposed to an ignition source and the employee may, with hair aflame, run into an area containing class -1 flammable liquids or combustible atmospheres.
(d) When exposures require personal protective devices, such as mask-type respirators or ear-cup-type hearing protection devices, and hair, either facial or head, would interfere
with a proper seal.
Note 2: When hair length is judged hazardous from a hair catching standpoint (instances (a) or (b) under interpretations in Note 1) minimal confinement shall be within netting which
controls all loose ends.
Note 3: If hazardous from fire hazard aspects (instance (c) of Note 1) the hair must be confined within a solid-type material.
(4) Protective helmets shall be worn by employees who work around
or under scaffolds or other overhead structures, or who are otherwise
exposed to the hazards of falling materials and propelled objects.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-09-030, 296-24-084, filed
4/10/96, effective 6/1/96; 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-24-084, filed
9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-24-084, filed
1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; Order 74-27, 296-24-084, filed 5/7/74;
Order 73-5, 296-24-084, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-084,
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-16, filed 9/30/94, effective
WAC 296-24-088 Occupational foot protection. (1) General
requirements. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee
shall)) wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is
a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects
piercing the sole, and where such employee's feet are exposed to
(2) Criteria for protective footwear.
(a) Protective footwear purchased after February 20, 1995, shall comply with ANSI Z41-1991, "American National Standard for Personal Protection--Protective Footwear," which is incorporated by reference, or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be equally effective.
(b) Protective footwear purchased before February 20, 1995, shall comply with the ANSI standard "USA Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear," ANSI Z41.1-1967, which is incorporated by reference, or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be equally effective.
(3) Calks or other suitable footwear which will afford reasonable
protection from slipping shall be worn while working on logs.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-20-057 (Order 94-16),
296-24-088, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; 94-15-096 (Order 94-07),
296-24-088, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, 296-24-088,
filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-088, filed 5/7/73.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective
WAC 296-27-15503 Special exemptions for confidential reports within
the department's files. Whenever a departmental file contains an
investigative report or information from a source who furnished such
information under an express promise that the identity of such source
would be held in confidence, such investigative report or information
shall be exempt from disclosure to the extent that disclosure would
reveal the identity of the source. If an investigative report can be
disclosed in such a way as to conceal its source, the contents of such
report may be withheld only to the extent necessary to do so. When such
information is withheld, the records officer shall give a general
characterization of the information withheld ((
and)) but not the identity
of the information's source.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-27-15503,
filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96; 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-27-15503, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW
49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-27-15503, filed
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-22-015, filed 10/20/95, effective
WAC 296-62-05413 Material safety data sheets. (1) Chemical manufacturers and importers shall obtain or develop a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each hazardous chemical they produce or import. Employers shall have a material safety data sheet in the workplace for each hazardous chemical which they use.
(2) Each material safety data sheet shall be in English (although the employer may maintain copies in other languages) and shall contain at least the following information:
(a) The identity used on the label, and, except as provided for in WAC 296-62-05417 on trade secrets:
(i) If the hazardous chemical is a single substance, its chemical and common name(s);
(ii) If the hazardous chemical is a mixture which has been tested as a whole to determine its hazards, the chemical and common name(s) of the ingredients which contribute to these known hazards, and the common name(s) of the mixture itself; or
(iii) If the hazardous chemical is a mixture which has not been tested as a whole:
(A) The chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients which have been determined to be health hazards, and which comprise 1% or greater of the composition, except that chemicals identified as carcinogens under WAC 296-62-05407(4) shall be listed if the concentrations are 0.1% or greater; and
(B) The chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients which have been determined to be health hazards, and which comprise less than one percent (0.1% for carcinogens) of the mixture, if there is evidence that the ingredient(s) could be released from the mixture in concentrations which would exceed an established WISHA or OSHA permissible exposure limit or ACGIH Threshold Limit Value, or could present a health risk to employees; and
(C) The chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients which have been determined to present a physical hazard when present in the mixture;
(b) Physical and chemical characteristics of the hazardous chemical (such as vapor pressure, flash point);
(c) The physical hazards of the hazardous chemical, including the potential for fire, explosion, and reactivity;
(d) The acute and chronic health hazards of the hazardous chemical, including signs and symptoms of exposure, and any medical conditions which are generally recognized as being aggravated by exposure to the chemical;
(e) The primary route(s) of entry;
(f) The WISHA or OSHA permissible exposure limit, ACGIH threshold limit value, and any other exposure limit used or recommended by the chemical manufacturer, importer, or employer preparing the material safety data sheet (the PELs and TLVs include the 8-hour TWA, STEL, ceiling value and skin notation defined in WAC 296-62-05405), where available;
(g) Whether the hazardous chemical is listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Annual Report on Carcinogens (latest edition) or has been found to be a potential carcinogen in the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs (latest editions), or by WISHA or OSHA;
(h) Any generally applicable precautions for safe handling and use which are known to the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet, including appropriate hygienic practices, protective measures during repair and maintenance of contaminated equipment, and procedures for clean-up of spills and leaks;
(i) Any generally applicable control measures which are known to the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet, such as appropriate engineering controls, work practices, or personal protective equipment;
(j) Emergency and first aid procedures;
(k) The date of preparation of the material safety data sheet or the last change to it; and
(l) The name, address and telephone number of the chemical manufacturer, importer, employer or other responsible party preparing or distributing the material safety data sheet, who can provide additional information on the hazardous chemical and appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary.
(3) If no relevant information is found for any given category on the material safety data sheet, the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet shall mark it to indicate that no applicable information was found.
(4) Where complex mixtures have similar hazards and contents (i.e. the chemical ingredients are essentially the same, but the specific composition varies from mixture to mixture), the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer may prepare one material safety data sheet to apply to all of these similar mixtures.
(5) The chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet shall ensure that the information recorded accurately reflects the scientific evidence used in making the hazard determination. If the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet becomes newly aware of any significant information regarding the hazards of a chemical, or ways to protect against the hazards, this new information shall be added to the material safety data sheet within three months. If the chemical is not currently being produced or imported the chemical manufacturer or importer shall add the information to the material safety data sheet before the chemical is introduced into the workplace again.
(6)(a) Chemical manufacturers or importers shall ensure that distributors and employers are provided an appropriate material safety data sheet with their initial shipment, and with the first shipment after a material safety data sheet is updated;
(b) The chemical manufacturer or importer shall either provide material safety data sheets with the shipped containers or send them to the distributor or employer prior to or at the time of the shipment;
(c) If the material safety data sheet is not provided with a shipment that has been labeled as a hazardous chemical, the distributor or employer shall obtain one from the chemical manufacturer or importer as soon as possible; and
(d) The chemical manufacturer or importer shall also provide distributors or employers with a material safety data sheet upon request.
(7)(a) Distributors shall ensure that material safety data sheets, and updated information, are provided to other distributors and employers with their initial shipment and with the first shipment after a material safety data sheet is updated;
(b) The distributor shall either provide material safety data sheets with the shipped containers, or send them to the other distributor or employer prior to or at the time of the shipment;
(c) Retail distributors selling hazardous chemicals to employers having a commercial account shall provide a material safety data sheet to such employers upon request, and shall post a sign or otherwise inform them that a material safety data sheet is available;
(d) Wholesale distributors selling hazardous chemicals to employers over-the-counter may also provide material safety data sheets upon request of the employer at the time of the over-the-counter purchase, and shall post a sign or otherwise inform such employers that a material safety data sheet is available;
(e) If an employer without a commercial account purchases a hazardous chemical from a retail distributor not required to have material safety data sheets on file (i.e., the retail distributor does not have a commercial account and does not use the materials), the retail distributor shall provide the employer, upon request, with the name, address, and telephone number of the chemical manufacturer, importer, or distributor from which a material safety data sheet can be obtained;
(f) Wholesale distributors shall also provide material safety data sheets to employers or other distributors upon request; and
(g) Chemical manufacturers, importers, and distributors need not provide material safety data sheets to retail distributors that have informed them that the retail distributor does not sell the product to commercial accounts or open the sealed container to use it in their own workplaces.
(8) The employer shall maintain in the workplace copies of the required material safety data sheets for each hazardous chemical, and shall ensure that they are readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in their work area(s). (Electronic access, microfiche, and other alternatives to maintaining paper copies of the material safety data sheets are permitted as long as no barriers to immediate employee access in each workplace are created by such options.)
(9) Where employees must travel between workplaces during a workshift, i.e., their work is carried out at more than one geographical location, the material safety data sheets may be kept at a central location at the primary workplace facility. In this situation, the employer shall ensure that employees can immediately obtain the required information in an emergency.
(10) Material safety data sheets may be kept in any form, including operating procedures, and may be designed to cover groups of hazardous chemicals in a work area where it may be more appropriate to address the hazards of a process rather than individual hazardous chemicals. However, the employer shall ensure that in all cases the required information is provided for each hazardous chemical, and is readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in their work area(s).
(11) Material safety data sheets shall also be made readily available, upon request, to designated representatives and to the director or his/her designee in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-62-05209. NIOSH shall also be given access to material safety data sheets in the same manner.
(12) If a purchaser has not received a material safety data sheet within thirty calendar days after making a written request to the chemical manufacturer, importer, or distributor in accordance with WAC 296-62-05413(6), he/she may make a written request for assistance to the Department of Labor and Industries, Right-to-Know Program, P.O. Box 44610, Olympia, Washington 98504-4610. Such written request shall include:
(a) A copy of the purchaser's written request to the chemical manufacturer, importer, or distributor;
(b) The name of the product suspected of containing a hazardous chemical;
(c) The identification number of the product if available;
(d) A copy of the product label if available; and
(e) The name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer, or distributor from whom the product was obtained.
Upon receipt of a written request for material safety data sheet,
the department shall attempt to procure the material safety data sheet
from the chemical manufacturer, importer or distributor and upon
procurement, shall forward a copy of the material safety data sheet at
no cost to the purchaser. In providing this service priority will be
given to small employers.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 95-22-015, 296-62-05413, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96. Statutory
Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-16-145, 296-62-05413, filed 8/3/94,
effective 9/12/94; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), 296-62-05413, filed 7/6/88.
Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.230, 49.70.180, 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and
49.17.240. 86-12-004 (Order 86-22), 296-62-05413, filed 5/22/86.
Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-62-05413, filed 4/19/85; 84-22-012 (Order 84-22), 296-62-05413, filed 10/30/84; 84-13-001 (Order 84-14), 296-62-05413, filed
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-17-036, filed 8/9/95, effective
WAC 296-155-527 Appendix A to WAC 296-155-525. Due to crane design configuration to maintain mobility, sheave diameters and rope, design factors are limited. Because of these limited design parameters, inspection to detect deterioration in accordance with subsections below and timely replacement are essential.
(1) Frequent inspection.
(a) All running ropes in service should be visually inspected once each working day. A visual inspection shall consist of observation of all rope which can reasonably be expected to be in use during the day's operations. These visual observations should be concerned with discovering gross damage, such as listed below, which may be an immediate hazard:
(i) Distortion of the rope such as kinking, crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, main strand displacement, or core protrusion. Loss of rope diameter in a short rope length or unevenness of outer strands should provide evidence that the rope or ropes must be replaced.
(ii) General corrosion.
(iii) Broken or cut strands.
(iv) Number, distribution and type of visible broken wires. (See subsection below for further guidance.)
(v) Core failure in rotation resistant ropes. When such damage is discovered the rope shall be either removed from service or given an inspection as detailed in periodic inspection.
(b) Care shall be taken when inspecting sections of rapid deterioration such as flange points, crossover points and repetitive pickup points on drums.
(c) Care shall be taken when inspecting certain ropes such as the following:
(i) Rotation resistant ropes, because of their higher susceptibility to damage and increased deterioration when working on equipment with limited design parameters. The internal deterioration of rotation resistant ropes may not be readily observable.
(ii) Boom hoist ropes, because of the difficulties of inspection and the important nature of these ropes.
(2) Periodic inspection.
(a) The inspection frequency shall be determined by a qualified person and shall be based on such factors as expected rope life as determined by experience on the particular installation or similar installations, severity of environment, percentage of capacity lifts, frequency rates of operation, and exposure to shock loads. Inspections need not be at equal calendar intervals and should be more frequent as the rope approaches the end of its useful life. This inspection shall be performed at least annually.
(b) Periodic inspections shall be performed by a qualified person. This inspection shall cover the entire length of rope. Only the surface wires of the rope need be inspected. No attempt should be made to open the rope. Any deterioration resulting in an appreciable loss of original strength, such as described below, shall be noted and determination made as to whether further use of the rope would constitute a hazard:
(i) Points listed in subsection (1) of this section (Frequent inspection).
(ii) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires.
(iii) Severely corroded or broken wires at end connections.
(c) Care shall be taken when inspecting sections of rapid deterioration, such as the following:
(i) Sections in contact with saddles, equalizer sheaves, or other sheaves where rope travel is limited;
(ii) Sections of the rope at or near terminal ends where corroded or broken wires may protrude.
(3) Rope replacement.
(a) No precise rules can be given for determination of the exact time for replacement of rope, since many variable factors are involved. Continued use in this respect depends largely upon good judgment by an appointed or authorized person in evaluating remaining strength in a used rope after allowance for deterioration disclosed by inspection. Continued rope operations depends upon this remaining strength.
(b) Conditions such as the following shall be sufficient reason for questioning continued use of the rope or increasing the frequency of inspection:
(i) In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay (for special conditions relating to rotation resistant rope refer to paragraph 5-18.104.22.168 (d)(1)(b) ANSI\ASME B30.5 1989).
(ii) One outer wire broken at the point of contact with the core of the rope which has worked its way out of the rope structure and protrudes or loops out from the rope structure. Additional inspection of this section is required.
(iii) Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires.
(iv) Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure.
(v) Evidence of any heat damage from any cause.
(vi) Reductions from nominal diameter of more than:
(A) 1/64 in. (0.4 mm) for diameters up to and including 5/16 in. (8.0 mm);
(B) 1/32 in. (0.8 mm) for diameters 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) to and including 1/2 in. (13.0 mm);
(C) 3/64 in. (1.2 mm) for diameters 9/16 in. (14.5 mm) to and including 3/4 in. (19.0 mm);
1/6 in. (1.6 mm) for diameters 7/8 in. (22.0 mm) to and
including 1 1/8 in. (38.0 mm).)) 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) for diameters 7/8 in.
(22.0 mm) to and including 1 1/8 in. (29.0 mm);
(E) 3/32 in. (2.4 mm) for diameters 1 1/4 in. (32.0 mm) to and including 1 1/2 in. (38.0 mm).
(vii) In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection.
(c) Replacement rope shall have a strength rating at least as great as the original rope furnished or recommended by the crane manufacturer. Any deviation from the original size, grade, or construction shall be specified by a rope manufacturer, the crane manufacturer or a qualified person.
(d) Rope not in regular use. All rope which has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be given an inspection before it is placed in service. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall be performed by an appointed or authorized person.
(e) Inspection records:
(i) Frequent inspection; no records required.
(ii) Periodic inspection: In order to establish data as a basis for judging the proper time for replacement, a dated report of rope condition at each periodic inspection shall be kept on file. This report shall cover points of deterioration. If the rope is replaced only that part need be recorded.
(f) A long-range inspection program should be established and should include records on the examination of ropes removed from service so that a relationship can be established between visual observation and actual condition of the internal structure.
(4) Rope maintenance.
(a) Rope should be stored to prevent damage or deterioration.
(b) Unreeling or uncoiling of rope shall be done as recommended by the rope manufacturer and with care to avoid kinking or inducing a twist.
(c) Before cutting a rope, seizings shall be placed on each side of the place where the rope is to be cut to prevent unlaying of the strands. On preformed rope, one seizing on each side of the cut is required. On nonpreformed ropes of 7/8 in. (22 mm) diameter or smaller, two seizings on each side of the cut are required, and for nonpreformed rope of 1 in. (26 mm) diameter or larger, three seizings on each side of the cut are required.
(d) During installation, care should be exercised to avoid dragging of the rope in dirt or around objects which will scrape, nick, crush, or induce sharp bends in it.
(e) Rope should be maintained in a well lubricated condition. It is important that lubricant applied as part of a maintenance program shall be compatible with the original lubricant, and to this end, the rope manufacturer should be consulted; lubricant applied shall be of the type which does not hinder visual inspection. Those sections of rope which are located over sheaves or otherwise hidden during inspection and maintenance procedures require special attention when lubricating rope. The object of rope lubrication is to reduce internal friction and to prevent corrosion.
(f) When an operating rope shows greater wear at well-defined localized areas than on the remainder of the rope, rope life can be extended (in cases where a reduced rope length is adequate) by cutting off a section at the worn end, and thus shifting the wear to different areas of the rope.
(5) Operating near electric power lines:
(a) Cranes shall be operated so that no part of the crane or load
enters into the danger zone.
Exceptions: The danger zone may be entered if the electrical distribution and transmission lines have been de-energized and visibly grounded at the point of work; or the danger zone may
be entered if insulating barriers (not a part of nor an attachment to the crane) have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines.
(i) For lines rated 50 kV. or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load (including handling appendages) shall be 10 feet (3 m).
(ii) Caution shall be exercised when working near overhead lines because they can move horizontally or vertically due to wind, moving the danger zone to new positions.
(iii) While in transit with no load and boom lowered, the clearance shall be as specified in WAC 296-155-525 (3)(e).
(iv) A qualified signal person shall be assigned to observe the clearance when the crane moves to within a boom's length of the limits specified in WAC 296-155-525 (3)(e). The operator is not in the best position to judge distance between the power line and the crane or its protuberances.
(b) If cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices are used on cranes, such devices shall not be a substitute for the requirements of WAC 296-155-525 (3)(e), even if such devices are required by law or regulation. In view of the complex, invisible, and lethal nature of the electrical hazard involved, and to lessen the potential of false security, limitations of such devices, if used, shall be understood by operating personnel and tested in the manner and intervals prescribed by the manufacturer of the device. Compliance with WAC 296-155-525 (3)(e) is the recommended practice of this regulation in determining permissible proximity of the crane and its protuberances, including load, to electrical power lines.
(c) Before the commencement of operations near electrical lines, the person responsible for the job shall notify the owners of the lines or their authorized representatives, provide them with all pertinent information, and request their cooperation.
(d) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities verify that it is not an energized line.
(e) Exceptions to this procedure, if approved by the owner of the electrical lines, may be granted by the administrative or regulatory authority if the alternate procedure provides protection and is set forth in writing.
(f) Durable signs shall be installed at the operator's station and on the outside of the crane warning that electrocution or serious bodily injury may occur unless a minimum clearance of 10 feet (3 m) is maintained between the crane or the load being handled and energized power lines. Greater clearances are required because of higher voltage as stated in WAC 296-155-525 (3)(e). These signs shall be revised when local jurisdiction requires greater clearances.
(6) Site preparation and erection.
(a) All load bearing foundations, supports, and rail tracks shall be constructed or installed to support the crane loads and to transmit them to the soil or other support medium. In addition to supporting vertical load, foundations and supports, rail supports excepted, should be designed to provide a moment resisting overturning equal to a minimum of 150% of the maximum crane overturning moment.
(b) Rails should be level and straight, unless specifically designed for curves or grades, and properly spaced for the crane trucks in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. The track and support system should have sufficient rigidity to limit dynamic oscillations and deviations from plumb.
(c) Rails shall be securely attached to the supporting surface in a manner capable of resisting the horizontal and vertical loads specified by the manufacturer. When applicable, provisions should be made for thermal expansion and contraction.
(d) Splices in rail tracks (bolted or welded) shall have smooth joints.
(e) When required, a designated portion of the track should be arranged and constructed as an out-of-service parking area complete with means needed for supporting the crane against storm wind effects and anchoring it against unwanted movement along the track; the parking track should be in place before erection commences.
(f) Rails shall be electrically grounded when they carry cranes electrically powered from an outside source.
(g) Both ends of all tracks shall be provided with stops or buffers adjusted for simultaneous contact with both sides of the travel base.
(h) When more than one crane will be operating on a run of track, particular consideration should be given to the number and disposition of parking areas.
(i) The hazard of earthquake effects appropriated to the site or zone should be considered.
(j) The crane manufacturer shall provide maximum resulting loads at the base of the crane, or wheel loads, for use in design of the supports.
(7) General erection requirements.
(a) When cranes are erected, the manufacturer's or a qualified person's written erection instructions and a list of the weights of each component to be erected shall be at the site.
(b) Cranes shall be erected in accordance with the crane manufacturer's or a qualified person's recommendations. Erection shall be performed under the supervision of a qualified person.
(c) Procedures shall be established before erection work commences to implement the erection instructions and to adapt them to the particular needs of the site. The need for temporary guying and bracing during erection shall be established.
(d) Before crane components are erected, they shall be visually inspected for damage. Damaged members shall not be erected until repaired in accordance with the manufacturer's or qualified person's instructions, or replaced.
(e) Slings and lifting accessories shall be selected and arranged to avoid damaging or marring crane members during erection.
(f) Wind velocity at the site at the time of erection should be considered as a limiting factor that could require suspending the erection operation.
(g) Crane towers shall be erected plumb to a tolerance that is specified by the manufacturer.
(h) Cranes required to weathervane when out-of-service shall be
installed with clearance for the boom and superstructure to swing a full
360 arc without striking a fixed object or other crane.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 95-17-036, 296-155-527, filed 8/9/95, effective 9/25/95.]