WSR 99-07-027

PERMANENT RULES

SOUTHWEST AIR

POLLUTION CONTROL AUTHORITY

[ Filed March 10, 1999, 10:17 a.m. ]

Date of Adoption: October 15, 1998.

Purpose: These rules were approved by the SWAPCA board of directors under Board Resolution 1998-8 dated October 15, 1998.

Title of Rule - SWAPCA 400 - General Regulations for Air Pollution Sources.

Sections:

SWAPCA 400-030 Definitions, the purpose of this section is to provide definitions for commonly used words or phrases in the rest of the regulation.

SWAPCA 400-040 General Standards for Maximum Emissions, the purpose of this section is to provide a minimum set of air emission standards for all sources.

SWAPCA 400-052 Stack Sampling of Major Combustion Sources, the purpose of this section is to provide a minimum set of air emission standards for sampling emissions from major combustion sources.

SWAPCA 400-060 Emission Standards for General Process Units, the purpose of this section is to provide a minimum set of air emission standards for general process units.

SWAPCA 400-070 Emission Standards for Certain Source Categories, the purpose of this section is to provide a minimum set of air emission standards for sampling emissions from certain defined source categories and activities.

SWAPCA 400-075 Emission Standards for Sources Emitting Hazardous Air Pollutants, the purpose of this section is to adopt by reference the federal standards relating to hazardous air pollutant standards referred to generally as the MACT standards.

SWAPCA 400-076 Emission Standards for Sources Emitting Toxic Air Pollutants, the purpose of this section is to provide a reference to the toxic air pollutant rule and describe the permitting process.

SWAPCA 400-091 Voluntary Limits on Emissions, the purpose of this section is to provide a mechanism and process for sources to request a voluntary limit on emissions from their sources.

Summary of Sections:

SWAPCA 400-030 Definitions - this section is the placeholder for definitions of words and phrases used throughout SWAPCA 400. Most definitions are identical to the federal definitions.

SWAPCA 400-040 General Standards for Maximum Emissions - this section contains the visible emission standard of 20% opacity, and other limits for fallout, fugitive emissions, odors, emissions detrimental to persons or property, sulfur dioxide, concealment and masking and fugitive dust sources.

SWAPCA 400-052 Stack Sampling of Major Combustion Sources - this section contains requirements for stack sampling of major combustion sources every two years to assist with preparation of the emission inventory which is submitted to EPA each year by SWAPCA.

SWAPCA 400-060 Emission Standards for General Process Units - this section identifies the maximum emission standard of 0.1 grains per dry standard cubic feet of exhaust gas for any general process operation.

SWAPCA 400-070 Emission Standards for Certain Source Categories - this section [provides] additional emission standards and requirements for certain source categories including wigwam burners, hog fuel boilers, orchard heaters, catalytic cracking units, sulfuric acid plants, gasoline dispensing facilities, dry cleaning facilities and abrasive blasting operations.

SWAPCA 400-075 Emission Standards for Sources Emitting Hazardous Air Pollutants - this section adopts the federal standards for sources emitting hazardous air pollutants contained in 40 CFR part 61 and part 63 by reference (MACT standards) as requirements for sources in SWAPCA jurisdiction for local implementation and enforcement.

SWAPCA 400-076 Emission Standards for Sources Emitting Toxic Air Pollutants - this section describes general requirements for toxic pollutant emission sources and provides a reference to the toxics rule chapter 173-460 WAC which is adopted by reference by SWAPCA under separate rule making.

SWAPCA 400-091 Voluntary Limits on Emissions - this section provides the authority and describes the process for a source to request a voluntary limit on emissions. This section provides the ability to have a federally enforceable emission limit to keep out of the Title 5 Operating Permit program.

Short Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects and Changes:

SWAPCA 400-030 Definitions - this is an existing section. Proposed changes include adding more language to the definition of "air contaminant" to include "criteria pollutant"; updating dates of adoption for references to existing federal rules; adding a new definition for "PM2.5" and "pollutant"; and adding additional substances to the exempt list of items for the definition of "volatile organic compound" consistent with the federal definition.

SWAPCA 400-040 General Standards for Maximum Emissions - this is an existing section. The proposed change is to add reference to a proposed method (SWAPCA Method 9 as an attachment to SWAPCA 400) for determining visible emissions. The method is similar to EPA Method 9 but contains the Washington state standard for data reduction. In addition, SWAPCA is proposing to delete the exemption for sources which are not capable of meeting the state standard for sulfur dioxide. Currently all sources in SWAPCA jurisdiction are capable of meeting the state standard.

SWAPCA 400-052 Stack Sampling of Major Combustion Sources - this is an existing rule. The proposed change is to add reference to SWAPCA 400-106 which contains requirements on how to perform emissions sampling.

SWAPCA 400-060 Emission Standards for General Process Units - this is an existing rule. The proposed change is to update the adoption date of the federal standard for source testing methods.

SWAPCA 400-070 Emission Standards for Certain Source Categories - this is an existing rule. The proposed changes are to remove reference to SWAPCA 400-110(8) for gasoline dispensing facilities because this section is proposed to be removed from the rules, and to adopt a new rule for dry cleaning operations to be consistent with the existing federal requirements.

SWAPCA 400-075 Emission Standards for Sources Emitting Hazardous Air Pollutants - This is an existing rule. The proposed changes include updating the adoption date of the federal standards for hazardous air pollutants and include source categories for which new federal standards have been promulgated.

SWAPCA 400-076 Emission Standards for Sources Emitting Toxic Air Pollutants - This is an existing rule. The proposed changes are to change the reference from SWAPCA 460 to chapter 173-460 WAC to be more precise about the adoption status by SWAPCA of the existing state rule.

SWAPCA 400-091 Voluntary Limits on Emissions - this is an existing rule. The proposed change is to add language to clarify that a voluntary limit may be requested for a process parameter of throughput in addition to emissions of air pollutants.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: See Purpose above.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 70.94.141.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 98-15-142 on July 22, 1998.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 4, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 5, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 6, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0. Effective Date of Rule: Thirty-one days after filing.

March 3, 1999

Robert D. Elliott

Executive Director

AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-030 Definitions

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.030 RCW, 70.94.141 RCW and 70.94.331 RCW. Original adoption by Board 12/17/68 (Regulation 1); Amended by Board 10/29/69 (Regulation 2); Amended by Board 3/20/84; Amended by Board 12/16/86; 93-21-003 filed 10/7/93, effective 11/8/93; 95-17-084 filed 8/21/95, effective 9/21/95]


Except as provided elsewhere in this regulation the following definitions apply throughout the regulation:

(1) "Actual emissions" means the actual rate of emissions of a pollutant from an emission unit, as determined in accordance with (a) through (c) of this subsection.

(a) In general, actual emissions as of a particular date shall equal the average rate, in tons per year, at which the emissions unit actually emitted the pollutant during a two-year period which precedes the particular date and which is representative of normal source operation. The Authority shall allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation. Actual emissions shall be calculated using the emissions unit's actual operating hours, production rates, and types of materials processed, stored, or combusted during the selected time period.

(b) The Authority may presume that source specific allowable emissions for the unit are equivalent to the actual emissions of the emissions unit.

(c) For any emissions unit which has not begun normal operations on the particular date, actual emissions shall equal the potential to emit of the emissions unit on that date.

(2) "Adverse impact on visibility" means visibility impairment which interferes with the management, protection, preservation, or enjoyment of the visitor's visual experience of a Federal Class I area. This determination must be made on a case-by-case basis taking into account the geographic extent, intensity, duration, frequency, and time of visibility impairment, and how these factors correlate with (a) times of visitor use of the Federal Class I area and (b) the frequency and timing of natural conditions that reduce visibility. This term does not include effects on integral vistas.

(3) "Air contaminant" means dust, fumes, mist, smoke, other particulate matter, vapor, gas, odorous substance, or any combination thereof. This includes any substance regulated as an air pollutant under WAC 173-460, NESHAPS, Section 112 of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments or substance for which a primary or secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard has been established and volatile organic compounds. "Air pollutant" means the same as "air contaminant". A criteria pollutant is an air pollutant for which a criteria document has been prepared by EPA and has a primary or secondary ambient air quality standard. These pollutants are identified at 40 CFR Part 50 and include sulfur oxides (measured as sulfur dioxide), particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. Volatile organic compounds as a category are no longer identified as a criteria pollutant.

(4) "Air pollution" means the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more air contaminants in sufficient quantities, and of such characteristics and duration as is, or is likely to be, injurious to human health, plant or animal life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with enjoyment of life and property. For the purposes of this regulation air pollution shall not include air contaminants emitted in compliance with Chapter 17.21 RCW, the Washington Pesticide Application Act, which regulates the application and control of various pesticides.

(5) "Allowable emissions" means the emission rate of a stationary source calculated using the maximum rated capacity of the source (unless the source is subject to federally enforceable limits which restrict the operating rate, or hours of operation, or both) and the most stringent of the following:

(a) The applicable standards as set forth in 40 CFR Part 60, 61, or 63;

(b) Any applicable State Implementation Plan emission limitation including those with a future compliance date;

(c) The emissions rate specified as a federally enforceable permit condition, including those with a future compliance date; or

(d) The emission rate specified by an applicable regulatory order.

(6) "Ambient air" means the surrounding outside air.

(7) "Ambient air quality standard" (AAQS) means an established concentration, exposure time, and frequency of occurrence of an air contaminant or multiple air contaminants in the ambient air which shall not be exceeded.

(8) "Authority" means the Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority (SWAPCA).

(9) "Best available control technology, (BACT)" means an emission limitation (including a visible emission standard) based on the maximum degree of reduction for each air pollutant subject to regulation under Chapter 70.94 RCW which would be emitted from or which results from any new or modified stationary source, which the Authority, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account energy, environmental, and economic impacts and other costs, determines is achievable for such source or modification through application of production processes and available methods, systems, and techniques, including fuel cleaning or treatment, clean fuels, or innovative fuel combustion techniques for control of each such pollutant. In no event shall application of the "best available control technology" result in emissions of any air pollutants which will exceed the emissions allowed by any applicable standard under 40 CFR Part 60, Part 61, and Part 63 as they exist on August 1, 19968, or their later enactments as adopted by reference by the Authority by rule. Emissions from any source utilizing clean fuels, or any other means, to comply with this paragraph shall not be allowed to increase above levels that would have been required under the definition of BACT in the Federal Clean Air Act as it existed prior to enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

(10) "Best available retrofit technology (BART)" means an emission limitation based on the degree of reduction achievable through the application of the best system of continuous emission reduction for each pollutant which is emitted by an existing stationary facility. The emission limitation must be established, on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the technology available, the costs of compliance, the energy and non-air quality environmental impacts of compliance, any pollution control equipment in use or in existence at the source, the remaining useful life of the source, and the degree of improvement in visibility which may reasonably be anticipated to result from the use of such technology.

(11) "Board" means the Board of Directors of the Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority.

(12) "Bubble" means a set of emission limits which allows an increase in emissions from a given emissions unit(s) in exchange for a decrease in emissions from another emissions unit(s), pursuant to RCW 70.94.155, and SWAPCA 400-120.

(13) "Capacity factor" means the ratio of the average load on a machine or equipment for the period of time considered, to the manufacturer's capacity rating of the machine or equipment.

(14) "Class I area" means any area designated pursuant to 162 or 164 of the Federal Clean Air Act as a Class I area. The following areas are the Class I areas potentially affected by emissions from sources within SWAPCA jurisdiction:

Alpine Lakes Wilderness;

Glacier Peak Wilderness;

Goat Rocks Wilderness;

Mount Adams Wilderness;

Mount Rainier National Park;

Mt. Hood Wilderness Area;

Mt. Jefferson Wilderness Area.

(15) "Closure" means permanently stopping or terminating all processes at a facility. Such termination of processes shall result in no emissions of pollutants to the ambient air. Closure does not mean temporary shutdown of operations. A facility shall be considered "permanently closed" if operations have ceased and registration fees are not paid as set forth in SWAPCA 400-100 (2)(e). Process and pollution control equipment may remain in place and on site but shall be configured such that the equipment or processes are incapable of generating emissions to the atmosphere (e.g. disconnection of power to equipment, mechanical positioning that inhibits processing; placing of padlocks on equipment to prevent operation). Closure of a facility requires notification to SWAPCA in accordance with SWAPCA 400-100 (2)(d). New Source Review and applicable emission control technology requirements in accordance with current requirements for similar facilities will be required of the facility prior to restart if the annual registration fee is not paid.

(16) "Combustion and incineration sources" means emissions units using combustion for waste disposal, steam production, chemical recovery or other process requirements, but excludes open burning.

(17) "Commenced construction" means that an owner or operator has all the necessary preconstruction approvals or permits and either has:

(a) Begun, or caused to begin, a continuous program of actual on-site construction of the source, to be completed within a reasonable time; or

(b) Entered into binding agreements or contractual obligations, which cannot be cancelled or modified without substantial loss to the owner or operator, to undertake a program of actual construction of the source to be completed within a reasonable time. (ref. 40 CFR 52.21)

(18) "Concealment" means any action taken to reduce the observed or measured concentrations of a pollutant in a gaseous effluent while, in fact, not reducing the total amount of pollutant discharged.

(19) "Construction" means any physical change or change in the method of operation (including fabrication, erection, installation, demolition, or modification of an emissions unit) which would result in a change in actual emissions. (ref 40 CFR 52.21)

(20) "Control Officer" means the Executive Director of the Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority.

(21) "Director" means the director of the Washington State Department of Ecology or duly authorized representative.

(22) "Dispersion technique" means a method which attempts to affect the concentration of a pollutant in the ambient air other than by the use of pollution abatement equipment or integral process pollution controls.

(23) "Ecology" means the Washington State Department of Ecology.

(24) "Emission" means a release of air contaminants into the ambient air.

(25) "Emission control technology" means emission control equipment integral or in addition to the emission unit or other technology, device, component or control parameter that is integral to the design of an emission unit or the basic design to the emission unit; i.e., low NOx burner for a boiler or turbine.

(26) "Emission reduction credit (ERC)" means a credit granted pursuant to SWAPCA 400-131. This is a voluntary reduction in emissions beyond required levels of control. ERCs may be sold, leased, banked for future use or traded in accordance with applicable regulations. Emission reduction credits shall provide an incentive for reducing emissions below the required levels and to establish a framework to promote a market based approach to air pollution control.

(27) "Emission standard" and "emission limitation" mean a requirement established under the FCAA or Chapter 70.94 RCW or local regulation which limits the quantity, rate, or concentration of emissions of air contaminants on a continuous basis, including any requirement relating to the operation or maintenance of a source to assure continuous emission reduction and any design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard promulgated under the FCAA or Chapter 70.94 RCW.

(28) "Emissions unit" means any part of a stationary source which emits or would have the potential to emit any pollutant subject to regulation under the FCAA, Chapter 70.94 RCW or Chapter 70.98 RCW.

(29) "Excess emissions" means emissions of an air pollutant in excess of any applicable emission standard.

(30) "Excess stack height" means that portion of a stack which exceeds the greater of sixty-five meters (213.25 feet) or the calculated stack height described in SWAPCA 400-200(2).

(31) "Executive Director" means the Control Officer of the Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority.

(32) "Existing stationary facility" means a stationary source of air pollutants which has the potential to emit two hundred fifty tons per year or more of any air pollutant. In determining potential to emit, fugitive emissions, to the extent quantifiable, must be counted. For purposes of determining whether a stationary source is an existing stationary facility the term "building, structure, facility, or installation" means all of the pollutant-emitting activities which belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control). Pollutant emitting activities shall be considered as part of the same major group (i.e., which have the same two digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987.

(33) "Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA)" means the Federal Clean Air Act, also known as Public Law 88-206, Stat. 392, December 17, 1963, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., as last amended by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-549, November 15, 1990.

(34) "Federal land manager" means, with respect to any lands in the United States, the Secretary of the department with authority over such lands.

(35) "Fossil fuel-fired steam generator" means a device, furnace, or boiler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the primary purpose of producing steam by heat transfer.

(36) "Fugitive dust" means a type of particulate emission made airborne by forces of wind, human activity, or both. Unpaved roads, construction sites, and tilled land are examples of areas that originate fugitive dust. Fugitive dust is a type of fugitive emission.

(37) "Fugitive emissions" means emissions which do not pass and which could not reasonably be collected to pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally equivalent opening.

(38) "General process unit" means an emissions unit using a procedure or a combination of procedures for the purpose of causing a change in material by either chemical or physical means, excluding combustion.

(39) "Good agricultural practices" means economically feasible practices which are customary among or appropriate to farms and ranches of a similar nature in the local area.

(40) "Good engineering practice (GEP)" refers to a calculated stack height based on the equation specified in SWAPCA 400-200 (2)(a)(ii).

(41) "Incinerator" means a furnace used primarily for the thermal destruction of waste.

(42) "In operation" means engaged in activity related to the primary design function of the source.

(43) "Integral vista" means a view perceived from within a mandatory Class I federal area of a specific landmark or panorama located outside the boundary of the mandatory Class I federal area.

(44) "Lowest achievable emission rate (LAER)" means for any source that rate of emissions which reflects the more stringent of:

(a) The most stringent emission limitation which is contained in the implementation plan of any state for such class or category of source, unless the owner or operator of the proposed new or modified source demonstrates that such limitations are not achievable; or

(b) The most stringent emission limitation which is achieved in practice by such class or category of source In no event shall the application of this term permit a proposed new or modified source to emit any pollutant in excess of the amount allowable under applicable new source performance standards.

(45) "Maintenance Area" or "Maintenance Plan Area" means a geographical area of the jurisdiction of SWAPCA which was formerly designated as a nonattainment area and which has been redesignated as an attainment area as provided under 40 CFR 52. The maintenance area designation shall be in effect as long as there is a federal or state requirement to have a maintenance plan in effect.

(46) "Maintenance Pollutant" means a pollutant for which a maintenance plan area was formerly designated a nonattainment area.

(47) "Major modification" means any physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that would result in a significant net emissions increase of any pollutant subject to regulation under the Federal Clean Air Act. Any net emissions increase that is considered significant for volatile organic compounds or oxides of nitrogen shall be considered significant for ozone. A physical change or change in the method of operation shall not include:

(a) Routine maintenance, repair, and replacement;

(b) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by reason of an order under sections 2 (a) and (b) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Supply Coordination Act of 1974 (or any superseding legislation) or by reason of a natural gas curtailment plan pursuant to the Federal Power Act;

(c) Use of an alternative fuel by reason of an order or rule under section 125 of the FCAA, 42 U.S.C. 7425;

(d) Use of an alternative fuel at a steam generating unit to the extent that the fuel is generated from municipal solid waste;

(e) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by a stationary source which:

(i) The source was capable of accommodating before December 21, 1976, unless such change would be prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 12, 1976, in a Prevention of Significant Deterioration permit or an Order of Approval for a Notice of Construction application; or

(ii) The source is approved to use under any federally enforceable notice of construction approval or a PSD permit issued by the Environmental Protection Agency;

(f) An increase in the hours of operation or in the production rate, unless such change is prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 21, 1976, in a Prevention of Significant Deterioration permit or an Order of Approval for a Notice of Construction application;

(g) Any change in ownership at a stationary source.

(48) "Major stationary source" means:

(a) Any stationary source which:

(i) Emits or has the potential to emit one hundred tons per year or more of any air contaminant regulated by the Washington State or Federal Clean Air Acts;

(ii) Is located in a "marginal" or "moderate" ozone nonattainment area and which emits or has the potential to emit one hundred tons per year or more of volatile organic compounds or oxides of nitrogen;

(iii) Is located in a "serious" carbon monoxide nonattainment area where stationary sources contribute significantly to carbon monoxide levels and which emits or has the potential to emit fifty tons per year or more of carbon monoxide; or

(iv) Is located in a "serious" particulate matter (PM10) nonattainment area and which emits or has the potential to emit seventy tons per year or more of PM10 emissions.

(b) Any physical change that would occur at a stationary source not qualifying under (a) of this subsection as a major stationary source, if the change would constitute a major stationary source by itself;

(c) A major stationary source that is major for VOCs or NOX shall be considered major for ozone;

(d) The fugitive emissions of a stationary source shall not be included in determining whether it is a major stationary source, unless the stationary source belongs to one of the following categories of stationary sources or the source is a major stationary source due to (a)(iii) or (iv) of this subsection:

(i) Coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers);

(ii) Kraft pulp mills;

(iii) Portland cements plants;

(iv) Primary zinc smelters;

(v) Iron and steel mills;

(vi) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants;

(vii) Primary copper smelters;

(viii) Municipal incinerators capable of charging more than two hundred fifty tons of refuse per day;

(ix) Hydrofluoric, sulfuric, or nitric acid plants;

(x) Petroleum refineries;

(xi) Lime plants;

(xii) Phosphate rock processing plants;

(xiii) Coke oven batteries;

(xiv) Sulfur recovery plants;

(xv) Carbon black plants (furnace process);

(xvi) Primary lead smelters;

(xvii) Fuel conversion plants;

(xviii) Sintering plants;

(xix) Secondary metal production plants;

(xx) Chemical process plants;

(xxi) Fossil-fuel boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than two hundred fifty million British thermal units per hour heat input;

(xxii) Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding three hundred thousand barrels (12,600,000 gallons);

(xxiii) Taconite ore processing plants;

(xxiv) Glass fiber processing plants;

(xxv) Charcoal production plants;

(xxvi) Fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than two hundred fifty million British thermal units per hour heat input; and

(xxvii) Any other stationary source category which, as of August 7, 1980, was being regulated under sections 111 or 112 of the Federal Clean Air Act.

(e) For purposes of determining whether a stationary source is a major stationary source, the term "building, structure, facility, or installation" means all the pollutant-emitting activities which belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control). Pollutant-emitting activities shall be considered as part of the same industrial grouping if they belong to the same major group (i.e., which have the same two digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987.

(49) "Mandatory Class I federal area" means any area defined in Section 162(a) of the FCAA. The mandatory Class I federal areas potentially affected by emissions from sources within SWAPCA jurisdiction are as follows:

Alpine Lakes Wilderness;

Glacier Peak Wilderness;

Goat Rocks Wilderness;

Mount Adams Wilderness;

Mount Rainier National Park;

Mt. Hood Wilderness Area;

Mt. Jefferson Wilderness Area.

(50) "Masking" means the mixing of a chemically nonreactive control agent with a malodorous gaseous effluent to change the perceived odor, usually to a less offensive odor.

(51) "Materials handling" means the handling, transporting, loading, unloading, storage, and transfer of materials with no significant alteration of the chemical or physical properties of the material.

(52) "Modification" means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a stationary source that increases the amount of any air contaminant emitted by such source or that results in the emissions of any air contaminant not previously emitted. The term modification shall be construed consistent with the definitions of modification in Section 7411, Title 42, United States Code, and with rules implementing that section.

(53) "National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS)" means the federal regulations set forth in 40 CFR Part 61 or Part 63.

(54) "Natural conditions" means naturally occurring phenomena that reduce visibility as measured in terms of visual range, contrast, or coloration.

(55) "Net emissions increase" means:

(a) The amount by which the sum of the following exceeds zero:

(i) Any increase in actual emissions from a particular change or change in method of operation at a source; and

(ii) Any other increases and decreases in actual emissions at the source that are contemporaneous with the particular change and are otherwise creditable.

(b) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is contemporaneous with the increase from the particular change only if the changes in actual emissions occur between the date ten years before construction on the particular change commences and the date that the increase from the particular change occurs.

(c) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is creditable only if:

(i) It occurred no more than one year prior to the date of submittal of a complete Notice of Construction application for the particular change, or it has been documented by an emission reduction credit, in which case the credit shall expire ten years after the date of original issue of the ERC. Any emissions increases occurring between the date of issuance of the ERC and the date when a particular change becomes operational shall be counted against the ERC.

(ii) The Authority or Ecology has not relied on it in issuing any permit or Order of Approval for the source under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51 Subpart I or the EPA has not relied on it in issuing a PSD permit pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21, which order or permit is in effect when the increase in emissions from the particular change occurs.

(d) An increase in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that the new level of actual emissions exceeds the old level.

(e) A decrease in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that:

(i) The old level of actual emissions or the old level of allowable emissions, whichever is lower, exceeds the new level of actual emissions;

(ii) It is federally enforceable at and after the time that actual construction on the particular change begins;

(iii) It has approximately the same qualitative significance for public health and welfare as that attributed to the increase from the particular change; and

(iv) The Authority has not relied on it in issuing any permit, regulatory order or Order of Approval under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51 Subpart I, the EPA has not relied on it in issuing a PSD permit pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or Ecology or the Authority has not relied on it in demonstrating attainment or reasonable further progress.

(f) An increase that results from a physical change at a source occurs when the emission unit on which construction occurred becomes operational and begins to emit a particular pollutant. Any replacement unit that requires shakedown becomes operational only after a reasonable shakedown period, not to exceed one hundred eighty days.

(56) "New source" means one or more of the following:

(a) The construction or modification of a stationary source that increases the amount of any air contaminant emitted by such source or that results in the emission of any air contaminant not previously emitted;

(b) Any other project that constitutes a new source under the Federal Clean Air Act;

(c) Restart after a lapse in one year or more in payment of registration fees or operating permit fees;

(d) Restart after a period of five years of non-operation where registration or operating permit fees have been paid.

(57) "New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)" means the federal regulations set forth in 40 CFR Part 60 and adopted by the Authority in SWAPCA 400-115.

(58) "Nonattainment area" means a clearly delineated geographic area which has been designated by EPA promulgation as exceeding a National Ambient Air Quality Standard or standards.

(59) "Notice of Construction application (NOC)" means a written application from the source by which the Authority records and tracks requests from registered and nonregistered sources for the purpose of obtaining information regarding proposed changes or activities at a source. Types of changes may include modifications, alterations, changes to process or control equipment, establishment of emission limits, installation of new sources, control technology determinations, PSD determinations and other items specified by the Authority. A Notice of Construction application shall be submitted to the Authority for review and approval prior to construction of a new source, modification of an existing stationary source or replacement or substantial alteration of control technology at an existing stationary source or portable source. A Notice of Construction application may be submitted to the Authority for activities not requiring New Source Review and shall not automatically impose New Source Review requirements. (For more information refer to SWAPCA 400-109.)

(60) "Opacity" means the degree to which an object seen through a plume is obscured, stated as a percentage.

(61) "Open burning" means the combustion of material in an open fire or in an outdoor container, without providing for the control of combustion or the control of the emissions from the combustion. Open burning includes all forms of outdoor burning except those listed as exempt in SWAPCA 425-020. Wood waste disposal in wigwam burners is not considered open burning.

(62) "Order" or Regulatory Order means any order issued by the Authority pursuant to Chapter 70.94 RCW, including, but not limited to RCW 70.94.332, 70.94.152, 70.94.153 and 70.94.141(3), and includes, where used in the generic sense, the terms order, corrective action order, order of approval, compliance schedule order, consent order, order of denial, order of violation, order of prevention, order of discontinuance, administrative order, and regulatory order.

(63) "Order of Approval" and "Approval Order" mean a regulatory order issued by the Authority to approve a Notice of Construction application for a proposed new source or modification, or the replacement or substantial alteration of control technology at an existing stationary source or portable source. Note: For more information refer to SWAPCA 400-230 (1)(a).

(64) "Particulate matter" or "particulates" means any airborne finely divided solid or liquid material with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 100 micrometers.

(65) "Particulate matter emissions" means all finely divided solid or liquid material, other than uncombined water, emitted to the ambient air as measured by applicable reference methods, or an equivalent or alternative method specified in 40 CFR Part 60 or by a test method specified in the Washington State Implementation Plan.

(66) "Parts per million (ppm)" means parts of a contaminant per million parts of gas or carrier medium, by volume. When calculating or measuring the ppm of a given gas or carrier stream, such measurement or calculation shall be exclusive of water and particulate matter.

(67) "Person" means an individual, firm, public or private corporation, owner, owner's agent, operator, contractor, association, partnership, political subdivision, municipality, or government agency.

(68) "PM10" means particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers as measured by a reference method based on 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix J and designated in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53 or by an equivalent method designated in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53.

(69) "PM10 emissions" means finely divided solid or liquid material, including condensible particulate matter, with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers emitted to the ambient air as measured by an applicable reference method, or an equivalent or alternate method, specified in Appendix M of 40 CFR Part 51 or by a test method specified in the Washington State Implementation Plan.

(70) "PM2.5" means finely divided solid or liquid material, including condensable particulate matter, with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5 micrometers emitted to the ambient air as measured by an applicable reference method, or an equivalent or alternate method, specified in 40 CFR Part 50 or by a test method specified in the Washington State Implementation Plan.

(71) "Pollutant" means the same as air contaminant, air pollutant and air pollution. (Refer to definitions 3, 4 and 78)

(7((0)) 2) "Potential to emit" means the maximum capacity (i.e., design capacity) of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design only if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is federally enforceable. Secondary emissions do not count in determining the potential to emit of a stationary source.

(7((1))3) "Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)" means the program set forth in SWAPCA 400-141 and WAC 173-400-141.

(7((2))4) "Projected width" means that dimension of a structure determined from the frontal area of the structure, projected onto a plane perpendicular to a line between the center of the stack and the center of the building.

(7((3))5) "Reasonably attributable" means attributable by visual observation or any other technique the Authority deems appropriate.

(7((4))6) "Reasonably available control technology (RACT)" means the lowest emission limit that a particular source or source category is capable of meeting by the application of control technology that is reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility. RACT is determined on a case-by-case basis for an individual source or source category taking into account the impact of the source upon air quality, the availability of additional controls, the emission reduction to be achieved by additional controls, the impact of additional controls on air quality, and the capital and operating costs of the additional controls. RACT requirements for any source or source category shall be adopted only after public notice and opportunity for comment are afforded. RACT shall apply to existing sources.

(7((5))7) "Regulatory order" means an order issued by the Authority to an air contaminant source which applies to that source, any applicable provision of Chapter 70.94 RCW, or the rules adopted thereunder, or, the regulations of the Authority. Note: For further clarification refer also to the definition of Order and Order of Approval and SWAPCA 400-230.

(7((6))8) "Significant" or "significant emission rate" means, in reference to a net emissions increase or the potential of a source to emit any of the following pollutants, a rate of emission equal to or greater than any one of the following rates:


PollutantTons/Year
Carbon monoxide100
Nitrogen oxides40
Sulfur dioxide40
Particulate matter (PM)25
Fine particulate matter (PM10)15
Volatile organic compounds (VOC)40
Lead0.6
Fluorides3
Sulfuric acid mist7
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)10
Total reduced sulfur (including H2S)10
Municipal waste combustor organics (measured as total tetra-through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans 0.0000035
Municipal waste combustor metals (measured as PM)15
Municipal waste combustor acid gases (measured as SO 2 and hydrogen chloride)40
(7((7))9) "Significant visibility impairment" means visibility impairment which interferes with the management, protection, preservation, or enjoyment of visitor visual experience of a Class I area as defined in Section 162(a) of the FCAA. The determination must be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the geographic extent, intensity, duration, frequency, and time of the visibility impairment, and how these factors correlate with the time of visitor use of the Class I area and frequency and timing of natural conditions that reduce visibility.

(((78))80) "Source" means all of the emissions unit(s) including quantifiable fugitive emissions, that are located on one or more contiguous and adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control), whose activities are ancillary to the production of a single product or functionally related groups of products. Activities shall be considered ancillary to the production of a single product or functionally related group of products if they belong to the same major group (i.e., which have the same two digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987.

(((79))81) "Source category" means all sources of the same type or classification as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987.

(8((0))2) "Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority (SWAPCA)" or "Authority" means the local air pollution agency empowered to enforce and implement the Federal Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.) and the Clean Air Washington Act (RCW 70.94) in Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania and Wahkiakum Counties of Washington State.

(8((1))3) "Stack" means any emission point in a source designed to emit solids, liquids, or gases into the air, including a pipe or duct.

(8((2))4) "Stack height" means the height of an emission point measured from the ground-level elevation at the base of the stack.

(8((3))5) "Standard conditions" means a temperature of 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and a pressure of 29.92 inches (760 mm) of mercury except as otherwise specified.

(8((4))6) "State Implementation Plan, (SIP)" means a comprehensive plan developed/prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology with assistance from the Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority, other regional air pollution control authorities and other interested planning and governing entities, and submitted to EPA for approval, which provides for implementation, maintenance and enforcement of the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

(8((5))7) "Stationary source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any contaminant. This term does not include emissions resulting directly from an internal combustion engine for transportation purposes or from a non-road engine or non-road vehicle as defined in Section 216 of the FCAA.

(8((6))8) "Sulfuric acid plant" means any facility producing sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide, or acid sludge.

(8((7))9) "Total reduced sulfur, (TRS)" means the sum of the sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and any other organic sulfides emitted and measured by EPA Method 16 or an approved equivalent method and expressed as hydrogen sulfide.

(((88))90) "Total suspended particulate" means particulate matter as measured by the method described in 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix B as in effect on July 1, 1998.

(((89))91) "United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA)" shall be referred to as EPA.

(((90))92) "Upgraded" is defined only for gasoline dispensing facilities and means the modification of a gasoline storage tank or piping to add cathodic protection, tank lining or spill and overfill protection that involved removal of ground or ground cover above a portion of the product piping. "Modification" of a gasoline dispensing facility means the same as "upgraded".

(((91))92) "Visibility impairment" means any perceptible degradation in visibility (visual range, contrast, coloration) not caused by natural conditions.

(((92))93) "Visibility impairment of Class I areas" means visibility impairment within the area and visibility impairment of any formally designated integral vista associated with the area.

(((93))94) "Volatile organic compound (VOC)" means:

(a) Any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions. This includes any organic compound other than the following, which have negligible photochemical activity: acetone; ethane; methane; methyl acetate; methylene chloride (dichloromethane); 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform); 1,1,2-trichloro 1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113); trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11); dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12); chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22); trifluoromethane (HFC-23); 1,2-dichloro 1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114); chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115); 1,1,1-trifluoro 2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123); 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a); 1,1,-dichloro 1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b); 1-chloro 1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); 2-chloro 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124); pentafluoroethane (HFC-125); 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a); 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a); parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF); cyclic, branched, or linear completely methylated siloxanes; perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene); 3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225ca); 1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225cb); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC-43-10mee); difluoromethane (HFC-32); ethylfluoride (HFC-161); 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236fa); 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ca); 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ea); 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa); 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc); chlorofluoromethane (HCFC-31); 1-chloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-151a); 1.2-dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123a); 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-methoxy-butane (C4F9OCH3); 2-(difluoromethoxymethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OCH3); 1-ethoxy-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluorobutane (C4F9Oc2H5); 2-(ethoxydifluoromethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OC2H5); and perfluorocarbon compounds which fall into these classes:

(i) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes;

(ii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations; ((and))

(iii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations; and

(((iii))iv) Sulfur containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine.(b) For the purpose of determining compliance with emission limits, VOCs will be measured by the appropriate methods in 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A. Where such a method also measures compounds with negligible photochemical reactivity, these negligibly-reactive compounds may be excluded as VOC.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

Reviser's note: The typographical errors in the above material occurred in the copy filed by the Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.


AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-040 General Standards for Maximum Emissions

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.040 RCW, 70.94.141 RCW, 70.94.154 RCW, and 70.94.331 RCW. Original adoption by Board 12/17/68 (Regulation 1); Amended by Board 10/29/69 (Regulation 2); Amended by Board 12/18/79; Amended by Board 3/20/84; 93-21-003 filed 10/7/93, effective 11/8/93; 95-17-084 filed 8/21/95, effective 9/21/95]


All sources and emissions units are required to meet the emission standards of this section. Where an emission standard listed in another section is applicable to a specific emissions unit, such standard shall take precedent over a general emission standard listed in this section. When two or more emissions units are connected to a common stack and the operator elects not to provide the means or facilities to sample emissions from the individual emissions units, and the relative contributions of the individual emissions units to the common discharge are not readily distinguishable, then the emissions of the common stack must meet the most restrictive standard of any of the connected emissions units. Further, all emissions units are required to use reasonably available control technology (RACT) which may be determined for some sources or source categories to be more stringent than the applicable emission limitations of this regulation or any chapter of Title 173 WAC. Where current controls are determined to be less than RACT, the Authority shall, as provided in RCW 70.94.154, define RACT for each source or source category and issue a rule or regulatory order requiring the installation of RACT.

(1) Visible emissions. No person shall cause or permit the emission for more than three minutes, in any one hour, of an air contaminant from any emissions unit which at the emission point, or within a reasonable distance of the emission point, exceeds twenty percent opacity as determined in accordance with Appendix A by a Certified Observer certified in accordance with EPA Method 9 "Visual Determination of the Opacity of Emissions from Stationary Sources" as specified in 40 CFR 60 Appendix A except:

(a) When the emissions occur due to soot blowing/grate cleaning and the operator can demonstrate that the emissions will not exceed twenty percent opacity for more than fifteen minutes in any eight consecutive hours. The intent of this provision is to permit the soot blowing and grate cleaning necessary to the operation of boiler facilities. This practice, except for testing and trouble shooting, is to be scheduled for the same approximate times each day and the Authority shall be advised of the schedule.

(b) When the owner or operator of a source supplies valid data to show that the presence of uncombined water is the only reason for the opacity to exceed twenty percent.

(c) When two or more sources are connected to a common stack, the Authority may allow or require the use of an alternate time period if it is more representative of normal operations.

(d) When an alternate opacity limit has been established per RCW 70.94.331 (2)(c).

(2) Fallout. No person shall cause or permit the emission of particulate matter from any source to be deposited beyond the property under direct control of the owner(s) or operator(s) of the source in sufficient quantity to interfere unreasonably with the use and enjoyment of the property upon which the material is deposited.

(3) Fugitive emissions. The owner or operator of any emissions unit engaging in materials handling, construction, demolition or any other operation which is a source of fugitive emission:

(a) If located in an attainment area and not impacting any nonattainment area, shall take reasonable precautions to prevent the release of air contaminants from the operation.

(b) If the emissions unit has been identified as a significant contributor to the nonattainment status of a designated nonattainment area, shall be required to use reasonable and available control methods, which shall include any necessary changes in technology, process, or other control strategies to control emissions of the contaminants for which nonattainment has been designated.

(4) Odors.

(a) Any person who shall cause or allow the generation of any odor from any source, which may unreasonably interfere with any other property owner's use and enjoyment of his property must use recognized good practice and procedures to reduce these odors to a reasonable minimum.

(b) A scentometer No. 1 odor strength or equivalent dilution in residential and commercial areas shall not be exceeded.

(c) A scentometer No. 3 odor strength or equivalent dilution in all other land use areas shall not be exceeded.


Scentometer Readings
Scentometer

No.

Concentration Range

No. of Thresholds

01 to 2
12 to 8
28 to 32
332 to 128
4128
(d) A violation of this section shall have occurred when two measurements made within a period of one (1) hour, separated by at least fifteen (15) minutes, off the property surrounding the air contaminant source exceeds the scentometer limitations set hereunder.

(e) When the source is a manufacturing process, no violation of this section shall have occurred provided that Best Available Control Technology (BACT), Maximum Available Control Technology (MACT), or Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER), as applicable for odor control and abatement, is provided and is operating in compliance with other applicable regulations and emission limits.

(f) When the source is using "good agricultural practices", as provided in RCW 70.94.640, no violation of this section shall have occurred.

(5) Emissions detrimental to persons or property. No person shall cause or permit the emission of any air contaminant from any source if it is detrimental to the health, safety, or welfare of any person, or causes damage to property or business.

(6) Sulfur dioxide. No person shall cause or permit the emission of a gas containing sulfur dioxide from any emissions unit in excess of one thousand ppm of sulfur dioxide on a dry basis, corrected to seven percent oxygen or twelve percent CO2 as required by the applicable emission standard for combustion sources, and based on the average of any period of sixty consecutive minutes ((, except:

(a) When the owner or operator of an emissions unit supplies emission data and can demonstrate to the Authority that there is no feasible method of reducing the concentration to less than one thousand ppm (on a dry basis, corrected to seven percent oxygen for combustion sources) and that the state and federal ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide will not be exceeded. In such cases, the Authority may require specific ambient air monitoring stations be established, operated, and maintained by the owner or operator at mutually approved locations. All sampling results shall be made available upon request and a monthly summary shall be submitted to the Authority.

(b) When a source limits such emission by a combination of constant emission controls and dispersion techniques approved by the Authority)).

(7) Concealment and masking. No person shall cause or permit the installation or use of any means which conceals or masks an emission of an air contaminant which would otherwise violate any provisions of this section.

(8) Fugitive dust sources.

(a) The owner or operator of a source of fugitive dust shall take reasonable precautions to prevent fugitive dust from becoming airborne and shall maintain and operate the source to minimize emissions.

(b) The owner(s) or operator(s) of any existing source(s) of fugitive dust that has been identified as a significant contributor to a PM10 nonattainment area shall be required to use reasonably available control technology (RACT) to control emissions. Significance will be determined by the criteria found in SWAPCA 400-113(3).

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.


AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-052 Stack Sampling of Major Combustion Sources

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.141 RCW and 70.94.331 RCW. Original adoption 93-21-003 filed 10/7/93, effective 11/8/93]


(1) General Requirements. No owner or operator of a major source which is also a combustion or incineration source shall operate the source except in compliance with the requirements of this section.

(2) Applicability. All sources that are designated as major as a result of the operation of a combustion or incineration unit (or units) where the combined emissions of a single pollutant from the combustion or incineration unit (or units) are 100 tons per year or more of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide or volatile organic compounds.

(3) Emissions Sampling Requirements. The owner or operator of a major combustion or incineration source identified in (2) shall cause or conduct emissions tests at least once every two calendar years to quantify emissions of the pollutants for which the source has been designated major. In the event that the combined emissions of a single pollutant from several emissions units establishes the source as major, emissions tests shall be conducted at least once every two calendar years for all emissions units which emit 30 percent or more of the emissions of the pollutant for which the source has been designated major. Emissions testing shall be performed in accordance with SWAPCA 400-106.

(4) Sampling Methods. All emissions tests shall be conducted in accordance with the specific test methods approved in advance by the Authority.

(5) Additional Requirements. Nothing in this section shall be construed as to limit the ability of the Authority to impose additional or supplemental emissions testing requirements for any emissions unit within the Authority's jurisdiction in accordance with SWAPCA 400-105(4).

(6) Alternative Sampling Schedules. The Authority may on a case-by-case basis, accept or require an alternative emissions sampling schedule provided sufficient source-specific sampling data exists to adequately demonstrate that the source is capable of continuous compliance with any emission standards that are applicable to the source. Alternative sampling schedules shall be based upon measured emissions relative to the applicable emissions limitation. The Authority may reduce the frequency of the required emissions testing.

(7) Continuous Emissions Monitors. The use of continuous emissions monitors shall be acceptable as an alternative emissions sampling schedule.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.


AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-060 Emission Standards for General Process Units

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.141 RCW and 70.94.331 RCW. Original adoption by Board 12/18/79; 93-21-003 filed 10/7/93, effective 11/8/93; 95-17-084 filed 8/21/95, effective 9/21/95]


General process units shall meet all applicable provisions of SWAPCA 400-040 and, no person shall cause or permit the emission of particulate material from any general process operation in excess of 0.23 grams per dry cubic meter at standard conditions (0.1 grain/dscf) of exhaust gas. EPA test methods from 40 CFR Appendix A which are adopted by reference as in effect ((August)) July 1, 19968 and any other appropriate test procedures approved in advance by the Authority shall be used to determine compliance.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.


AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-070 Emission Standards for Certain Source Categories

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.141 RCW and 70.94.331 RCW. Original adoption 93-21-003 filed 10/7/93, effective 11/8/93; 95-17-084 filed 8/21/95, effective 9/21/95]


The Authority finds that the reasonable regulation of sources within certain categories requires separate standards applicable to such categories. The standards set forth in this section shall be the maximum allowable standards for emissions units within the categories listed.

(1) Wigwam burners. The use of wigwam ("tee-pee", "conical", or equivalent type) burners is prohibited effective January 1, 1994.

(2) Hog fuel boilers.

(a) Hog fuel boilers shall meet all provisions of SWAPCA 400-040 and SWAPCA 400-050(1), except that emissions may exceed twenty percent opacity for up to fifteen consecutive minutes once in any eight hours. The intent of this provision is to permit the soot blowing and grate cleaning necessary for efficient operation of these units. This practice is to be scheduled for the same specific times each day and the Authority shall be notified of the schedule or any changes.

(b) All hog fuel boilers shall utilize RACT and shall be operated and maintained to minimize emissions.

(3) Orchard heating.

(a) Burning of rubber materials, asphaltic products, crankcase oil or petroleum wastes, plastic, or garbage is prohibited.

(b) It is unlawful to burn any material or operate any orchard-heating device that causes a visible emission exceeding twenty percent opacity, except during the first thirty minutes after such device or material is ignited.

(4) Catalytic cracking units.

(a) All existing catalytic cracking units shall meet all provisions of SWAPCA 400-040:

(i) No person shall cause or permit the emission for more than three minutes, in any one hour, of an air contaminant from any catalytic cracking unit which at the emission point, or within a reasonable distance of the emission point, exceeds twenty percent opacity.

(ii) No person shall cause or permit the emission of particulate material in excess of 0.46 grams per dry cubic meter at standard conditions (0.20 grains/dscf) of exhaust gas.

(b) All new catalytic cracking units shall install BACT which may be more stringent than the provisions of SWAPCA 400-115.

(5) Sulfuric acid plants. No person shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from a sulfuric acid plant, any gases which contain acid mist, expressed as H2SO4, in excess of 0.15 pounds per ton of acid produced. Sulfuric acid production shall be expressed as one hundred percent H2SO4.

(6) Gasoline dispensing facilities. All gasoline dispensing facilities shall meet all the provisions of ((SWAPCA 400-110(8) and))SWAPCA 491 "Emission Standards and Controls for Sources Emitting Gasoline Vapors".

(7) Dry Cleaning Facilities. All dry cleaning facilities shall meet all the provisions of SWAPCA 494 "Dry Cleaning Operations".

(78) Abrasive blasting.

(a) Abrasive blasting shall be performed inside a booth or structure designed to capture the blast grit, overspray, and removed material except that outdoor blasting of structures or items too large to be reasonably handled indoors or in an enclosure shall employ control measures such as curtailment during windy periods, wet blasting, and/or enclosure of the area being blasted with tarps.

(b) Outdoor blasting shall be performed with either steel shot or an abrasive material containing less than one percent (by mass) which would pass through a No. 200 sieve.

(c) All abrasive blasting with sand shall be performed inside a blasting booth, enclosure or structure designed to capture fugitive particulate matter.

(d) All abrasive blasting of materials that have a coating or that may contain a substance that is identified as a toxic air pollutant in SWAPCA 460 or a hazardous substance shall be analyzed prior to blast operations. If a toxic or hazardous material is present in the blast media or removed media, all material shall be handled and disposed of in accordance with applicable regulations.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.


AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-075 Emission Standards for Sources Emitting Hazardous Air Pollutants

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.141 RCW and 70.94.331 RCW. Original Board adoption 12/18/79; Amended by Board 12/16/86; 93-21-003 filed 10/7/93, effective 11/8/93; 95-17-084 filed 8/21/95, effective 9/21/95]


(1) The emission standards for hazardous air pollutants promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as in effect August 1, 19968, as contained in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61 and Part 63, are adopted by reference. The term "Administrator" in 40 CFR Part 61 shall mean the Administrator of EPA, the Director of Ecology and the Control Officer of the Authority.

(2) The Authority may require that source tests be conducted and require access to records, books, files, and other information specific to the control, recovery or release of those pollutants regulated under 40 CFR Part 61 and/or Part 63 in order to determine the status of compliance of sources of these contaminants and to carry out its enforcement responsibilities.

(3) Source testing, monitoring, and analytical methods for sources of hazardous air pollutants shall conform with the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61 and/or Part 63, as in effect August 1, 19968.

(4) This section shall not apply to any source operating pursuant to a waiver granted by EPA or an exemption granted by the President of the United States during the effective life of such waiver or exemption.

(5) Specific standards of performance referred to as Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) have been promulgated by the USEPA. As of ((August)) July 1, 19968 the following standards of performance as set forth in 40 CFR 63 are hereby adopted by reference:

Subpart ANational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: General Provisions (40 CFR 63.1 et seq.)
Subpart BNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Equivalent Emission Limitation By Permit (ref. 40 CFR 63.50 et seq.)
Subpart DNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Early Reduction Program (ref. 40 CFR 63.70 et seq.)
Subpart FNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (ref. 40 CFR 63.100 et seq.)
Subpart GNational Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater (ref. 40 CFR 63.110 et seq.)
Subpart HNational Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks (ref. 40 CFR 63.160 et seq.)
Subpart INational Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Certain Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks (ref. 40 CFR 60.190 et seq.)
Subpart LNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Oven Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.300 et seq.)
Subpart MNational Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities (ref. 40 CFR 63.320 et seq.)
Subpart NNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Hard and Decorative Electroplating and Anodizing Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.340 et seq.)
Subpart ONational Ethylene Oxide Air Emission Standards for Commercial Sterilizers (ref. 40 CFR 63.360 et seq.)
Subpart QNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial Process Cooling Towers (ref. 40 CFR 63.400 et seq.)
Subpart RNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Gasoline Distribution Operations (Stage I) (ref. 40 CFR 63.420 et seq.)
Subpart SNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Pulp and Paper Industry (ref. 40 CFR 63.440 et seq.)
Subpart TNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Halogenated Solvents Cleaning Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.460 et seq.)
Subpart UNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins and Group IV Polymers and Resins (ref. 40 CFR 63.480 et seq.)
Subpart WNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Epoxy Resins Production and Non-Nylon Polyamides Production (ref. 40 CFR 63.520 et seq.)
Subpart XNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting Manufacturing Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.541 et seq.)
Subpart YNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Marine Vessel Loading Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.560 et seq.)
Subpart CCNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Petroleum Refineries (ref. 40 CFR 63.640 et seq.)
Subpart DDNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.680 et seq.)
Subpart EENational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Magnetic Tape Manufacturing Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.710 et seq.)
Subpart GGNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Aerospace Manufacturing Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.740 et seq.)
Subpart IINational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) (ref. 40 CFR 63.780 et seq.)
Subpart JJNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations (ref. 40 CFR 63.800 et seq.)
Subpart KKNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Printing and Publishing Industry (ref. 40 CFR 63.820 et seq.)
Subpart LLNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants (ref. 40 CFR 63.840 et seq.)
Subpart JJJNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins (ref. 40 CFR 63.1310 et seq.)

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.


AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-076 Emissions Standards for Sources Emitting Toxic Air Pollutants

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.141 RCW and 70.94.331 RCW. Original Board adoption 95-17-084 filed 8/21/95, effective 9/21/95]


(1) The term toxic air pollutants (TAP) or toxic air contaminant means any air pollutant listed in ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460-150 or 460-160. The term toxic air pollutant may include particulate matter and volatile organic compounds if an individual substance or a group of substances within either of these classes is listed in ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460-150 or 460-160. The Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number shall be the primary means used to specifically identify a substance. The term toxic air pollutant does not include particulate matter and volatile organic compounds as generic classes of compounds.

(2) All sources subject to the requirements of SWAPCA 400-110, 400-111, 400-112, 400-113 or 400-114 shall be subject to the requirements of ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460. All sources subject to review under SWAPCA 400 shall also be reviewed for applicability and/or compliance under ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460.

(3) The New Source Review fee schedule provided in SWAPCA 400-110 shall be applicable to all sources subject to ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460. The fees identified in SWAPCA 400-110 shall not be duplicate to any fees collected under ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460. Only a single fee shall apply to sources that are subject to SWAPCA 400 and ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460.

(4) A Notice of Construction is a written application to request approval for construction or modification of an air contaminant source. If a Notice of Construction application is required under both SWAPCA 400 and ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460, then the applications shall be combined. All sources subject to ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460 shall file a Notice of Construction application in accordance with SWAPCA 400-109 "Notice of Construction Application" and SWAPCA 400-110 "New Source Review".

(5) Authority actions including issuance of regulatory orders and enforcement actions for sources subject to ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460 shall be the same as those actions for sources subject to and identified in SWAPCA 400.

(6) Sources subject to ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460 shall be subject to the registration requirements of SWAPCA 400-100. Where a source is subject to both SWAPCA 400 and ((SWAPCA)) WAC 173-460, only one registration shall be provided and only one fee shall be collected in accordance with the schedule outlined in SWAPCA 400-100.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.


AMENDATORY SECTION


SWAPCA 400-091 Voluntary Limits on Emissions

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94.141 RCW and 70.94.331 RCW. Section previously numbered SWAPCA 400-090 - 93-21-003 filed 10/7/93, effective 11/8/93; 95-17-084 filed 8/21/95, effective 9/21/95]


(1) Voluntary limits on emissions and limitations on potential to emit or process parameters or throughputs may be requested by a source by submittal of a complete Notice of Construction application to the Authority as provided in SWAPCA 400-109. Confidential information shall be identified as set forth in SWAPCA 400-270. Upon request by the owner or operator of a source, and completion of review of the application by the Authority, the Authority shall issue a regulatory order which reduces that source's potential to emit to an amount agreed to by the owner or operator and the Authority.

(2) A condition contained in an order issued under this section shall be less than the source's otherwise allowable annual emissions of that air contaminant, process parameter or throughputs, under all applicable requirements of Chapter 70.94 RCW and the FCAA, including any standard or other requirement provided for in the Washington State Implementation Plan (SIP).

(3) Any order issued under this section shall include monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements sufficient to ensure that the source complies with any emission limit, process parameter or throughput, established under this section. Monitoring requirements shall use terms, test methods, units, averaging periods, and other statistical conventions consistent with the requirements of SWAPCA 400-105.

(4) Any order issued under this section shall be subject to the public notice and comment procedures under SWAPCA 400-171.

(5) The terms and conditions of a regulatory order issued under this section shall be federally enforceable, upon approval of this section as an element of the Washington State Implementation Plan. Any proposed increase in emissions above limits contained in an order issued under this section shall require revision or revocation of the order.

(6) Noncompliance with any emission limit, test requirement, reporting requirement or other requirement identified in a regulatory order issued pursuant to this section shall be considered a violation of this section.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

Washington State Code Reviser's Office