|Passed by the House March 6, 2013|
Speaker of the House of Representatives
Passed by the Senate April 15, 2013
President of the Senate
I, Barbara Baker, Chief Clerk of the House of Representatives of the State of Washington, do hereby certify that the attached is ENGROSSED SUBSTITUTE HOUSE BILL 1524 as passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate on the dates hereon set forth.
Governor of the State of Washington
Secretary of State
State of Washington
|State of Washington||63rd Legislature||2013 Regular Session|
READ FIRST TIME 02/20/13.
AN ACT Relating to juvenile mental health diversion and disposition strategies; amending RCW 13.40.070, 13.40.080, and 13.40.127; adding a new section to chapter 13.40 RCW; and creating a new section.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
NEW SECTION. Sec. 1 The legislature finds that the large number
of youth involved in the juvenile justice system with mental health
challenges is of significant concern. Access to effective treatment is
critical to the successful treatment of youth in the early stages of
their contact with the juvenile justice system. Such access may
prevent further involvement in the system after an initial contact or
assist a youth in avoiding any further contact with the juvenile
justice system altogether. There is growing evidence that mental
health diversion strategies, in particular, are effective in connecting
youth with needed treatment and preventing additional offending
behaviors. These strategies allow a continuum of opportunities for
connecting youth who may be facing a mental illness or disorder to
community mental health services at multiple decision points, such as
law enforcement diversion, prosecutor diversion, court-based diversion,
and court disposition. The effective use of these strategies can
result not only in significant cost savings for the juvenile justice
system, but can create the benefit of improved lives of the youth who
face mental health challenges and barriers.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 2 A new section is added to chapter 13.40 RCW
to read as follows:
(1) When a police officer has reasonable cause to believe that a juvenile has committed acts constituting a nonfelony crime that is not a serious offense as identified in RCW 10.77.092, and the officer believes that the juvenile suffers from a mental disorder, and the local prosecutor has entered into an agreement with law enforcement regarding the detention of juveniles who may have a mental disorder, the arresting officer, instead of taking the juvenile to the local juvenile detention facility, may take the juvenile to:
(a) An evaluation and treatment facility as defined in RCW 71.34.020 if the facility has been identified as an alternative location by agreement of the prosecutor, law enforcement, and the mental health provider;
(b) A facility or program identified by agreement of the prosecutor and law enforcement; or
(c) A location already identified and in use by law enforcement for the purpose of mental health diversion.
(2) For the purposes of this section, an "alternative location" means a facility or program that has the capacity to evaluate a youth and, if determined to be appropriate, develop a behavioral health intervention plan and initiate treatment.
(3) If a juvenile is taken to any location described in subsection (1)(a) or (b) of this section, the juvenile may be held for up to twelve hours and must be examined by a mental health professional within three hours of arrival.
(4) The authority provided pursuant to this section is in addition to existing authority under RCW 10.31.110.
Sec. 3 RCW 13.40.070 and 2010 c 289 s 7 are each amended to read
(1) Complaints referred to the juvenile court alleging the commission of an offense shall be referred directly to the prosecutor. The prosecutor, upon receipt of a complaint, shall screen the complaint to determine whether:
(a) The alleged facts bring the case within the jurisdiction of the court; and
(b) On a basis of available evidence there is probable cause to believe that the juvenile did commit the offense.
(2) If the identical alleged acts constitute an offense under both the law of this state and an ordinance of any city or county of this state, state law shall govern the prosecutor's screening and charging decision for both filed and diverted cases.
(3) If the requirements of subsections (1)(a) and (b) of this section are met, the prosecutor shall either file an information in juvenile court or divert the case, as set forth in subsections (5), (6), and (8) of this section. If the prosecutor finds that the requirements of subsection (1)(a) and (b) of this section are not met, the prosecutor shall maintain a record, for one year, of such decision and the reasons therefor. In lieu of filing an information or diverting an offense a prosecutor may file a motion to modify community supervision where such offense constitutes a violation of community supervision.
(4) An information shall be a plain, concise, and definite written statement of the essential facts constituting the offense charged. It shall be signed by the prosecuting attorney and conform to chapter 10.37 RCW.
(5) Except as provided in RCW 13.40.213 and subsection (7) of this section, where a case is legally sufficient, the prosecutor shall file an information with the juvenile court if:
(a) An alleged offender is accused of a class A felony, a class B felony, an attempt to commit a class B felony, a class C felony listed in RCW 9.94A.411(2) as a crime against persons or listed in RCW 9A.46.060 as a crime of harassment, or a class C felony that is a violation of RCW 9.41.080 or 9.41.040(2)(a)(iii); or
(b) An alleged offender is accused of a felony and has a criminal history of any felony, or at least two gross misdemeanors, or at least two misdemeanors; or
(c) An alleged offender has previously been committed to the department; or
(d) An alleged offender has been referred by a diversion unit for prosecution or desires prosecution instead of diversion; or
(e) An alleged offender has ((
two)) three or more diversion
agreements on the alleged offender's criminal history; or
(f) A special allegation has been filed that the offender or an accomplice was armed with a firearm when the offense was committed.
(6) Where a case is legally sufficient the prosecutor shall divert the case if the alleged offense is a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor or violation and the alleged offense is the offender's first offense or violation. If the alleged offender is charged with a related offense that must or may be filed under subsections (5) and (8) of this section, a case under this subsection may also be filed.
(7) Where a case is legally sufficient to charge an alleged offender with either prostitution or prostitution loitering and the alleged offense is the offender's first prostitution or prostitution loitering offense, the prosecutor shall divert the case.
(8) Where a case is legally sufficient and falls into neither subsection (5) nor (6) of this section, it may be filed or diverted. In deciding whether to file or divert an offense under this section the prosecutor shall be guided only by the length, seriousness, and recency of the alleged offender's criminal history and the circumstances surrounding the commission of the alleged offense.
(9) Whenever a juvenile is placed in custody or, where not placed in custody, referred to a diversion interview, the parent or legal guardian of the juvenile shall be notified as soon as possible concerning the allegation made against the juvenile and the current status of the juvenile. Where a case involves victims of crimes against persons or victims whose property has not been recovered at the time a juvenile is referred to a diversion unit, the victim shall be notified of the referral and informed how to contact the unit.
(10) The responsibilities of the prosecutor under subsections (1) through (9) of this section may be performed by a juvenile court probation counselor for any complaint referred to the court alleging the commission of an offense which would not be a felony if committed by an adult, if the prosecutor has given sufficient written notice to the juvenile court that the prosecutor will not review such complaints.
(11) The prosecutor, juvenile court probation counselor, or diversion unit may, in exercising their authority under this section or RCW 13.40.080, refer juveniles to mediation or victim offender reconciliation programs. Such mediation or victim offender reconciliation programs shall be voluntary for victims.
Sec. 4 RCW 13.40.080 and 2012 c 201 s 2 are each amended to read
(1) A diversion agreement shall be a contract between a juvenile accused of an offense and a diversion unit whereby the juvenile agrees to fulfill certain conditions in lieu of prosecution. Such agreements may be entered into only after the prosecutor, or probation counselor pursuant to this chapter, has determined that probable cause exists to believe that a crime has been committed and that the juvenile committed it. Such agreements shall be entered into as expeditiously as possible.
(2) A diversion agreement shall be limited to one or more of the following:
(a) Community restitution not to exceed one hundred fifty hours, not to be performed during school hours if the juvenile is attending school;
(b) Restitution limited to the amount of actual loss incurred by any victim;
(c) Attendance at up to ten hours of counseling and/or up to twenty hours of educational or informational sessions at a community agency. The educational or informational sessions may include sessions relating to respect for self, others, and authority; victim awareness; accountability; self-worth; responsibility; work ethics; good citizenship; literacy; and life skills. If an assessment identifies mental health needs, a youth may access up to thirty hours of counseling. The counseling sessions may include services demonstrated to improve behavioral health and reduce recidivism. For purposes of this section, "community agency" may also mean a community-based nonprofit organization, a physician, a counselor, a school, or a treatment provider, if approved by the diversion unit. The state shall not be liable for costs resulting from the diversion unit exercising the option to permit diversion agreements to mandate attendance at up to ((
ten)) thirty hours of counseling and/or up to twenty hours of
educational or informational sessions;
(d) A fine, not to exceed one hundred dollars;
(e) Requirements to remain during specified hours at home, school, or work, and restrictions on leaving or entering specified geographical areas; and
(f) Upon request of any victim or witness, requirements to refrain from any contact with victims or witnesses of offenses committed by the juvenile.
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of this section, youth courts are not limited to the conditions imposed by subsection (2) of this section in imposing sanctions on juveniles pursuant to RCW 13.40.630.
(4) In assessing periods of community restitution to be performed and restitution to be paid by a juvenile who has entered into a diversion agreement, the court officer to whom this task is assigned shall consult with the juvenile's custodial parent or parents or guardian. To the extent possible, the court officer shall advise the victims of the juvenile offender of the diversion process, offer victim impact letter forms and restitution claim forms, and involve members of the community. Such members of the community shall meet with the juvenile and advise the court officer as to the terms of the diversion agreement and shall supervise the juvenile in carrying out its terms.
(5)(a) A diversion agreement may not exceed a period of six months and may include a period extending beyond the eighteenth birthday of the divertee.
(b) If additional time is necessary for the juvenile to complete restitution to a victim, the time period limitations of this subsection may be extended by an additional six months.
(c) If the juvenile has not paid the full amount of restitution by the end of the additional six-month period, then the juvenile shall be referred to the juvenile court for entry of an order establishing the amount of restitution still owed to the victim. In this order, the court shall also determine the terms and conditions of the restitution, including a payment plan extending up to ten years if the court determines that the juvenile does not have the means to make full restitution over a shorter period. For the purposes of this subsection (5)(c), the juvenile shall remain under the court's jurisdiction for a maximum term of ten years after the juvenile's eighteenth birthday. Prior to the expiration of the initial ten-year period, the juvenile court may extend the judgment for restitution an additional ten years. The court may relieve the juvenile of the requirement to pay full or partial restitution if the juvenile reasonably satisfies the court that he or she does not have the means to make full or partial restitution and could not reasonably acquire the means to pay the restitution over a ten-year period. If the court relieves the juvenile of the requirement to pay full or partial restitution, the court may order an amount of community restitution that the court deems appropriate. The county clerk shall make disbursements to victims named in the order. The restitution to victims named in the order shall be paid prior to any payment for other penalties or monetary assessments. A juvenile under obligation to pay restitution may petition the court for modification of the restitution order.
(6) The juvenile shall retain the right to be referred to the court at any time prior to the signing of the diversion agreement.
(7) Divertees and potential divertees shall be afforded due process in all contacts with a diversion unit regardless of whether the juveniles are accepted for diversion or whether the diversion program is successfully completed. Such due process shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(a) A written diversion agreement shall be executed stating all conditions in clearly understandable language;
(b) Violation of the terms of the agreement shall be the only grounds for termination;
(c) No divertee may be terminated from a diversion program without being given a court hearing, which hearing shall be preceded by:
(i) Written notice of alleged violations of the conditions of the diversion program; and
(ii) Disclosure of all evidence to be offered against the divertee;
(d) The hearing shall be conducted by the juvenile court and shall include:
(i) Opportunity to be heard in person and to present evidence;
(ii) The right to confront and cross-examine all adverse witnesses;
(iii) A written statement by the court as to the evidence relied on and the reasons for termination, should that be the decision; and
(iv) Demonstration by evidence that the divertee has substantially violated the terms of his or her diversion agreement;
(e) The prosecutor may file an information on the offense for which the divertee was diverted:
(i) In juvenile court if the divertee is under eighteen years of age; or
(ii) In superior court or the appropriate court of limited jurisdiction if the divertee is eighteen years of age or older.
(8) The diversion unit shall, subject to available funds, be responsible for providing interpreters when juveniles need interpreters to effectively communicate during diversion unit hearings or negotiations.
(9) The diversion unit shall be responsible for advising a divertee of his or her rights as provided in this chapter.
(10) The diversion unit may refer a juvenile to a restorative justice program, community-based counseling, or treatment programs.
(11) The right to counsel shall inure prior to the initial interview for purposes of advising the juvenile as to whether he or she desires to participate in the diversion process or to appear in the juvenile court. The juvenile may be represented by counsel at any critical stage of the diversion process, including intake interviews and termination hearings. The juvenile shall be fully advised at the intake of his or her right to an attorney and of the relevant services an attorney can provide. For the purpose of this section, intake interviews mean all interviews regarding the diversion agreement process.
The juvenile shall be advised that a diversion agreement shall constitute a part of the juvenile's criminal history as defined by RCW 13.40.020(7). A signed acknowledgment of such advisement shall be obtained from the juvenile, and the document shall be maintained by the diversion unit together with the diversion agreement, and a copy of both documents shall be delivered to the prosecutor if requested by the prosecutor. The supreme court shall promulgate rules setting forth the content of such advisement in simple language.
(12) When a juvenile enters into a diversion agreement, the juvenile court may receive only the following information for dispositional purposes:
(a) The fact that a charge or charges were made;
(b) The fact that a diversion agreement was entered into;
(c) The juvenile's obligations under such agreement;
(d) Whether the alleged offender performed his or her obligations under such agreement; and
(e) The facts of the alleged offense.
(13) A diversion unit may refuse to enter into a diversion agreement with a juvenile. When a diversion unit refuses to enter a diversion agreement with a juvenile, it shall immediately refer such juvenile to the court for action and shall forward to the court the criminal complaint and a detailed statement of its reasons for refusing to enter into a diversion agreement. The diversion unit shall also immediately refer the case to the prosecuting attorney for action if such juvenile violates the terms of the diversion agreement.
(14) A diversion unit may, in instances where it determines that the act or omission of an act for which a juvenile has been referred to it involved no victim, or where it determines that the juvenile referred to it has no prior criminal history and is alleged to have committed an illegal act involving no threat of or instance of actual physical harm and involving not more than fifty dollars in property loss or damage and that there is no loss outstanding to the person or firm suffering such damage or loss, counsel and release or release such a juvenile without entering into a diversion agreement. A diversion unit's authority to counsel and release a juvenile under this subsection includes the authority to refer the juvenile to community-based counseling or treatment programs or a restorative justice program. Any juvenile released under this subsection shall be advised that the act or omission of any act for which he or she had been referred shall constitute a part of the juvenile's criminal history as defined by RCW 13.40.020(7). A signed acknowledgment of such advisement shall be obtained from the juvenile, and the document shall be maintained by the unit, and a copy of the document shall be delivered to the prosecutor if requested by the prosecutor. The supreme court shall promulgate rules setting forth the content of such advisement in simple language. A juvenile determined to be eligible by a diversion unit for release as provided in this subsection shall retain the same right to counsel and right to have his or her case referred to the court for formal action as any other juvenile referred to the unit.
(15) A diversion unit may supervise the fulfillment of a diversion agreement entered into before the juvenile's eighteenth birthday and which includes a period extending beyond the divertee's eighteenth birthday.
(16) If a fine required by a diversion agreement cannot reasonably be paid due to a change of circumstance, the diversion agreement may be modified at the request of the divertee and with the concurrence of the diversion unit to convert an unpaid fine into community restitution. The modification of the diversion agreement shall be in writing and signed by the divertee and the diversion unit. The number of hours of community restitution in lieu of a monetary penalty shall be converted at the rate of the prevailing state minimum wage per hour.
(17) Fines imposed under this section shall be collected and paid into the county general fund in accordance with procedures established by the juvenile court administrator under RCW 13.04.040 and may be used only for juvenile services. In the expenditure of funds for juvenile services, there shall be a maintenance of effort whereby counties exhaust existing resources before using amounts collected under this section.
Sec. 5 RCW 13.40.127 and 2012 c 177 s 1 are each amended to read
(1) A juvenile is eligible for deferred disposition unless he or she:
(a) Is charged with a sex or violent offense;
(b) Has a criminal history which includes any felony;
(c) Has a prior deferred disposition or deferred adjudication; or
(d) Has two or more adjudications.
(2) The juvenile court may, upon motion at least fourteen days before commencement of trial and, after consulting the juvenile's custodial parent or parents or guardian and with the consent of the juvenile, continue the case for disposition for a period not to exceed one year from the date the juvenile is found guilty. The court shall consider whether the offender and the community will benefit from a deferred disposition before deferring the disposition. The court may waive the fourteen-day period anytime before the commencement of trial for good cause.
(3) Any juvenile who agrees to a deferral of disposition shall:
(a) Stipulate to the admissibility of the facts contained in the written police report;
(b) Acknowledge that the report will be entered and used to support a finding of guilt and to impose a disposition if the juvenile fails to comply with terms of supervision;
(c) Waive the following rights to: (i) A speedy disposition; and (ii) call and confront witnesses; and
(d) Acknowledge the direct consequences of being found guilty and the direct consequences that will happen if an order of disposition is entered.
The adjudicatory hearing shall be limited to a reading of the court's record.
(4) Following the stipulation, acknowledgment, waiver, and entry of a finding or plea of guilt, the court shall defer entry of an order of disposition of the juvenile.
(5) Any juvenile granted a deferral of disposition under this section shall be placed under community supervision. The court may impose any conditions of supervision that it deems appropriate including posting a probation bond. Payment of restitution under RCW 13.40.190 shall be a condition of community supervision under this section.
The court may require a juvenile offender convicted of animal cruelty in the first degree to submit to a mental health evaluation to determine if the offender would benefit from treatment and such intervention would promote the safety of the community. After consideration of the results of the evaluation, as a condition of community supervision, the court may order the offender to attend treatment to address issues pertinent to the offense.
The court may require the juvenile to undergo a mental health or substance abuse assessment, or both. If the assessment identifies a need for treatment, conditions of supervision may include treatment for the assessed need that has been demonstrated to improve behavioral health and reduce recidivism.
(6) A parent who signed for a probation bond has the right to notify the counselor if the juvenile fails to comply with the bond or conditions of supervision. The counselor shall notify the court and surety of any failure to comply. A surety shall notify the court of the juvenile's failure to comply with the probation bond. The state shall bear the burden to prove, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the juvenile has failed to comply with the terms of community supervision.
(7)(a) Anytime prior to the conclusion of the period of supervision, the prosecutor or the juvenile's juvenile court community supervision counselor may file a motion with the court requesting the court revoke the deferred disposition based on the juvenile's lack of compliance or treat the juvenile's lack of compliance as a violation pursuant to RCW 13.40.200.
(b) If the court finds the juvenile failed to comply with the terms of the deferred disposition, the court may:
(i) Revoke the deferred disposition and enter an order of disposition; or
(ii) Impose sanctions for the violation pursuant to RCW 13.40.200.
(8) At any time following deferral of disposition the court may, following a hearing, continue supervision for an additional one-year period for good cause.
(9)(a) At the conclusion of the period of supervision, the court shall determine whether the juvenile is entitled to dismissal of the deferred disposition only when the court finds:
(i) The deferred disposition has not been previously revoked;
(ii) The juvenile has completed the terms of supervision;
(iii) There are no pending motions concerning lack of compliance pursuant to subsection (7) of this section; and
(iv) The juvenile has either paid the full amount of restitution, or, made a good faith effort to pay the full amount of restitution during the period of supervision.
(b) If the court finds the juvenile is entitled to dismissal of the deferred disposition pursuant to (a) of this subsection, the juvenile's conviction shall be vacated and the court shall dismiss the case with prejudice, except that a conviction under RCW 16.52.205 shall not be vacated. Whenever a case is dismissed with restitution still owing, the court shall enter a restitution order pursuant to RCW 13.40.190 for any unpaid restitution. Jurisdiction to enforce payment and modify terms of the restitution order shall be the same as those set forth in RCW 13.40.190.
(c) If the court finds the juvenile is not entitled to dismissal of the deferred disposition pursuant to (a) of this subsection, the court shall revoke the deferred disposition and enter an order of disposition. A deferred disposition shall remain a conviction unless the case is dismissed and the conviction is vacated pursuant to (b) of this subsection or sealed pursuant to RCW 13.50.050.
(10)(a)(i) Any time the court vacates a conviction pursuant to subsection (9) of this section, if the juvenile is eighteen years of age or older and the full amount of restitution ordered has been paid, the court shall enter a written order sealing the case.
(ii) Any time the court vacates a conviction pursuant to subsection (9) of this section, if the juvenile is not eighteen years of age or older and full restitution ordered has been paid, the court shall schedule an administrative sealing hearing to take place no later than thirty days after the respondent's eighteenth birthday, at which time the court shall enter a written order sealing the case. The respondent's presence at the administrative sealing hearing is not required.
(iii) Any deferred disposition vacated prior to June 7, 2012, is not subject to sealing under this subsection.
(b) Nothing in this subsection shall preclude a juvenile from petitioning the court to have the records of his or her deferred dispositions sealed under RCW 13.50.050 (11) and (12).
(c) Records sealed under this provision shall have the same legal status as records sealed under RCW 13.50.050.