SENATE BILL REPORT
This analysis was prepared by non-partisan legislative staff for the use of legislative members in their deliberations. This analysis is not a part of the legislation nor does it constitute a statement of legislative intent.
As Passed Senate - Amended, April 12, 2017
Title: An act relating to dual language in early learning and K-12 education.
Brief Description: Concerning dual language in early learning and K-12 education.
Sponsors: House Committee on Appropriations (originally sponsored by Representatives Ortiz-Self, Stambaugh, Santos, Orwall, Harris, Caldier, Springer, Appleton, Lytton, Condotta, Fey, Pollet, Goodman, Slatter, Bergquist, Macri, Doglio and Kagi).
Brief History: Passed House: 3/01/17, 64-34.
Committee Activity: Early Learning & K-12 Education: 3/16/17, 3/21/17 [DP-WM].
Ways & Means: 3/30/17, 4/04/17 [DPA, DNP, w/oRec].
Passed Senate - Amended: 4/12/17, 45-4.
SENATE COMMITTEE ON EARLY LEARNING & K-12 EDUCATION
Majority Report: Do pass and be referred to Committee on Ways & Means.
Signed by Senators Zeiger, Chair; Fain, Vice Chair; Rolfes, Ranking Minority Member; Billig, Mullet and Warnick.
Staff: Alia Kennedy (786-7405) and Ailey Kato (786-7434)
SENATE COMMITTEE ON WAYS & MEANS
Majority Report: Do pass as amended.
Signed by Senators Braun, Chair; Brown, Vice Chair; Rossi, Vice Chair; Ranker, Ranking Minority Member; Rolfes, Assistant Ranking Minority Member, Operating Budget; Frockt, Assistant Ranking Minority Member, Capital Budget; Bailey, Becker, Billig, Carlyle, Conway, Darneille, Fain, Hasegawa, Keiser, Miloscia, Pedersen, Rivers, Schoesler, Warnick and Zeiger.
Minority Report: Do not pass.
Signed by Senator Padden.
Minority Report: That it be referred without recommendation.
Signed by Senator Honeyford, Vice Chair, Capital Budget .
Staff: Jeffrey Mitchell (786-7438)
Background: Dual Language Programs. A dual language program is an instructional model that provides content-based instruction to students in two languages, generally English and a target language other than English that is spoken in the local community. The goal of dual language programs is for the students, over a number of years of participation in the program, to become proficient and literate in both languages, while also meeting high academic standards in all subject areas.
The programs typically begin at kindergarten or first grade and continue through elementary school, and, if possible, into middle school or high school. A number of dual language programs currently exist in school districts throughout Washington including Bellevue, Evergreen, Highline, Kennewick, Mount Vernon, North Shore, Pasco, Seattle, Vancouver, Wenatchee, and Yakima. These programs offer instruction in Spanish, Japanese, or Mandarin Chinese.
The 2015-17 operating budget appropriated $500,000 to OSPI to implement a K-12 Dual Language Expansion Grant program for the purposes of building and expanding well-implemented, sustainable dual language programs.
Dual Language Educators. PESB establishes the policies and requirements for the preparation and certification of educators, including approval of endorsements. An endorsement is the subject area in which a certified educator is authorized to teach, along with designated grade levels for that area. There are approximately 40 endorsements in Washington, as well as a large number of career and technical education endorsements. In addition to subjects, such as math, science, English, and history, there are approved endorsements in bilingual education and English language learner, both for all grade levels.
Conditional Scholarship and Grant Programs. A conditional scholarship is a loan that is forgiven in whole or in part in exchange for qualified service as a certificated teacher employed in a Washington K-12 public school. The conditional scholarship programs are designed to help school districts recruit teachers, particularly in subject matter and geographic shortage areas. Under most grant and scholarship programs, the state will forgive one year of loan obligation for every two years a loan recipient teaches in a designated shortage area in a Washington K-12 public school.
State Need Grant. The State Need Grant is the state's largest financial aid program. The grant program provides need-based financial aid to income-eligible students pursuing postsecondary education. To be eligible, students must have a household income that is less than 70 percent of the state's median family income.
Grant recipients can use the financial aid at eligible higher education institutions in Washington, including public two-year and four-year colleges and universities and some accredited private or independent colleges, universities, and career schools.
College Bound Scholarship. The College Board Scholarship was established in 2007 to provide guaranteed four-year tuition to students from low-income families. The first College Board Scholarship awards were granted to students from the graduating high school Class of 2012. Eligibility for the scholarship is a two-part process that includes completion of an application by the end of their eighth grade year, a pledge to complete certain scholarship requirements, and a determination that the student meets the income-eligibility guidelines. College Board Scholarship recipients that attend public two-year or four-year higher education institutions receive an award to cover the cost of tuition and fees, minus any state-funded grant, scholarship, or waiver assistance, plus $500 for books and materials. The student must maintain satisfactory academic progress and may not receive the scholarship for more than four full-time years.
Summary of Amended Bill: K-12 Dual Language Grant Program. The K-12 Dual Language Grant program is created to grow capacity for high quality dual language learning in the common schools and in state-tribal compact schools.
A dual language program is an instructional model that provides content-based instruction to students in two languages: English and a target language other than English spoken in the local community. The goal of the program is for students to eventually become proficient and literate in both languages, while also meeting high academic standards in all subject areas. Programs generally begin at kindergarten or first grade and continue through at least elementary school. Two-way dual language programs begin with a balanced number of native and nonnative speakers of the target language so that both groups of students serve in the role of language modeler and language learner at different times. One-way dual language programs serve only nonnative English speakers.
By October 1, 2017, OSPI must award grants of up to $200,000 each through a competitive process to school districts or state-tribal compact schools proposing to:
establish a two-way dual language program or a one-way dual language program in a school with predominantly English learners; or
expand a recently established two-way dual language program or a one-way dual language program in a school with predominantly English learners.
When awarding a grant to a school district or a state-tribal compact school proposing to establish a dual language program in a target language other than Spanish, OSPI must provide a bonus of up to $20,000
OSPI must identify criteria for awarding the grants, evaluate applicants, award grant money, and select grantees that represent geographic, demographic, and enrollment diversity sufficient to produce meaningful data for the report required under this act. OSPI must notify school districts and state-tribal compact schools of the grant program established under this section and provide ample time for the application process.
Grant money must be used for dual language program start-up and expansion costs, such as staff and teacher training, teacher recruitment, development and implementation of a dual language-learning model and curriculum, and other costs identified in the application as key for start-up. Grant money may not be used for ongoing program costs. The grant period is two years.
The application must require, among other things, that the applicant describe:
how the program will serve the applicant's English learner population;
the number of classrooms that the applicant expects to add with the grant money;
the planned use of the grant money;
the applicant's plan for student enrollment and outreach to families who speak the target language;
the applicant's plan to recruit and support bilingual paraeducators, classified staff, parents, and high school students to become bilingual teachers in the district or state-tribal compact school;
the applicant's commitment to, and plan for, sustaining a dual language program beyond the grant period; and
whether the school district board of directors or the governing body of a state-tribal compact school has expressed support for dual language programs.
Dual Language Learning Cohorts. Within existing resources, OSPI must facilitate dual language learning cohorts for school districts and state-tribal compact schools establishing or expanding dual language programs. OSPI must provide technical assistance and support to school districts and state-tribal compact schools implementing dual language programs, including those establishing or expanding dual language programs under this act.
Bilingual Educator Initiative. Beginning in the 2017-2019 biennium, PESB must administer the Bilingual Educator Initiative, which is a long-term program to recruit, prepare, and mentor bilingual high school students to become future bilingual teachers and counselors.
Pilot projects must be implemented in one or two school districts east of the Cascade Mountains and one or two school districts west of the Cascade Mountains, where immigrant students are shown to be rapidly increasing. With oversight by PESB, selected districts must partner with at least one two-year and one four-year college in planning and implementing the program.
Participating school districts must implement programs, including:
an outreach plan that exposes the program to middle school students and recruits them to enroll in the program when they begin their ninth grade year of high school;
activities in ninth and tenth grades that help build student agency, such as self-confidence and awareness, the value and benefits of teaching and counseling as careers, and introduction to leadership, civic engagement, and community service; and
credit-bearing curricula in grades eleven and twelve that include mentoring, shadowing, best practices in teaching in a multicultural world, efficacy and practice of dual language instruction, social and emotional learning, enhanced leadership, civic engagement, and community service activities.
There must be a pipeline to college using two-year and four-year college faculty and consisting of continuation services for program participants, such as advising, tutoring, mentoring, financial assistance, and leadership. High school and college teachers and counselors must be recruited and compensated to serve as mentors and trainers for participating students.
After obtaining a high school diploma, students qualify to receive conditional loans to cover the full cost of college tuition, fees, and books. To qualify for funds, students must meet program requirements developed by their local implementation team, which consists of staff from their school district and the partnering two-year and four-year college faculty. In order to avoid loan repayment, students must:
earn their baccalaureate degree and certification needed to serve as a teacher or professional guidance counselor; and
teach or serve as a counselor in their educational service district region for at least five years.
Any student who does not meet these repayment terms may be required to repay all or part of the financial aid they received for college, unless the student is a recipient of funding provided through programs such as the State Need Grant program or the College Bound Scholarship Program.
Funds must be appropriated in 2017 for the purpose of this act.
Early Learning Dual Language Outreach and Resources. DEL must work with community partners to support outreach and education for parents and families around the benefits of native language development and retention, as well as the benefits of dual language learning. Native language means the language normally used by an individual or, in the case of a child or youth, the language normally used by the parents or family of the child or youth.
Within existing resources, DEL must create training and professional development resources on dual language learning, such as supporting English language learners, working in culturally and linguistically diverse communities, strategies for family engagement, and cultural responsiveness. DEL must also support dual language learning communities for teachers and coaches.
Report to the Legislature. By December 1, 2019, OSPI and PESB must submit a combined report to the Legislature that:
details the successes, best practices, lessons learned, and outcomes of the grant programs described in this act; and
describes how the K-12 education system has met the goals of each grant program and expanded their capacities to support dual language models of instruction.
Fiscal Note: Available.
Creates Committee/Commission/Task Force that includes Legislative members: No.
Effective Date: Ninety days after adjournment of session in which bill is passed.
Staff Summary of Public Testimony on Substitute House Bill (Early Learning & K-12 Education): PRO: This bill comes from work completed by the Educational Opportunity Gap Oversight and Accountability Committee, which found that ELL students need more support to help close the opportunity gap. The best practice for ELL students are dual language programs, which can enhance existing native language skills and allow ELL students to learn English at the same time. These programs also benefit native English-speaking students because they get to learn another language. Full immersion programs, which are common, are not a best practice because students are not able to learn other content areas because they are learning English. Dual language programs also encourage cross-cultural learning and cultural competency. Families can be more involved with their child's education if teachers speak the language spoken at home. In Washington, a small percentage of ELL students are in dual language programs, and there are many barriers to establishing these programs. The grant programs in this bill would help build and strengthen dual language programs. This bill will help build more early learning programs, which greatly benefits younger children's brain development. Dual language programs are a smart investment and a long-term workforce development strategy. Businesses are recruiting bilingual employees, and dual language programs will help students be more competitive for these jobs in the future.
Persons Testifying (Early Learning & K-12 Education): PRO: Representative Lillian Ortiz-Self, Prime Sponsor; Sharon Cronin, citizen; Erik Mercado, student; Manuela Slye, parent; Bernard Koontz, Highline School District; Heather Byington, teacher; Emily Murphy, Children's Alliance and Early Learning Action Alliance; Mea Moore, Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction; Dominique Vijarro, Goddard College; Rosa Alvarez, student.
Persons Signed In To Testify But Not Testifying (Early Learning & K-12 Education): No one.
Staff Summary of Public Testimony (Ways & Means): No public hearing was held.
Persons Testifying (Ways & Means): N/A.
Persons Signed In To Testify But Not Testifying (Ways & Means): N/A.