WSR 99-12-130

PROPOSED RULES

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH


[ Filed June 2, 1999, 11:44 a.m. ]

Original Notice.

Exempt from preproposal statement of inquiry under RCW 34.05.310(4).

Title of Rule: Requirements for transportation, areas of exclusive federal jurisdiction, dose constraints, and disposition of records.

Purpose: To bring radiation protection regulations into conformance with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules on transportation of radioactive material, disposition of records, reciprocal recognition of licenses in areas of exclusive federal jurisdiction, and dose constraint for air emissions. For clarity, the revisions for transportation are being consolidated into a new chapter.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 70.98.050.

Statute Being Implemented: RCW 70.98.050.

Summary: The proposed rule establishes a new chapter on transportation (chapter 246-231 WAC), clarifies the requirements for disposition of certain records upon license transfer or termination (WAC 246-221-170, 246-232-060, and 246-235-075), establishes a dose constraint for air emission of radionuclides (WAC 246-221-005 and 246-221-260), and clarifies that licensees must obtain reciprocal recognition when working in areas of exclusive federal jurisdiction (WAC 246-232-040).

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting, Implementation and Enforcement: Terry C. Frazee, Mailstop 47827, 7171 Cleanwater Lane, Tumwater, (360) 236-3221.

Name of Proponent: Department of Health, governmental.

Rule is necessary because of federal law, 60 FR 50247, 61 FR 24669, 61 FR 28723, 61 FR 65119, and 62 FR 1662.

Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: This rule updates and consolidates requirements for transportation of radioactive materials into a single chapter; requires a licensee to transfer records pertaining to site decommissioning, offsite releases and waste disposal to the new licensee or to the department; establishes a dose constraint for air emissions to assure that emissions do not exceed dose levels that EPA has determined will provide an ample margin of safety; and clarifies that department licensees must seek NRC permission before working in areas of exclusive federal jurisdiction within the state of Washington and elsewhere. These changes are required for compatibility with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). The anticipated effect of these changes is to bring our radioactive materials licensees into conformance with national standards.

Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: WAC 246-220-010 is amended to define "constraint," to amend the definition of "background," and move several definitions relating to transportation to a new chapter on transportation; WAC 246-220-110 and 246-220-120 are repealed and applicable requirements retained in the new chapter on transportation; WAC 246-221-005 is amended to require a dose constraint of 10 millirem per year be implemented as part of the licensee's ALARA program; WAC 246-221-160 is amended to correct cross references; WAC 246-221-170 is amended to specify where requirements for disposition of records are found; WAC 246-221-260 is amended to require reporting to the department when the licensee exceeds the dose constraint established in WAC 246-221-005; WAC 246-232-001 is amended to correct cross reference; WAC 246-232-040 is amended to clarify that department rules do not apply to areas under exclusive federal jurisdiction; WAC 246-232-060 is amended to specify transfer of decommissioning records to new licensees or to the department upon transfer.

No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. This rule change is exempt from the small business impact statement requirement under RCW 19.85.025(3) because it adopts federal regulations without material change. This rule includes several federal rule changes for which "regulatory flexibility certifications" were prepared stating that the "rule will not have a significant economic impact upon a substantial number of small entities."

RCW 34.05.328 does not apply to this rule adoption. Under RCW 34.05.328 (5)(b)(iii) and (iv), RCW 34.05.328 does not apply to this rule adoption because this rule adopts federal regulations without material change or clarifies the language of a rule or otherwise makes housekeeping changes. This rule is for conformance with the US NRC regulations and is mandatory under our agreement state status with the federal government.

Hearing Location: New Market Center, 7171 Cleanwater Lane, Building 5 Conference Room, Tumwater, WA, on July 6, 1999, at 10:00.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Terry Frazee, (360) 236-3221, by July 2, 1999, TDD (800) 833-6388.

Submit Written Comments to: Terry Frazee, fax (360) 236-2255, by July 6, 1999.

Date of Intended Adoption: July 8, 1999.

June 2, 1999

Mary Selecky

Secretary

OTS-3039.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-13-037, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98)

WAC 246-220-010
Definitions.

As used in these regulations, these terms have the definitions set forth below.  Additional definitions used only in a certain part will be found in that part.

(1) (("A1" means the maximum activity of special form radioactive material permitted to be transported in a Type A package.  "A2" means the maximum activity of normal form radioactive material permitted to be transported in a Type A package.  A1 and A2 values are assigned to individual radionuclides and are tabulated in WAC 246-220-110, Appendix A.  Methods of calculating values are also given.

(2))) "Absorbed dose" means the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material.  The units of absorbed dose are the gray (Gy) and the rad.

(((3))) (2) "Accelerator produced material" means any material made radioactive by exposing it in a particle accelerator.

(((4))) (3) "Act" means Nuclear energy and radiation, chapter 70.98 RCW.

(((5))) (4) "Activity" means the rate of disintegration or transformation or decay of radioactive material.  The units of activity are the becquerel (Bq) and the curie (Ci).

(((6))) (5) "Adult" means an individual eighteen or more years of age.

(((7))) (6) "Agreement state" means any state with which the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has entered into an effective agreement under section 274 b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (73 Stat. 689).

(((8))) (7) "Airborne radioactive material" means any radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of particulates, dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases.

(((9))) (8) "Airborne radioactivity area" means a room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive material exists in concentrations (a) in excess of the derived air concentration (DAC) specified in WAC 246-221-290, Appendix A, or (b) to such a degree that an individual present in the area without respiratory protective equipment could exceed, during the hours an individual is present in a week, an intake of 0.6 percent of the annual limit on intake (ALI) or twelve DAC-hours.

(((10))) (9) "Alert" means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a release of radioactive material but that the release is not expected to require a response by offsite response organizations to protect persons offsite.

(((11))) (10) "Annual limit on intake" (ALI) means the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year.  ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem) or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to any individual organ or tissue.  ALI values for intake by ingestion and by inhalation of selected radionuclides are given in WAC 246-221-290.

(((12))) (11) "Background radiation" means radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon, except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material, and including global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation and are not under the control of the licensee. "Background radiation" does not include sources of radiation from radioactive materials regulated by the department.

(((13))) (12) "Becquerel" (Bq) means the SI unit of activity.  One becquerel is equal to 1 disintegration or transformation per second (s-1).

(((14))) (13) "Bioassay" means the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement, in vivo counting, or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body.  For purposes of these regulations, "radiobioassay" is an equivalent term.

(((15))) (14) "Byproduct material" means: (a) Any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material, and (b) the tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium or thorium solution extraction processes.  Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute "byproduct material" within this definition.

(((16))) (15) "Calendar quarter" means not less than twelve consecutive weeks nor more than fourteen consecutive weeks.  The first calendar quarter of each year shall begin in January and subsequent calendar quarters shall be so arranged such that no day is included in more than one calendar quarter and no day in any one year is omitted from inclusion within a calendar quarter.  No licensee or registrant shall change the method of determining calendar quarters for purposes of these regulations except at the beginning of a calendar year.

(((17))) (16) "Calibration" means the determination of (a) the response or reading of an instrument relative to a series of known radiation values over the range of the instrument, or (b) the strength of a source of radiation relative to a standard.

(((18))) (17) "CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations.

(((19))) (18) "Class" means a classification scheme for inhaled material according to its rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung.  Materials are classified as D, W, or Y, which applies to a range of clearance half-times: For Class D, Days, of less than ten days, for Class W, Weeks, from ten to one hundred days, and for Class Y, Years, of greater than one hundred days.  For purposes of these regulations, "lung class" and "inhalation class" are equivalent terms.  For "class of waste" see WAC 246-249-040.

(((20))) (19) "Collective dose" means the sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.

(((21))) (20) "Committed dose equivalent" (HT,50) means the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the fifty-year period following the intake.

(((22))) (21) "Committed effective dose equivalent" (HE,50) is the sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to each of these organs or tissues (HE,50= &Sgr; wT,HT,50).

(22) "Constraint" or dose constraint means a value above which specified licensee actions are required.

(23) "Controlled area." See "Restricted area."

(24) "Curie" means a unit of quantity of radioactivity.  One curie (Ci) is that quantity of radioactive material which decays at the rate of 3.7 x 1010 transformations per second (tps).

(25) "Declared pregnant woman" means a woman who has voluntarily informed her employer, in writing, of her pregnancy, and her estimated date of conception.

(26) "Deep dose equivalent" (Hd), which applies to external whole body exposure, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 1 centimeter (1000 mg/cm2).

(27) "Department" means the department of health, division of radiation protection, which has been designated as the state radiation control agency.

(28) "Depleted uranium" means the source material uranium in which the isotope Uranium-235 is less than 0.711 percent by weight of the total uranium present.  Depleted uranium does not include special nuclear material.

(29) "Derived air concentration" (DAC) means the concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed by the reference man for a working year of two thousand hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of one ALI.  For purposes of these regulations, the condition of light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2 cubic meters of air per hour for two thousand hours in a year.  DAC values are given in WAC 246-221-290.

(30) "Derived air concentration-hour" (DAC-hour) means the product of the concentration of radioactive material in air, expressed as a fraction or multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide, and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours.  A licensee or registrant may take two thousand DAC-hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem).

(31) "Dose" is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, total organ dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent.  For purposes of these regulations, "radiation dose" is an equivalent term.

(32) "Dose commitment" means the total radiation dose to a part of the body that will result from retention in the body of radioactive material.  For purposes of estimating the dose commitment, it is assumed that from the time of intake the period of exposure to retained material will not exceed fifty years.

(33) "Dose equivalent (HT)" means the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest.  The units of dose equivalent are the sievert (Sv) and rem.

(34) "Dose limits" means the permissible upper bounds of radiation doses established in accordance with these regulations.  For purposes of these regulations, "limits" is an equivalent term.

(35) "Dosimetry processor" means a person that processes and evaluates individual monitoring devices in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the monitoring devices.

(36) "dpm" means disintegrations per minute.  See also "curie."

(37) "Effective dose equivalent (HE)" means the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to each organ or tissue (HT) and the weighting factor (wT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated (HE= &Sgr; wTHT).

(38) "Embryo/fetus" means the developing human organism from conception until the time of birth.

(39) "Entrance or access point" means any opening through which an individual or extremity of an individual could gain access to radiation areas or to licensed radioactive materials.  This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, without respect to their intended use.

(40) "Exposure" means (a), when used as a verb, being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material, or (b), when used as a noun, the quotient of &Dgr;Q by &Dgr;m where "&Dgr;Q" is the absolute value of the total charge of the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons (negatrons and positrons) liberated by photons in a volume element of air having mass "&Dgr;m" are completely stopped in air.  The special unit of exposure is the roentgen (R) and the SI equivalent is the coulomb per kilogram.  One roentgen is equal to 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb per kilogram of air.

(41) "Exposure rate" means the exposure per unit of time, such as roentgen per minute and milliroentgen per hour.

(42) "External dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from any source of radiation outside the body.

(43) "Extremity" means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee, and leg below the knee.

(44) "Eye dose equivalent" means the external dose equivalent to the lens of the eye at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeter (300 mg/cm2).

(45) "Former United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) or United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed facilities" means nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment plants, or critical mass experimental facilities where AEC or NRC licenses have been terminated.

(46) "Generally applicable environmental radiation standards" means standards issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, that impose limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.

(47) "Gray" (Gy) means the SI unit of absorbed dose.  One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 joule/kilogram (100 rad).

(48) "Healing arts" means the disciplines of medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, and veterinary medicine.

(49) "High radiation area" means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from any source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.  For purposes of these regulations, rooms or areas in which diagnostic x-ray systems are used for healing arts purposes are not considered high radiation areas.

(50) (("Highway route controlled quantity" means a quantity of radioactive material in a single package which exceeds:

(a) 3,000 times the A1 or A2 quantity as appropriate; or

(b) 30,000 curies, whichever is less.

(51))) "Human use" means the intentional internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

(((52))) (51) "Immediate" or "immediately" means as soon as possible but no later than four hours after the initiating condition.

(((53))) (52) "IND" means investigatory new drug for which an exemption has been claimed under the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (Title 21 CFR).

(((54))) (53) "Individual" means any human being.

(((55))) (54) "Individual monitoring" means the assessment of:

(a) Dose equivalent (i) by the use of individual monitoring devices or (ii) by the use of survey data; or

(b) Committed effective dose equivalent (i) by bioassay or (ii) by determination of the time-weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed, that is, DAC-hours.

(((56))) (55) "Individual monitoring devices" means devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent.  For purposes of these regulations, individual monitoring equipment, personnel monitoring device, personnel dosimeter, and dosimeter are equivalent terms.  Examples of individual monitoring devices are film badges, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), pocket ionization chambers, and personal air sampling devices.

(((57))) (56) "Inspection" means an official examination or observation by the department including but not limited to, tests, surveys, and monitoring to determine compliance with rules, regulations, orders, requirements and conditions of the department.

(((58))) (57) "Interlock" means a device arranged or connected such that the occurrence of an event or condition is required before a second event or condition can occur or continue to occur.

(((59))) (58) "Internal dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.

(((60))) (59) "Irretrievable source" means any sealed source containing licensed material which is pulled off or not connected to the wireline downhole and for which all reasonable effort at recovery, as determined by the department, has been expended.

(((61))) (60) "License" means a license issued by the department in accordance with the regulations adopted by the department.

(((62))) (61) "Licensed material" means radioactive material received, possessed, used, transferred, or disposed under a general or specific license issued by the department.

(((63))) (62) "Licensee" means any person who is licensed by the department in accordance with these regulations and the act.

(((64))) (63) "Licensing state" means any state with regulations equivalent to the suggested state regulations for control of radiation relating to, and an effective program for, the regulatory control of NARM and which has been granted final designation by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc.

(((65))) (64) "Lost or missing licensed material" means licensed material whose location is unknown.  This definition includes licensed material that has been shipped but has not reached its planned destination and whose location cannot be readily traced in the transportation system.

(((66) "Major processor" means a user processing, handling, or manufacturing radioactive material exceeding Type A quantities as unsealed sources or material, or exceeding four times Type B quantities as sealed sources, but does not include nuclear medicine programs, universities, industrial radiographers, or small industrial programs.  Type A and B quantities are defined in Section 71.4 of 10 CFR Part 71.

(67))) (65) "Member of the public" means an individual except when the individual is receiving an occupational dose.

(((68))) (66) "Minor" means an individual less than eighteen years of age.

(((69))) (67) "Monitoring" means the measurement of radiation, radioactive material concentrations, surface area activities or quantities of radioactive material and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses.  For purposes of these regulations, radiation monitoring and radiation protection monitoring are equivalent terms.

(((70))) (68) "NARM" means any naturally occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material. It does not include by-product, source, or special nuclear material.  For the purpose of meeting the definition of a Licensing State by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD), NARM refers only to discrete sources of NARM.  Diffuse sources of NARM are excluded from consideration by the CRCPD for Licensing State designation purposes.

(((71))) (69) "Natural radioactivity" means radioactivity of naturally occurring nuclides.

(((72))) (70) "NDA" means a new drug application which has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration.

(((73))) (71) "Nonstochastic effect" means a health effect, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist.  Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect.  For purposes of these regulations, a "deterministic effect" is an equivalent term.

(((74) "Normal form radioactive material" means radioactive material which has not been demonstrated to qualify as "special form radioactive material."

(75))) (72) "Nuclear Regulatory Commission" (NRC) means the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its duly authorized representatives.

(((76) "Nuclear waste" as used in WAC 246-232-090(5) means any quantity of source or byproduct material, (not including radiography sources being returned to the manufacturer) required to be in Type B packaging while transported to, through, or across state boundaries to a disposal site, or to a collection point for transport to a disposal site.  Nuclear waste, as used in these regulations, is a special classification of radioactive waste.

(77))) (73) "Occupational dose" means the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties involve exposure to radiation or to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the licensee, registrant, or other person.  Occupational dose does not include dose received: From background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released pursuant to chapters 246-239 and 246-240 WAC, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, or as a member of the public.

(((78))) (74) "Ore refineries" means all processors of a radioactive material ore.

(((79) "Package" means the packaging together with its radioactive contents as presented for transport.

(80))) (75) "Particle accelerator" means any machine capable of accelerating electrons, protons, deuterons, or other charged particles in a vacuum and of discharging the resultant particulate or other radiation into a medium at energies usually in excess of 1 MeV.

(((81))) (76) "Permittee" means a person who has applied for, and received, a valid site use permit for use of the low-level waste disposal facility at Hanford, Washington.

(((82))) (77) "Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, agency, political subdivision of this state, any other state or political subdivision or agency thereof, and any legal successor, representative, agent or agency of the foregoing, but shall not include federal government agencies.

(((83))) (78) "Personal supervision" means supervision such that the supervisor is physically present at the facility and in such proximity that contact can be maintained and immediate assistance given as required.

(((84))) (79) "Personnel monitoring equipment." See individual monitoring devices.

(((85))) (80) "Pharmacist" means an individual licensed by this state to compound and dispense drugs, and poisons.

(((86))) (81) "Physician" means an individual licensed by this state to prescribe and dispense drugs in the practice of medicine.

(((87))) (82) "Planned special exposure" means an infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual occupational dose limits.

(((88))) (83) "Practitioner" means an individual licensed by the state in the practice of a healing art (i.e., physician, dentist, podiatrist, chiropractor, etc.).

(((89))) (84) "Public dose" means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to sources of radiation under the licensee's or registrant's control or to radiation or radioactive material released by the licensee.  Public dose does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released pursuant to chapters 246-239 and 246-240 WAC, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

(((90))) (85) "Qualified expert" means an individual who has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department he/she has the knowledge, training, and experience to measure ionizing radiation, to evaluate safety techniques, and to advise regarding radiation protection needs.  The department reserves the right to recognize the qualifications of an individual in specific areas of radiation protection.

(((91))) (86) "Quality factor" (Q) means the modifying factor, listed in Tables I and II, that is used to derive dose equivalent from absorbed dose.


TABLE I
QUALITY FACTORS AND ABSORBED DOSE EQUIVALENCIES


TYPE OF RADIATION


Quality Factor

(Q)


Absorbed Dose Equal to

A Unit Dose Equivalenta


X, gamma, or beta radiation

and high-speed electrons

11
Alpha particles, multiple-

charged particles, fission

fragments and heavy particles of unknown charge

200.05
Neutrons of unknown energy100.1
High-energy protons
10
0.1

aAbsorbed dose in rad equal to 1 rem or the absorbed dose in gray equal to 1 Sv.

If it is more convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate rather than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in sievert per hour or rem per hour as required for Table I, then 0.01 Sv (1 rem) of neutron radiation of unknown energies may, for purposes of these regulations, be assumed to result from a total fluence of 25 million neutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body.  If sufficient information exists to estimate the approximate energy distribution of the neutrons, the licensee or registrant may use the fluence rate per unit dose equivalent or the appropriate Q value from Table II to convert a measured tissue dose in gray or rad to dose equivalent in sievert or rem.

TABLE II
MEAN QUALITY FACTORS, Q, AND FLUENCE PER UNIT DOSE

EQUIVALENT FOR MONOENERGETIC NEUTRONS


Neutron

Energy

(MeV)


Quality Factora

(Q)


Fluence per Unit

Dose Equivalentb

(neutrons

cm-2 rem-1)


Fluence per Unit

Dose Equivalentb

(neutrons

cm-2 Sv-1)


(thermal)2.5 x 10-8

2

980 x 106

980 x 108
1 x 10-72980 x 106980 x 108
1 x 10-62810 x 106810 x 108
1 x 10-52810 x 106810 x 108
1 x 10-42840 x 106840 x 108
1 x 10-32980 x 106980 x 108
1 x 10-22.51010 x 1061010 x 108
1 x 10-17.5170 x 106170 x 108
5 x 10-11139 x 10639 x 108
11127 x 10627 x 108
2.5929 x 10629 x 108
5823 x 10623 x 108
7724 x 10624 x 108
106.524 x 10624 x 108
147.517 x 10617 x 108
20816 x 10616 x 108
40714 x 10614 x 108
605.516 x 10616 x 108
1 x 102420 x 10620 x 108
2 x 1023.519 x 10619 x 108
3 x 1023.516 x 10616 x 108
4 x 1023.514 x 10614 x 108

aValue of quality factor (Q) at the point where the dose equivalent is maximum in a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.

bMonoenergetic neutrons incident normally on a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.

(((92))) (87) "Quarter" means a period of time equal to one-fourth of the year observed by the licensee, approximately thirteen consecutive weeks, providing that the beginning of the first quarter in a year coincides with the starting date of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive quarters.

(((93))) (88) "Rad" means the special unit of absorbed dose.  One rad equals one-hundredth of a joule per kilogram of material; for example, if tissue is the material of interest, then 1 rad equals 100 ergs per gram of tissue.  One rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg/gram or 0.01 joule/kilogram (0.01 gray).

(((94))) (89) "Radiation" means alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other particles capable of producing ions.  For purposes of these regulations, ionizing radiation is an equivalent term.  Radiation, as used in these regulations, does not include magnetic fields or nonionizing radiation, such as radiowaves or microwaves, visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light.

(((95))) (90) "Radiation area" means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.05 mSv (0.005 rem) in one hour at thirty centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

(((96))) (91) "Radiation machine" means any device capable of producing ionizing radiation except those devices with radioactive materials as the only source of radiation.

(((97))) (92) "Radiation safety officer" means an individual who has the knowledge and responsibility to apply appropriate radiation protection regulations and has been assigned such responsibility by the licensee or registrant.

(((98))) (93) "Radiation source." See "Source of radiation."

(((99))) (94) "Radioactive material" means any material (solid, liquid, or gas) which emits radiation spontaneously.

(((100))) (95) "Radioactive waste" means any radioactive material which is no longer of use and intended for disposal or treatment for the purposes of disposal.

(((101))) (96) "Radioactivity" means the transformation of unstable atomic nuclei by the emission of radiation.

(((102))) (97) "Reference man" means a hypothetical aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics determined by international consensus.  These characteristics may be used by researchers and public health workers to standardize results of experiments and to relate biological insult to a common base.

(((103))) (98) "Registrable item" means any radiation machine except those exempted by RCW 70.98.180 or exempted by the department pursuant to the authority of RCW 70.98.080.

(((104))) (99) "Registrant" means any person who is registered by the department or is legally obligated to register with the department in accordance with these regulations and the act.

(((105))) (100) "Registration" means registration with the department in accordance with the regulations adopted by the department.

(((106))) (101) "Regulations of the United States Department of Transportation" means the regulations in 49 CFR Parts 170-189, 14 CFR Part 103, and 46 CFR Part 146.

(((107))) (102) "Rem" means the special unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent.  The dose equivalent in rem is equal to the absorbed dose in rad multiplied by the quality factor (1 rem= 0.01 Sv).

(((108))) (103) "Research and development" means: (a) Theoretical analysis, exploration, or experimentation; or (b) the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes.  Research and development does not include the internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

(((109))) (104) "Respiratory protective equipment" means an apparatus, such as a respirator, used to reduce an individual's intake of airborne radioactive materials.

(((110))) (105) "Restricted area" means any area to which access is limited by the licensee or registrant for purposes of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to radiation and radioactive material.  "Restricted area" shall not include any areas used for residential quarters, although a separate room or rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area.

(((111))) (106) "Roentgen" (R) means the special unit of exposure.  One roentgen equals 2.58 x 10-4 coulombs/kilogram of air.

(((112))) (107) "Sanitary sewerage" means a system of public sewers for carrying off waste water and refuse, but excluding sewage treatment facilities, septic tanks, and leach fields owned or operated by the licensee or registrant.

(((113))) (108) "Sealed source" means any device containing radioactive material to be used as a source of radiation which has been constructed in such a manner as to prevent the escape of any radioactive material.

(((114))) (109) "Shallow dose equivalent" (Hs), which applies to the external exposure of the skin or an extremity, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.007 centimeter (7 mg/cm2) averaged over an area of 1 square centimeter.

(((115))) (110) "SI" means an abbreviation of the International System of Units.

(((116))) (111) "Sievert" means the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent.  The dose equivalent in sievert is equal to the absorbed dose in gray multiplied by the quality factor (1 Sv= 100 rem).

(((117))) (112) "Site area emergency" means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a significant release of radioactive material and that could require a response by offsite response organizations to protect persons offsite.

(((118))) (113) "Site boundary" means that line beyond which the land or property is not owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the licensee or registrant.

(((119))) (114) "Source container" means a device in which radioactive material is transported or stored.

(((120))) (115) "Source material" means: (a) Uranium or thorium, or any combination thereof, in any physical or chemical form, or (b) ores which contain by weight one-twentieth of one percent (0.05 percent) or more of (i) uranium, (ii) thorium, or (iii) any combination thereof.  Source material does not include special nuclear material.

(((121))) (116) "Source material milling" means the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processing primarily for its source material content.

(((122))) (117) "Source of radiation" means any radioactive material, or any device or equipment emitting or capable of producing ionizing radiation.

(((123) "Special form radioactive material" means radioactive material which satisfies the following conditions:

(a) It is either a single solid piece or is contained in a sealed capsule that can only be opened by destroying the capsule;

(b) The piece or capsule has at least one dimension not less than five millimeters (0.197 inch); and

(c) It satisfies the test requirements specified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.  A special form encapsulation designed in accordance with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements in effect on June 30, 1983, and constructed prior to July 1, 1985, may continue to be used.  A special form encapsulation either designed or constructed after June 30, 1985, must meet requirements of this definition applicable at the time of its design or construction.

(124))) (118) "Special nuclear material" means:

(a) Plutonium, uranium-233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, pursuant to the provisions of section 51 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or

(b) Any material artificially enriched in any of the foregoing, but does not include source material.

(((125))) (119) "Special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass" means uranium enriched in the isotope U-235 in quantities not exceeding three hundred fifty grams of contained U-235; Uranium-233 in quantities not exceeding two hundred grams; Plutonium in quantities not exceeding two hundred grams; or any combination of them in accordance with the following formula: For each kind of special nuclear material, determine the ratio between the quantity of that special nuclear material and the quantity specified above for the same kind of special nuclear material.  The sum of such ratios for all of the kinds of special nuclear material in combination shall not exceed "1" (i.e., unity). For example, the following quantities in combination would not exceed the limitation and are within the formula:

175(grams contained U-235)


350

+
50(grams U-233)


200

+
50(grams Pu)


200

< 1
(((126))) (120) "Stochastic effect" means a health effect that occurs randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold.  Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects.  For purposes of these regulations, probabilistic effect is an equivalent term.

(((127))) (121) "Survey" means an evaluation of the radiological conditions and potential hazards incident to the production, use, release, disposal, or presence of sources of radiation.  When appropriate, such evaluation includes, but is not limited to, tests, physical examinations, calculations and measurements of levels of radiation or concentration of radioactive material present.

(((128))) (122) "Test" means (a) the process of verifying compliance with an applicable regulation, or (b) a method for determining the characteristics or condition of sources of radiation or components thereof.

(((129))) (123) "These regulations" mean all parts of the rules for radiation protection of the state of Washington.

(((130))) (124) "Total effective dose equivalent" (TEDE) means the sum of the deep dose equivalent for external exposures and the committed effective dose equivalent for internal exposures.

(((131))) (125) "Total organ dose equivalent (TODE)" means the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to the organ or tissue receiving the highest dose.

(((132) "Type A packaging" means packaging designed in accordance with 49 CFR 173.411 and 173.412 to retain its integral containment and shielding under normal conditions of transport as demonstrated by tests described in 49 CFR 173.465 or 173.466 as appropriate.  The contents are limited to A1 or A2 quantities.  The package does not require competent authority approval.

(133) "Type A quantity" means a quantity of radioactive material less than or equal to the A1 or A2 value for a single radionuclide, or for which the sum of the fractions does not exceed unity for a mixture of radionuclides.

(134) "Type B packaging" means packaging approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the transport of quantities of radioactivity in excess of A1 or A2.  It is defined in detail in 10 CFR 71.4.

(135) "Type B quantity" means a quantity of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity.  It requires Type B packaging for transportation.

(136))) (126) "United States Department of Energy" means the Department of Energy established by Public Law 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565, 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq., to the extent that the department exercises functions formerly vested in the United States Atomic Energy Commission, its chairman, members, officers and components and transferred to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration and to the administrator thereof pursuant to sections 104 (b), (c) and (d) of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-438, October 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233 at 1237, 42 U.S.C. 5814 effective January 19, 1975) and retransferred to the Secretary of Energy pursuant to section 301(a) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565 at 577-578, 42 U.S.C. 7151, effective October 1, 1977).

(((137))) (127) "Unrefined and unprocessed ore" means ore in its natural form prior to any processing, such as grinding, roasting, beneficiating, or refining.

(((138))) (128) "Unrestricted area" (uncontrolled area) means any area which is not a restricted area.  Areas where the external dose exceeds 2 mrem in any one hour or where the public dose, taking into account occupancy factors, will exceed 100 mrem total effective dose equivalent in any one year must be restricted.

(((139))) (129) "Very high radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving an absorbed dose in excess of 5 Gy (500 rad) in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

(((140))) (130) "Waste handling licensees" mean persons licensed to receive and store radioactive wastes prior to disposal and/or persons licensed to dispose of radioactive waste.

(((141))) (131) "Week" means seven consecutive days starting on Sunday.

(((142))) (132) "Weighting factor" wT for an organ or tissue (T) means the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly.  For calculating the effective dose equivalent, the values of wT are:


ORGAN DOSE WEIGHTING FACTORS
Organ or

Tissue

wT


Gonads

0.25
Breast0.15
Red bone marrow0.12
Lung0.12
Thyroid0.03
Bone surfaces0.03
Remainder0.30a

Whole Body

1.00b

a0.30 results form 0.06 for each of 5 "remainder” organs, excluding the skin and the lens of the eye, that receive the highest doses.

bFor the purpose of weighting the external whole body dose, for adding it to the internal dose, a single weighting factor, wT=1.0, has been specified. The use of other weighting factors for external exposure will be approved on a case-by-case basis until such time as specific guidance is issued.

(((143))) (133) "Whole body" means, for purposes of external exposure, head, trunk including male gonads, arms above the elbow, or legs above the knee.

(((144))) (134) "Worker" means an individual engaged in activities under a license or registration issued by the department and controlled by a licensee or registrant but does not include the licensee or registrant. Where the licensee or registrant is an individual rather than one of the other legal entities defined under "person," the radiation exposure limits for the worker also apply to the individual who is the licensee or registrant. If students of age eighteen years or older are subjected routinely to work involving radiation, then the students are considered to be workers. Individuals of less than eighteen years of age shall meet the requirements of WAC 246-221-050.

(((145))) (135) "Working level" (WL) means any combination of short-lived radon daughters in 1 liter of air that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3 x 105 MeV of potential alpha particle energy. The short-lived radon daughters are -- for radon-222: polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214, and polonium-214; and for radon-220: polonium-216, lead-212, bismuth-212, and polonium-212.

(((146))) (136) "Working level month" (WLM) means an exposure to one working level for one hundred seventy hours -- two thousand working hours per year divided by twelve months per year is approximately equal to one hundred seventy hours per month.

(((147))) (137) "Year" means the period of time beginning in January used to determine compliance with the provisions of these regulations. The licensee or registrant may change the starting date of the year used to determine compliance by the licensee or registrant provided that the change is made at the beginning of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive years.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  98-13-037, 246-220-010, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98; 95-01-108, 246-220-010, filed 12/21/94, effective 1/21/95; 94-01-073, 246-220-010, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. 91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-220-010, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-220-010, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. 87-01-031 (Order 2450), 402-12-050, filed 12/11/86; 83-19-050 (Order 2026), 402-12-050, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.121 RCW. 81-16-031 (Order 1683), 402-12-050, filed 7/28/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. 81-01-011 (Order 1570), 402-12-050, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, 402-12-050, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, 402-12-050, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, 402-12-050, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, 402-12-050, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]


REPEALER

     The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:
WAC 246-220-110Appendix A--Determination of A1 and A2 values.
WAC 246-220-120Appendix B--Information on transportation special form licensed material.

OTS-3038.3


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 94-01-073, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94)

WAC 246-221-005
Radiation protection programs.

(1) Each specific licensee shall develop, document, and implement a radiation protection program sufficient to ensure compliance with the provisions of this chapter.

(2) The licensee shall use, to the extent practicable, procedures and engineering controls based upon sound radiation protection principles to achieve occupational doses and doses to members of the public that are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA).

(3) The licensee shall review the radiation protection program content and implementation at the frequency specified in the license.

(4) To implement the ALARA requirements of subsection (2) of this section, and notwithstanding the requirements of WAC 246-221-060, a constraint on air emission of radioactive material to the environment, excluding radon-222 and its daughters, shall be established by licensees such that the individual member of the public likely to receive the highest dose will not be expected to receive a total effective dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) per year from these emissions. If a licensee subject to this requirement exceeds this dose constraint, the licensee shall report the exceedance as provided in WAC 246-221-260 and promptly take appropriate corrective action to ensure against recurrence.

(5) Each licensee shall maintain records of the radiation protection program, including:

(a) The provisions of the program; and

(b) Audits, where required, and other reviews of program content and implementation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  94-01-073, 246-221-005, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 94-01-073, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94)

WAC 246-221-160
Procedures for picking up, receiving, and opening packages.

(1)(a) Each licensee who expects to receive a package containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of the Type A1 or A2 quantities specified in WAC ((246-220-110)) 246-231-200 shall make arrangements to receive:

(i) The package when it is offered for delivery by the carrier; or

(ii) Immediate notification from the carrier of the arrival of the package at the carrier's terminal.

(b) Each licensee who picks up a package of radioactive material from a carrier's terminal shall pick up the package expeditiously upon receipt of notification from the carrier of its arrival.

(2) Each licensee shall:

(a) Monitor for radioactive contamination the external surfaces of any package labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II or Yellow III label unless the package contains only radioactive material in the form of gas or in special form as defined in WAC ((246-220-010 and 246-220-120)) 246-231-010; and

(b) Monitor the radiation levels of the external surfaces of any package labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II or Yellow III label unless the package contains quantities of radioactive material that are less than or equal to the Type A quantity, as defined in WAC ((246-220-110)) 246-231-200; and

(c) Monitor all packages known to contain radioactive material for radioactive contamination and radiation levels if the package has evidence of potential contamination, such as packages that are crushed, wet, or damaged.

(3) The monitoring shall be performed:

(a) Immediately upon receipt if there is evidence of package degradation or any other evidence of potential contamination or excessive radiation levels; or

(b) As soon as practicable after receipt, but no later than three hours after the package is received at the licensee's facility if received during the licensee's normal working hours, or no later than three hours from the beginning of the next working day if received after normal working hours.

(4) The licensee shall immediately notify the final delivery carrier and, by telephone and telegram, mailgram, or facsimile, the department when:

(a) For normal shipments, removable radioactive surface contamination exceeds either 22 dpm/cm2 for beta-gamma emitting radionuclides, all radionuclides with half-lives less than ten days, natural uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, and thorium-228 and thorium 230 when contained in ores or concentrates; or 2.2 dpm/cm2 for all other alpha emitting radionuclides; or

(b) For exclusive use shipments, removable radioactive surface contamination exceeds either 220 dpm/cm2 for beta-gamma emitting radionuclides, all radionuclides with half-lives less than ten days, natural uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, and thorium-228 and thorium 230 when contained in ores or concentrates; or 22 dpm/cm2 for all other alpha emitting radionuclides; or

(c) For normal or exclusive use shipments, external radiation levels exceed two mSv/hour (200 millirem per hour) at any point on the external surface of the package; or

(d) For exclusive use shipments where the shipment is made in a closed transport vehicle, packages are secured in a fixed position, and no loading or unloading occurs between the beginning and end of transportation, external radiation levels exceed ten mSv/hour (1000 millirem per hour) at any point on the external surface of the package.

(5) Each licensee shall establish and maintain procedures for safely opening packages in which radioactive material is received, and shall assure that such procedures are followed and that due consideration is given to instructions for the type of package being opened and the monitoring of potentially contaminated packaging material (including packages containing radioactive material in gaseous form) to assure that only background levels of radiation are present prior to disposal of such material as nonradioactive waste.  

(6) Licensees transferring special form sources to and from a work site in vehicles owned or operated by the licensee are exempt from the contamination monitoring requirements of subsection (2)(a) of this section but are not exempt from the monitoring requirement in subsection (2)(b) of this section for measuring radiation levels to ensure that the source is still properly lodged in its shield.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  94-01-073, 246-221-160, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-221-160, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-221-160, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  87-01-031 (Order 2450), 402-24-125, filed 12/11/86; 83-19-050 (Order 2026), 402-24-125, filed 9/16/83.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  81-01-011 (Order 1570), 402-24-125, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, 402-24-125, filed 2/6/76.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 94-01-073, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94)

WAC 246-221-170
Waste disposal, general requirement.

(1) No licensee shall dispose of any radioactive material except:

(a) By transfer to an authorized recipient as provided in WAC 246-232-080, or chapter 246-249 WAC; or

(b) As authorized pursuant to WAC 246-221-070, 246-221-180, 246-221-190, 246-221-200, 246-221-210, or 246-221-220.

(c) By decay in storage as authorized in a specific license.

(2) A person shall be specifically licensed to receive waste containing licensed material from other persons for:

(a) Treatment prior to disposal; or

(b) Treatment or disposal by incineration; or

(c) Decay in storage; or

(d) Disposal at a land disposal facility licensed pursuant to chapter 246-250 WAC; or

(e) Storage until transferred to a disposal facility authorized to receive the waste.

(3) Nothing in chapter 246-221 WAC relieves the licensee from complying with other applicable federal, state, and local regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed pursuant to this chapter.

(4) Each licensee shall maintain records of all transfers and disposals of radioactive material. Requirements for the disposition of certain disposal records, prior to license termination, are located in WAC 246-232-060.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  94-01-073, 246-221-170, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-221-170, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-221-170, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  81-01-011 (Order 1570), 402-24-130, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, 402-24-130, filed 2/6/76; Order 1, 402-24-130, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-01-108, filed 12/21/94, effective 1/21/95)

WAC 246-221-260
Reports of overexposures and excessive levels and concentrations.

(1) In addition to any notification required by WAC 246-221-250, each licensee or registrant shall submit a written report to the department within thirty days after learning of any of the following occurrences:

(a) Incidents for which notification is required by WAC 246-221-250; or

(b) Doses in excess of any of the following:

(i) The occupational dose limits for adults in WAC 246-221-010; or

(ii) The occupational dose limits for a minor in WAC 246-221-050; or

(iii) The limits for an embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman in WAC 246-221-055; or

(iv) The limits for an individual member of the public in WAC 246-221-060; or

(v) Any applicable limit in the license; or

(vi) The ALARA constraints for air emissions established under WAC 246-221-005; or

(c) Levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material in:

(i) A restricted area in excess of applicable limits in the license; or

(ii) An unrestricted area in excess of ten times the applicable limit set forth in this chapter or in the license or registration, whether or not involving exposure of any individual in excess of the limits in WAC 246-221-060; or

(d) For source materials milling licensees and nuclear power plants subject to the provisions of United States Environmental Protection Agency's generally applicable environmental radiation standards in 40 CFR 190, levels of radiation or releases of radioactive material in excess of those standards, or of license conditions related to those standards.

(2) Each report required by subsection (1) of this section shall describe:

(a) The incident and its exact location, time and date;

(b) The extent of exposure of individuals to radiation or to radioactive material, including estimates of each individual's dose as required by subsection (3) of this section;

(c) Levels of radiation and concentrations of radioactive material involved, including the radionuclides, quantities, and chemical and physical form;

(d) The cause or probable cause of the exposure, levels of radiation or concentrations;

(e) The manufacturer and model number (if applicable) of any equipment that failed or malfunctioned;

(f) The results of any evaluations or assessments; and

(g) Corrective steps taken or planned to assure against a recurrence, including the schedule for achieving conformance with applicable limits, ALARA constraints, generally applicable environmental standards, and associated license conditions.

(3) Each report filed with the department pursuant to this section shall include for each individual exposed the name, social security number, and date of birth, and an estimate of the individual's dose.  With respect to the limit for the embryo/fetus in WAC 246-221-055, the identifiers should be those of the declared pregnant woman.  The report shall be prepared so that this information is stated in a separate and detachable part of the report.

(4) Individuals shall be notified of reports in accordance with the requirements of WAC 246-222-040.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  95-01-108, 246-221-260, filed 12/21/94, effective 1/21/95; 94-01-073, 246-221-260, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-221-260, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-221-260, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  81-01-011 (Order 1570), 402-24-200, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, 402-24-200, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, 402-24-200, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, 402-24-200, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, 402-24-200, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]

OTS-2983.3

Chapter 246-231 WAC

PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

APPENDIX A--DETERMINATION OF A1 AND A2
NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-001
Purpose and scope.

(1) This chapter establishes requirements for packaging, preparation for shipment, and transportation of radioactive material.

(2) These rules are in addition to applicable requirements of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Postal Service1, and other requirements of Title 246 WAC.

(3) The regulations in this chapter apply to any licensee authorized by specific or general license issued by the department to receive, possess, use, or transfer licensed material, if the licensee delivers that material to a carrier for transport, transports the material outside the site of usage as specified in the license, or transports that material on public highways. No provision of this chapter authorizes possession of licensed material.


1Postal Service Manual (Domestic Mail Manual), section 124.3, which is incorporated by reference at 39 CFR 111.1.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-005
Requirement for license.

No person shall deliver radioactive material to a carrier for transport or transport radioactive material except as authorized in a general or specific license issued by the department, or as exempted in this chapter.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-010
Definitions.

The following terms are as defined here for the purpose of this chapter. To ensure compatibility with international transportation standards, all limits in this chapter are given in terms of dual units: The International System of Units (SI) followed or preceded by U.S. standard or customary units. The U.S. customary units are not exact equivalents, but are rounded to a convenient value, providing a functionally equivalent unit. For the purpose of this chapter, either unit may be used.

(1) "A1" means the maximum activity of special form radioactive material permitted in a Type A package.

(2) "A2" means the maximum activity of radioactive material, other than special form, LSA and SCO material, permitted in a Type A package. These values are either listed in WAC 246-231-200, Table A-1, or may be derived in accordance with the procedure prescribed in WAC 246-231-200.

(3) "Carrier" means a person engaged in the transportation of passengers or property by land or water as a common, contract, or private carrier, or by civil aircraft.

(4) "Certificate holder" means a person who has been issued a certificate of compliance or other package approval by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC).

(5) "Close reflection by water" means immediate contact by water of sufficient thickness for maximum reflection of neutrons.

(6) "Containment system" means the assembly of components of the packaging intended to retain the radioactive material during transport.

(7) "Conveyance" means:

(a) For transport by public highway or rail any transport vehicle or large freight container;

(b) For transport by water any vessel, or any hold, compartment, or defined deck area of a vessel including any transport vehicle on board the vessel; and

(c) For transport by aircraft any aircraft.

(8) "Exclusive use" means the sole use by a single consignor of a conveyance for which all initial, intermediate, and final loading and unloading are carried out in accordance with the direction of the consignor or consignee. The consignor and the carrier must ensure that any loading or unloading is performed by personnel having radiological training and resources appropriate for safe handling of the consignment. The consignor must issue specific instructions, in writing, for maintenance of exclusive use shipment controls, and include them with the shipping paper information provided to the carrier by the consignor.

(9) "Fissile material" means plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-241, uranium-233, uranium-235, or any combination of these radionuclides. Unirradiated natural uranium and depleted uranium, and natural uranium or depleted uranium that has been irradiated in thermal reactors only are not included in this definition. Certain exclusions from fissile material controls are provided in USNRC regulations 10 CFR 71.53.

(10) "Highway route controlled quantity" means a quantity within a single package which exceeds:

(a) 3,000 times the A1 or A2 quantity specified in WAC 246-231-200; or

(b) 1,000 TBq (27,000 Ci) whichever is least.

(11) "Licensed material" means radioactive material received, possessed, used, or transferred under a general or specific license issued by the department pursuant to the regulations in this chapter.

(12) "Low specific activity (LSA) material" means radioactive material with limited specific activity that satisfies the descriptions and limits set forth below. Shielding materials surrounding the LSA material may not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity of the package contents. LSA material must be in one of three groups:

(a) LSA-I.

(i) Ores containing only naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium, thorium) and uranium or thorium concentrates of such ores; or

(ii) Solid unirradiated natural uranium or depleted uranium or natural thorium or their solid or liquid compounds or mixtures; or

(iii) Radioactive material, other than fissile material, for which the A2 value is unlimited; or

(iv) Mill tailings, contaminated earth, concrete, rubble, other debris, and activated material in which the radioactive material is essentially uniformly distributed, and the average specific activity does not exceed 1E-6 A2/g.

(b) LSA-II.

(i) Water with tritium concentration up to 0.8 TBq/liter (20.0 Ci/liter); or

(ii) Material in which the radioactive material is distributed throughout, and the average specific activity does not exceed 1E-4 A2/g for solids and gases, and 1E-5 A2/g for liquids.

(c) LSA-III. Solids (e.g., consolidated wastes, activated materials) in which:

(i) The radioactive material is distributed throughout a solid or a collection of solid objects, or is essentially uniformly distributed in a solid compact binding agent (such as concrete, bitumen, ceramic, etc.); and

(ii) The radioactive material is relatively insoluble, or it is intrinsically contained in a relatively insoluble material, so that, even under loss of packaging, the loss of radioactive material per package by leaching, when placed in water for seven days, would not exceed 0.1 A2; and

(iii) The average specific activity of the solid does not exceed 2E-3 A2/g.

(13) "Low toxicity alpha emitters" means natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium; uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, thorium-228 or thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical or chemical concentrates or tailings; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than ten days.

(14) "Maximum normal operating pressure" means the maximum gauge pressure that would develop in the containment system in a period of one year under the heat condition specified in USNRC regulations Title 10 CFR 71.71 (c)(1), in the absence of venting, external cooling by an ancillary system, or operational controls during transport.

(15) "Natural thorium" means thorium with the naturally occurring distribution of thorium isotopes (essentially 100 weight percent thorium-232).

(16) "Normal form radioactive material" means radioactive material that has not been demonstrated to qualify as "special form radioactive material."

(17) "Nuclear waste" as used in WAC 246-231-140 means any quantity of radioactive material (not including radiography sources being returned to the manufacturer) required to be in Type B packaging while transported to, through, or across state boundaries to a disposal site, or to a collection point for transport to a disposal site. Nuclear waste, as used in these regulations, is a special classification of radioactive waste.

(18) "Optimum interspersed hydrogenous moderation" means the presence of hydrogenous material between packages to such an extent that the maximum nuclear reactivity results.

(19) "Package" means the packaging together with its radioactive contents as presented for transport.

(a) "Fissile material package" means a fissile material packaging together with its fissile material contents.

(b) "Type B package" means a Type B packaging together with its radioactive contents. On approval by the NRC, a Type B package design is designated as B(U) unless the package has a maximum normal operating pressure of more than 700 kPa (100 lb/in2) gauge or a pressure relief device that would allow the release of radioactive material to the environment under the tests specified in USNRC regulations Title 10 CFR 71.73 (hypothetical accident conditions), in which case it will receive a designation B(M). B(U) refers to the need for unilateral approval of international shipments; B(M) refers to the need for multilateral approval of international shipments. There is no distinction made in how packages with these designations may be used in domestic transportation. To determine their distinction for international transportation, see DOT regulations in 49 CFR Part 173. A Type B package approved before September 6, 1983, was designated only as Type B. Limitations on its use are specified in WAC 246-231-070.

(20) "Packaging" means the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements of this chapter. It may consist of one or more receptacles, absorbent materials, spacing structures, thermal insulation, radiation shielding, and devices for cooling or absorbing mechanical shocks. The vehicle, tie-down system, and auxiliary equipment may be designated as part of the packaging.

(21) "Special form radioactive material" means radioactive material that satisfies the following conditions:

(a) It is either a single solid piece or is contained in a sealed capsule that can be opened only by destroying the capsule;

(b) The piece or capsule has at least one dimension not less than 5 mm (0.2 in); and

(c) It satisfies the requirements of USNRC regulations. A special form encapsulation designed in accordance with the USNRC requirements in effect on June 30, 1983, (see 10 CFR Part 71, revised as of January 1, 1983), and constructed before July 1, 1985, and a special form encapsulation designed in accordance with the requirements of the USNRC in effect on March 31, 1996, (see 10 CFR Part 71, revised as of January 1, 1983), and constructed before April 1, 1998, may continue to be used. Any other special form encapsulation must meet the specifications of this definition.

(22) "Specific activity" of a radionuclide means the radioactivity of the radionuclide per unit mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material in which the radionuclide is essentially uniformly distributed is the radioactivity per unit mass of the material.

(23) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(24) "Surface contaminated object (SCO)" means a solid object that is not itself classed as radioactive material, but which has radioactive material distributed on any of its surfaces. SCO must be in one of two groups with surface activity not exceeding the following limits:

(a) SCO-I: A solid object on which:

(i) The nonfixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 Bq/cm2 (1E-4 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.4 Bq/cm2 (1E-5 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters;

(ii) The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4E+4 Bq/cm2 (1.0 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4E+3 Bq/cm2 (0.1 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters; and

(iii) The nonfixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4E+4 Bq/cm2 (1 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4E+3 Bq/cm2 (0.1 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.

(b) SCO-II: A solid object on which the limits for SCO-I are exceeded and on which:

(i) The nonfixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 400 Bq/cm2 (1E-2 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters or 40 Bq/cm2 (1E-3 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters;

(ii) The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 8E+5 Bq/cm2 (20 microcuries/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8E+4 Bq/cm2 (2 microcuries/cm2) for all other alpha emitters; and

(iii) The nonfixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 8E+5 Bq/cm2 (20 microcuries/cm2) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8E+4 Bq/cm2 (2 microcuries/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.

(25) "Transport index" means the dimensionless number (rounded up to the next tenth) placed on the label of a package, to designate the degree of control to be exercised by the carrier during transportation. The transport index is determined as follows:

(a) For nonfissile material packages, the number determined by multiplying the maximum radiation level in millisievert (mSv) per hour at one meter (3.3 ft) from the external surface of the package by 100 (equivalent to the maximum radiation level in millirem per hour at one meter (3.3 ft)); or

(b) For fissile material packages, the number determined by multiplying the maximum radiation level in millisievert per hour at one meter (3.3 ft) from the external surface of the package by 100 (equivalent to the maximum radiation level in millirem per hour at one meter (3.3 ft)), or, for criticality control purposes, the number obtained as described in USNRC regulations 10 CFR 71.59, whichever is larger.

(26) "Type A quantity" means a quantity of radioactive material, the aggregate radioactivity of which does not exceed A1 for special form radioactive material, or A2, for normal form radioactive material, where A1 and A2 are given in Table A-1 of WAC 246-231-200, or may be determined by procedures described in WAC 246-231-200.

(27) "Type B quantity" means a quantity of radioactive material greater than a Type A quantity.

(28) Uranium--natural, depleted, enriched.

(a) "Natural uranium" means uranium with the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes (approximately 0.711 weight percent uranium-235, and the remainder by weight essentially uranium-238).

(b) "Depleted uranium" means uranium containing less uranium-235 than the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes.

(c) "Enriched uranium" means uranium containing more uranium-235 than the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-030
Transportation of licensed material.

(1) Each licensee who transports licensed material outside the site of usage, as specified in the license issued by the department, or where transport is on public highways, or who delivers licensed material to a carrier for transport, shall comply with the applicable requirements of the DOT regulations in 49 CFR Parts 170 through 189 appropriate to the mode of transport.

(a) The licensee shall particularly note DOT regulations in the following areas:

(i) Packaging--49 CFR Part 173: Subparts A and B and I.

(ii) Marking and labeling--49 CFR Part 172: Subpart D, Secs. 172.400 through 172.407, Secs. 172.436 through 172.440, and subpart E.

(iii) Placarding--49 CFR Part 172: Subpart F, especially Secs. 172.500 through 172.519, 172.556, and appendices B and C.

(iv) Accident reporting--49 CFR Part 171: Secs. 171.15 and 171.16.

(v) Shipping papers and emergency information--49 CFR Part 172: Subparts C and G.

(vi) Hazardous material employee training--49 CFR Part 172: Subpart H.

(vii) Hazardous material shipper/carrier registration--49 CFR Part 107: Subpart G.

(b) The licensee shall also note DOT regulations pertaining to the following modes of transportation:

(i) Rail--49 CFR Part 174: Subparts A through D and K.

(ii) Air--49 CFR Part 175.

(iii) Vessel--49 CFR Part 176: Subparts A through F and M.

(iv) Public Highway--49 CFR Part 177 and Parts 390 through 397.

(2) If DOT regulations are not applicable to a shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall conform to the standards and requirements of the DOT specified in paragraph (1) of this section to the same extent as if the shipment or transportation were subject to DOT regulations. A request for modification, waiver, or exemption from those requirements, and any notification referred to in those requirements, must be filed with, or made to, the Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-040
Exemptions.

(1) Common and contract carriers, freight forwarders, and warehouse workers who are subject to the rules and regulations of the United States Department of Transportation (49 CFR Parts 170 through 189) or the United States Postal Service (Domestic Mail Manual, Section 124.3 incorporated by reference, 39 CFR 111.11 (1974) are exempt from this chapter to the extent that they transport or store radioactive material in the regular course of their carriage for another or storage incident thereto. Common and contract carriers who are not subject to the rules and regulations of the United States Department of Transportation or United States Postal Service are subject to WAC 246-231-005 and other applicable sections of these regulations.

(2) Any licensee who delivers radioactive material to a carrier for transport, where such transport is subject to the regulations of the United States Postal Service, is exempt from the provisions of WAC 246-231-005.

(3) Physicians as defined in WAC 246-220-010, are exempt from the requirements of this chapter only to the extent that they transport radioactive material for emergency use in the practice of medicine.

(4) A licensee is exempt from all requirements of this chapter with respect to shipment or carriage of a package containing radioactive material having a specific activity not greater than 70 Bq/g (0.002 uCi/g).

(5) A licensee is exempt from all requirements of this chapter, other than WAC 246-231-030 and 246-231-120, with respect to shipment or carriage of the following packages, provided the packages contain no fissile material:

(a) A package containing no more than a Type A quantity of radioactive material;

(b) A package in which the only radioactive material is low specific activity (LSA) material or surface contaminated objects (SCO), provided the external radiation level at 3 m from the unshielded material or objects does not exceed 10 mSv/h (1 rem/h); or

(c) A package transported within locations within the United States which contains only americium or plutonium in special form with an aggregate radioactivity not to exceed 20 curies.

(6) A licensee is exempt from all requirements of this chapter, other than WAC 246-231-030 and 246-231-120, with respect to shipment or carriage of low-specific-activity (LSA) material in group LSA-I, or surface contaminated objects (SCOs) in group SCO-I.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-050
General licenses for carriers.

(1) A general license is hereby issued to any common or contract carrier not exempted under WAC 246-231-040 to receive, possess, transport and store radioactive material in the regular course of their carriage for another or storage incident thereto, provided the transportation and storage is in accordance with the applicable requirements of the regulations, appropriate to the mode of transport, of the United States Department of Transportation.

(2) A general license is hereby issued to any private carrier to transport radioactive material, provided the transportation is in accordance with the applicable requirements of the regulations, appropriate to the mode of transport, of the United States Department of Transportation insofar as such regulations relate to the loading and storage of packages, placarding of the transporting vehicle, shipping papers, and incident reporting. Any notification of incidents referred to in those requirements shall be filed with, or made to, the department.

(3) Persons who transport radioactive material pursuant to the general licenses of subsection (1) or (2) of this section are exempt from the requirements of chapters 246-221 and 246-222 WAC to the extent that they transport radioactive material.

(4) A general license is hereby issued to deliver radioactive material to a carrier1 for transport provided that:

(a) The licensee complies with the applicable requirements of the regulations, appropriate to the mode of transport, of the United States Department of Transportation insofar as such regulations relate to the packaging of radioactive material, to shipping papers, and to the monitoring, marking and labeling of those packages.

(b) The licensee has established procedures for opening and closing packages in which radioactive material is transported to provide safety and to assure that, prior to the delivery to a carrier for transport, each package is properly closed for transport.

(c) Prior to delivery of a package to a carrier for transport, the licensee shall assure that any special instructions needed to safely open the package are sent to or have been made available to the consignee.

(d) In addition to the requirements of the United States Department of Transportation, each package of Type A or B quantity radioactive material prepared for shipment must have the innermost container labeled as to the isotope, chemical form, number of bequerels or subunits thereof, and date of determination of activity and each innermost container shall be tested to assure that the container is properly sealed and that contamination which would cause undue hazard to public health and safety or property is not present prior to transportation. This requirement does not apply to properly packaged shipments of radioactive waste consigned to a commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility.


Note 1-For the purpose of this regulation, licensees who transport their own licensed material as a private carrier are considered to have delivered such material to a carrier for transport.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-060
General license: NRC-approved package.

(1) A general license is hereby issued to any licensee of the department to transport, or to deliver to a carrier for transport, licensed material in a package for which a license, certificate of compliance, or other approval has been issued by the department or NRC.

(2) This general license applies only to a licensee who has a quality assurance program approved by the USNRC.

(3) This general license applies only to a licensee who:

(a) Has a copy of the certificate of compliance, or other approval of the package, and has the drawings and other documents referenced in the approval relating to the use and maintenance of the packaging and to the actions to be taken before shipment;

(b) Complies with the terms and conditions of the license, certificate, or other approval, as applicable, and the applicable requirements of the USNRC; and

(c) Submits in writing to the Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, before the licensee's first use of the package, the licensee's name and license number and the package identification number specified in the package approval.

(4) This general license applies only when the package approval authorizes use of the package under this general license.

(5) For a Type B or fissile material package, the design of which was approved by NRC before April 1, 1996, the general license is subject to the additional restrictions of NRC regulations 10 CFR 71.13.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-070
Previously approved package.

(1) A Type B package previously approved by NRC but not designated as B(U) or B(M) in the identification number of the NRC Certificate of Compliance, may be used under the general license of WAC 246-231-060 with the following additional conditions:

(a) Fabrication of the packaging was satisfactorily completed by August 31, 1986, as demonstrated by application of its model number in accordance with WAC 246-231-100 (2)(c);

(b) A package used for a shipment to a location outside the United States is subject to multilateral approval, as defined in DOT regulations at 49 CFR 173.403; and

(c) A serial number that uniquely identifies each packaging which conforms to the approved design is assigned to, and legibly and durably marked on, the outside of each packaging.

(2) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, a low specific activity (LSA) material package or a fissile material package, previously approved by the NRC but without the designation "-85" in the identification number of the NRC Certificate of Compliance, may be used under the general license of WAC 246-231-060 with the following additional conditions:

(a) Fabrication of the package is satisfactorily completed by April 1, 1999, as demonstrated by application of its model number in accordance with WAC 246-231-100 (2)(c);

(b) A package used for a shipment to a location outside the United States is subject to multilateral approval as defined in DOT regulations at 49 CFR 173.403; and

(c) A serial number which uniquely identifies each packaging which conforms to the approved design is assigned to and legibly and durably marked on the outside of each packaging.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-080
General license: DOT specification container.

(1) A general license is issued to any licensee of the department to transport, or to deliver to a carrier for transport, licensed material in a specification container for fissile material or for a Type B quantity of radioactive material as specified in DOT regulations at 49 CFR Parts 173 and 178.

(2) This general license applies only to a licensee who has a quality assurance program approved by the NRC as satisfying the provisions of subpart H of the NRC regulations, 10 CFR 71.

(3) This general license applies only to a licensee who:

(a) Has a copy of the specification; and

(b) Complies with the terms and conditions of the specification and the applicable requirements of subparts A, G, and H of NRC regulations 10 CFR 71.

(4) This general license is subject to the limitation that the specification container may not be used for a shipment to a location outside the United States, except by multilateral approval, as defined in DOT regulations at 49 CFR 173.403.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-090
General license: Use of foreign approved package.

(1) A general license is issued to any licensee of the department to transport, or to deliver to a carrier for transport, licensed material in a package the design of which has been approved in a foreign national competent authority certificate that has been revalidated by DOT as meeting the applicable requirements of 49 CFR 171.12.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the general license applies only to a licensee who has a quality assurance program approved by the USNRC.

(3) This general license applies only to shipments made to or from locations outside the United States.

(4) This general license applies only to a licensee who:

(a) Has a copy of the applicable certificate, the revalidation, and the drawings and other documents referenced in the certificate, relating to the use and maintenance of the packaging and to the actions to be taken before shipment; and

(b) Complies with the terms and conditions of the certificate and revalidation, and with the applicable requirements of the USNRC.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-100
Applicability of operating controls and procedures.

(1) A licensee subject to this chapter, who, under a general or specific license, transports licensed material or delivers licensed material to a carrier for transport, shall also comply with the requirements of NRC regulations 10 CFR 71 subpart G, with the quality assurance requirements of subpart H, and with the general provisions of subpart A.

(2) Before the first use of any packaging for the shipment of licensed material:

(a) The licensee shall ascertain that there are no cracks, pinholes, uncontrolled voids, or other defects that could significantly reduce the effectiveness of the packaging;

(b) Where the maximum normal operating pressure will exceed 35 kPa (5 lbf/in2) gauge, the licensee shall test the containment system at an internal pressure at least fifty percent higher than the maximum normal operating pressure, to verify the capability of that system to maintain its structural integrity at that pressure; and

(c) The licensee shall conspicuously and durably mark the packaging with its model number, serial number, gross weight, and a package identification number assigned by NRC. Before applying the model number, the licensee shall determine that the packaging has been fabricated in accordance with the design approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-110
Routine determinations.

Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall ensure that the package with its contents satisfies the applicable requirements of this section and of the license. The licensee shall determine that:

(1) The package is proper for the contents to be shipped;

(2) The package is in unimpaired physical condition except for superficial defects such as marks or dents;

(3) Each closure device of the packaging, including any required gasket, is properly installed and secured and free of defects;

(4) Any system for containing liquid is adequately sealed and has adequate space or other specified provision for expansion of the liquid;

(5) Any pressure relief device is operable and set in accordance with written procedures;

(6) The package has been loaded and closed in accordance with written procedures;

(7) For fissile material, any moderator or neutron absorber, if required, is present and in proper condition;

(8) Any structural part of the package that could be used to lift or tie down the package during transport is rendered inoperable for that purpose, unless it satisfies the design requirements of NRC regulations 10 CFR 71.45;

(9) The level of nonfixed (removable) radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered for shipment is as low as reasonably achievable, and within the limits specified in DOT regulations in 49 CFR 173.443;

(10) External radiation levels around the package and around the vehicle, if applicable, will not exceed the limits specified in NRC regulations 10 CFR 71.47 at any time during transportation; and

(11) Accessible package surface temperatures will not exceed the limits specified in NRC regulations 10 CFR 71.43(g) at any time during transportation.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-120
Air transport of plutonium.

(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of any general licenses and notwithstanding any exemptions stated directly in this part or included indirectly by citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form, whether for import, export, or domestic shipment, is not transported by air or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless:

(a) The plutonium is contained in a medical device designed for individual human application; or

(b) The plutonium is contained in a material in which the specific activity is not greater than 0.002 uCi/g (70 Bq/g) of material and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or

(c) The plutonium is shipped in a single package containing no more than an A2 quantity of plutonium in any isotope or form, and is shipped in accordance with WAC 246-231-030; or

(d) The plutonium is shipped in a package specifically authorized for the shipment of plutonium by air in the Certificate of Compliance for that package issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(2) Nothing in subsection (1) of this section is to be interpreted as removing or diminishing the requirements of NRC regulations 10 CFR 73.24.

(3) For a shipment of plutonium by air which is subject to subsection (1)(d) of this section, the licensee shall, through special arrangement with the carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable to the air transport of plutonium.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-130
Opening instructions.

Before delivery of a package to a carrier for transport, the licensee shall ensure that any special instructions needed to safely open the package have been sent to, or otherwise made available to, the consignee for the consignee's use in accordance with WAC 246-221-160.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-140
Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

(1) As specified in subsections (2), (3), and (4) of this section, each licensee shall provide advance notification to the governor of a state, or the governor's designee, of the shipment of licensed material, through, or across the boundary of the state, before the transport, or delivery to a carrier, for transport, of licensed material outside the confines of the licensee's plant or other place of use or storage.

(2) Advance notification is required under this section for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel in quantities less than that subject to advance notification requirements of NRC regulations 10 CFR 73.37(f). Advance notification is also required under this section for shipment of licensed material, other than irradiated fuel, meeting the following three conditions:

(a) The licensed material is required by this section to be in Type B packaging for transportation;

(b) The licensed material is being transported to or across a state boundary en route to a disposal facility or to a collection point for transport to a disposal facility; and

(c) The quantity of licensed material in a single package exceeds the least of the following:

(i) 3000 times the A1 value of the radionuclides as specified in WAC 246-231-200, Table A-1 for special form radioactive material;

(ii) 3000 times the A2 value of the radionuclides as specified in WAC 246-231-200, Table A-1 for normal form radioactive material; or

(iii) 1000 TBq (27,000 Ci).

(3) Procedures for submitting advance notification.

(a) The notification must be made in writing to the office of each appropriate governor or governor's designee and to the Administrator of the appropriate NRC Regional Office listed in Appendix A of NRC regulations 10 CFR Part 73.

(b) A notification delivered by mail must be postmarked at least seven days before the beginning of the seven-day period during which departure of the shipment is estimated to occur.

(c) A notification delivered by messenger must reach the office of the governor or of the governor's designee at least four days before the beginning of the seven-day period during which departure of the shipment is estimated to occur.

(i) A list of the names and mailing addresses of the governors' designees receiving advance notification of transportation of nuclear waste was published in the Federal Register on June 30, 1995, (60 FR 34306).

(ii) The list will be published annually in the Federal Register on or about June 30 to reflect any changes in information.

(iii) A list of the names and mailing addresses of the governors' designees is available on request from the Director, Office of State Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001.

(d) The licensee shall retain a copy of the notification as a record for three years.

(4) Information to be furnished in advance notification of shipment. Each advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following information:

(a) The name, address, and telephone number of the shipper, carrier, and receiver of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment;

(b) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d);

(c) The point of origin of the shipment and the seven-day period during which departure of the shipment is estimated to occur;

(d) The seven-day period during which arrival of the shipment at state boundaries is estimated to occur;

(e) The destination of the shipment, and the seven-day period during which arrival of the shipment is estimated to occur; and

(f) A point of contact, with a telephone number, for current shipment information.

(5) Revision notice. A licensee who finds that schedule information previously furnished to a governor or governor's designee, in accordance with this section, will not be met, shall telephone a responsible individual in the office of the governor of the state or of the governor's designee and inform that individual of the extent of the delay beyond the schedule originally reported. The licensee shall maintain a record of the name of the individual contacted for three years.

(6) Cancellation notice.

(a) Each licensee who cancels an irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment for which advance notification has been sent shall send a cancellation notice to the governor of each state or to the governor's designee previously notified, and to the Administrator of the appropriate NRC Regional Office listed in Appendix A of USNRC regulations 10 CFR 73.

(b) The licensee shall state in the notice that it is a cancellation and identify the advance notification that is being canceled. The licensee shall retain a copy of the notice as a record for three years.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 246-231-200
Appendix A--Determination of A1 and A2.


I. Values of A1 and A2 for individual radionuclides, which are the bases for many activity limits elsewhere in these regulations are given in Table A-1. The curie (Ci) values specified are obtained by converting from the Terabecquerel (TBq) figure. The curie values are expressed to three significant figures to assure that the difference in the TBq and Ci quantities is one tenth of one percent or less. Where values of A1 or A2 are unlimited, it is for radiation control purposes only. For nuclear criticality safety, some materials are subject to controls placed on fissile material.

II. For individual radionuclides whose identities are known, but which are not listed in Table A-1, the determination of the values of A1 and A2 requires NRC approval, except that the values of A1 and A2 in Table A-2 may be used without obtaining approval from the NRC.

III. In the calculations of A1 and A2 for a radionuclide not in Table A-1, a single radioactive decay chain, in which radionuclides are present in their naturally occurring proportions, and in which no daughter nuclide has a half-life either longer than ten days, or longer than that of the parent nuclide, shall be considered as a single radionuclide, and the activity to be taken into account, and the A1 or A2 value to be applied shall be those corresponding to the parent nuclide of that chain. In the case of radioactive decay chains in which any daughter nuclide has a half-life either longer than ten days, or greater than that of the parent nuclide, the parent and those daughter nuclides shall be considered as mixtures of different nuclides.

IV. For mixtures of radionuclides whose identities and respective activities are known, the following conditions apply:

(a) For special form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package:

Place illustration here.
(b) For normal form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package:

Place illustration here.
Where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide I and A1(i) and A2(i) are the A1 and A2 values for radionuclide I, respectively.

Alternatively, an A1 value for mixtures of special form material may be determined as follows:

Place illustration here.
Where f(i) is the fraction of activity of nuclide I in the mixture and A1(i) is the appropriate A1 value for nuclide I.

An A2 value for mixtures of normal form material may be determined as follows:

Place illustration here.
Where f(i) is the fraction of activity of nuclide I in the mixture and A2(i) is the appropriate A2 value for nuclide I.

V. When the identity of each radionuclide is known, but the individual activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the radionuclides may be grouped and the lowest A1 or A2 value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used in applying the formulas in paragraph IV. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest A1 or A2 values for the alpha emitters and beta/gamma emitters.

Table A-1.--A1 and A2 Values for Radionuclides

Specific activity
Symbol of

Radionuclide

Element and

atomic number

A1 (TBq)A1 (Ci)A2 (TBq)A2 (Ci)(TBq/g)(Ci/g)
Ac-225 . . . . . . . . . . . . Actinium (89)0.616.21E-20.2702.1E+35.8E+4
Ac-227 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010802E-55.41E-42.77.2E+1
Ac-228 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.410.88.4E+42.2E+6
Ag-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . Silver (47)254.1254.11.1E+33.0E+4
Ag-108m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.616.29.7E-12.6E+1
Ag-110m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.81.8E+24.7E+3
Ag-111 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.55.8E+31.6E+5
Al-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum (13)0.410.80.410.87.0E-41.9E-2
Am-241 . . . . . . . . . . . . Americium (95)254.12E-45.41E-31.3E-13.4
Am-242m . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-33.6E-11.0E+1
Am-243 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-37.4E-32.0E-1
Ar-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . Argon (18)4010804010803.7E+39.9E+4
Ar-39 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20541205411.33.4E+1
Ar-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.616.21.5E+64.2E+7
Ar-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.419.62.6E+2
As-72 . . . . . . . . . . . . Arsenic (33)0.25.410.25.416.2E+41.7E+6
As-73 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010808.2E+22.2E+4
As-74 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.00.513.53.7E+39.9E+4
As-76 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.415.8E+41.6E+6
As-77 . . . . . . . . . . . . 205410.513.53.9E+41.0E+6
At-211 . . . . . . . . . . . . Astatine (85)30811254.17.6E+42.1E+6
Au-193 . . . . . . . . . . . . Gold (79)616261623.4E+49.2E+5
Au-194 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.0127.01.5E+44.1E+5
Au-195 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10270102701.4E+23.7E+3
Au-196 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.1254.14.0E+31.1E+5
Au-198 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.10.513.59.0E+32.4E+5
Au-199 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102700.924.37.7E+32.1E+5
Ba-131 . . . . . . . . . . . . Barium (56)254.1254.13.1E+38.4E+4
Ba-133m . . . . . . . . . . . . 102700.924.32.2E+46.1E+5
Ba-133 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.1381.19.42.6E+2
Ba-140 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.82.7E+37.3E+4
Be-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . Beryllium (4)20541205411.3E+43.5E+5
Be-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . 205410.513.58.3E-42.2E-2
Bi-205 . . . . . . . . . . . . Bismuth (83)0.616.20.616.21.5E-34.2E+4
Bi-206 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.113.8E+31.0E+5
Bi-207 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.718.90.718.91.95.2E+1
Bi-210m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.113E-20.8112.1E-55.7E-4
Bi-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.54.6E+31.2E+5
Bi-212 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.115.4E+51.5E+7
Bk-247 . . . . . . . . . . . . Berkelium (97)254.12E-45.41E-33.8E-21.0
Bk-249 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010808E-22.166.1E+11.6E+3
Br-76 . . . . . . . . . . . . Bromine (35)0.38.110.38.119.4E+42.5E+6
Br-77 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.1381.12.6E+47.1E+5
Br-82 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.84.0E+41.1E+6
C-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon (6)1270.513.53.1E+78.4E+8
C-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . 401080254.11.6E-14.5
Ca-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . Calcium (20)4010804010803.1E-38.5E-2
Ca-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.36.6E+21.8E+4
Ca-47 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.924.30.513.52.3E+46.1E+5
Cd-109 . . . . . . . . . . . . Cadmium (48)401080127.09.6E+12.6E+3
Cd-113m . . . . . . . . . . . . 205419E-22.438.32.2E+2
Cd-115m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.119.4E+22.5E+4
Cd-115 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.51.9E+45.1E+5
Ce-139 . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerium (58)616261622.5E+26.8E+3
Ce-141 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102700.513.51.1E+32.8E+4
Ce-143 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.52.5E+46.6E+5
Ce-144 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.411.2E+23.2E+3
Cf-248 . . . . . . . . . . . . Californium (98)308113E-38.11E-25.8E+11.6E+3
Cf-249 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-31.5E-14.1
Cf-250 . . . . . . . . . . . . 51355E-41.35E-24.01.1E+2
Cf-251 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-35.9E-21.6
Cf-252 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.12.701E-32.70E-22.0E+15.4E+2
Cf-253 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010806E-21.621.1E+32.9E+4
Cf-254 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3E-38.11E-26E-41.62E-23.1E+28.5E+3
Cl-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . Chlorine (17)205410.513.51.2E-33.3E-2
Cl-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.414.9E+61.3E+8
Cm-240 . . . . . . . . . . . . Curium (96)4010802E-20.5417.5E+22.0E+4
Cm-241 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.924.36.1E+21.7E+4
Cm-242 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010801E-20.2701.2E+23.3E+3
Cm-243 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.13E-48.11E-31.95.2E+1
Cm-244 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41084E-41.08E-23.08.1E+1
Cm-245 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-36.4E-31.7E-1
Cm-246 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-31.1E-23.1E-1
Cm-247 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-33.4E-69.3E-5
Cm-248 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4E-21.085E-51.35E-31.6E-44.2E-3
Co-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . Cobalt (27)0.513.50.513.51.1E+53.1E+6
Co-56 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.111.1E+33.0E+4
Co-57 . . . . . . . . . . . . 821682163.1E+28.4E+3
Co-58m . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010802.2E+55.9E+6
Co-58 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.0127.01.2E+33.2E+4
Co-60 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.84.2E+11.1E+3
Cr-51 . . . . . . . . . . . . Chromium (24)30811308113.4E+39.2E+4
Cs-129 . . . . . . . . . . . . Cesium (55)410841082.8E+47.6E+5
Cs-131 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010803.8E+31.0E+5
Cs-132 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.0127.05.7E+31.5E+5
Cs-134m . . . . . . . . . . . . 40108092433.0E+58.0E+6
Cs-134 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.54.8E+11.3E+3
Cs-135 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.34.3E-51.2E-3
Cs-136 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.513.50.513.52.7E+37.3E+4
Cs-137 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.513.53.28.7E+1
Cu-64 . . . . . . . . . . . . Copper (29)51350.924.31.4E+53.9E+6
Cu-67 . . . . . . . . . . . . 92430.924.32.8E+47.6E+5
Dy-159 . . . . . . . . . . . . Dysprosium (66)20541205412.1E+25.7E+3
Dy-165 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.53.0E+58.2E+6
Dy-166 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.118.6E+32.3E+5
Er-169 . . . . . . . . . . . . Erbium (68)4010800.924.33.1E+38.3E+4
Er-171 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.59.0E+42.4E+6
Es-253 . . . . . . . . . . . . Einsteinium (99)a20054002E-25.41E-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Es-254 . . . . . . . . . . . . 308113E-38.11E-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Es-254m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.410.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Es-255 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eu-147 . . . . . . . . . . . . Europium (63)254.1254.11.4E+33.7E+4
Eu-148 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.513.50.513.56.0E+21.6E+4
Eu-149 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20541205413.5E+29.4E+3
Eu-150 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.718.90.718.96.1E+41.6E+6
Eu-152m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.58.2E+42.2E+6
Eu-152 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.924.30.924.36.51.8E+2
Eu-154 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.821.60.513.59.82.6E+2
Eu-155 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20541254.11.8E+14.9E+2
Eu-156 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.52.0E+35.5E+4
F-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluorine (9)127.00.513.53.5E+69.5E+7
Fe-52 . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron (26)0.25.410.25.412.7E+57.3E+6
Fe-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010808.8E+12.4E+3
Fe-59 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.821.60.821.61.8E+35.0E+4
Fe-60 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.25.417.4E-42.0E-2
Fm-255 . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermium (100) b4010800.821.6
Fm-257 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102708E-32.16E-1
Ga-67 . . . . . . . . . . . . Gallium (31)616261622.2E+46.0E+5
Ga-68 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.111.5E+64.1E+7
Ga-72 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.81.1E+53.1E+6
Gd-146 . . . . . . . . . . . . Gadolinium (64)0.410.80.410.86.9E+21.9E+4
Gd-148 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.13E-48.11E-31.23.2E+1
Gd-153 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027051351.3E+23.5E+3
Gd-159 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.53.9E+41.1E+6
Ge-68 . . . . . . . . . . . . Germanium (32)0.38.110.38.112.6E+27.1E+3
Ge-71 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010805.8E+31.6E+5
Ge-77 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.111.3E+53.6E+6
H-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrogen (1)See T- Tritium
Hf-172 . . . . . . . . . . . . Hafnium (72)0.513.50.38.114.1E+11.1E+3
Hf-175 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.1381.13.9E+21.1E+4
Hf-181 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.924.36.3E+21.7E+4
Hf-182 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41083E-20.8118.1E-62.2E-4
Hg-194 . . . . . . . . . . . . Mercury (80)127.0127.01.3E-13.5
Hg-195m . . . . . . . . . . . . 513551351.5E+44.0E+5
Hg-197m . . . . . . . . . . . . 102700.924.32.5E+46.7E+5
Hg-197 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10270102709.2E+32.5E+5
Hg-203 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.924.35.1E+21.4E+4
Ho-163 . . . . . . . . . . . . Holmium (67)4010804010802.77.6E+1
Ho-166m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.38.116.6E-21.8
Ho-166 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.112.6E+47.0E+5
I-123 . . . . . . . . . . . . Iodine (53)616261627.1E+41.9E+6
I-124 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.924.30.924.39.3E+32.5E+5
I-125 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20541254.16.4E+21.7E+4
I-126 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.924.32.9E+38.0E+4
I-129 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited6.5E-61.8E-4
I-131 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.10.513.54.6E+31.2E+5
I-132 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.83.8E+51.0E+7
I-133 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.54.2E+41.1E+6
I-134 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.119.9E+52.7E+7
I-135 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.51.3E+53.5E+6
In-111 . . . . . . . . . . . . Indium (49)254.1254.11.5E+44.2E+5
In-113m . . . . . . . . . . . . 410841086.2E+51.7E+7
In-114m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.118.6E+22.3E+4
In-115m . . . . . . . . . . . . 61620.924.32.2E+56.1E+6
Ir-189 . . . . . . . . . . . . Iridium (77)10270102701.9E+35.2E+4
Ir-190 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.718.90.718.92.3E+36.2E+4
Ir-192 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.00.513.53.4E+29.2E+3
Ir-193m . . . . . . . . . . . . 10270102702.4E+36.4E+4
Ir-194 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.413.1E+48.4E+5
K-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium (19)0.616.20.616.22.4E-76.4E-6
K-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.412.2E+56.0E+6
K-43 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.027.00.513.51.2E+53.3E+6
Kr-81 . . . . . . . . . . . . Krypton (36)4010804010807.8E-42.1E-2
Kr-85m . . . . . . . . . . . . 616261623.0E+58.2E+6
Kr-85 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20541102701.5E+13.9E+2
Kr-87 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.411.0E+62.8E+7
La-137 . . . . . . . . . . . . Lanthanum (57)401080254.11.6E-34.4E-2
La-140 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.82.1E+45.6E+5
Lu-172 . . . . . . . . . . . . Lutetium (71)0.513.50.513.54.2E+31.1E+5
Lu-173 . . . . . . . . . . . . 821682165.6E+11.5E+3
Lu-174m . . . . . . . . . . . . 2054182162.0E+25.3E+3
Lu-174 . . . . . . . . . . . . 821641082.3E+16.2E+2
Lu-177 . . . . . . . . . . . . 308110.924.34.1E+31.1E+5
MFP . . . . . . . . . . . . (6) For mixed fission products, use formula for mixtures or Table A-2
Mg-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnesium (12)0.25.410.25.412.0E+55.4E+6
Mn-52 . . . . . . . . . . . . Manganese (25)0.38.110.38.111.6E+44.4E+5
Mn-53 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited6.8E-51.8E-3
Mn-54 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.0127.02.9E+27.7E+3
Mn-56 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.418.0E+52.2E+7
Mo-93 . . . . . . . . . . . . Molybdenum (42)40108071894.1E-21.1
Mo-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.5c1.8E+44.8E+5
N-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitrogen (7)0.616.20.513.55.4E+71.5E+9
Na-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium (11)0.513.50.513.52.3E+26.3E+3
Na-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.413.2E+58.7E+6
Nb-92m . . . . . . . . . . . . Niobium (41)0.718.90.718.95.2E+31.4E+5
Nb-93m . . . . . . . . . . . . 40108061628.82.4E+2
Nb-94 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.616.26.9E-31.9E-1
Nb-95 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.0127.01.5E+33.9E+4
Nb-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.59.9E+52.7E+7
Nd-147 . . . . . . . . . . . . Neodymium (60)41080.513.53.0E+38.1E+4
Nd-149 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.54.5E+51.2E+7
Ni-59 . . . . . . . . . . . . Nickel (28)4010804010803.0E-38.0E-2
Ni-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . 401080308112.15.7E+1
Ni-65 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.117.1E+51.9E+7
Np-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . Neptunium (93)4010804010805.2E+11.4E+3
Np-236 . . . . . . . . . . . . 71891E-32.70E-24.7E-41.3E-2
Np-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12.0E-45.41E-32.6E-57.1E-4
Np-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . 61620.513.58.6E+32.3E+5
Os-185 . . . . . . . . . . . . Osmium (76)127.0127.02.8E+27.5E+3
Os-191m . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010804.6E+41.3E+6
Os-191 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102700.924.31.6E+34.4E+4
Os-193 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.52.0E+45.3E+5
Os-194 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.411.1E+13.1E+2
P-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . Phosphorus (15)0.38.110.38.111.1E+42.9E+5
P-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.35.8E+31.6E+5
Pa-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . Protactinium (91)254.10.12.701.2E+33.3E+4
Pa-231 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.26E-51.62E-31.7E-34.7E-2
Pa-233 . . . . . . . . . . . . 51350.924.37.7E+22.1E+4
Pb-201 . . . . . . . . . . . . Lead (82)127.0127.06.2E+41.7E+6
Pb-202 . . . . . . . . . . . . 401080254.11.2E-43.4E-3
Pb-203 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.1381.11.1E+43.0E+5
Pb-205 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited4.5E-61.2E-4
Pb-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.29E-30.2432.87.6E+1
Pb-212 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.115.1E+41.4E+6
Pd-103 . . . . . . . . . . . . Palladium (46)4010804010802.8E+37.5E+4
Pd-107 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited1.9E-55.1E-4
Pd-109 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.57.9E+42.1E+6
Pm-143 . . . . . . . . . . . . Promethium (61)381.1381.11.3E+23.4E+3
Pm-144 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.616.29.2E+12.5E+3
Pm-145 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3081171895.21.4E+2
Pm-147 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.33.4E+19.3E+2
Pm-148m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.513.50.513.57.9E+22.1E+4
Pm-149 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.51.5E+44.0E+5
Pm-151 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.10.513.52.7E+47.3E+5
Po-208 . . . . . . . . . . . . Polonium (84)4010802E-20.5412.2E+15.9E+2
Po-209 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010802E-20.5416.2E-11.7E+1
Po-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010802E-20.5411.7E+24.5E+3
Pr-142 . . . . . . . . . . . . Praseodymium (59)0.25.410.25.414.3E+41.2E+6
Pr-143 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.52.5E+36.7E+4
Pt-188 . . . . . . . . . . . . Platinum (78)0.616.20.616.22.5E+36.8E+4
Pt-191 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.1381.18.7E+32.4E+5
Pt-193m . . . . . . . . . . . . 40108092435.8E+31.6E+5
Pt-193 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010801.43.7E+1
Pt-195m . . . . . . . . . . . . 10270254.16.2E+31.7E+5
Pt-197m . . . . . . . . . . . . 102700.924.33.7E+51.0E+7
Pt-197 . . . . . . . . . . . . 205410.513.53.2E+48.7E+5
Pu-236 . . . . . . . . . . . . Plutonium (94)71897E-41.89E-22.0E+15.3E+2
Pu-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20541205414.5E+21.2E+4
Pu-238 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-36.3E-11.7E+1
Pu-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-32.3E-36.2E-2
Pu-240 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-38.4E-32.3E-1
Pu-241 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010801E-20.2703.81.0E+2
Pu-242 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-31.5E-43.9E-3
Pu-244 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.112E-45.41E-36.7E-71.8E-5
Ra-223 . . . . . . . . . . . . Radium (88)0.616.23E-20.8111.9E+35.1E+4
Ra-224 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.116E-21.625.9E+31.6E+5
Ra-225 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.22E-20.5411.5E+33.9E+4
Ra-226 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.112E-20.5413.7E-21.0
Ra-228 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.24E-21.081.0E+12.7E+2
Rb-81 . . . . . . . . . . . . Rubidium (37)254.10.924.33.1E+58.4E+6
Rb-83 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.1254.16.8E+21.8E+4
Rb-84 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.00.924.31.8E+34.7E+4
Rb-86 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.113.0E+38.1E+4
Rb-87 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited3.2E-98.6E-8
Rb (natural) . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited6.7E+61.8E+8
Re-183 . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhenium (75)513551353.8E+21.0E+4
Re-184m . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.1381.11.6E+24.3E+3
Re-184 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.0127.06.9E+21.9E+4
Re-186 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.56.9E+31.9E+5
Re-187 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited1.4E-93.8E-8
Re-188 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.413.6E+49.8E+5
Re-189 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.52.5E+46.8E+5
Re (natural) . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited2.4E-8
Rh-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhodium (45)254.1254.13.0E+38.2E+4
Rh-101 . . . . . . . . . . . . 410841084.1E+11.1E+3
Rh-102m . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.924.32.3E+26.2E+3
Rh-102 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.513.50.513.54.5E+11.2E+3
Rh-103m . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010801.2E+63.3E+7
Rh-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102700.924.33.1E+48.4E+5
Rn-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . Radon (86)0.25.414E-30.1085.7E+31.5E+5
Ru-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . Ruthenium (44)410841081.7E+44.6E+5
Ru-103 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.924.31.2E+33.2E+4
Ru-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.52.5E+56.7E+6
Ru-106 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.411.2E+23.3E+3
S-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfur (16)401080254.11.6E+34.3E+4
Sb-122 . . . . . . . . . . . . Antimony (51)0.38.110.38.111.5E+44.0E+5
Sb-124 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.56.5E+21.7E+4
Sb-125 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.924.33.9E+11.0E+3
Sb-126 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.83.1E+38.4E+4
Sc-44 . . . . . . . . . . . . Scandium (21)0.513.50.513.56.7E+51.8E+7
Sc-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.513.50.513.51.3E+33.4E+4
Sc-47 . . . . . . . . . . . . 92430.924.33.1E+48.3E+5
Sc-48 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.115.5E+41.5E+6
Se-75 . . . . . . . . . . . . Selenium (34)381.1381.15.4E+21.5E+4
Se-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . 401080254.12.6E-37.0E-2
Si-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . Silicon (14)0.616.20.513.51.4E+63.9E+7
Si-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.25.413.91.1E+2
Sm-145 . . . . . . . . . . . . Samarium (62)20541205419.8E+12.6E+3
Sm-147 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited8.5E-12.3E-8
Sm-151 . . . . . . . . . . . . 40108041089.7E-12.6E+1
Sm-153 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.51.6E+44.4E+5
Sn-113 . . . . . . . . . . . . Tin (50)410841083.7E+21.0E+4
Sn-117m . . . . . . . . . . . . 6162254.13.0E+38.2E+4
Sn-119m . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010801.4E+23.7E+3
Sn-121m . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.32.05.4E+1
Sn-123 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.53.0E+28.2E+3
Sn-125 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.414.0E+31.1E+5
Sn-126 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.111.0E-32.8E-2
Sr-82 . . . . . . . . . . . . Strontium (38)0.25.410.25.412.3E+36.2E+4
Sr-85m . . . . . . . . . . . . 513551351.2E+63.3E+7
Sr-85 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.1254.18.8E+22.4E+4
Sr-87m . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.1381.14.8E+51.3E+7
Sr-89 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.51.1E+32.9E+4
Sr-90 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.12.705.11.4E+2
Sr-91 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.111.3E+53.6E+6
Sr-92 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.821.60.513.54.7E+51.3E+7
T . . . . . . . . . . . . Tritium (1)4010804010803.6E+29.7E+3
Ta-178 . . . . . . . . . . . . Tanatalum (73)127.0127.04.2E+61.1E+8
Ta-179 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30811308114.1E+11.1E+3
Ta-182 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.821.60.513.52.3E+26.2E+3
Tb-157 . . . . . . . . . . . . Terbium (65)401080102705.6E-11.5E+1
Tb-158 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.00.718.95.6E-11.5E+1
Tb-160 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.924.30.513.54.2E+21.1E+4
Tc-95m . . . . . . . . . . . . Technetium (43)254.1254.18.3E+22.2E+4
Tc-96m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.81.4E+63.8E+7
Tc-96 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.81.2E+43.2E+5
Tc-97m . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010805.6E+21.5E+4
Tc-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited5.2E-51.4E-3
Tc-98 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.718.90.718.93.2E-58.7E-4
Tc-99m . . . . . . . . . . . . 821682161.9E+55.3E+6
Tc-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.36.3E-41.7E-2
Te-118 . . . . . . . . . . . . Tellurium (52)0.25.410.25.416.8E+31.8E+5
Te-121m . . . . . . . . . . . . 513551352.6E+27.0E+3
Te-121 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.1254.12.4E+36.4E+4
Te-123m . . . . . . . . . . . . 718971893.3E+28.9E+3
Te-125m . . . . . . . . . . . . 3081192436.7E+21.8E+4
Te-127m . . . . . . . . . . . . 205410.513.53.5E+29.4E+3
Te-127 . . . . . . . . . . . . 205410.513.59.8E+42.6E+6
Te-129m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.51.1E+33.0E+4
Te-129 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.616.20.513.57.7E+52.1E+7
Te-131m . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.718.90.513.53.0E+48.0E+5
Te-132 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.81.1E+43.0E+5
Th-227 . . . . . . . . . . . . Thorium (90)92431E-20.2701.1E+33.1E+4
Th-228 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.114E-41.08E-23.0E+18.2E+2
Th-229 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.113E-58.11E-47.9E-32.1E-1
Th-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.12E-45.41E-37.6E-42.1E-2
Th-231 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.32.0E+45.3E+5
Th-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited4.0E-91.1E-7
Th-234 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.418.6E+22.3E+4
Th (natural) . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited8.1E-92.2E-7
Ti-44 . . . . . . . . . . . . Titanium (22)0.513.50.25.416.41.7E+2
Tl-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . Thallium (81.1)0.821.60.821.62.2E+46.0E+5
Tl-201 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10270102707.9E+32.1E+5
Tl-202 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.1254.12.0E+35.3E+4
Tl-204 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.51.7E+14.6E+2
Tm-167 . . . . . . . . . . . . Thulium (69)718971893.1E+38.5E+4
Tm-168 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.821.60.821.63.1E+28.3E+3
Tm-170 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.52.2E+26.0E+3
Tm-171 . . . . . . . . . . . . 401080102704.0E+11.1E+3
U-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . Uranium (92)4010801E-20.2701.0E+32.7E+4
U-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . 381.13E-48.11E-38.3E-12.2E+1
U-233 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102701E-32.70E-23.6E-49.7E-3
U-234 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102701E-32.70E-22.3E-46.2E-3
U-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited8.0E-82.2E-6
U-236 . . . . . . . . . . . . 102701E-32.70E-22.4E-66.5E-5
U-238 . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited1.2E-83.4E-7
U (natural) . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited2.6E-87.1E-7
U (enriched 5% or less) . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited(See Table A-3)
U (enriched more than 5%) . . . . . . . . . . . . 102701E-32.70E-2(See Table A-3)
U (depleted) . . . . . . . . . . . . UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited(See Table A-3)
V-48 . . . . . . . . . . . . Vanadium (23)0.38.110.38.116.3E+31.7E+5
V-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010803.0E+28.1E+3
W-178 . . . . . . . . . . . . Tungsten (74)127.0127.01.3E+33.4E+4
W-181 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30811308112.2E+26.0E+3
W-185 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.924.33.5E+29.4E+3
W-187 . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.513.52.6E+47.0E+5
W-188 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.413.7E+21.0E+4
Xe-122 . . . . . . . . . . . . Xenon (54)0.25.410.25.414.8E+41.3E+6
Xe-123 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.414.4E+51.2E+7
Xe-127 . . . . . . . . . . . . 410841081.0E+32.8E+4
Xe-131m . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010804010803.1E+38.4E+4
Xe-133 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20541205416.9E+31.9E+5
Xe-135 . . . . . . . . . . . . 410841089.5E+42.6E+6
Y-87 . . . . . . . . . . . . Yttrium (39)254.1254.11.7E+44.5E+5
Y-88 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.410.80.410.85.2E+21.4E+4
Y-90 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.412.0E+45.4E+5
Y-91m . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.1254.11.5E+64.2E+7
Y-91 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.119.1E+22.5E+4
Y-92 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.413.6E+59.6E+6
Y-93 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25.410.25.411.2E+53.3E+6
Yb-169 . . . . . . . . . . . . Ytterbium (70)381.1381.18.9E+22.4E+4
Yb-175 . . . . . . . . . . . . 308110.924.36.6E+31.8E+5
Zn-65 . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc (30)254.1254.13.0E+28.2E+3
Zn-69m . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.10.513.51.2E+53.3E+6
Zn-69 . . . . . . . . . . . . 41080.513.51.8E+64.9E+7
Zr-88 . . . . . . . . . . . . Zirconium (40)381.1381.16.6E+21.8E+4
Zr-93 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4010800.25.419.3E-52.5E-3
Zr-95 . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.00.924.37.9E+22.1E+4
Zr-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38.110.38.117.1E+41.9E+6

aInternational shipments of Einsteinium require multilateral approval of A1 and A2 values.
bInternational shipments of Fermium require multilaterial approval of A1 and A2 values.
c20 Ci for Mo99 for domestic use.

Table A-2.--General Values for A1 and A2

A1A2
Contents(TBq)(Ci)(TBq)(Ci)
Only beta- or gamma-emitting nuclides are known to be present . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.2

5

0.02

0.5

Alpha-emitting nuclides are known to be present, or no relevant data are available . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.10

2.70

2E-5

5.41E-4

Table A-3.--Activity-mass Relationships for Uranium

Specific Activity
Uranium Enrichment 1 wt % U-235 present . . . . . . . . . . . .
TBq/gCi/g
0.45 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8E-85.0E-7
0.72 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6E-87.1E-7
1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8E-87.6E-7
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7E-81.0E-6
5.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0E-72.7E-6
10.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8E-74.8E-6
20.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7E-71.0E-5
35.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4E-72.0E-5
50.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3E-72.5E-5
90.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2E-65.8E-5
93.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6E-67.0E-5
95.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4E-69.1E-5

1The figures for uranium include representative values for the activity of the uranium-234 that is concentrated during the enrichment process.

[]

OTS-3037.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 184, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91)

WAC 246-232-001
Purpose and scope.

(1) This chapter prescribes rules governing licensing of radioactive material.  No person shall receive, possess, use, transfer, own or acquire radioactive material except as authorized in a specific or general license issued pursuant to chapters 246-233 or 246-235 WAC or as otherwise provided in this chapter.

(2) In addition to the requirements of this chapter, or chapters 246-233 or 246-235 WAC, all licensees are subject to the requirements of chapters 246-220, 246-221, 246-222, 246-231, 246-247, and 246-254 WAC.  Licensees engaged in the practice of nuclear medicine are subject to the requirements of chapter 246-239 WAC, licensees engaged in industrial radiographic operations are subject to the requirements of chapter 246-243 WAC, licensees using sealed sources in the healing arts are subject to the requirements of chapter 246-240 WAC, licensees using radioactive material in well logging and subsurface tracer studies are subject to the requirements of chapter 246-244 WAC, licensees engaged in land disposal of radioactive waste are subject to the requirements of chapter 246-250 WAC, and licensees owning or operating uranium or thorium mills and associated mill tailings are subject to the requirements of chapter 246-252 WAC.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-232-001, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-232-001, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  83-19-050 (Order 2026), 402-19-010, filed 9/16/83; 79-12-073 (Order 1459), 402-19-010, filed 11/30/79, effective 1/1/80.  Formerly chapter 402-20 WAC.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-13-037, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98)

WAC 246-232-040
Reciprocal recognition of licenses.

(1) Subject to these regulations, any person who holds a specific license from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or any agreement state or licensing state, and issued by the agency having jurisdiction where the licensee maintains an office for directing the licensed activity and at which radiation safety records are normally maintained, is hereby granted a general license to conduct the activities authorized in such licensing document within this state for a period not in excess of one hundred eighty days in that twelve month period which commences the date approval is granted, and the appropriate fee received, by the department provided that:

(a) The licensing document does not limit the activity authorized by such document to specified installations or locations;

(b) The licensed activity is not conducted in an area under exclusive federal jurisdiction;

(c) The out-of-state licensee notifies the department in writing and pays or has paid the appropriate fee (refer to chapter 246-254 WAC), at least three days prior to each entry to the state to engage in such activity.  The written notification must be sent to the Radioactive Materials Section, Department of Health, Mailstop 47827, Olympia, Washington 98504-7827 and the fee should be sent to Washington State Department of Health, Revenue Accounting, P.O. Box 1099, Olympia, Washington 98504.  Such notification shall indicate the location, period, and type of proposed possession and use within the state, and shall be accompanied by copies of the pertinent licensing documents.  If, for a specific case, the three-day period would impose an undue hardship on the out-of-state licensee, the licensee may, upon telephone application to the department (360 236-3220), obtain permission to proceed sooner.  The department may waive the requirement for filing additional written notifications during the remainder of the twelve months following the receipt of the initial notification from a person engaging in activities under the general license provided in this subsection;

(((c))) (d) The out-of-state licensee complies with all applicable regulations of the department and with all the terms and conditions of the licensing document, except any such terms and conditions which may be inconsistent with applicable regulations of the department;

(((d))) (e) The out-of-state licensee supplies such other information as the department may request; and

(((e))) (f) The out-of-state licensee shall not transfer or dispose of radioactive material possessed or used under the general license provided in this subsection except by transfer to a person:

(i) Specifically licensed by the department or by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an agreement state or a licensing state to receive such material; or

(ii) Exempt from the requirements for a license for such material under WAC 246-232-010 (2)(a).

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (1) of this section, any person who holds a specific license issued by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an agreement state or a licensing state authorizing the holder to manufacture, transfer, install, or service a device described in WAC 246-233-020(4) within the areas subject to the jurisdiction of the licensing body is hereby granted a general license to install, transfer, demonstrate or service a device in this state in areas not under exclusive federal jurisdiction provided that:

(a) Such person shall file a report with the department within thirty days after the end of each calendar quarter in which any device is transferred to or installed in this state.  Each such report shall identify each general licensee to whom such device is transferred by name and address, the type of device transferred, and the quantity and type of radioactive material contained in the device;

(b) The device has been manufactured, labeled, installed, and serviced in accordance with applicable provisions of the specific license issued to such person by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an agreement state or a licensing state;

(c) Such person shall assure that any labels required to be affixed to the device under regulations of the authority which licensed manufacture of the device bear a statement that "Removal of this label is prohibited"; and

(d) The holder of the specific license shall furnish to each general licensee to whom such device is transferred or on whose premises such device is installed a copy of the general license contained in WAC 246-233-020(4).

(3) The department may withdraw, limit, or qualify its acceptance of any specific license or equivalent licensing document issued by another agency, or any product distributed pursuant to such licensing document, upon determining that such action is necessary in order to prevent undue hazard to public health and safety or property.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  98-13-037, 246-232-040, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-232-040, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-232-040, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  87-01-031 (Order 2450), 402-19-250, filed 12/11/86; 83-19-050 (Order 2026), 402-19-250, filed 9/16/83.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  81-01-011 (Order 1570), 402-19-250, filed 12/8/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  79-12-073 (Order 1459), 402-19-250, filed 11/30/79, effective 1/1/80.  Formerly WAC 402-20-210.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-08-095, filed 4/2/97, effective 5/3/97)

WAC 246-232-060
Termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or outdoor areas.

(1) Each specific licensee shall immediately notify the department in writing when the licensee decides to permanently discontinue all activities involving materials authorized under the license and request termination of the license.  This notification and request for termination of the license must include the reports and information specified in subsection (3)(c) and (d) of this section.  The licensee is subject to the provisions of subsections (3) and (4) of this section, as applicable.

(2) No less than thirty days before the expiration date specified in a specific license, the licensee shall either:

(a) Submit an application for license renewal under WAC 246-235-050; or

(b) Notify the department in writing if the licensee decides not to renew the license.

(3) If a licensee does not submit an application for license renewal under WAC 246-235-050, the licensee shall on or before the expiration date specified in the license:

(a) Terminate use of radioactive material;

(b) Properly dispose of radioactive material;

(c) Submit a completed departmental form "Certificate of disposition of radioactive material" or equivalent; and

(d) Submit a radiation survey report to confirm the absence of radioactive materials or establish the levels of radioactive contamination, unless the department determines a radiation survey report is not necessary.

(i) If no radioactive contamination attributable to activities conducted under the license is detected, the licensee shall submit a certification that no detectable radioactive contamination was found.  If the information submitted under this paragraph and subsection (3)(c) and (d) of this section is adequate, the department will notify the licensee in writing that the license is terminated.

(ii) If detectable levels of radioactive contamination attributable to activities conducted under the license are found, the license continues in effect beyond the expiration date, if necessary, with respect to possession of residual radioactive material present as contamination until the department notifies the licensee in writing that the license is terminated.  During this time, the licensee is subject to the provisions of subsection (4) of this section.  In addition to the information submitted under subsection (3)(c) and (d) of this section, the licensee shall submit a plan for decontamination, if necessary.

(4) Each licensee who possesses residual radioactive material under subsection (3)(d)(ii) of this section, following the expiration of the facility and/or equipment date specified in the license, shall:

(a) Be limited to actions, involving radioactive material related to decontamination and preparation for release for unrestricted use; and

(b) Continue to control entry to restricted areas until they are suitable for release for unrestricted use and the department notifies the licensee in writing that the license is terminated.  The guidance contained in WAC 246-232-140, Schedule D, shall be used in making this determination.

(5) Each general licensee licensed under the provisions of WAC 246-233-020(8), shall immediately notify the department in writing when the licensee decides to discontinue all activities involving radioactive materials authorized under the general license.  Such notification shall include a description of how the generally licensed material was disposed and the results of facility surveys, if applicable, to confirm the absence of radioactive materials.

(6) Within sixty days of the occurrence of any of the following, each licensee shall provide notification to the department in writing of such occurrence, and either begin decommissioning its site, or any separate building or outdoor area that contains residual radioactivity so that the building or outdoor area is suitable for release in accordance with department requirements, or submit within twelve months of notification a decommissioning plan, if required by subsection (10)(a) of this section, and begin decommissioning upon approval of that plan if:

(a) The license has expired or has been revoked by the department; or

(b) The licensee has decided to permanently cease principal activities, as defined in this section, at the entire site or in any separate building or outdoor area that contains residual radioactivity such that the building or outdoor area is unsuitable for release in accordance with department requirements; or

(c) No principal activities under the license have been conducted for a period of twenty-four months; or

(d) No principal activities have been conducted for a period of twenty-four months in any separate building or outdoor area that contains residual radioactivity such that the building or outdoor area is unsuitable for release in accordance with department requirements.

(7) As used in this section, principal activities means activities authorized by the license which are essential to achieving the purpose(s) for which the license was issued or amended.  Storage during which no licensed material is accessed for use or disposal and activities incidental to decontamination or decommissioning are not principal activities.

(8) Coincident with the notification required by subsection (6) of this section, the licensee shall maintain in effect all decommissioning financial assurances established by the licensee pursuant to WAC 246-235-075 or as required by this section.  The amount of the financial assurance must be increased, or may be decreased, as appropriate, to cover the detailed cost estimate for decommissioning established pursuant to subsection (10)(d)(v) of this section.  Following approval of the decommissioning plan, a licensee may reduce the amount of the financial assurance as decommissioning proceeds and radiological contamination is reduced at the site with the approval of the department.

(9) The department may grant a request to extend the time periods established in subsection (6) of this section if the department determines that this relief is not detrimental to the public health and safety and is otherwise in the public interest.  The request must be submitted no later than thirty days before notification pursuant to subsection (6) of this section.  The schedule for decommissioning set forth in subsection (6) of this section may not commence until the department has made a determination on the request.

(10)(a) A decommissioning plan must be submitted if required by license condition or if the procedures and activities necessary to carry out decommissioning of the site or separate building or outdoor area have not been previously approved by the department and these procedures could increase potential health and safety impacts to workers or to the public, such as in any of the following cases:

(i) Procedures would involve techniques not applied routinely during cleanup or maintenance operations;

(ii) Workers would be entering areas not normally occupied where surface contamination and radiation levels are significantly higher than routinely encountered during operation;

(iii) Procedures could result in significantly greater airborne concentrations of radioactive materials than are present during operation; or

(iv) Procedures could result in significantly greater releases of radioactive material to the environment than those associated with operation.

(b) The department may approve an alternate schedule for submittal of a decommissioning plan required pursuant to subsection (6) of this section if the department determines that the alternative schedule is necessary to the effective conduct of decommissioning operations and presents no undue risk from radiation to the public health and safety and is otherwise in the public interest.

(c) Procedures such as those listed in (a) of this subsection with potential health and safety impacts may not be carried out prior to approval of the decommissioning plan.

(d) The proposed decommissioning plan for the site or separate building or outdoor area must include:

(i) A description of the conditions of the site or separate building or outdoor area sufficient to evaluate the acceptability of the plan;

(ii) A description of planned decommissioning activities;

(iii) A description of methods used to ensure protection of workers and the environment against radiation hazards during decommissioning;

(iv) A description of the planned final radiation survey;

(v) An updated detailed cost estimate for decommissioning, comparison of that estimate with present funds set aside for decommissioning, and a plan for assuring the availability of adequate funds for completion of decommissioning;

(vi) A description of the physical security plan and material control and accounting plan provisions in place during decommissioning;

(vii) For decommissioning plans calling for completion of decommissioning later than twenty-four months after plan approval, the plan shall include a justification for the delay based on the criteria in subsection (12) of this section.

(e) The proposed decommissioning plan will be approved by the department if the information therein demonstrates that the decommissioning will be completed as soon as practicable and that the health and safety of workers and the public will be adequately protected.

(11)(a) Except as provided in subsection (12) of this section, licensees shall complete decommissioning of the site or separate building or outdoor area as soon as practicable but no later than twenty-four months following the initiation of decommissioning.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (12) of this section, when decommissioning involves the entire site, the licensee shall request license termination as soon as practicable but no later than twenty-four months following the initiation of decommissioning.

(12) The department may approve a request for an alternative schedule for completion of decommissioning of the site or separate building or outdoor area, and license termination if appropriate, if the department determines that the alternative is warranted by consideration of the following:

(a) Whether it is technically feasible to complete decommissioning within the allotted twenty-four-month period;

(b) Whether sufficient waste disposal capacity is available to allow completion of decommissioning within the allotted twenty-four-month period;

(c) Whether a significant volume reduction in wastes requiring disposal will be achieved by allowing short-lived radionuclides to decay;

(d) Whether a significant reduction in radiation exposure to workers can be achieved by allowing short-lived radionuclides to decay; and

(e) Other site-specific factors which the department may consider appropriate on a case-by-case basis, such as the regulatory requirements of other government agencies, lawsuits, ground water treatment activities, monitored natural ground water restoration, actions that could result in more environmental harm than deferred cleanup, and other factors beyond the control of the licensee.

(13) As the final step in decommissioning, the licensee shall:

(a) Certify the disposition of all licensed material, including accumulated wastes, by submitting a completed certificate of disposition of radioactive material or equivalent information; and

(b) Conduct a radiation survey of the premises where the licensed activities were carried out and submit a report of the results of this survey unless the licensee demonstrates that the premises are suitable for release in some other manner.  The licensee shall, as appropriate:

(i) Report levels of gamma radiation in units of millisieverts (microroentgen) per hour at one meter from surfaces, and report levels of radioactivity, including alpha and beta, in units of megabecquerels (disintegrations per minute or microcuries) per one hundred square centimeters--removable and fixed--for surfaces, megabecquerels (microcuries) per milliliter for water, and becquerels (picocuries) per gram for solids such as soils or concrete; and

(ii) Specify the survey instrument(s) used and certify that each instrument is properly calibrated and tested.

(14) Specific licenses, including expired licenses, will be terminated by written notice to the licensee when the department determines that:

(a) Radioactive material has been properly disposed;

(b) Reasonable effort has been made to eliminate residual radioactive contamination, if present; and

(c)(i) A radiation survey has been performed which demonstrates that the premises are suitable for release in accordance with department requirements; or

(ii) Other information submitted by the licensee is sufficient to demonstrate that the premises are suitable for release in accordance with department requirements; and

(d) Records required by subsections (16) and (18) of this section have been received.

(15) Specific licenses for uranium and thorium milling are exempt from subsections (6)(d), (9) and (10) of this section with respect to reclamation of tailings impoundments and/or waste disposal areas.

(16) Prior to license termination, each licensee authorized to possess radioactive material with a half-life greater than one hundred twenty days, in an unsealed form, shall forward the following records to the department:

(a) Records of disposal required by WAC 246-221-230 (8)(a); and

(b) Records of results required by WAC 246-221-230 (7)(h).

(17) If licensed activities are transferred or assigned in accordance with WAC 246-232-050(2), each licensee authorized to possess radioactive material, with a half-life greater than one hundred twenty days, in an unsealed form, shall transfer the following records to the new licensee and the new licensee will be responsible for maintaining these records until the license is terminated:

(a) Records of disposal required by WAC 246-221-230 (8)(a); and

(b) Records of results required by WAC 246-221-230 (7)(h).

(18) Prior to license termination, each licensee shall forward the records required by WAC 246-235-075(6) to the department.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  97-08-095, 246-232-060, filed 4/2/97, effective 5/3/97; 91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-232-060, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-232-060, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  83-19-050 (Order 2026), 402-19-330, filed 9/16/83.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 184, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91)

WAC 246-232-090
Transportation.

(((1) Transportation of radioactive material.))  No person shall deliver radioactive material to a carrier for transport or transport radioactive material except as authorized in a general or specific license issued by the department or as exempted ((in subsection (2) of this section.

(2) Exemptions.

(a) Common and contract carriers, freight forwarders, and warehousemen who are subject to the rules and regulations of the United States Department of Transportation (49 CFR Parts 170 through 189) or the United States Postal Service (Domestic Mail Manual, Section 124.3 incorporated by reference, 39 CFR 111.11 (1974)) are exempt from this section to the extent that they transport or store radioactive material in the regular course of their carriage for another or storage incident thereto.  Common and contract carriers who are not subject to the rules and regulations of the United States Department of Transportation or United States Postal Service are subject to subsection (1) of this section and other applicable sections of these regulations.

(b) Physicians, as defined in WAC 246-220-010, are exempt from the requirements of this section only to the extent that they transport radioactive material for emergency use in the practice of medicine.

(c) Specific licensees are exempt from this section to the extent that they deliver to a carrier for transport packages each of which contains no radioactive material having a specific activity in excess of 0.002 microcurie per gram.

(d) Any licensee who delivers radioactive material to a carrier for transport, where such transport is subject to the regulations of the United States Postal Service, is exempt from the provisions of subsection (1) of this section.

(3) General licenses for carriers.

(a) A general license is hereby issued to any common or contract carrier not exempted under subsection (2) of this section to receive, possess, transport and store radioactive material in the regular course of their carriage for another or storage incident thereto, provided the transportation and storage is in accordance with the applicable requirements of the regulations, appropriate to the mode of transport, of the United States Department of Transportation.

(b) A general license is hereby issued to any private carrier to transport radioactive material, provided the transportation is in accordance with the applicable requirements of the regulations, appropriate to the mode of transport, of the United States Department of Transportation insofar as such regulations relate to the loading and storage of packages, placarding of the transporting vehicle, shipping papers, and incident reporting.1

(c) Persons who transport radioactive material pursuant to the general licenses in (a) or (b) of this subsection are exempt from the requirements of chapters 246-221 and 246-222 WAC of these regulations to the extent that they transport radioactive material.

(4) Preparation of radioactive material for transport.  A general license is hereby issued to deliver radioactive material to a carrier2 for transport provided that:

(a) The licensee complies with the applicable requirements of the regulations, appropriate to the mode of transport, of the United States Department of Transportation insofar as such regulations relate to the packaging of radioactive material, to shipping papers, and to the monitoring, marking and labeling of those packages.

(b) The licensee has established procedures for opening and closing packages in which radioactive material is transported to provide safety and to assure that, prior to the delivery to a carrier for transport, each package is properly closed for transport.

(c) Prior to delivery of a package to a carrier for transport, the licensee shall assure that any special instructions needed to safely open the package are sent to or have been make [made] available to the consignee.

(d) In addition to the requirements of the United States Department of Transportation, each package of Type A or Type B quantity radioactive material prepared for shipment must have the innermost container labeled as to the isotope, chemical form, number of curies or subunits thereof, and date of determination of activity and each innermost container shall be tested to assure that the container is properly sealed and that contamination which would cause undue hazard to public health and safety or property is not present prior to transportation.  This requirement does not apply to properly packaged shipments of radioactive waste consigned to a commercial low level waste burial facility.

(5) Transport of nuclear waste--Advance notification requirement.  Prior to the transport of any nuclear waste outside of the confines of the licensee's plant or other place of use or storage, or prior to the delivery of any nuclear waste to a carrier for transport, each licensee shall comply with the procedures in this subsection for advance notification to the governor of a state or the governor's designee for the transport of nuclear waste to, through, or across the boundary of the state.

(a) Where, when, and how advance notification must be sent.  The notification required by subsection (5) of this section must be made in writing to the office of each appropriate governor or governor's designee and to the director of the appropriate Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Office.  A notification delivered by mail must be postmarked at least seven days before the beginning of the seven-day period during which departure of the shipment is estimated to occur.  A notification delivered by messenger must reach the office of the governor or of the governor's designee at least four days before the beginning of the seven-day period during which departure of the shipment is estimated to occur.  A list of the mailing addresses of the governors and governors' designees is available upon request from the Director, Office of State Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. 20555.  A copy of the notification shall be retained by the licensee as a record for one year.

(b) Information to be furnished in advance notification of shipment.  Each advance notification of shipments of nuclear waste must contain the following information:

(i) The name, address, and telephone number of the shipper, carrier, and receiver of the nuclear waste shipment;

(ii) A description of the nuclear waste contained in the shipment as required by the regulations of the U.S. Department of Transportation in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d);

(iii) The point of origin of the shipment, and the seven-day period during which departure of the shipment is estimated to occur;

(iv) The seven-day period during which arrival of the shipment at state boundaries is estimated to occur;

(v) The destination of the shipment, and the seven-day period during which arrival of the shipment is estimated to occur; and

(vi) A point of contact with a telephone number for current shipment information.

(c) Revision notice.  A licensee who finds that schedule information previously furnished to a governor or governor's designee in accordance with (a) and (b) of this subsection will not be met, shall telephone a responsible individual in the office of the governor of the state or of the governor's designee and inform that individual of the extent of the delay relative to the schedule originally reported in writing under the provisions of (a) and (b) of this subsection.  The licensee shall maintain a record of the name of the individual contacted for one year.

(d) Cancellation notice.  Each licensee who cancels a nuclear waste shipment for which advance notification has been sent as required by this subsection shall send a cancellation notice to the governor of each state or the governor's designee previously notified and to the director of the appropriate Nuclear Regulatory Commission Inspection and Enforcement Regional Office.  The notice shall state that it is a cancellation and shall identify the advance notification which is being cancelled.  A copy of the notice shall be retained by the licensee as a record for one year)) in chapter 246-231 WAC. General licenses for transportation of radioactive material and other transportation requirements are found in chapter 246-231 WAC.


((1Any notification of incidents referred to in those requirements shall be filed with, or made to, the department.

2For the purpose of this regulation, licensees who transport their own licensed material as private carriers are considered to have delivered such material to a carrier for transport.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-232-090, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-232-090, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  83-19-050 (Order 2026), 402-19-500, filed 9/16/83.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050.  81-01-011 (Order 1570), 402-19-500, filed 12/8/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  79-12-073 (Order 1459), 402-19-500, filed 11/30/79, effective 1/1/80.  Formerly WAC 402-20-220.]

OTS-3036.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-08-095, filed 4/2/97, effective 5/3/97)

WAC 246-235-075
Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning.

(1) Each applicant for one of the following licenses shall submit a decommissioning funding plan as described in this section:

(a) A specific license authorizing receipt of radioactive waste for the purpose of volume reduction, repackaging or interim storage.

(b) Receipt of contaminated articles, scrap material, equipment, or clothing to be decontaminated at the licensee's facility.

(c) A specific license authorizing the possession and use of radioactive material of half-life greater than one hundred twenty days and in quantities for unsealed material exceeding 103 times and for sealed forms exceeding 1010 times the applicable quantities set forth in WAC 246-221-300 Appendix B (for a combination of isotopes the unity rule applies.  A decommissioning funding plan will be required if R is greater than 1, where R is defined as the sum of the ratios of the quantity for sealed and unsealed forms of each isotope compared to the applicable value derived from WAC 246-221-300).

(d) A specific license authorizing possession and use of source material in readily dispersible form and in quantities greater than 10 millicuries.

(2) Each decommissioning funding plan shall contain:

(a) A cost estimate for decommissioning facilities impacted by the activities authorized in the specific license.

(b) A description of the method of assuring funds for decommissioning.

(c) A schedule for adjusting cost estimates and associated funding levels periodically over the life of the facility or facilities.

(d) A description of methods and general procedures for performing facility decontamination, maintaining security, and performing a final radiation survey.

(e) A commitment to clean up accidental spills promptly and to begin decommissioning of the facility or facilities within twelve months of ceasing operation involving radioactive material.

(3) Each cost estimate for decommissioning shall include:

(a) A description of the facility and areas within the facility likely to require decommissioning as a result of routine operation.

(b) Anticipated labor, equipment and material costs.

(c) Anticipated waste volume.

(d) Anticipated packaging, transportation and waste disposal costs.

(e) An assessment of costs associated with an accident involving licensed material.

(4) Financial assurance for decommissioning shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:

(a) Prepayment.  Prepayment is the deposit of sufficient funds to pay decommissioning costs.  Funds shall be deposited prior to the start of operation into an account segregated from licensee assets and outside the licensee's administrative control.  Prepayment may be in the form of a trust, escrow account, government fund, certificate of deposit, or deposit of government securities.

(b) A surety method, insurance, or other guarantee method.  These methods guarantee that decommissioning costs will be paid should the licensee default.  A surety method may be in the form of a surety bond, letter of credit, or line of credit.  Any surety method or insurance used to provide financial assurance for decommissioning must contain the following conditions:

(i) The surety method or insurance shall be open-ended or, if written for a specified term, such as five years, shall be renewed automatically unless ninety days or more prior to the renewal date, the issuer notifies the department, the beneficiary, and the licensee of its intention not to renew.  The surety method or insurance shall also provide that the full face amount be paid to the beneficiary automatically prior to the expiration without proof of forfeiture if the licensee fails to provide a replacement acceptable to the department within thirty days after receipt of notification of cancellation.

(ii) The surety method or insurance shall be payable to a trust established for decommissioning costs.  The trustee and trust shall be acceptable to the department.  Acceptable trustees include an appropriate state or federal government agency or an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a federal or state agency.

(iii) The surety method or insurance must remain in effect until the department has terminated the license.

(c) An external sinking fund in which deposits are made at least annually, coupled with a surety method or insurance, the value of which may decrease by the amount being accumulated in the sinking fund.  An external sinking fund is a fund established and maintained by setting aside funds periodically in an account segregated from licensee assets and outside the licensee's administrative control.  The total amount of funds in the external sinking fund shall be sufficient to pay decommissioning costs at the time termination of operation is expected.  An external sinking fund may be in the form of a trust, escrow account, government fund, certificate of deposit, or deposit of government securities.  The surety or insurance provisions shall be as stated in subsection (4)(b) of this section.

(d) In the case of state or local government licensees, a statement of intent containing a cost estimate for decommissioning and indicating that funds for decommissioning will be obtained when necessary.

(e) Other methods of financial assurance as approved by the department.  The department may approve other financial mechanisms submitted by the applicant or licensee provided the alternate method meets, at a minimum, the requirements of 10 C.F.R. 30.35 and associated U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance.

(5)(a) The department shall review each decommissioning funding plan prior to license issuance and prior to license renewal.

(b) The applicant or licensee shall incorporate department comments into its cost estimate and shall revise its financial surety accordingly.

(c) Applicants shall obtain the appropriate financial assurance as approved by the department prior to receipt of licensed material.  The department may issue a new license if the applicant agrees to comply with the decommissioning funding plan as approved.  If the applicant defers execution of the financial instrument until after the license has been issued, a signed original of the financial instrument obtained to satisfy the requirements of this section shall be submitted to the department before receipt of licensed material.

(d) Holders of licenses issued on or before the effective date of this rule shall submit a decommissioning funding plan to the department by April 1, 1993.  Licensees shall implement the financial assurance requirements within thirty days of receiving department approval of the decommissioning funding plan.  Licensees shall submit copies of the financial surety within thirty days of securing the surety and annually thereafter.

(6) Each person licensed under this chapter shall keep records of information important to the safe and effective decommissioning of the facility in an identified location until the site is released for unrestricted use. Before licensed activities are transferred or assigned in accordance with WAC 246-232-050(2), licensees shall transfer all records described in this subsection to the new licensee. In this case, the new licensee will be responsible for maintaining these records until the license is terminated by the department.  If records of relevant information are kept for other purposes, reference to these records and their locations may be used.  Information the department considers important to decommissioning consists of:

(a) Records of spills or other unusual occurrences involving the spread of contamination in and around the facility, equipment, or site.  These records may be limited to instances when contamination remains after any cleanup procedures or when there is reasonable likelihood that contaminants may have spread to inaccessible areas as in the case of possible seepage into porous materials such as concrete.  These records shall include any known information on identification of involved nuclides, quantities, forms, and concentrations.

(b) As-built drawings and modifications of structures and equipment in restricted areas where radioactive materials are used and/or stored, and of locations of possible inaccessible contamination such as buried pipes which may be subject to contamination.  If required drawings are referenced, each relevant document need not be indexed individually.  If drawings are not available, the licensee shall substitute appropriate records of available information concerning these areas and locations.

(c) Except for areas containing only sealed sources (provided the sources have not leaked or no contamination remains after any leak) or depleted uranium used only for shielding or as penetrators in unused munitions, or radioactive materials having only half-lives of less than sixty-five days, a list contained in a single document and updated every two years, of the following:

(i) All areas designated and formerly designated as restricted areas as defined under WAC 246-220-010;

(ii) All areas outside of restricted areas that require documentation under (a) of this subsection;

(iii) All areas outside of restricted areas where current and previous wastes have been buried as documented under WAC 246-221-230 (8)(a); and

(iv) All areas outside of restricted areas which contain material such that, if the license expired, the licensee would be required to either decontaminate the area to unrestricted release levels or apply for approval for disposal under WAC 246-221-180.  Records of the cost estimate performed for the decommissioning funding plan or of the amount certified for decommissioning, and records of the funding method used for assuring funds if either a funding plan or certification is used.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  97-08-095, 246-235-075, filed 4/2/97, effective 5/3/97; 92-06-008 (Order 245), 246-235-075, filed 2/21/92, effective 3/23/92.]

OTS-3035.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 184, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91)

WAC 246-244-040
Limits on levels of radiation.

Sources of radiation shall be used, stored, and transported in such a manner that the transportation requirements of chapter 246-231 WAC ((246-232-090)) and the dose limitation requirements of chapter 246-221 WAC are met.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-244-040, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-244-040, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  87-01-031 (Order 2450), 402-38-060, filed 12/11/86.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 184, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91)

WAC 246-244-060
Transport precautions.

(1) Transport containers shall be physically secured to the transporting vehicle to prevent accidental loss, tampering, or unauthorized removal.

(2) Transport of radioactive material shall be in accordance with applicable provisions of the United States Department of Transportation, as required by chapter 246-231 WAC ((246-232-090)).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.  91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-244-060, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040.  91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-244-060, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080.  87-01-031 (Order 2450), 402-38-100, filed 12/11/86.]

Washington State Code Reviser's Office