WSR 97-13-062

PROPOSED RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[Filed June 17, 1997, 11:17 a.m.]

Original Notice.

Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 96-24-032 and 96-24-035 on November 26, 1996.

Title of Rule: Abrasive blasting and personal protective equipment.

Purpose: abrasive blasting: Chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards and chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards.

State-initiated proposed amendments are made to consolidate rules on abrasive blasting into one standard (chapter 296-24 WAC). These rules are currently located in chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC. The abrasive blasting language in each of these chapters is nearly identical. In addition, the equivalent federal standards do not duplicate these rules in two separate chapters. State-initiated proposed amendments are also made to correct technical errors, rewrite awkward or confusing phrasing, add clarifying language, and move nonmandatory rules into an appendix. A summary of these proposed amendments is listed below.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67501 Purpose, minor wording changes for clarity are proposed.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67503 Scope and application, minor wording changes in the title for clarity are proposed.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67505 Selection of abrasives and equipment, minor wording changes for clarity are proposed.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67507 Definitions:

In the definition of "abrasive," the word "granular" is proposed to be added for clarity.

In the definition of "abrasive blasting respirator," the phrase "or pressure-demand supplied air respirator" is proposed to be added to reflect new technology and the availability of an alternative type of respirator.

In the definition of "air-line respirator," minor changes in wording are proposed for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67509 Dust hazards from abrasive blasting:

Minor wording changes for clarity are proposed.

A reference to "NBFU 91-1961" is proposed to be deleted because this consensus standard is no longer available.

A note is proposed to be added to make reference to updated ANSI and NFPA consensus standards.

Language from WAC 296-62-11015 is proposed to be added as part of the consolidation of these two nearly identical rules.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67511 Blast cleaning enclosures.

Minor wording changes for clarity are proposed.

Language from WAC 296-62-11015 is proposed to be added as part of the consolidation of these two nearly identical rules.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67513 Construction and maintenance of the exhaust ventilation systems:

The wording of the title is proposed to be changed for clarity.

Other minor wording and format changes for clarity are proposed.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67515 Personal protective equipment:

The wording and format is proposed to be changed for clarity.

A note is proposed to be added to provide information on the limitations of dust filters.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67517 Air supply and air compressors:

A reference to the incorrect ANSI standard Z9.2-1960 is proposed to be corrected to Z86.1-1973.

Minor wording and format changes are proposed for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-24-67519 Operational procedures and general safety, minor changes in wording and format are proposed for clarity.

New section WAC 296-24-67520 Ventilation, this new section is added to include information currently in WAC 296-24-67701, which is proposed to be repealed.

New section WAC 296-24-67521 Appendix 1-recommended blast enclosure air velocities (nonmandatory), the nonmandatory language on blast enclosure air velocities currently in the proposed repealed section, WAC 296-24-67701, is included in this new section as an appendix.

Repealed section WAC 296-24-677 Ventilation, this section is proposed to be repealed. The information currently contained in this section is being incorporated into the two proposed new sections, WAC 296-24-67520 and 296-24-67521.

Repealed section WAC 296-24-67701 Scope, this section is proposed to be repealed. The information currently contained in this section is being incorporated into the two proposed new sections, WAC 296-24-67520 and 296-24-67521.

Amended section WAC 296-62-11015 Abrasive blasting, the title of this section is retained. However, the information in this section is moved and consolidated into WAC 296-24-675 Safe practices of abrasive blasting operations, as the language found in these two sections is nearly identical. A reference to WAC 296-24-675 is proposed to be added to this section for users.

personal protective equipment - Shipyards, chapter 296-304 WAC, Safety standards for ship repairing, ship building, and ship breaking.

Federal-initiated proposed amendments relating to ship repairing, ship building, and ship breaking as published in Federal Register Volume 61, Number 102, dated May 24, 1996, and Federal Register Volume 61, Number 115, dated June 13, 1996, are made to be at-least-as-effective-as the federal standard. Some of these federal-initiated amendments will add additional compliance requirements.

State-initiated proposed amendments are made to rewrite portions of the standard for clarity and will not establish additional compliance requirements. The sole purpose of clear rule writing portions of the proposal is for clarity and ease of use. The standard requirements or level of compliance have not changed and no new requirements are being proposed.

Amended section WAC 296-304-01001 Definitions, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Add the definitions of:

Anchorage

Body belt

Body harness

Connector

Deceleration device

Deceleration distance

Equivalent

Free fall

Free fall distance

Lanyard

Lifeline

Lower levels

Personal fall arrest system

Positioning device system

Qualified person

Restraint (tether) line

Rope grab

Change the definitions of "employee" and "employer" to be consistent with and at-least-as-effective-as the federal scope and application requirement which states, "Scope and application. This subpart applies to all work in shipyard employment regardless of geographic location." The proposed amendments to these definitions are as follows:

Employee: Delete the words "on the navigable waters of the United States, including dry docks, graving docks and marine railways, other than the master, ship's officers, crew of the vessel, or any person engaged by the master to repair any vessel under 18 net tons." The words "as defined in these standards" are added. The proposed definition reads: "Any person engaged in ship repairing, ship building, or ship breaking or related employment as defined in these standards."

Employer: Delete the words "on the navigable waters of the United States, including dry docks, graving docks and marine railways." The words "as defined in these standards" are added. The proposed definition reads: "An employer with employees who are employed, in whole or in part, in ship repair, ship building and ship breaking, or related employment as defined in these standards."

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Change the definition name "ship repair" to "ship repairing" to be consistent with the title of this chapter.

Delete definition numbering as required by the state Code Reviser's Office.

Rewrite the section for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-03001 Toxic cleaning solvents, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite WAC 296-304-03001 (1)(c) for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-03003 Chemical paint and preservative removers, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite WAC 296-304-03003 (1), (4), and (5) for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-03005 Mechanical paint removers, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite WAC 296-304-03005 (1)(a) and (d), (2)(a), and (3)(c)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-03007 Painting, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite WAC 296-304-03007 (1)(a)(i), (ii), (iii), (b)(i), and (2)(m) and (n) for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-05007 Access to vessels, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to add the following definitions:

Barge

River tow boat

Amended section WAC 296-304-06013 Health and sanitation, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to add the definition of "hazardous material."

Amended section WAC 296-304-08007 Abrasive wheels, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite WAC 296-304-08007(10) for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-08009 Powder actuated fastening tools, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Rewrite WAC 296-304-08009 (1) and (2) for clarity.

Reference the hearing conservation requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part K for clarification. These are existing requirements.

Amended section WAC 296-304-090 Personal protective equipment--Scope and application, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Change the title from "Personal protective equipment--Scope and application" to "Personal protective equipment (PPE)--General requirements." Language relating to scope and application is deleted because WAC 296-304-010, together with the amended definitions of employee and employer, address the chapter's scope and application and is in compliance with the federal-initiated proposed scope and application amendment.

Include the general requirement that the employer must provide and ensure the use of PPE. This is an existing requirement in WAC 296-24-07501(1).

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Identify hearing protection in the general requirements for clarification. This is an existing requirement in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part K.

Rewrite the section for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-09001 Eye protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Change the title from "Eye protection" to "Hazard assessment and equipment selection."

Move information relating to eye protection to WAC 296-304-09005 for better organization of information.

Include the requirement that the employer must assess work activities for all PPE related hazards, and inform and properly fit affected employees. This is an existing requirement in WAC 296-24-07501(2).

Add the requirement that all PPE must be kept sanitary and disinfected when reassigned.

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-09003 Respiratory protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Change the title from "Respiratory protection" to "Training."

Move information relating to respiratory protection to WAC 296-304-09007 for better organization of information.

Include the requirement that the employer must provide training and verify employee knowledge of PPE. This is an existing requirement in WAC 296-24-07501(4).

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-09005 Head, foot and body protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Change the title from "Head, foot and body protection" to "Eye and face protection."

Move information relating to hearing protection to WAC 296-304-09009 for better organization of information.

Move information relating to foot protection to WAC 296-304-09013 for better organization of information.

Move information relating to hand and body protection to WAC 296-304-09015 for better organization of information.

Add the requirement that the employer must provide and ensure the use of eye and face protection.

Add a table (table 1) to show required lenses for radiation protection.

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-304-09007 Lifesaving equipment, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Change the title from "Lifesaving equipment" to "Respiratory protection."

Move information relating to lifesaving equipment to WAC 296-304-09017 for better organization of information and to present information in approximately the same order as the federal rule.

Include the requirement that the employer must provide and ensure the use of respiratory equipment according to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E to be consistent with the federal rule.

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09009 Hearing protection, state-initiated proposed amendments will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Add this new section for clarification. These are existing requirements from the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part K.

Rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09011 Head protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Add this new section.

Require that the employer must provide and ensure the use of hard hats and must comply with ANSI Z89.1-1986, "American National Standard for Personnel Protection--Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements." These are existing standard requirements (see WAC 296-24-084(2))

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09013 Foot protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Add this new section that states the employer must provide and ensure the use of protective footwear. This is an existing requirement under WAC 296-24-088, but is more stringent than the current requirement under WAC 296-304-09005(4).

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09015 Hand and body protection, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Include this new section that states the employer must provide and ensure the use of appropriate hand protection. This is an existing requirement under WAC 296-24-090 Hand protection.

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09017 Lifesaving equipment, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Include this new section that states the employer must provide and ensure the use of appropriate lifesaving equipment. This is an existing requirement under WAC 296-24-086 Personal flotation devices.

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09019 Fall protection--General requirement, state-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Include this new section that states the employer must provide and ensure the use of approved fall protection equipment, such as, but not limited to personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems when a worker is exposed to a fall greater than five feet. This is an existing requirement under WAC 296-304-05013(2).

Rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09021 Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS), federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Clarify the more stringent requirement that body belts are no longer approved as part of a fall arrest system. Only approved full body harnesses are allowed.

Describe criteria for hardware in detail.

Describe criteria for strength performance of PFAS.

Describe criteria for the selection, use and care of systems and components.

Mandate the training requirements for affected employees.

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

New section WAC 296-304-09023 Positioning device systems, federal-initiated proposed amendments in this section will establish additional compliance requirements and are made to:

Describe criteria for hardware in detail.

Describe criteria for strength performance of positioning device systems.

Describe criteria for the selection, use and care of positioning device systems.

Mandate the training requirements for affected employees.

State-initiated proposed amendments in this section will not establish additional compliance requirements and are made to rewrite the section for clarity.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: Chapter 49.17 RCW.

Statute Being Implemented: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050, [49.17].060.

Summary: See Purpose above.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, 7273 Linderson Way, Tumwater, WA (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Michael A. Silverstein, 7273 Linderson Way, Tumwater, WA, (360) 902-5495.

Name of Proponent: Department of Labor and Industries, governmental.

Rule is necessary because of federal law, Federal Register Volume 61, Number 102, dated May 24, 1996; and Federal Register Volume 61, Number 115, dated June 13, 1996.

Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: See Purpose above.

Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: See Purpose above.

No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. Small business economic impact statements are not required because the rules are being proposed solely to comply with federal regulations (RCW 19.85.061) or to correct information that is housekeeping in nature (RCW 34.05.320 (1)(k)).

Section 201, chapter 403, Laws of 1995, does not apply to this rule adoption. Significant rule-making criteria does not apply to these rule amendments because they meet the exempt criteria outlined in RCW 34.05.328 (5)(b)(iii) and (iv). Significant rule-making criteria does not apply when adopting federal statutes or regulations without material change, when amending interpretive rules, or when adopting rules to correct information that is housekeeping in nature (typographical errors, address/name changes, or clarification of rule language without changing its effect).

Hearing Location: Department of Labor and Industries Building, Auditorium, 7273 Linderson Way, Tumwater, WA, on July 22, 1997, at 9:30 a.m.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Linda Dausener by July 10, 1997, (360) 902-5516.

Submit Written Comments to: Tracy Spencer, Standards Manager, Division of Consultation and Compliance, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98507-4620, by 5:00 p.m., July 29, 1997. In addition to written comments, the department will accept comments submitted to FAX (360) 902-5529. Comments submitted by FAX must be ten pages or less.

Date of Intended Adoption: October 21, 1997.

June 17, 1997

Gary Moore

Director

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)

WAC 296-24-67501 Purpose. The safety and health standards of this section are intended to protect health and to prevent injury to personnel engaged in abrasive blasting operations and to others working in the vicinity by:

(1) ((Control of)) Controlling dusts which are dispersed during abrasive blasting.

(2) ((Provision of)) Providing an adequate amount of clean air to personnel.

(3) ((Protection of)) Protecting personnel from injury from flying particles or from moving equipment.

[Order 73-5, 296-24-67501, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67501, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)

WAC 296-24-67505 Selection of abrasives and equipment. Each type of abrasive and each type of equipment has its particular advantages in producing the quality of work desired, and the selection will depend on the specific requirements of the user. Therefore, no rule or suggestion ((can be)) is given in this standard for the selection of a particular abrasive or of particular equipment. With properly designed equipment and proper operation and maintenance all types of abrasives and equipment can be used safely. However, abrasives which create the minimum hazard should be used wherever feasible.

[Order 73-5, 296-24-67505, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-67507 Definitions. (1) Abrasive. A solid granular substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.

(2) Abrasive blasting. The forcible application of an abrasive to a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.

(3) Abrasive-blasting respirator. A continuous flow airline respirator ((constructed)) or pressure-demand supplied-air respirator made so that it will cover the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders and provide protection from rebounding abrasive.

(4) Air-line respirator. A device consisting of a face-piece, helmet, or hood to which clean air is supplied to the wearer through a small-diameter hose from ((a source not on the wearer's body)) a compressed air source.

(5) Blast cleaning barrel. A complete enclosure which rotates on an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast spray.

(6) Blast cleaning room. A complete enclosure in which blasting operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.

(7) Blasting cabinet. An enclosure where the operator stands outside and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.

(8) Clean air. Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.

(9) Dust collector. A device or combination of devices for separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.

(10) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for removing contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements; (a) enclosure or hood, (b) duct work, (c) dust collecting equipment, (d) exhauster, and (e) discharge stack.

(11) Particulate-filter respirator. An air purifying respirator, commonly referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.

(12) Respirable dust. Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.

(13) Rotary blast cleaning table. An enclosure where the pieces to be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically through a series of blast sprays.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-24-67507, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, 296-24-67507, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67507, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-24-67509 Dust hazards from abrasive blasting. (1) Dust sources. Abrasives and the surface coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized during blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirable size. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources ((shall)) must be considered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.

(2) Types of abrasives. A large variety of solid materials may be used as abrasives, with qualities varying from hard deep-cutting to soft polishing. These include; (a) mineral grains, either synthetic or natural such as silica or garnet, (b) metallic shot or grit, generally of steel or chilled cast iron, and (c) organic abrasives, such as ground corncobs or walnut shells.

Silica sand is the most hazardous mineral abrasive commonly used and its use should be limited wherever possible.

The potential hazard from steel or iron dust is considered to be minimal.

Readily combustible organic abrasives may be pulverized fine enough to be capable of forming explosive mixtures with air.

(3) Types of coatings. A surface coating formed during the fabrication of a part, or a protective coating applied after fabrication, will be removed and dispersed as a dust by abrasive blasting. The type of coating should be known to make a proper evaluation of the potential hazard.

(a) Silica sand is frequently imbedded in the surface of castings and may be pulverized by blast cleaning.

(b) Coatings containing toxic metals will add to the potential seriousness of the dust exposures. Examples of such coatings are anti-fouling paints containing mercury, lead paints on structural steel, cadmium plating, and lead deposits on pistons of internal combustion engines.

(c) Plastic or resin coatings may be decomposed by ((the action of the abrasives to)) abrasive blasting and form irritating by-products.

(4) Wet abrasive blasting. Wet methods will tend to keep dust exposures minimal, but dispersed droplets ((dispersed)) and dried residues ((which)) may become airborne ((may)) and create potential exposures.

(5) Concentrations of contaminants. The concentration of respirable dust or fumes in the breathing zone of the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker ((shall)) must be kept below the levels ((recommended by chapter 296-62 WAC)) specified in WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515.

(6) Use of combustible abrasives. Organic abrasives which are combustible ((shall)) must be used only in automatic systems because the fine dust produced presents a potential fire and explosion hazard.

(a) Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system and all electric wiring ((shall)) must conform to the requirements of American National Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z 33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961((; NBFU 91-1961))), and chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, Electrical. The blast nozzle ((shall)) must be bonded and grounded to prevent the buildup of static charges.

(b) Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collector ((shall)) must be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located on sides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case of explosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire Protection Association Explosion Venting Guide, NFPA 68-1954.

Note: See the latest versions of NFPA-91, NFPA-68 and ANSI Z33.1 for current information on the construction of abrasive blasting equipment and enclosures.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-24-67509, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 73-5, 296-24-67509, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67509, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)

WAC 296-24-67511 Blast cleaning enclosures. (1) Blast cleaning enclosures((. These)) include rotary blast cleaning tables, blast cleaning barrels and drums, abrasive blasting cabinets, blast cleaning rooms, abrasive separators, and similar enclosures.

(2) ((Ventilation.)) Blast cleaning enclosures ((shall)) must be exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will be maintained at all openings in the enclosure, during the blasting operation. (See WAC ((296-24-677)) 296-24-67520 and Appendix 1.)

(3) All air inlets and access openings ((shall)) must be baffled or so arranged that by the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive or dust particles into an adjacent work area will be minimized, ((not to exceed the allowable threshold limits as specified in occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC)) and visible spurts of dust will not be observed.

(4) The rate of exhaust ((shall)) must be sufficient to provide prompt clearance of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after ((the cessation of)) blasting stops.

(5) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast ((shall)) must be turned off and the exhaust system ((shall)) must be run for a sufficient period of time to remove the airborne dust particles within the enclosure.

(6) ((Observation window.)) Safety glass protected by screening ((shall)) must be used in observation windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.

(7) ((Access openings.)) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles ((shall)) must be installed in multiple sets at all small access openings where dust might escape, and ((shall)) must be inspected regularly and replaced when needed.

(8) Doors ((shall)) must be flanged and tight when closed.

(9) Doors on blast-cleaning rooms must be operable from both inside and outside, except where there is a small operator access door, the large work access door may be closed or opened from the outside only.

[Order 73-5, 296-24-67511, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67511, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)

WAC 296-24-67513 Construction and maintenance of the exhaust ventilation systems. (1) ((Exhaust systems.)) The construction, installation, inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems ((shall)) must conform to the principles and requirements set forth in ((chapter 296-62 WAC)) American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, 29.2-1960 and ANSI Z33.1-1961.

Note: See the latest versions of ANSI Z9.2 and ANSI Z33.1 for current information on the installation, inspection and maintenance of exhaust systems.

(2) When dust leaks are noted, repairs ((shall)) must be made.

(3) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipment ((shall)) must be checked when the installation is completed and periodically thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation.

(4) Whenever an appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, the system ((shall)) must be cleaned and returned to normal operating conditions.

(((4) Abrasive separator. In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaust ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon for the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasive separator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.))

(5) ((Dust collecting equipment.)) In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, an abrasive separator must be provided to remove fines from the spent abrasives.

(6) The air exhausted from blast cleaning equipment ((shall)) must be discharged through dust collecting equipment.

(((6))) (7) Dust collectors ((shall)) must be set up so that the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating other working areas.

Note: Disposal of waste. The fine dust from dry collectors should be emptied into and transported in enclosed containers to prevent dispersal of the fines, or discharged into a sluice with some method to assure wetting of the dust.

[Order 73-5, 296-24-67513, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67513, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-67515 Personal protective equipment. (1) Respiratory protective equipment approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) must be used for protection of personnel against dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.

(2) Abrasive-blasting respirators. Abrasive-blasting respirators ((shall)) must be worn by all abrasive-blasting operators in the following situations: (a) When working inside of blast cleaning rooms, or (b) when using silica sand in manual blasting operations except where the nozzle and blast are ((not)) physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or (c) where concentrations of toxic dusts dispersed by the abrasive blasting may exceed the limits set in ((chapter 296-62)) WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515 except where the nozzle and blast are physically separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.

(((2))) (3) Particulate-filter respirators.

(a) ((Particulate-filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter respirators, properly fitted, may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as clean-up, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point, when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means. Respirators used shall be approved for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.

(b) Dust-filter respirators shall not be used for continuous protection where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or toxic materials are blasted.

(3) Personal protective clothing. Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives. Safety shoes shall be worn where there is a hazard of foot injury.

(4) Personal protective clothing, equipment and their use shall comply with the provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A2.)) Particulate or dust-filter respirators may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as clean-up, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point, when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means.

(b) Dust-filter respirators may also be used to protect the operator of outside (outdoor) abrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materials having low toxicity.

Note: The selection of a dust-filter respirator depends on the amount of dust in the breathing zone of the user. See WAC 296-62-07113 - Table 5.

(c) Dust-filter respirators used must be NIOSH-approved for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.

(d) Dust-filter respirators must be properly fitted as required in WAC 296-62-071.

(e) Dust-filter respirators must not be used for continuous protection where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or when toxic materials are blasted.

(4) A respiratory protection program as required in WAC 296-62-071 must be established wherever it is necessary to use respirators.

(5) Personal protective clothing.

(a) Operators must be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives.

(b) Safety shoes must be worn where there is a hazard of foot injury.

(c) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face must be supplied to the operator and to other personnel working near abrasive blasting operations when the respirator design does not provide such protection.

(6) Personal protective clothing, equipment and their use must comply with WAC 296-24-075 (Part A2).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-24-67515, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, 296-24-67515, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67515, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)

WAC 296-24-67517 Air supply and air compressors. (1) Clean air supply. The air for abrasive-blasting respirators ((shall)) must be free of harmful quantities of dusts, mists, or noxious gases, and shall meet the requirements for air purity set forth in American National Standard ((Z 9.2-1960)) Z 86.1-1973.

((Note: It is preferable to provide air for an abrasive-blasting respirator by means of low pressure blowers or compressors, which do not require internal organic lubricants and which are used solely for that purpose.

(a) When air from the regular compressed air line of the plant is used for the abrasive-blasting respirator the following shall be complied with: A trap and carbon filter will be installed and regularly maintained, to remove oil, water, scale, and odor; a pressure reducing diaphragm or valve will be installed to reduce the pressure down to requirements of the particular type of abrasive-blasting respirator; and an automatic control will be provided to either sound an alarm or shut down the compressor in case of over-heating.))

Note: It is preferable to provide air for an abrasive-blasting respirator with low pressure blowers or compressors which need no internal organic lubricants and are used solely for that purpose, as long as they provide sufficient air flow to each user as specified in Table 3 of the respirator standard, WAC 296-62-071.

(2) When air from the regular compressed air line of the plant is used for the abrasive-blasting respirator the following are required:

(a) A trap and carbon filter must be installed and regularly maintained, to remove oil, water, scale, and odor;

(b) A pressure reducing diaphragm or valve must be installed to reduce the pressure down to requirements of the particular type of abrasive-blasting respirator;

(c) An automatic control must be provided to either sound an alarm or shut down the compressor in case of over-heating.

Note: See also WAC 296-62-07111.

[Order 73-5, 296-24-67517, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67517, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)

WAC 296-24-67519 Operational procedures and general safety. (1) ((Housekeeping.)) Dusts ((shall)) must not be permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive blasting enclosure, and dust spills ((shall)) must be cleaned up promptly, preferable by vacuum cleaning.

Note: Removal of dust accumulations from ledges and other dust catching surfaces should be done with a vacuum cleaner during a time when the plant is not in operation. The cleaning operator should wear a respirator approved for the existing conditions.

(((a))) (2) Aisles and walkways ((shall)) must be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create a slipping hazard.

Note: Pressurized tanks for abrasive supply. If a pressurized tank is used for an abrasive supply, it should be tied in with the manual control of the nozzle mentioned in WAC 296-24-65719(2) and the relief valve or opening on the tank should be located so as to be safely vented.

(((2) Nozzles.)) (3) Blast cleaning nozzle ((shall)) must be equipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually.

(4) A support ((shall)) must be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.

(((3) Tempered air.))

Note: If taken directly from the outside of the building, the air entering a blast cleaning room through the air supply inlets should be tempered during cold weather.

[Order 73-5, 296-24-67519, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-67519, filed 5/7/73.]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-24-67520 Ventilation. (1) The applicable minimum requirements as specified in WAC 296-62-11003 through 296-62-11013 relating to ventilation must be followed.

(2) Blast cleaning enclosures. Blast cleaning enclosures must be exhaust-ventilated so that a continuous inward flow of air is maintained at all openings in the enclosure during blasting.

(3) Air velocities. Although the performance of the equipment will be the final criterion, the exhaust ventilation must:

(a) Keep the escape of dust from the enclosure to a minimum;

(b) Maintain a reasonable visibility in blast cleaning rooms and cabinets; and

(c) Provide for rapid clearance of the dust laden air within the enclosure to permit the enclosure to be opened.

See Appendix 1 for recommendation air velocities at blast enclosure openings.

[]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-24-67521 Appendix 1.

Appendix 1 (Non-Mandatory)

Recommended Blast Enclosure Air Velocities

Because of the wide variety of conditions, it is not possible to set rigid standards for rates of exhaust or for control velocities that will be suited to all types of enclosures and all types of work. In general, the use of free silica abrasives and the generation of toxic dusts in abrasive blasting require higher control velocities. With well designed equipment and excellent labyrinth baffling at openings it is possible to prevent the escape of abrasives and dust with lower control velocities.

Experience has indicated that optimum air velocities into blasting enclosures are needed to minimize the escape of dust from these enclosures. These recommended air velocities are as follows:

(1) Blast cleaning cabinet. The recommended inward air velocity at the hand openings is a minimum of 500 feet per minute (fpm) calculated on the free opening without the curtains. This high control velocity is needed because the operator's working position is close to the openings.

(2) Rotary blast cleaning tables. The access openings should be baffled with multiple slit-baffle curtains. The recommended inward air velocity at the access opening is 200 to 250 fpm calculated on the free opening without the curtains.

(3) Blast cleaning rooms. In blast cleaning rooms, the air inlets should be well baffled to prevent the escape of abrasive and the recommended inward air velocity at the air inlets is a minimum of 300 fpm.

(4) Abrasive separators, bucket elevators, and other accessory abrasive handling systems. The recommended inward air velocity at all openings is 200 to 250 fpm.

Note: For further information see the following references: Recommended Industrial Ventilation Guidelines - NIOSH 1976

Industrial Ventilation A Manual of Recommendation Practices - ACGIH latest edition.

[]

REPEALER

The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:

WAC 296-24-677 Ventilation.

WAC 296-24-67701 Scope.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-62-11015 Abrasive blasting. (((1) Definitions.

(a) "Abrasive" means a solid substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.

(b) "Abrasive-blasting respirator" means a continuous flow air-line respirator constructed so that it will cover the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders to protect him from rebounding abrasive.

(c) "Blast cleaning barrel" means a complete enclosure which rotates on an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast spray.

(d) "Blast cleaning room" means a complete enclosure in which blasting operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.

(e) "Blasting cabinet" means an enclosure where the operator stands outside and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.

(f) "Clean air" means air of such purity that it will not cause harm or discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.

(g) "Dust collector" means a device or combination of devices for separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.

(h) "Exhaust ventilation system" means a system for removing contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements (i) enclosure or hood, (ii) duct work, (iii) dust collecting equipment, (iv) exhauster, and (v) discharge stack.

(i) "Particulate-filter respirator" means an air purifying respirator, commonly referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.

(j) "Respirable dust" means airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.

(k) "Rotary blast cleaning table" means an enclosure where the pieces to be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically through a series of blast sprays.

(l) "Abrasive blasting" means the forcible application of an abrasive to a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.

(2) Dust hazards from abrasive blasting.

(a) Abrasives and the surface coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized during blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirable size. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources shall be considered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.

(b) The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing zone of the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept below the levels specified in WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515.

(c) Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only in automatic systems. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system and all electric wiring shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), and chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the build-up of static charges. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collector shall be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located on sides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case of explosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire Protection Association Explosion Venting Guide, NFPA 68-1954.

(3) Blast-cleaning enclosures.

(a) Blast-cleaning enclosures shall be exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will be maintained at all openings in the enclosure, during the blasting operation.

(i) All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so arranged that by the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive or dust particles into an adjacent work area will be minimized and visible spurts of dust will not be observed.

(ii) The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation of blasting.

(iii) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off and the exhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to remove the dusty air within the enclosure.

(iv) Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observation windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.

(v) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple sets at all small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be inspected regularly and replaced when needed.

(A) Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed.

(B) Doors on blast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside and outside, except that where there is a small operator access door, the large work access door may be closed or opened from the outside only.

(4) Exhaust ventilation systems.

(a) The construction, installation, inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to the principles and requirements set forth in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961.

(i) When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as possible.

(ii) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipment shall be checked when the installation is completed and periodically thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. Whenever an appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, the system shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating condition.

(b) In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaust ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon for the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasive separator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.

(c) The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be discharged through dust collecting equipment. Dust collectors shall be set up so that the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating other working areas.

(5) Personal protective equipment. See applicable provisions of chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC.

(a) Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-blasting operators:

(i) When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or

(ii) When using silica sand in manual blasting operations where the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or

(iii) Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive-blasting may exceed the limits set in WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515 and the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.

(b) Particulate filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter respirators, properly fitted, may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point, when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means. Respirators used shall be approved for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.

(i) Dust-filter respirators may be used to protect the operator of outside abrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materials having low toxicities.

(ii) Dust-filter respirators shall not be used for continuous protection where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or toxic materials are blasted.

(c) A respiratory protection program as defined and described in applicable provisions of chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC, shall be established wherever it is necessary to use respiratory protective equipment.

(d) Refer to applicable provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC for operators personal protective equipment.

(6) Operational procedures and general safety. Dust shall not be permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive-blasting enclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up promptly. Aisles and walkways shall be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create a slipping hazard.

(7) Scope. This paragraph applies to all operations where an abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or by centrifugal force. It does not apply to steam blasting, or steam cleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done without the aid of abrasives.)) Abrasive blasting is covered in the General safety and health standards WAC 296-24-675, Safe Practices of Abrasive Blasting Operations (Part H-2).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-62-11015, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91. RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-11015, filed 7/27/81; 80-11-010 (Order 80-14), 296-62-11015, filed 8/8/80; Order 73-3, 296-62-11015, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-22-015, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96)

WAC 296-304-010 Scope and application. (1) The provisions and standards of the general safety and health standards, chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC, and such other codes and standards as are promulgated by the department of labor and industries which are applicable to all industries, shall be applicable in the ship repairing, shipbuilding, or shipbreaking industries whenever the employees are covered under the Washington State Industrial Safety and Health Act, chapter 49.17 RCW. The rules of this chapter and the rules of the aforementioned chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC are applicable to all ship repairing, shipbuilding, and shipbreaking industries and operations, provided that such rules shall not be applicable to those operations under the exclusive safety jurisdiction of the federal government.

(2) The responsibility for compliance with these regulations is placed upon "employers" as defined in WAC 296-304-01001(((3))).

(3) It is not the intent of these regulations to place additional responsibilities or duties on owners, operators, agents or masters of vessels unless such persons are acting as employers, nor is it the intent of these regulations to relieve such owners, operators, agents or masters of vessels from responsibilities or duties now placed upon them by law, regulation or custom.

(4) The responsibilities placed upon the competent person herein shall be deemed to be the responsibilities of the employer.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 95-22-015, 296-304-010, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-006, 296-304-010, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-304-010, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; Order 75-6, 296-304-010, filed 3/10/75; Order 74-25, 296-304-010, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-006, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95)

WAC 296-304-01001 Definitions. (((1) "Shall" indicates provisions which are mandatory.

(2) "Director" means the director of the department of labor and industries or his/her designated representative.

(3) "Employer" means an employer any of whose employees are employed, in whole or in part, in ship repair or related employments as defined in these standards on the navigable waters of the United States, including dry docks, graving docks and marine railways.

(4) "Employee" means any person engaged in ship repairing, shipbuilding, or shipbreaking or related employments on the navigable waters of the United States, including dry docks, graving docks and marine railways, other than the master, ship's officers, crew of the vessel, or any person engaged by the master to repair any vessel under 18 net tons.

(5) "Gangway" means any ramp-like or stair-like means of access provided to enable personnel to board or leave a vessel including accommodation ladders, gangplanks and brows.

(6) "Vessel" includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for or used as a means of transportation on water.

(7) For purposes of WAC 296-304-05007, the term "barge" means an unpowered, flat bottom, shallow draft vessel including scows, carfloats and lighters. For purposes of these standards, the term does not include ship shaped or deep draft barges.

(8) For purposes of WAC 296-304-05007, the term "river tow boat" means a shallow draft, low free board, self-propelled vessel designed to tow river barges by pushing ahead. For purposes of these standards, the term does not include other towing vessels.

(9) "Shipbreaking" means any breaking down of a vessel's structure for the purpose of scrapping the vessel, including the removal of gear, equipment or any component part of a vessel.

(10) "Shipbuilding" means the construction of a vessel, including the installation of machinery and equipment.

(11) "Ship repair" means any repair of a vessel including, but not restricted to, alterations, conversions, installations, cleaning, painting, and maintenance work.

(12) "Related employment" means any employment performed as an incident to or in conjunction with ship repairing, shipbuilding or shipbreaking work, including, but not restricted to, inspection, testing and employment as a watchman.

(13) "Hazardous substance" means a substance which by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritant, or otherwise harmful is likely to cause injury.

(14) "Competent person" means a person who is capable of recognizing and evaluating employee exposure to hazardous substances or to other unsafe conditions and is capable of specifying the necessary protection and precautions to be taken to ensure the safety of employees as required by the particular regulation under the condition to which it applies. For the purposes of WAC 296-304-020, explosives and other dangerous atmospheres, WAC 296-304-030, surface preparation and preservation, and WAC 296-304-040, welding, cutting and heating, except for WAC 296-304-03007 (2)(h) and 296-304-03009 (1)(e), to which the above definition applies, the competent person must also meet the additional requirements of WAC 296-304-01005, Competent person.

(15) "Confined space" means a compartment of small size and limited access such as a double bottom tank, cofferdam, or other space which by its small size and confined nature can readily create or aggravate a hazardous exposure.

(16) "Enclosed space" means any space, other than a confined space, which is enclosed by bulkheads and overhead. It includes cargo holds, tanks, quarters, and machinery and boiler spaces.

(17) "Hot-work" means riveting, welding, burning or other fire or spark producing operations.

(18) "Cold-work" means any work which does not involve riveting, welding, burning or other fire or spark producing operations.

(19) "Portable unfired pressure vessel" means any pressure container or vessel used aboard ship, other than the ship's equipment, containing liquids or gases under pressure, excepting pressure vessels built to ICC regulations under 49 CFR Part 78, Subparts C and H.

(20) "Powder actuated fastening tool" means a tool or machine which drives a stud, pin, or fastener by means of an explosive charge.

(21) For purposes of WAC 296-304-06013, the term "hazardous material" means a material which has one or more of the following characteristics: (a) Has a flash point below 140F., closed cup, or is subject to spontaneous heating; (b) has a threshold limit value below 500 p.p.m. in the case of a gas or vapor, below 500 mg./m.3 for fumes, and below 25 m.p.p.c.f. in case of a dust; (c) has a single dose oral LD50 below 500 mg./kg.; (d) is subject to polymerization with the release of large amounts of energy; (e) is a strong oxidizing or reducing agent; (f) causes first degree burns to skin in short time exposure, or is systemically toxic by skin contact; or (g) in the course of normal operations, may produce dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, mists, or smokes which have one or more of the above characteristics.)) "Anchorage" - A secure point to attach lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices.

"Body belt" - A strap with means to both secure it around the waist and to attach it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.

"Body harness" - Straps to secure around an employee so that fall arrest forces are distributed over at least the thighs, shoulders, chest and pelvis with means to attach it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.

"Cold-work" - Work that does not involve riveting, welding, burning, or other fire-producing or spark-producing operations.

"Competent person" - A person who can recognize and evaluate employee exposure to hazardous substances or to other unsafe conditions and can specify the necessary protection and precautions necessary to ensure the safety of employees as required by these standards.

"Confined space" - A small compartment with limited access such as a double bottom tank, cofferdam, or other small, confined space that can readily create or aggravate a hazardous exposure.

"Connector" - A device used to connect parts of a personal fall arrest system or parts of a positioning device system together. It may be:

An independent component of the system (such as a carabiner); or

An integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or D-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness or a snaphook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).

"Deceleration device" - A mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip stitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self-retracting lifeline/lanyard, that serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or to limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.

"Deceleration distance" - The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured from the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, to the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.

"Director" - The director of the department of labor and industries or a designated representative.

"Employee" - Any person engaged in ship repairing, ship building, or ship breaking or related employment as defined in these standards.

"Employer" - An employer with employees who are employed, in whole or in part, in ship repair, ship building and ship breaking, or related employment as defined in these standards.

"Enclosed space" - A space, other than a confined space, that is enclosed by bulkheads and overhead. It includes cargo holds, tanks, quarters, and machinery and boiler spaces.

"Free fall" - To fall before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.

"Free fall distance" - The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before the device operates and fall arrest forces occur.

"Gangway" - A ramp-like or stair-like means to board or leave a vessel including accommodation ladders, gangplanks and brows.

"Hazardous substance" - A substance likely to cause injury because it is explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritant, or otherwise harmful.

"Hot-work" - Riveting, welding, burning or other fire or spark producing operations.

"Lanyard" - A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap with a connector at each end to connect the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.

"Lifeline" - A component consisting of a flexible line to connect to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or to connect to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

"Personal fall arrest system" - A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, body harness and may include a lanyard, a deceleration device, a lifeline, or a suitable combination.

"Portable unfired pressure vessel" - A pressure container or vessel used aboard ship, other than the ship's equipment, containing liquids or gases under pressure. This does not include pressure vessels built to ICC regulations under 49 CFR Part 78, Subparts C and H.

"Positioning device system" - A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported at an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall or window, and to be able to work with both hands free while leaning.

"Powder actuated fastening tool" - A tool or machine that drives a stud, pin, or fastener by means of an explosive charge.

"Qualified person" - A person with a recognized degree, certificate, professional standing, or extensive knowledge, training, and experience, who has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

"Related employment" - Any employment related to or performed in conjunction with ship repairing, ship building or ship breaking work, including, but not limited to, inspecting, testing, and serving as a watchman.

"Restraint (tether) line" - A line from an anchorage, or between anchorages, to which the employee is secured so as to prevent the employee from walking or falling off an elevated work surface.

Note: A restraint line is not necessarily designed to withstand forces resulting from a fall.

"Rope grab" - A deceleration device that travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually uses the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking or both.

"Shall" or "must" - Mandatory.

"Ship breaking" - Breaking down a vessel's structure to scrap the vessel, including the removal of gear, equipment or any component part of a vessel.

"Ship building" - Construction of a vessel, including the installation of machinery and equipment.

"Ship repairing" - Repair of a vessel including, but not limited to, alterations, conversions, installations, cleaning, painting, and maintenance.

"Vessel" - Every watercraft for use as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for or used as a means of transportation on water.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-006, 296-304-01001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 76-7, 296-304-01001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-01001, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-006, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95)

WAC 296-304-03001 Toxic cleaning solvents. (1) When toxic solvents are used, the employer shall employ one or more of the following measures to safeguard the health of employees exposed to these solvents.

(a) The cleaning operation shall be completely enclosed to prevent the escape of vapor into the working space.

(b) Either natural ventilation or mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be used to remove the vapor at the source and to dilute the concentration of vapors in the working space to a concentration which is safe for the entire work period.

(c) ((Employees shall be protected against toxic vapors by suitable respiratory protective equipment in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and, where necessary, against exposure of skin and eyes to contact with toxic solvents and their vapors by suitable clothing and equipment.)) The employer must ensure that employees are protected against:

Toxic vapors by suitable respiratory protective equipment that meets the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E; and

Exposure of skin and eyes to contact with toxic solvents and their vapors by suitable clothing and equipment.

(2) The principles in the threshold limit values to which attention is directed in WAC 296-304-02005 and applicable sections in chapter 296-62 WAC will be used by the department of labor and industries in enforcement proceedings in defining a safe concentration of air contaminants.

(3) When flammable solvents are used, precautions shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-03009.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-006, 296-304-03001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), 296-304-03001, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 76-7, 296-304-03001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-03001, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-25, filed 5/7/74)

WAC 296-304-03003 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (1) ((Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall be protected against eye injury by goggles or face shields in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-09001 (1) and (2).)) The employer must ensure that employees are protected against:

Skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers; and

Eye injury by goggles or face shields that meet the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2).

(2) When using flammable paint and preservative removers precautions shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-03009.

(3) When using chemical paint and preservative removers which contain volatile and toxic solvents, such as benzol, acetone and amyl acetate, the provisions of WAC 296-304-03001 shall be applicable.

(4) ((When using paint and rust removers containing strong acids or alkalies, employees shall be protected by suitable face shields to prevent chemical burns on the face and neck.

(5) When steam guns are used, all employees working within range of the blast shall be protected by suitable face shields. Metal parts of the steam gun itself shall be insulated to protect the operator against heat burns.)) The employer must ensure that employees using paint and rust removers containing strong acids or alkalies are protected by suitable face shields to prevent chemical burns on the face and neck according to the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2).

(5) The employer must ensure that all employees working within range of a steam gun blast are protected by suitable face shields according to the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2). Metal parts of the steam gun itself must be insulated to protect the operator against heat burns.

[Order 74-25, 296-304-03003, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-006, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95)

WAC 296-304-03005 Mechanical paint removers. (1) Power tools.

(a) ((Employees engaged in the removal of paints, preservatives, rusts or other coatings by means of power tools shall be protected against eye injury by goggles or face shields in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-09001(1).)) The employer must ensure that employees engaged in the removal of paints, preservatives, rusts or other coatings by means of power tools are protected against eye injury by goggles or face shields that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2).

(b) All portable rotating tools used for the removal of paints, preservatives, rusts or other coatings shall be adequately guarded to protect both the operator and nearby workers from flying missiles.

(c) Portable electric tools shall be grounded in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-08003 (1) and (2).

(d) ((In a confined space, mechanical exhaust ventilation sufficient to keep the dust concentration to a minimum shall be used, or employees shall be protected by respiratory protective equipment in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.)) In a confined space, the employer must provide mechanical exhaust ventilation sufficient to keep the dust concentration to a minimum, or must protect employees by respiratory protective equipment that meets the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(2) Flame removal.

(a) ((Hardened preservative coatings shall not be removed by flame in enclosed spaces unless the employees exposed to fumes are protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E. Employees performing such an operation in the open air, and those exposed to the resulting fumes, shall be protected by a fume filter type respirator in accordance with requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.)) The employer must ensure that when hardened preservative coatings are removed by flame in enclosed spaces, the employees exposed to fumes are protected by air line respirators that meet the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E. Employees performing this operation in the open air, and those exposed to the resulting fumes, must be protected by a fume filter respirator that meets the requirements of WAC 296-62-071.

(b) Flame or heat shall not be used to remove soft and greasy preservative coatings.

(3) Abrasive blasting.

(a) Equipment. Hoses and fittings used for abrasive blasting shall meet the following requirements:

(i) Hoses. Hose of a type to prevent shocks from static electricity shall be used.

(ii) Hose couplings. House lengths shall be joined by metal couplings secured to the outside of the hose to avoid erosion and weakening of the couplings.

(iii) Nozzles. Nozzles shall be attached to the hose by fittings that will prevent the nozzle from unintentionally becoming disengaged. Nozzle attachments shall be of metal and shall fit onto the hose externally.

(iv) Dead man control. A dead man control device shall be provided at the nozzle end of the blasting hose either to provide direct cutoff or to signal the pot tender by means of a visual and audible signal to cut off the flow, in the event the blaster loses control of the hose. The pot tender shall be available at all times to respond immediately to the signal.

(b) Replacement. Hoses and all fittings used for abrasive blasting shall be inspected frequently to insure timely replacement before an unsafe amount of wear has occurred.

(c) Personal protective equipment.

(i) ((Abrasive blasters working in enclosed spaces shall be protected by hoods and air fed respirators or by air helmets of a positive pressure type in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(ii) Abrasive blasters working in the open shall be protected as indicated in (1) except that when synthetic abrasives containing less than one percent free silica are used filter type respirators approved by the Bureau of Mines for exposure to lead dusts may be used in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(iii) Employees, other than blasters, including machine tenders and abrasive recovery men, working in areas where unsafe concentrations of abrasive materials and dusts are present shall be protected by eye and respiratory protective equipment in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-09001 (1) and (2) and chapter 296-62, Part E, respectively.

(iv) The blaster shall be protected against injury from exposure to the blast by appropriate protective clothing, including gloves.

(v) Since surges from drops in pressure in the hose line can be of sufficient proportions to throw the blaster off the staging, the blaster shall be protected by a safety belt and life line tied off to the ship or other structure when blasting is being done from elevations where adequate protection against falling cannot be provided by railings.)) The employer must ensure that abrasive blasters working in enclosed spaces are protected by abrasive blasting respirators that meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-675 and 296-62-071.

(ii) The employer must ensure that abrasive blasters working in the open are protected as required in subsection (1) of this section.

Exception: When synthetic abrasives containing less than one percent free silica are used, the employer may substitute particulate or dust filter respirators that are approved by the National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) and used according to WAC 296-62-071.

(iii) The employer must ensure that employees, including machine tenders and abrasive recovery workers, working in areas where unsafe concentrations of abrasive materials and dusts are present are protected by eye and respiratory protective equipment that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2) and chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

Exception: This requirement does not apply to blasters.

(iv) The employer must ensure that a blaster is protected against injury from exposure to the blast by appropriate protective clothing, including gloves that meet the requirements of WAC 296-304-09015(1).

(v) A surge from a drop in pressure in the hose line can throw a blaster off the staging. To protect against this hazard, the employer must ensure that a blaster is protected by a safety belt and lifeline, that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09021. The safety belt and lifeline must be tied off to the ship or other structure during blasting from elevations where adequate fall protection cannot be provided by railings.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-006, 296-304-03005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), 296-304-03005, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 76-7, 296-304-03005, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-03005, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-006, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95)

WAC 296-304-03007 Painting. (1) ((Paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents.

(a) When paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents are sprayed, the following conditions shall apply:

(i) In confined spaces, employees continuously exposed to such spraying shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(ii) In tanks or compartments, employees continuously exposed to such spraying shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, employees shall be protected by respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(iii) In large and well ventilated areas, employees exposed to such spraying shall be protected by respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(b) Where brush application of paints with toxic solvents is done in confined spaces, or other areas where lack of ventilation creates a hazard, employees shall be protected by filter respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.)) Paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents. All respirators required by this section must meet the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(a) When employees spray paints mixed with toxic vehicles or solvents, the employer must ensure that the following conditions are met:

(i) In confined spaces, employees continuously exposed to spraying are protected by air line respirators.

(ii) In tanks or compartments, employees continuously exposed to spraying are protected by air line respirators. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, employees are protected by respirators.

(iii) In large and well ventilated areas, employees exposed to spraying are protected by respirators.

(b) The employer must ensure that where employees apply by brush paints with toxic solvents in confined spaces or other areas where lack of ventilation creates a hazard, the employees are protected by filter respirators.

(c) When flammable paints or vehicles are used, precautions shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-304-03009.

(d) The metallic parts of air moving devices, including fans, blowers, and jet-type air movers, and all duct work shall be electrically bonded to the vessel's structure.

(2) Paints and tank coatings dissolved in highly volatile, toxic and flammable solvents. Several organic coatings, adhesives and resins are dissolved in highly toxic, flammable and explosive solvents with flash points below 80F. Work involving such materials shall be done only when all of the following special precautions have been taken:

(a) Sufficient exhaust ventilation shall be provided to keep the concentration of solvent vapors below ten percent of the lower explosive limit. Frequent tests shall be made by a competent person to ascertain the concentration.

(b) If the ventilation fails or if the concentration of solvent vapors rises above ten percent of the lower explosive limit, painting shall be stopped and the compartment shall be evacuated until the concentration again falls below ten percent of the lower explosive limit. If the concentration does not fall when painting is stopped, additional ventilation to bring the concentration down to ten percent of the lower explosive limit shall be provided.

(c) Ventilation shall be continued after the completion of painting until the space or compartment is gas free. The final determination as to whether the space or compartment is gas free shall be made after the ventilating equipment has been shut off for a least ten minutes.

(d) Exhaust ducts shall discharge clear of working areas and away from sources of possible ignition. Periodic tests shall be made to ensure that the exhausted vapors are not accumulating in other areas within or around the vessel or dry dock.

(e) All motors and control equipment shall be of the explosion-proof type. Fans shall have nonferrous blades. Portable air ducts shall also be of nonferrous materials. All motors and associated control equipment shall be properly maintained and grounded.

(f) Only nonsparking paint buckets, spray guns and tools shall be used. Metal parts of paint brushes and rollers shall be insulated. Staging shall be erected in a manner which ensures that it is nonsparking.

(g) Only explosion proof lights, approved by the Underwriters' Laboratories for use in Class I, Group D atmospheres, or approved as permissible by the U.S. Bureau of Mines or the U.S. Coast Guard, shall be used.

(h) A competent person shall inspect all power and lighting cables to ensure that the insulation is in excellent condition, free of all cracks and worn spots, that there are no connections within fifty feet of the operation, that lines are not overloaded, and that they are suspended with sufficient slack to prevent undue stress or chafing.

(i) ((The face, eyes, head, hands and all other exposed parts of the bodies of employees handling such highly volatile paints shall be protected. All footwear shall be nonsparking, such as rubbers, rubber boots or rubber soled shoes without nails. Coveralls or other outer clothing shall be of cotton. Rubber, rather than plastic gloves shall be used because of the danger of static sparks.)) The face, eyes, head, hands and all other exposed parts of the bodies of employees handling highly volatile paints must be protected according to WAC 296-304-090. All footwear must be nonsparking, such as rubbers, rubber boots or rubber soled shoes without nail. Coveralls or other outer clothing must be made of cotton. Rubber gloves, instead of plastic gloves, must be used to protect against the danger of static sparks.

(j) No matches, lighted cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, and no cigarette lighters or ferrous articles shall be taken into the area where work is being done.

(k) All solvent drums taken into the compartment shall be placed on nonferrous surfaces and shall be grounded to the vessel. Metallic contact shall be maintained between containers and drums when materials are being transferred from one to another.

(l) Spray guns, paint pots, and metallic parts of connecting tubing shall be electrically bonded, and the bonded assembly shall be grounded to the vessel.

(m) ((All employees continuously in a compartment in which such painting is being performed, shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and by suitable protective clothing. Employees entering such compartments for a limited time shall be protected by filter cartridge type respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(n) All employees doing exterior paint spraying with such paints shall be protected by suitable filter cartridge type respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and by suitable protective clothing.)) The employer must ensure that all employees continuously in a compartment in which such painting is performed, are protected by air line respirators and by suitable protective clothing. Employees entering such compartments for a limited time must be protected by filter cartridge type respirators.

(n) The employer must ensure that all employees doing exterior paint spraying with such paints are protected by suitable filter cartridge type respirators and by suitable protective clothing.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-006, 296-304-03007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), 296-304-03007, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; Order 76-7, 296-304-03007, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-03007, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-25, filed 5/7/74)

WAC 296-304-05007 Access to vessels. "Barge" - An unpowered, flat bottom, shallow draft vessel including scows, carfloats and lighters, but not ship-shaped or deep-draft barges.

"River towboat" - A shallow draft, low free board, self-propelled vessel designed to tow river barges by pushing ahead.

(1) Access to vessels afloat. The employer shall not permit employees to board or leave any vessel, except a barge or river towboat, until the following requirements have been met:

(a) Whenever practicable, a gangway of not less than 20 inches walking surface, of adequate strength, maintained in safe repair and safely secured shall be used. If a gangway is not practicable, a substantial straight ladder, extending at least 36 inches above the upper landing surface and adequately secured against shifting or slipping shall be provided. When conditions are such that neither a gangway nor a straight ladder can be used, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of (4)(a) and (b) of this section may be used.

(b) Each side of such gangway, and the turntable if used, shall have a railing with a minimum height of approximately 33 inches measured perpendicularly from rail to walking surface at the stanchion, with a midrail. Rails shall be of wood, pipe, chain, wire or rope and shall be kept taut at all times.

(c) Gangways on vessels inspected and certificated by the U.S. Coast Guard are deemed to meet the foregoing requirements, except in cases where the vessel's regular gangway is not being used.

(d) The gangway shall be kept properly trimmed at all times.

(e) When a fixed tread accommodation ladder is used, and the angle is low enough to require employees to walk on the edge of the treads, cleated duckboards shall be laid over and secured to the ladder.

(f) When the lower end of a gangway overhangs the water between the ship and the dock in such a manner that there is danger of employees falling between the ship and the dock, a net or other suitable protection shall be rigged at the foot of the gangway in such a manner as to prevent employees from falling from the end of the gangway.

(g) If the foot of the gangway is more than one foot away from the edge of the apron, the space between them shall be bridged by a firm walkway equipped with railings, with a minimum height of approximately 33 inches with midrails on both sides.

(h) Supporting bridles shall be kept clear so as to permit unobstructed passage for employees using the gangway.

(i) When the upper end of the means of access rests on or flush with the top of the bulwark, substantial steps properly secured and equipped with at least one substantial handrail approximately 33 inches in height shall be provided between the top of the bulwark and the deck.

(j) Obstructions shall not be laid on or across the gangway.

(k) The means of access shall be adequately illuminated for its full length.

(l) Unless the construction of the vessel makes it impossible, the means of access shall be so located that drafts of cargo do not pass over it. In any event loads shall not be passed over the means of access while employees are on it.

(2) Access to vessels in drydock or between vessels. Gangways meeting the requirements of (1)(a), (b), (i), (j) and (l) of this section shall be provided for access from wing wall to vessel or, when two or more vessels, other than barges or river towboats, are lying abreast, from one vessel to another.

(3) Access to barges and river towboats.

(a) Ramps for access of vehicles to or between barges shall be of adequate strength, provided with side boards, well maintained and properly secured.

(b) Unless employees can step safely to or from the wharf, float, barge, or river towboat, either a ramp in accordance with the requirements of (a) of this section or a safe walkway in accordance with the requirements of (1)(g) of this section shall be provided. When a walkway is impracticable, a substantial straight ladder, extending at least 36 inches above the upper landing surface and adequately secured against shifting or slipping shall be provided. When conditions are such that neither a walkway nor a straight ladder can be used, a Jacob's ladder in accordance with the requirements of (4) of this section may be used.

(c) The means of access shall be in accordance with the requirements of (1)(i), (j) and (k) of this section.

(4) Jacob's ladders.

(a) Jacob's ladders shall be of the double rung or flat tread type. They shall be well maintained and properly secured.

(b) A Jacob's ladder shall either hang without slack from its lashings or be pulled up entirely.

[Order 74-25, 296-304-05007, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 76-7, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-304-05013 Working surfaces. (1) When firebox floors present tripping hazards of exposed tubing or of missing or removed refractory, sufficient planking to afford safe footing shall be laid while work is being carried on within the boiler.

(2) ((When employees are working aloft, or elsewhere at elevations more than 5 feet above a solid surface, either scaffolds or a sloping ladder, meeting the requirements of this section, shall be used to afford safe footing, or the employees shall be protected by safety belts and lifelines meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-09007(2). Employees visually restricted by blasting hoods, welding helmets, and burning goggles shall work from scaffolds, not from ladders, except for the initial and final welding or burning operation to start or complete a job such as the erection and dismantling of hung scaffolding, or other similar, nonrepetitive jobs of brief duration.)) The employer must provide and ensure the use of fall protection when employees work aloft or elsewhere at elevations more than 5 feet above a solid surface.

(a) Employees must be protected by the use of scaffolds, ladders, or personal protection equipment according to WAC 296-304-09021, or 296-304-09023.

(b) Employees must work from scaffolds when visually restricted by:

Blasting hoods;

Welding helmets; and

Burning goggles; except

For the initial and final welding or burning operation to start or complete a job such as the erection and dismantling of hung scaffolding; or

Other similar, nonrepetitive jobs of brief duration.

(3) For work performed in restricted quarters, such as behind boilers and in between congested machinery units and piping, work platforms at least 20 inches wide meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-05001 (8)(b) shall be used. Backrails may be omitted if bulkheading, boilers, machinery units, or piping afford proper protection against falling.

(4) When employees are boarding, leaving, or working from small boats or floats, they shall be protected by personal flotation devices meeting the requirements of WAC 296-304-09007(1).

[Order 76-7, 296-304-05013, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-05013, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-006, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95)

WAC 296-304-06013 Health and sanitation. (((1) No chemical product, such as a solvent or preservative; no structural material, such as cadmium or zinc coated steel, or plastic material; and no process material, such as welding filler metal; which is a hazardous material within the meaning of WAC 296-304-01001(21), shall be used until the employer has ascertained the potential fire, toxic, or reactivity hazards which are likely to be encountered in the handling, application, or utilization of such a material.)) "Hazardous material" - A material with one or more of the following characteristics:

Has a flash point below 140F, closed cup, or is subject to spontaneous heating;

Has a threshold limit value below 500 p.p.m. in the case of a gas or vapor, below 500 mg./m.3 for fumes, and below 25 m.p.p.c.f. in case of a dust;

Has a single dose oral LD50 below 500 mg./kg.;

Is subject to polymerization with the release of large amounts of energy;

Is a strong oxidizing or reducing agent;

Causes first degree burns to skin in short time exposure, or is systematically toxic by skin contact; or

In the course of normal operations, may produce dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, mists, or smokes that have one or more of the above characteristics.

(1) No chemical product, such as a solvent or preservative; no structural material, such as cadmium or zinc coated steel, or plastic material; and no process material, such as welding filler metal; which is a hazardous material may be used until the employer has ascertained the potential fire, toxic, or reactivity hazards which are likely to be encountered in the handling, application, or utilization of such a material.

(2) In order to ascertain the hazards, as required by subsection (1) of this section, the employer shall obtain the following items of information which are applicable to a specific product or material to be used:

(a) The name, address, and telephone number of the source of the information specified in this section preferably those of the manufacturer of the product or material.

(b) The trade name and synonyms for a mixture of chemicals, a basic structural material, or for a process material; and the chemical name and synonyms, chemical family, and formula for a single chemical.

(c) Chemical names of hazardous ingredients, including, but not limited to, those in mixtures, such as those in: (i) Paints, preservatives, and solvents; (ii) alloys, metallic coatings, filler metals and their coatings or core fluxes; and (iii) other liquids, solids, or gases (e.g., abrasive materials).

(d) An indication of the percentage, by weight or volume, which each ingredient of a mixture bears to the whole mixture, and of the threshold limit value of each ingredient, in appropriate units.

(e) Physical data about a single chemical or a mixture of chemicals, including boiling point, in degrees Fahrenheit; vapor pressure, in millimeters of mercury; vapor density of gas or vapor (air=1); solubility in water, in percent by weight; specific gravity of material (water=1); percentage volatile, by volume, at 70F.; evaporation rate for liquids (either butyl acetate or ether may be taken as 1); and appearance and odor.

(f) Fire and explosion hazard data about a single chemical or a mixture of chemicals, including flashpoint, in degrees Fahrenheit; flammable limits, in percent by volume in air; suitable extinguishing media or agents; special fire fighting procedures; and unusual fire and explosion hazard information.

(g) Health hazard data, including threshold limit value, in appropriate units, for a single hazardous chemical or for the individual hazardous ingredients of a mixture as appropriate, effects of overexposure; and emergency and first aid procedures.

(h) Reactivity data, including stability, incompatibility, hazardous decomposition products, and hazardous polymerization.

(i) Procedures to be followed and precautions to be taken in cleaning up and disposing of materials leaked or spilled.

(j) Special protection information, including use of personal protective equipment, such as respirators, eye protection, and protective clothing, and of ventilation, such as local exhaust, general, special, or other types.

(k) Special precautionary information about handling and storing.

(l) Any other general precautionary information.

(3) The pertinent information required by subsection (2) of this section shall be recorded either on United States Department of Labor Form LSB 00S-4, Material Safety Data Sheet, or on an essentially similar form which has been approved by the department of labor and industries. Copies of Form LSB 00S-4 may be obtained at any of the following regional offices of the occupational safety and health administration:

(a) Pacific region. (Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada.)

10353 Federal Building, 450 Golden Gate Avenue, Box 36017, San Francisco, Calif. 94102.

(b) Region X, OSHA, (Alaska, Washington, Idaho, and Oregon), Federal Office Building, 909 First Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98174.

A completed MSDS form shall be preserved and available for inspection for each hazardous chemical on the worksite.

(4) The employer shall instruct employees who will be exposed to the hazardous materials as to the nature of the hazards and the means of avoiding them.

(5) The employer shall provide all necessary controls, and the employees shall be protected by suitable personal protective equipment against the hazards identified under subsection (1) of this section and those hazards for which specific precautions are required in WAC 296-304-020 through 296-304-04013.

(6) The employer shall provide adequate washing facilities for employees engaged in the application of paints or coatings or in other operations where contaminants can, by ingestion or absorption, be detrimental to the health of the employees. The employer shall encourage good personal hygiene practices by informing the employees of the need for removing surface contaminants by thorough washing of hands and face prior to eating or smoking.

(7) The employer shall not permit eating or smoking in areas undergoing surface preparation or preservation or where shiprepairing, shipbuilding, or shipbreaking operations produce atmospheric contamination.

(8) The employer shall not permit employees to work in the immediate vicinity of uncovered garbage and shall ensure that employees working beneath or on the outboard side of a vessel are not subject to contamination by drainage or waste from overboard discharges.

(9) Requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part C, hazard communication, will apply to shiprepairing, shipbuilding, and shipbreaking when potential hazards of chemicals and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective equipment is applicable to an operation.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-006, 296-304-06013, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), 296-304-06013, filed 7/6/88; Order 76-7, 296-304-06013, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-06013, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-25, filed 5/7/74)

WAC 296-304-07013 Qualifications of operators. (1) When ship's gear is used to hoist materials aboard, a competent person shall determine that the gear is properly rigged, that it is in safe condition, and that it will not be overloaded by the size and weight of the lift.

(2) Only those employees who understand the signs, notices, and operating instructions, and are familiar with the signal code in use, shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch, or other power operated hoisting apparatus.

(3) No employee known to have defective uncorrected eyesight or hearing, or to be suffering from heart disease, epilepsy, or similar ailments which may suddenly incapacitate him, shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch or other power operated hoisting apparatus.

(4) No minor under eighteen years of age shall be employed in occupations involving the operation of any power-driven hoisting apparatus or assisting in such operations by work such as hooking on, loading slings, rigging gear, etc.

TABLE E-1

dimensions and spacing of wood

independent-pole scaffold members

Light duty Heavy duty

(Up to 25 pounds (25 to 75 pounds

per square foot) per square foot)

Structural Height in feet Height in feet

Members

24 or 24 or

less 24-40 40-60 less 24-40 40-60

Poles or uprights (in

inches) 2x4 3x4 4x4 3x4 4x4 4x6

or

2x6

Bearers (in inches) 2x4 2x6 2x6 2x8 2x8 2x10

Ledgers (in inches) 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x8 2x8 2x8

Stringer (not support-

ing bearers) (in in-

ches) 1x6 1x6 1x6 1x6 1x6 1x6

Braces (in inches) 1x4 1x6 1x6 1x6 1x6 1x6

Pole spacing--longi-

tudinally (in feet) 7 1/2 7 1/2 7 1/2 7 7 7

Pole spacing--trans-

versely (in feet) 6 1/2 7 1/2 8 1/2 6 1/2 10 10

min min min

Ledger spacing--verti-

cally (in feet) 7 7 7 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2



TABLE E-2

specifications for side rails of ladders

Length Cross section

(in feet) (in inches)

At ends At center

15 1 7/8 x 2 3/4 1 7/8 x 3 3/4

16 1 7/8 x 2 3/4 1 7/8 x 3 3/4

17 1 7/8 x 3 1 7/8 x 4

18 1 7/8 x 3 1 7/8 x 4

20 1 7/8 x 3 1 7/8 x 4 1/2

24 1 7/8 x 3 1 7/8 x 4 1/2



TABLE E-3

specifications for the construction of horses

Height in feet

Structural

Members Up to 10 10 to 16 16 to 20

Inches Inches Inches

Legs 2x4 3x4 4x6

Bearers or headers 2x6 2x8 4x6

Crossbraces 2x4 2x4 2x6

or

1x8

Longitudinal braces 2x4 2x6 2x6



TABLE E-4

safe center loads for scaffold plank

of 1,100 pounds fibre stress

[Codification note: The graphic presentation of this table has been varied in order that it would fall within the printing specifications for the Washington Administrative Code. The following table had lumber dimensions in the table heading typed in vertically across the page while the remainder of the table was typed horizontally on the page. The "Span in Feet" materials (6 through 16) which ran top to bottom has been switched to run left to right on the page. The "Lumber dimensions in inches" which ran left to right on the page has been switched to run top to bottom on the page.]

Lumber Span in Feet

dimensions

in inches 6 8 10 12 14 16

A-2 x 10

B-1 5/8 x 9 1/2 256 192 153 128 110 ---

A-2 x 12

B-1 5/8 x 11 1/2 309 232 186 155 133 116

A-3 x 8

B-2 5/8 x 7 1/2 526 395 316 263 225 197

A-3 x 10

B-2 5/8 x 9 1/2 667 600 400 333 286 250

A-3 x 12

B-2 5/8 x 11 1/2 807 605 484 404 346 303

(A)--Rough lumber.

(B)--Dressed lumber.

TABLE G-1

manila rope

(in pounds or tons of 2000 pounds)

Single

Cir- Dia- Leg 60 45 30

cum- meter _______ _______ _______ _______

fer- in

ence Inches (illus.) (illus.) (illus.) (illus.)

3/4 1/4 120 lbs. 204 lbs. 170 lbs. 120 lbs.

1 5/16 200 346 282 200

1-1/8 3/8 270 467 380 270

1-1/4 7/16 350 605 493 350

1-3/8 15/32 450 775 635 450

1-1/2 1/2 530 915 798 530

1-3/4 9/16 690 1190 973 690

2 5/8 880 1520 1240 880

2-1/4 3/4 1080 1870 1520 1080

2-1/2 13/16 1300 2250 1830 1300

2-3/4 7/8 1540 2660 2170 1540

3 1 1800 3120 2540 1800

3-1/4 1-1/16 1.0 tons 1.7 tons 1.4 tons 1.0 tons

3-1/2 1-1/8 1.2 2.1 1.7 1.2

3-3/4 1-1/4 1.35 2.3 1.9 1.35

4 1-5/16 1.5 2.6 2.1 1.5

4-1/2 1-1/2 1.8 3.1 2.5 1.8

5 1-5/8 2.25 3.9 3.2 2.25

5-1/2 1-3/4 2.6 4.5 3.7 2.6

6 2 3.1 5.4 4.4 3.1

6-1/2 2-1/8 3.6 6.2 5.1 3.6



TABLE G-2

rated capacities for improved plow

steel, independent wire rope core,

wire rope and wire rope slings

(in tons of 2000 pounds)

single leg

Rope Vertical Choker

Dia.

Inches A B C A B C

6X19 CLASSIFICATION

1/4" .59 .56 .53 .44 .42 .40

3/8" 1.3 1.2 1.1 .98 .93 .86

1/2" 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.5

5/8" 3.6 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.2

3/4" 5.1 4.9 4.2 3.8 3.6 3.1

7/8" 6.9 6.6 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.1

1" 9.0 8.5 7.2 6.7 6.4 5.4

1- 1/8" 11.0 10.0 9.0 8.5 7.8 6.8

6X37 CLASSIFICATION

1- 1/4" 13. 12. 10. 9.9 9.2 7.9

1- 3/8" 16. 15. 13. 12. 11. 9.6

1- 1/2" 19. 17. 15. 14. 13. 11.

1- 3/4" 26. 24. 20. 19. 18. 15.

2" 33. 30. 26. 25. 23. 20.

2- 1/4" 41. 38. 33. 31. 29. 25.

(A) - Socket or swaged terminal attachment.

(B) - Mechanical sleeve attachment.

(C) - Hand tucked splice attachment.



TABLE G-3

rated capacities for

improved plow steel,

independent wire rope core,

wire rope slings

(in tons of 2000 pounds)

[Codification note: The graphic presentation of this table has been varied slightly in order that it would fall within the printing specifications for the Washington Administrative Code. The following table was too wide to be accommodated in the width of the WAC column. The table as codified has been divided into two tables covering the "TWO--LEG BRIDLE OR BASKET HITCH" for 6x19 Classification and for 6x37 Classification. Part One has Rope Diameter in Inches for Vertical and 60 within the two classifications. Part Two has Rope Diameter in Inches for 45 and 30 within the two classifications.]

two - leg bridle or basket hitch

(TABLE G-3: Part 1--Vertical and 60 Positions)





Rope Vertical 60 (illus.)

Dia.

Inches A B C A B C

6X19 CLASSIFICATION

1/4" 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0 .97 .92

3/8" 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.0

1/2" 4.6 4.4 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.4

5/8" 7.2 6.8 6.0 6.2 5.9 5.2

3/4" 10. 9.7 8.4 8.9 8.4 7.3

7/8" 14. 13. 11. 12. 11. 9.6

1" 18. 17. 14. 15. 15. 12.

1- 1/8" 23. 21. 18. 19. 18. 16.

6X37 CLASSIFICATION

1- 1/4" 26. 24. 21. 23. 21. 18.

1- 3/8" 32. 29. 25. 28. 25. 22.

1- 1/2" 38. 35. 30. 33. 30. 26.

1- 3/4" 51. 47. 41. 44. 41. 35.

2" 66. 61. 53. 57. 53. 46.

2- 1/4" 83. 76. 66. 72. 66. 57.



two - leg bridle or basket hitch

(TABLE G-3: Part 2--45 and 30 Positions)



Rope 45 (Illus.) 30 (illus.)

Dia.

Inches

A B C A B C

6X19 CLASSIFICATION

1/4" .83 .79 .75 .59 .56 .53

3/8" 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.1

1/2" 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.0

5/8" 5.1 4.8 4.2 3.6 3.4 3.0

3/4" 7.2 6.9 5.9 5.1 4.9 4.2

7/8" 9.8 9.3 7.8 6.9 6.6 5.5

1" 13. 12. 10. 9.0 8.5 7.2

1- 1/8" 16. 15. 13. 11. 10. 9.0

6X37 CLASSIFICATION

1- 1/4" 19. 17. 15. 13. 12. 10.

1- 3/8" 22. 21. 18. 16. 15. 13.

1- 1/2" 27. 25. 21. 19. 17. 15.

1- 3/4" 36. 33. 29. 26. 24. 20.

2" 47. 43. 37. 33. 30. 26.

2- 1/4" 58. 54. 47. 41. 38. 33.

(A) - Socket or swaged terminal attachment.

(B) - Mechanical sleeve attachment.

(C) - Hand tucked splice attachment.



TABLE G-4

rated capacities for

improved plow steel,

fiber core, wire rope and

wire rope slings

(in tons of 2000 pounds)

single leg

Rope Vertical Choker

Dia.

Inches A B C A B C

6X19 CLASSIFICATION

1/4 .55 .51 .49 .41 .38 .37

3/8 1.2 1.1 1.1 .91 .85 .80

1/2 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.4

5/8 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.1

3/4 4.8 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.3 2.9

7/8 6.4 5.9 5.1 4.8 4.5 3.9

1 8.4 7.7 6.7 6.3 5.8 5.0

1- 1/8 10. 9.5 8.4 7.9 7.1 6.3



6X37 CLASSIFICATION

1- 1/4 12. 11. 9.8 9.2 8.3 7.4

1- 3/8 15. 13. 12. 11. 10. 8.9

1- 1/2 17. 16. 14. 13. 12. 10.

1- 3/4 24. 21. 19. 18. 16. 14.

2 31. 28. 25. 23. 21. 18.

(A) - Socket or swaged terminal attachment.

(B) - Mechanical sleeve attachment.

(C) - Hand tucked splice attachment.



TABLE G-5

rated capacities for improved plow

steel, fiber core, wire rope slings

(in tons of 2000 pounds)

[Codification note: The graphic presentation of this table has been varied slightly in order that it would fall within the printing specifications for the Washington Administrative Code. The following table was too wide to be accommodated in the width of the WAC column. The table as codified has been divided into two tables covering the "TWO - LEG BRIDLE OR BASKET HITCH" for 6x19 Classification and for 6x37 Classification. Part One has Rope Diameter in Inches for Vertical and 60 within the two classifications. Part Two has Rope Diameter in Inches for 45 and 30 within the two classifications.]

two - leg bridle or basket hitch

(TABLE G-5: Part 1--Vertical and 60 Positions)



Rope Vertical 60 (Illus.)

Dia.

Inches

A B C A B C

6X19 CLASSIFICATION1EC

1/4 1.1 1.0 .99 .95 .88 .85

3/8 2.4 2.2 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.8

1/2 4.3 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.2

5/8 6.7 6.2 5.6 5.8 5.3 4.8

3/4 9.5 8.8 7.8 8.2 7.6 6.8

7/8 13. 12. 10. 11. 10. 8.9

1 17. 15. 13. 14. 13. 11.

1- 1/8 21. 19. 17. 18. 16. 14.

6X37 CLASSIFICATION

1- 1/4 25. 22. 20. 21. 19. 17.

1- 3/8 30. 27. 24. 26. 23. 20.

1- 1/2 35. 23. 28. 30. 27. 24.

1- 3/4 48. 43. 38. 41. 37. 33.

2 62. 55. 49. 53. 48. 43.



two - leg bridle or basket hitch

(TABLE G-5: Part 2--45 and 30 Positions)



Rope 45 (Illus.) 30 (Illus.)

Dia.

Inches

A B C A B C

6X19 CLASSIFICATION

1/4 .77 .72 .70 .55 .51 .49

3/8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.1

1/2 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.1 2.0 1.8

5/8 4.7 4.4 4.0 3.3 3.1 2.8

3/4 6.7 6.2 5.5 4.8 4.4 3.9

7/8 9.1 8.4 7.3 6.4 5.9 5.1

1 12. 11. 9.4 8.4 7.7 6.7

1- 1/8 15. 13. 12. 10. 9.5 8.4

6X37 CLASSIFICATION

1-1/4 17. 16. 14. 12. 11. 9.8

1-3/8 21. 19. 17. 15. 13. 12.

1-1/2 25. 22. 20. 17. 16. 14.

1-3/4 34. 30. 27. 24. 21. 19.

2 43. 39. 35. 31. 28. 25.

(A) - Socket or swaged terminal attachment.

(B) - Mechanical sleeve attachment.

(C) - Hand tucked splice attachment.



TABLE G-6

number and spacing of u-bolt wire

rope clips

Number of Clips

Improved

plow

steel rope Minimum

diameter Drop Other spacing

inches forged material (inches)

* ... ...

1/2 3 4 3

5/8 3 4 3 3/4

3/4 4 5 4 1/2

7/8 4 5 5 1/4

1 4 6 6

1 1/8 5 6 6 3/4

1 1/4 5 7 7 1/2

1 3/8 6 7 8 1/4

1 1/2 6 8 9

* Three clips shall be used on wire size less than 1/2-inch diameter.

TABLE G-7

wrought iron chain

(in pounds or tons of 2000 pounds)

Nominal Single 60 45 30

Size Leg

Chain

Stock (illus.) (illus.) (illus.) (illus.)

Inch

* 1/4 1060 1835 1500 1060

* 5/16 1655 2865 2340 1655

3/8 2385 2.1 3370 2385

* 7/16 3250 2.8 2.3 3250

1/2 12.1 13.7 13.0 12.1

* 9/16 12.7 14.6 13.8 12.7

5/8 13.3 15.7 14.7 13.3

3/4 14.8 18.3 16.7 14.8

7/8 16.5 11.2 19.2 16.5

1 18.5 14.7 12.0 18.5

1- 1/8 10.0 17.3 14.2 10.0

1- 1/4 12.4 21.4 17.5 12.4

1- 3/8 15.0 25.9 21.1 15.0

1- 1/2 17.8 30.8 25.2 17.8

1- 5/8 20.9 36.2 29.5 20.9

1- 3/4 24.2 42.0 34.3 24.2

1- 7/8 27.6 47.9 39.1 27.6

2 31.6 54.8 44.8 31.6

* These sizes of wrought iron chain are no longer manufactured in the United States.

TABLE G-8

alloy steel chain

(in tons of 2000 pounds)

Nominal Single 60 45 30

Size Leg

Chain

Stock (illus.) (illus.) (illus.) (illus.)

Inch

1/4 1.62 2.82 2.27 1.62

3/8 3.30 5.70 4.65 3.30

1/2 5.62 9.75 7.90 5.62

5/8 8.25 14.25 11.65 8.25

3/4 11.5 19.9 16.2 11.5

7/8 14.3 24.9 20.3 14.3

1 19.3 33.4 27.3 19.8

1- 1/8 22.2 38.5 31.5 22.2

1- 1/4 28.7 49.7 40.5 28.7

1- 3/8 33.5 58.0 47.0 33.5

1- 1/2 39.7 68.5 56.0 39.7

1- 5/8 42.5 73.5 59.5 42.5

1- 3/4 47.0 81.5 62.0 47.0



TABLE G-9

maximum allowable wear at

any point of link

Maximum

allowable

wear in

Chain size fraction

in inches of inches

1/4 (9/32) 3/64

3/8 5/64

1/2 7/64

5/8 9/64

3/4 5/32

7/8 1 1/64

1 3/16

1 1/8 7/32

1 1/4 1/4

1 3/8 9/32

1 1/2 5/16

1 3/4 1 1/32

TABLE G-10

safe working loads for shackles

(in tons of 2,000 pounds)

Material Pin Safe

size diameter working

(inches) (inches) load

1/2 5/8 1.4

5/8 3/4 2.2

3/4 7/8 3.2

7/8 1 4.3

1 1 1/8 5.6

1 1/8 1 1/4 6.7

1 1/4 1 3/8 8.2

1 3/8 1 1/2 10.0

1 1/2 1 5/8 11.9

1 3/4 2 16.2

2 2 1/4 21.2

((TABLE I-1

filter lenses for protection against

radiant energy

Operation Shade No.

Soldering 2

Torch brazing 3 or 4

Light cutting, up to 1 inch 3 or 4

Medium cutting, 1-6 inches 4 or 5

Light gas welding, up to 1/8 inch 4 or 5

Medium gas welding 1/8-1/2 inch 5 or 6

Heavy gas welding, over 1/2 inch 6 or 8

Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16- to 5/32-inch

electrodes 10

Inert-gas metal-arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16- to

5/32-inch electrodes 11

Inert-gas metal-arc welding (ferrous) 1/16- to

5/32-inch electrodes 12

Shielded metal-arc welding:

3/16- to 1/4-inch electrodes 12

5/16- and 3/8-inch electrodes 14

Atomic hydrogen welding 10 to 14

Carbon arc welding 14

))

Table I-1A

filter lenses for protection against radiant energy

MINIMUM

OPERATIONS ELECTRODE ARC PROTECTIVE

SIZE 1/32 IN CURRENT SHADE

Less than 3 Less than 60 7

Shielded metal arc welding 3-5 60-160 8

5-8 160-250 10

More than 8 250-550 11

Less than 60 7

60-160 10

Gas metal arc welding and 160-250 10

flux cored arc welding 250-550 10

Less than 50 8

Gas Tungsten arc welding 50-150 8

150-500 10

(Light) Less than 500 10

Air carbon arc cutting (Heavy) 500-1000 11

Less than 20 6

20-100 8

Plasma arc welding 100-400 10

400-800 11

(Light)** Less than 300 8

Plasma arc cutting (Medium)** 300-400 9

(Heavy)** 400-800 10

Torch brazing -- -- 3

Torch soldering -- -- 2

Carbon Arc welding -- -- 14



** These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workplace.

Table I-1B

filter lenses for protection against radiant energy

PLATE PLATE MINIMUM*

OPERATIONS THICKNESS... THICKNESS... PROTECTIVE

INCHES MM SHADE

Gas welding

Light Under 1/8 Under 3.2 4

Medium 1/8 - 1/2 3.2 - 12.7 5

Heavy Over 1/2 Over 12.7 6

Oxygen cutting

Light Under 1 Under 25 3

Medium 1 - 6 25 - 100 4

Heavy Over 6 Over 150 5



*As rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the viable light of the (spectrum) operation.

[Order 74-25, 296-304-07013, filed 5/7/74.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-25, filed 5/7/74)

WAC 296-304-08007 Abrasive wheels. (1) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall be not more than 90 degrees, except that when work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the angular exposure shall not exceed 125 degrees. In either case the exposure shall begin not more than 65 degrees above the horizontal plane of the spindle. Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a bursting wheel.

(2) Floor and bench mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Such work rests shall be kept a distance not to exceed 1/8 inch from the surface of the wheel.

(3) Cup type wheels use for external grinding shall be protected by either a revolving cup guard or a band type guard in accordance with the provisions of the United States of American Standard Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1.1970. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the requirements of (5) of this section, except as follows:

(a) When the work location makes it impossible, in which case a wheel equipped with safety flanges as described in (6) of this section shall be used.

(b) When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.

(4) Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided with safety flanges (protection flanges) meeting the requirements of (6) of this section, except as follows:

(a) When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.

(b) If the wheel is entirely within the work being ground while in use.

(5) When safety guards are required, they shall be so mounted as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the guard and its fastenings shall be of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the wheel in case of accidental breakage. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180 degrees.

(6) When safety flanges are required, they shall be used only with wheels designed to fit the flanges. Only safety flanges of a type and design and properly assembled so as to insure that the pieces of the wheel will be retained in case of accidental breakage shall be used.

(7) All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects.

(8) Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place.

(9) The power supply shall be sufficient to maintain the rated spindle speed under all conditions of normal grinding. The rated maximum speed of the wheel shall not be exceeded.

(10) ((All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment in accordance with requirements of WAC 296-304-09001 (1) and (2), except when adequate eye protection is afforded by eye shields which are permanently attached to the bench or floor stand.)) The employer must ensure that all employees using abrasive wheels are protected by eye protection equipment that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2), except when adequate eye protection is provided by eye shields permanently attached to the bench or floor stand.

[Order 74-25, 296-304-08007, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-006, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95)

WAC 296-304-08009 Powder-actuated fastening tools. ((Powder actuated fastening tool operators shall comply with; and tools shall be designed, constructed, maintained and used in accordance with the requirements specified in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part H-1, general safety and health standards.)) (1) The employer must ensure powder-actuated fastening tools are used, designed, constructed, and maintained according to the requirements of WAC 296-24-663, Safety requirements for powder-actuated fastening systems.

(2) The employer must ensure that employees using powder-actuated fastening tools are protected by personal protective equipment that meets the requirements of WAC 296-304-09005 (1) and (2). The employer must also meet the hearing conservation requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part K.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-006, 296-304-08009, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/10/95; Order 76-7, 296-304-08009, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-08009, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-25, filed 5/7/74)

WAC 296-304-090 Personal protective equipment((--Scope and application)) (PPE)--General requirements. ((All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-304-090 in the section number apply to personal protective equipment.)) The employer must provide and ensure that an affected employee uses the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing, protective shields, hearing protection, protective barriers, personal fall protection equipment, and life saving equipment, wherever the employee is exposed to hazards that require the use of PPE.

[Order 74-25, 296-304-090, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 76-7, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-304-09001 ((Eye protection.)) Hazard assessment and equipment selection. (((1) General precautions.

(a) All eye protection equipment required by these regulations shall meet the specifications prescribed by the American Standard Safety Code for Head, Eye and Respiratory Protection, Z2.1.

(b) Eye protection equipment shall be maintained in good condition.

(c) Eye protection equipment which has previously been used shall be cleaned and disinfected before it is issued by the employer to another employee.

(d) Employees who wear corrective spectacles while engaged in eye hazardous work shall be protected by eye protection equipment of a type which can be worn over personal spectacles, except that glasses with prescription ground safety lenses may be worn in lieu of cover goggles when such glasses provide suitable protection against the hazard involved.

(2) Protection against impact.

(i) In any operations such as chipping, caulking, drilling, riveting, grinding, and pouring babbitt metal, in which the eye hazard of flying particles, molten metal, or liquid chemical exists, employees shall be protected by suitable face shields or goggles meeting the requirements of (1) of this section.

(3) Protection against radiant energy.

(a) In any operation in which the eye hazard of injurious light rays or other radiant energy exists, depending upon the intensity of the radiation to which employees are exposed, they shall be protected by spectacles, cup goggles, helmets, hand shields, or face shields equipped with filter lenses meeting the requirements of (1) and (3)(b) of this section.

(b) Filter lenses shall be of a shade number appropriate to the type of work to be performed as indicated in Table I-1 in WAC 296-304-07011, except that variations of one or two shade numbers are permissible to suit individual preferences.

(c) If filter lenses are used in the goggles worn under the helmet, the shade number of the lens in the helmet may be reduced so that the sum of the shade numbers of the two lenses will equal the value shown in Table I-1 in WAC 296-304-07011.)) (1) The employer must assess its work activity to determine if hazards that require the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) are present, or are likely to be present.

(a) If such hazards are present, or likely to be present, the employer must:

(i) Select, and require an affected employee to use, PPE that will protect the employee from the hazards identified in the hazard assessment;

(ii) Inform the affected employee what types of PPE to use;

(iii) Select PPE that properly fits the affected employee; and

(iv) Verify that the hazard assessment has been performed through a document that contains the following information:

Work activity evaluated;

Occupation;

Date(s) of the hazard assessment; and

The name of the person performing the hazard assessment.

(b) The employer must conduct a hazard assessment according to the trade or occupation of affected employees, and the assessment must address all PPE-related hazards to which employees are exposed in the course of their work activities.

(2) The employer must ensure that employees do not use defective or damaged PPE.

(3) The employer must ensure that all unsanitary PPE, including all previously used PPE, is cleaned and disinfected before it is reissued.

[Order 76-7, 296-304-09001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-09001, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 93-04, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93)

WAC 296-304-09003 ((Respiratory protection.)) Training. ((The respiratory protection requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC Part E, shall apply.)) The employer must provide training to each employee for whom PPE is required by this section.

(1) Each employee whose work activities require the use of PPE must be trained to know at least the following:

(a) When PPE is necessary;

(b) What PPE is necessary;

(c) How to properly put on, take off, adjust, and wear PPE;

(d) The limitations of the PPE; and

(e) The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.

(2) The employer must ensure that each affected employee demonstrates the ability to use PPE properly before being allowed to perform work where its use is required.

(3) The employer must retrain any employee who does not understand or display the skills required by subsection (1) of this section. Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:

(a) Changes in occupation or work make previous training obsolete; or

(b) Changes in the types of PPE to be used make previous training obsolete; or

(c) Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of assigned PPE indicate that the employee has not retained the understanding or skill.

(4) The employer must verify that each affected employee has received the required training through a document that contains the following information:

(a) Name of each employee trained;

(b) Date(s) of training; and

(c) Type of training the employee received.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), 296-304-09003, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), 296-304-09003, filed 11/30/83; Order 74-25, 296-304-09003, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-25, filed 5/7/74)

WAC 296-304-09005 ((Head, foot and body)) Eye and face protection. (1) ((When employees are working in areas where there is danger of falling objects they shall be protected by protective hats.

(2) Protective hats shall meet the specifications contained in the United States of America Standard Safety Code for Head, Eye, and Respiratory Protection, Z89.1-1969. Hats without dielectric strength shall not be used where there is the possibility of contact with electric conductors.

(3) Protective hats which have been previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before they are issued by the employer to another employee.

(4) The employer shall arrange through means, such as vendors or local stores, or otherwise, to make safety shoes readily available to all employees, and shall encourage their use. Metal toe caps from which the covering has been worn shall be insulated when employees are working on exposed energized circuits of the vessel's electrical systems.

(5) Employees shall not be permitted to wear excessively greasy clothing when performing hot work operations.

(6) Employees shall be protected by suitable gloves when engaged in operations hazardous to their hands.)) The employer must provide an affected employee with eye and face protection according to the following requirements:

(a) An affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection when exposed to eye or face hazards caused by flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acid or caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation.

(b) An affected employee uses eye or face protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. A detachable side protector (e.g., a clip-on or slide-on side shield) that meets the requirements of this section is acceptable.

(c) An affected employee who wears prescription lenses:

Uses eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design; or

Is protected by eye protection that can be worn over prescription lenses without disturbing the proper position of either the PPE or the prescription lenses.

(d) An affected employee uses equipment with filter lenses of a shade that provides appropriate protection from injurious light radiation. Tables I-1A and I-1B lists the appropriate shade numbers for various operations. If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under a helmet with a lens, the shade number of the lens in the helmet may be reduced so that the shade numbers of the two lenses will equal the value shown in the Tables I-1A and I-1B.

(2) The employer must ensure that all protective eye and face devices meet the following criteria:

(a) Protective eye and face devices purchased after February 20, 1995, comply with the American National Standards Institute, ANSI Z87.1-1989, "Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection," or the employer demonstrates that the devices are equally effective.

(b) Eye and face protective devices purchased before February 20, 1995, comply with "American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, Z87.1-1979," or the employer demonstrates that the devices are equally effective.

[Order 74-25, 296-304-09005, filed 5/7/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 76-7, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-304-09007 ((Lifesaving equipment.)) Respiratory protection. (((1) Personal flotation devices.

(a) Any personal flotation device shall be approved by the U.S. Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD, or Type V PFD, or their equivalent, pursuant to 46 CFR 160 (Coast Guard Table of Devices Equivalent to Personal Flotation Devices.)

(b) Prior to each use, personal flotation devices shall be inspected for dry rot, chemical damage, or other defects which may affect their strength and buoyancy. Defective personal flotation devices shall not be used.

(2) Safety belts and lifelines.

(a) Safety belts shall be equipped with lifelines which in use are secured with a minimum of slack to a fixed structure.

(b) Prior to each use, belts and lifelines shall be inspected for dry rot, chemical damage, or other defects which may affect their strength. Defective belts and lifelines shall not be used.

(c) When employees are working in any location requiring a safety belt and a lifeline, care shall be exercised to ensure that the lifeline is not cut, pinched, or led over a sharp edge. In hot work operations or those involving the use of acids, solvents, or caustics, the line shall be kept clear to avoid its being burned or weakened. In order to keep the lifeline continuously attached with a minimum of slack to a fixed structure the attachment point of the lifeline shall be appropriately changed as the work progresses.

(3) Life rings and ladders.

(a) At least three 30 inch Coast Guard approved life rings with lines attached shall be kept in easily visible and readily accessible places aboard each vessel afloat on which work is being performed. Life rings shall be located, one forward, one aft, and one on the gangway, except on vessels under 200 feet in length, in which case one at the gangway will be sufficient.

(b) At least one life ring with a line attached shall be located on each staging float alongside a vessel on which work is being performed.

(c) At least 90 feet of line shall be attached to each life ring. Life rings and lines shall be maintained in good condition.

(d) In the vicinity of each vessel afloat on which work is being performed there shall be at least one portable or permanent ladder of sufficient length to assist employees to reach safety in the event that they fall into the water.)) The employer must provide respiratory protection that meets the requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

[Order 76-7, 296-304-09007, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, 296-304-09007, filed 5/7/74.]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09009 Hearing protection. The employer must meet the hearing conservation requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part K.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09011 Head protection. (1) The employer must provide an affected employee with head protection according to the following requirements:

(a) An affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head.

(b) An affected employee wears a protective helmet designed to reduce electrical shock hazards where there is potential for electric shock or burns from contact with exposed electrical conductors that could contact the head.

(2) The employer must ensure that all protective helmets meet the following criteria:

(a) Protective helmets purchased before February 20, 1995, comply with the "American National Standard Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection, Z89.1-1969," or the employer demonstrates that they are equally effective.

(b) Protective helmets purchased after February 20, 1995, comply with ANSI Z89.1-1986, "Personnel Protection--Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements," or the employer demonstrates that they are equally effective.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09013 Foot protection. (1) The employer must ensure that an affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where:

There is a danger of foot injuries from falling or rolling objects;

There is a danger of foot injuries from objects piercing the sole; or

Where an employee's feet are exposed to electrical hazards.

(2) The employer must ensure that all protective footwear meets the following criteria:

(a) Protective footwear purchased before February 20, 1995, complies with the ANSI standard "USA Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear," ANSI Z41-1983, or the employer demonstrates that footwear is equally effective.

(b) Protective footwear purchased after February 20, 1995, complies with ANSI Z41-1991, "American National Standard for Personal Protection--Protective Footwear," or the employer demonstrates that footwear is equally effective.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09015 Hand and body protection. The employer must ensure that an affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to hazards such as:

Skin absorption of harmful substances;

Severe cuts or lacerations;

Severe abrasions;

Punctures;

Chemical burns;

Thermal burns;

Harmful temperature extremes; and

Sharp objects.

(1) Hot work operations. The employer must ensure that an employee's clothing is free from flammable or combustible materials (such as grease or oil) while engaged in hot work operations or working near an ignition or oxygen source.

(2) Electrical protective devices. The employer must ensure that each affected employee wears protective electrical insulating gloves and sleeves or other electrical protective equipment, if that employee is exposed to electrical shock hazards while working on electrical equipment.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09017 Lifesaving equipment. (1) Personal flotation devices (PFD).

(a) The employer must ensure that each personal flotation device (life preservers, life jackets and work vests) worn by an affected employee is:

United States Coast Guard (USCG) approved and marked Type I PFD, Type II PFD, or Type III PFD; or

USCG approved Type V PFD, marked for use as a work vest, for commercial use, or for use on vessels.

Note: The requirements for USCG approval are in 46 CFR Part 160, Subpart Q, Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications.

(b) The employer must ensure that each personal flotation device is inspected before use for dry rot, chemical damage, or other defects that may affect its strength and buoyancy. Defective personal floatation devices shall not be used.

(2) Ring life buoys and ladders.

(a) The employer must ensure that when work is performed on a floating vessel 200 feet (61 m) or more in length, at least three 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoys with lines attached are located in readily visible and accessible places. Ring life buoys must be located one forward, one aft, and one at the access to the gangway.

(b) On floating vessels under 200 feet (61 m) in length, at least one 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoy with line attached must be located at the gangway.

(c) At least one 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoy with a line attached must be located on each staging alongside of a floating vessel on which work is performed.

(d) At least 90 feet (27 m) of line must be attached to each ring life buoy.

(e) There must be at least one portable or permanent ladder near each floating vessel on which work is performed. The ladder must be long enough to help an employee reach safety in the event of a fall into the water.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09019 Fall protection--General requirement. The employer must provide and ensure the use of fall protection when employees work aloft or elsewhere at elevations more than 5 feet above a solid surface.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09021 Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). Personal fall arrest systems must meet the requirements of this section.

(1) The employer must ensure that connectors and anchorages meet the following criteria:

(a) Connectors are made of drop forged, pressed, or formed steel or of materials with equivalent strength.

(b) Connectors have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges are smooth to prevent damage to the interfacing parts of the system.

(c) D-rings and snaphooks can sustain a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn).

(d) D-rings and snaphooks are proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 Kn) without cracking, breaking, or being permanently deformed.

(e) Snaphooks lock and are designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snaphook by contact of the snaphook keeper with the connected part.

(f) On suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms with horizontal lifelines that may become vertical lifelines, the devices used for connection to the horizontal lifeline can lock in any direction on the lifeline.

(g) Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment are independent of any anchorage used to support or suspend platforms.

(h) Anchorages can support at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn) per employee attached, or are designed, installed, and used as follows:

(i) As part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two; and

(ii) Under the direction and supervision of a qualified person.

(2) The employer must ensure that lifelines, lanyards, and personal fall arrest systems meet the following criteria:

(a) When vertical lifelines are used, each employee has a separate lifeline.

(b) Vertical lifelines and lanyards have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn).

(c) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distances to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less can sustain a minimum tensile load of 3000 pounds (13.3 Kn) applied to a self-retracting lifeline or lanyard with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.

(d) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which do not limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, ripstitch lanyards and tearing and deforming lanyards can sustain a minimum static tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn) applied to the device when they are in the fully extended position.

(e) Horizontal lifelines are designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, and only used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two.

Note: The system strength needs below are based on a maximum combined weight of employee and tools of 310 pounds. If combined weight is more than 310 pounds, appropriate allowances must be made or the system will not be in compliance.

(f) Effective April 20, 1998, the employer must ensure that personal fall arrest systems:

(i) Limit the maximum arresting force on a falling employee to 1,800 pounds (8 Kn) when used with a body harness;

(ii) Bring a falling employee to a complete stop and limit the maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m); and

(iii) Are strong enough to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.

(g) The employer must ensure that personal fall arrest systems are rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor contact any lower level.

(3) The employer must select, use, and care for systems and system components according to the following requirements:

(a) Lanyards are attached to employees using personal fall arrest systems, as follows:

(i) The attachment point of a body harness is in the center of the wearer's back near the shoulder level, or above the wearer's head. If the maximum free fall distance is 20 inches, the attachment point may be located in the chest position; and

(ii) The attachment point of a body belt is in the center of the wearer's back.

(b) Ropes and straps (webbing) used in lanyards, lifelines and strength components of body belts and body harnesses are made from synthetic fibers or wire rope.

(c) Ropes, belts, harnesses, and lanyards are compatible with their hardware.

(d) Lifelines and lanyards are protected against cuts, abrasions, burns from hot work operations and deterioration by acids, solvents, and other chemicals.

(e) Personal fall arrest systems are inspected before each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components are removed from service.

(f) Personal fall arrest systems and components subjected to impact loading are immediately removed from service and not used again for employee protection until inspected and determined by a qualified persons to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.

(g) The employer must provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or must ensure that employees are able to rescue themselves.

(h) Body belts are at least one and five eights inches (4.1 cm) wide.

(i) Personal fall arrest systems and components are used only for employee fall protection and not to hoist materials.

(4) Training. Before using personal fall arrest equipment, the employer must ensure that each affected employee is trained to understand the application limits of the equipment and proper hook-up, anchoring, and tie-off techniques. Affected employees must also be trained to demonstrate the proper use, inspection, and storage of their equipment.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-304-09023 Positioning device systems. The employer must ensure that positioning device systems and their use meet the requirements of this section.

(1) The employer must ensure that connectors and anchorages meet the following criteria:

(a) Connectors have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges are smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of this system.

(b) Connecting assemblies have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 Kn).

(c) Positioning device systems are secured to an anchorage that can support at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall.

(d) Only locking type snaphooks are used in positioning device systems.

(2) The employer must ensure that positioning device systems meet the following criteria:

(a) Restraint (tether) lines have a minimum breaking strength of 3,000 pounds (13.3 Kn).

(b) Beginning April 20, 1998, the following system performance criteria for positioning device systems are met:

(i) A window cleaner's positioning system can withstand without failure, a drop test consisting of a 6-foot (1.83 m) drop of a 250-pound (113 kg) weight. The system limits the initial arresting force to a maximum of 2,000 pounds (8.89 Kn), with a maximum duration of 2 milliseconds. The system limits any subsequent arresting forces imposed on the falling employee to a maximum of 1,000 pounds (4.45 Kn);

(ii) All other positioning device systems can withstand without failure a drop test consisting of a 4-foot (1.2 m) drop of a 250-pound (113 kg) weight.

(3) The employer must ensure that a positioning device system is used and cared for according to the following requirements:

(a) Positioning device systems are inspected before each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components are removed from service.

(b) A positioning device system or component subjected to impact loading is immediately removed from service and not used again for employee protection, unless inspected and determined by a qualified person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.

(4) Training. Before using a positioning device system, the employer must ensure that employees are trained in the application limits, proper hook-up, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use, inspection, and storage of positioning device systems.

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