WSR 98-03-003

PERMANENT RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL

[Filed January 8, 1998, 8:32 a.m., effective July 1, 1998]

Date of Adoption: November 14, 1997.

Purpose: To adopt amendments to the Washington State Energy Code.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Repealing WAC 51-11-606, 51-11-607, 51-11-608 and 51-11-1010; and amending WAC 51-11-101, 51-11-104, 51-11-201, 51-11-402, 51-11-502, 51-11-503, 51-11-504, 51-11-525, 51-11-527, 51-11-530, 51-11-541, 51-11-602, 51-11-625, 51-11-626, 51-11-627, 51-11-628, 51-11-629, 51-11-630, 51-11-701, 51-11-800, 51-11-1002, 51-11-1003, 51-11-1004, 51-11-1005, 51-11-1006, 51-11-1007, 51-11-1008, 51-11-1009, 51-11-1120, 51-11-1130, 51-11-1132, 51-11-1133, 51-11-1210, 51-11-1312, 51-11-1323, 51-11-1331, 51-11-1334, 51-11-1411, 51-11-1412, 51-11-1414, 51-11-1421, 51-11-1422, 51-11-1423, 51-11-1452, 51-11-1454, 51-11-1512, 51-11-1530, 51-11-1701, 51-11-2005, 51-11-2006, 51-11-2007, 51-11-99903, and 51-11-99904.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 97-16-110 on August 6, 1997.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: 1. Inapplicable lighting language in Section 101 was deleted for clarification. This change resulted from testimony at the public hearing.

2. Unused definitions and references in Sections 201, 701, 1210, and 1701 were deleted for simplification. This change resulted from testimony at the public hearing.

3. Addresses were updated in Sections 800 and 99904 for accuracy.

4. Table 10-4A Default U-Factors for Exposed Floors was added to Table 10-4 Default U-Factors for Floors over Heated Plenums Crawlspaces to correct a filing error which mistakenly replaced one table with the other. This change resulted from testimony at the public hearing.

5. The last two sentences in Section 1412.4.1 were deleted to eliminate a conflict with the Uniform Building Code. This change resulted from testimony at the public hearing.

6. Clarifying language was added to Section 1414.2 specifying insulation requirements for unheated equipment rooms with combustion air louvers. This change resulted from testimony at the public hearing.

7. Residential skylight requirements in Sections 201, 502.1.5, 502.2.1, Equation 1, Table 5-1, 602.7.2, Table 6-1 through 6-6 were revised, clarified and simplified. This change resulted from testimony at the public hearing.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, amended 5, repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 1, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, amended 47, repealed 6.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's own Initiative: New 0, amended 1, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 53, repealed 6; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Effective Date of Rule: July 1, 1998.

January 6, 1998

Mike McEnaney

Council Chair

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0101 Section 101. Scope and general requirements.

101.1 Title: Chapters 1 through 10 of this Code shall be known as the "Washington State Residential Energy Code" and may be cited as such; and will be referred to herein as "this Code."

101.2 Purpose and Intent: The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum standards for new or altered buildings and structures or portions thereof to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy.

The purpose of this Code is not to create or otherwise establish or designate any particular class or group of persons who will or should be especially protected or benefitted by the terms of this Code.

It is intended that these provisions provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy. These provisions are structured to permit compliance with the intent of this Code by any one of the following three paths of design:

1. A systems analysis approach for the entire building and its energy-using sub-systems which may utilize renewable energy sources, Chapter 4.

2. A component performance approach for various building elements and mechanical systems and components, Chapter 5.

3. A prescriptive requirements approach, Chapter 6.

Compliance with any one of these approaches meets the intent of this Code. This Code is not intended to abridge any safety or health requirements required under any other applicable codes or ordinances.

The provisions of this Code do not consider the efficiency of various energy forms as they are delivered to the building envelope. A determination of delivered energy efficiencies in conjunction with this Code will provide the most efficient use of available energy in new building construction.

101.3 Scope: This Code sets forth minimum requirements for the design of new buildings and structures that provide facilities or shelter for residential occupancies by regulating their exterior envelopes and the selection of their HVAC, service water heating((, electrical distribution and illuminating)) systems and equipment for efficient use and conservation of energy.

Buildings shall be designed to comply with the requirements of either Chapter 4, 5, or 6 of this Code.

101.3.1 Exempt Buildings: Buildings and structures or portions thereof meeting any of the following criteria shall be exempt from the building envelope requirements of sections 502 and ((sections)) 602 ((and 605)), but shall comply with all other requirements for building mechanical systems, and service water heating ((and lighting systems)).

101.3.1.1: Buildings and structures or portions thereof whose peak design rate of energy usage is less than three and four tenths (3.4) Btu/h per square foot or one point zero (1.0) watt per square foot of floor area for space conditioning requirements.

101.3.1.2: Buildings and structures or portions thereof which are neither heated according to the definition of heated space in Chapter 2, nor cooled by a nonrenewable energy source, provided that the nonrenewable energy use for space conditioning complies with requirements of section 101.3.1.1.

101.3.1.3: Greenhouses isolated from any conditioned space and not intended for occupancy.

101.3.2 Application to Existing Buildings: Additions, historic buildings, changes of occupancy or use, and alterations or repairs shall comply with the requirements in the subsections below.

EXCEPTION: The building official may approve designs of alterations or repairs which do not fully conform with all of the requirements of this Code where in the opinion of the building official full compliance is physically impossible and/or economically impractical and:

1. The alteration or repair improves the energy efficiency of the building; or

2. The alteration or repair is energy efficient and is necessary for the health, safety, and welfare of the general public.

In no case, shall building envelope requirements or mechanical system requirements be less than those requirements in effect at the time of the initial construction of the building.

101.3.2.1 Additions to Existing Buildings: Additions to existing buildings or structures may be made to such buildings or structures without making the entire building or structure comply, provided that the new additions shall conform to the provisions of this Code.

EXCEPTION: New additions which do not fully comply with the requirements of this Code and which have a floor area which is less than seven hundred fifty square feet shall be approved provided that improvements are made to the existing occupancy to compensate for any deficiencies in the new addition. Compliance shall be demonstrated by either systems analysis or component performance calculations. The nonconforming addition and upgraded, existing occupancy shall have an energy budget or heat loss which is less than or equal to the unimproved existing building, with the addition designed to comply with this Code.

101.3.2.2 Historic Buildings: The building official may modify the specific requirements of this Code for historic buildings and require in lieu thereof alternate requirements which will result in a reasonable degree of energy efficiency. This modification may be allowed for those buildings which have been specifically designated as historically significant by the state or local governing body, or listed in The National Register of Historic Places or which have been determined to be eligible for listing.

101.3.2.3 Change of Occupancy or Use:

Any Other than Group R Occupancy which is converted to Group R Occupancy shall be brought into full compliance with this Code.

101.3.2.4 Alterations and Repairs: All alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without exception. For all other existing buildings, initial tenant alterations shall comply with the new construction requirements of this Code. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the following requirements are met:

101.3.2.5 Building Envelope: The result of the alterations or repairs both:

1. Improves the energy efficiency of the building, and

2. Complies with the overall average thermal transmittance values of the elements of the exterior building envelope in Table 5-1 of Chapter 5 or the nominal R-values and glazing requirements of the reference case in Tables 6-1 to 6-6.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Untested storm windows may be installed over existing glazing for an assumed ((U-value)) U-factor of 0.90, however, where glass and sash are being replaced in Group R Occupancy, glazing ((with a maximum area weighted average U-value of 0.40 shall be installed where there is an electric resistance space heating system and glazing with a maximum U-value of 0.65 (Climate Zone I) and 0.60 (Climate Zone II) shall be installed where there is any other space heating system)) shall comply with the appropriate reference case in Table 6-1 through Table 6-6.

2. Where the structural elements of the altered portions of roof/ceiling, wall or floor are not being replaced, these elements shall be deemed to comply with this Code if all existing framing cavities which are exposed during construction are filled to the full depth with batt insulation or insulation having an equivalent nominal R-value while, for roof/ceilings, maintaining the required space for ventilation. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities need not be insulated. Existing roofs shall be insulated to the requirements of this Code if

a. The roof is uninsulated or insulation is removed to the level of the sheathing, or

b. All insulation in the roof/ceiling was previously installed exterior to the sheathing or nonexistent.

101.3.2.6 Building Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 503 of this Code.

101.3.2.7 Service Water Heating: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 504.

101.3.2.8 Reserved.

101.3.3 Mixed Occupancy: When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein. Where approved by the building official, where minor accessory uses do not occupy more than ten percent of the area of any floor of a building, the major use may be considered the building occupancy.

101.4 Amendments by Local Government: Except as provided in RCW 19.27A.020(7), this Code shall be the maximum and minimum energy code for Group R Occupancy in each town, city and county, no later than July 1, 1991.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0101, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0101, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0104 Plans and specifications.

104.1 General: If required by the building official, plans and specifications shall be submitted in support of an application for a building permit. If required by the building official, plans and specifications shall be stamped and authenticated by a registered design professional currently licensed in the state of Washington. If required by the building official, all energy calculations submitted under the provisions of Chapter 4 for Other than Group R Occupancy shall be stamped and authenticated by an engineer or architect licensed to practice by the state. All plans and specifications, together with supporting data, shall be submitted to the building official prior to issuance of a building permit.

104.2 Details: The plans and specifications shall show in sufficient detail all pertinent data and features of the building and the equipment and systems as herein governed including, but not limited to: design criteria, exterior envelope component materials, ((U-values)) U-factors of the envelope systems, R-values of insulating materials, size and type of apparatus and equipment, equipment and systems controls and other pertinent data to indicate compliance with the requirements of this Code.

The building official may accept the professional stamp of an architect or engineer licensed to do business by the state in lieu of a plan and specification check if the engineer or architect stipulates to the best of his knowledge, understanding and belief, the design meets the requirements of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0104, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-05-059, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0201 General definitions.

201.1 Application of Terms: For the purposes of this Code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives, shall be as set forth in this chapter. Where terms are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted meanings within the context with which they are used. In the event there is a question about the definition of a term, the definitions for terms in the codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 and the edition of Webster's dictionary referenced therein shall be considered as the sources for providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

((AAMA: American Architectural Manufacturers Association))

Addition: See the Washington State Building Code.

Advanced framed ceiling: Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. (See Standard Framing.)

Advanced framed walls: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.

AFUE. Annual fuel utilization efficiency: Unlike steady state conditions, this rating is based on average usage including on and off cycling as set out in the standardized Department of Energy Test Procedures.

Air conditioning, comfort: The process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet requirements of the conditioned space.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

Automatic: Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See Manual.)

Below grade walls: Walls or the portion of walls which are entirely below the finish grade or which extend two feet or less above the finish grade.

Building, existing: See the Washington State Building Code.

Boiler capacity: The rate of heat output in Btu/h measured at the boiler outlet, at the design inlet and outlet conditions and rated fuel/energy input.

Building envelope: The elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 101.3.1.

Building official: The official authorized to act in behalf of a jurisdiction code enforcement agency or its authorized representative.

Building project: A building or group of buildings, including on-site energy conversion or electric-generating facilities, which utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under one ownership.

Comfort envelope: The area on a psychrometric chart enclosing all those conditions described in Standard RS-4, Figure No. 1, as being comfortable.

Conditioned space: All spaces which are provided with heated and/or cooled air or which are capable of being maintained at temperatures over fifty degrees F during the heating season, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors).

Cooled space: Space within a building which is provided with a positive cooling supply.

COP - Coefficient of performance: The ratio of the rate of net heat output (heating mode) or heat removal (cooling mode) to the rate of total on-site energy input to the heat pump, expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. (See Net Heat Output, Net Heat Removal, Total On-Site Energy Input.)

Deadband: The temperature range in which no heating or cooling is used.

Degree day, heating: A unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal heating load of a building in winter. For any one day when the mean temperature is less than sixty-five degrees F there exist as many degree days as there are Fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between the mean temperature for the day and sixty-five degrees F.

Door: An operable opening area in the shell of a conditioned space, excluding sliding glass doors, which is designed and used as a means of ingress and egress. A door may also include a double door one of which is fixed and one of which is operable.

Door area: Total area of door measured using the rough opening and including the door and frame.

Dwelling unit: See the Washington State Building Code.

EER. Energy efficiency ratio: The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions.

Efficiency, HVAC system: The ratio of useful energy (at the point of use) to the energy input for a designated time period, expressed in percent.

Emissivity: The ability to absorb infrared radiation. A low emissivity implies a higher reflectance of infrared radiation.

Energy: The capacity for doing work; taking a number of forms which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical; in customary units, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or British thermal units (Btu). (See New energy.)

Energy, recovered: (See Recovered energy.)

Exterior envelope: (See Building envelope.)

Floor over unconditioned space: A floor which separates a conditioned space from an unconditioned space which is buffered from exterior ambient conditions including vented crawl spaces and unconditioned basements or other similar spaces, or exposed to exterior ambient conditions including open parking garages and enclosed garages which are mechanically ventilated.

((F-Value)) F-Factor: The perimeter heat loss factor expressed in

Btu/hrftF.

F-Value: (See F-Factor.)

Garden window: A multi-sided glazing product that projects beyond the plane of the wall.

Glazed wall system: A category of site assembled fenestration products used in the NFRC 100 and NFRC 200 rating procedures that include curtainwalls.

Glazing: All areas, including the frames, in the shell of a conditioned space that let in natural light including windows, clerestories, skylights, sliding glass doors and glass block walls. The daylight opening area in all other doors shall be considered glazing for the purpose of calculating glazing area. The daylight opening area in all other doors is included in the door ((U-value)) U-factor and shall not be considered in calculations of glazing ((U-values)) U-factors.

Glazing area: Total area of the glazing measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For sliding glass doors the glazing area is the rough opening area. For all other doors the glazing area is the daylight opening area.

Gross conditioned floor area: The horizontal projection of that portion of interior space which is contained within exterior walls and which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system, and which has an average height of five feet or greater, measured from the exterior faces.

Gross exterior wall area: The normal projection of the building envelope wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system; includes opaque wall, window and door areas. The gross area of walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, window areas including sash, and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to exterior ambient conditions and enclose a conditioned space including interstitial areas between two such spaces.

Gross floor area: The sum of the areas of the several floors of the building, including basements, cellars, mezzanine and intermediate floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating buildings, but excluding: Covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces. Pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chimneys, roof overhangs and similar features.

Gross roof/ceiling area: The sum of the areas of the roof/ceiling assembly, consisting of the total interior surface area of all elements, including skylights, which enclose a conditioned space.

Guest room: See the Washington State Building Code.

Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.

Heat storage capacity: The physical property of materials (mass) located inside the building envelope to absorb, store, and release heat.

Heated space: Space within a building which is provided with a positive heating supply. Finished living space within a basement or registers or heating devices designed to supply heat to a basement space shall automatically define that space as heated space. (See Positive Heating Supply.)

HSPF. Heating season performance factor: The total heating output (in Btu) of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total (watt hour) electric power input during the same period, as determined by test procedures consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy "Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, Including Heat Pumps" published in the December 27, 1979, Federal Register, Vol 44, No. 24, IOCFR. 430. When specified in Btu per watt hour an HSPF of 6.826 is equivalent to a COP of 2.0.

Humidistat: A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

HVAC: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

HVAC system components: HVAC system components provide, in one or more factory-assembled packages, means for chilling and/or heating water with controlled temperature for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned spaces of the buildings. Types of HVAC system components include, but are not limited to, water chiller packages, reciprocating condensing units and water source (hydronic) heat pumps. (See HVAC system equipment.)

HVAC system efficiency: (See Efficiency, HVAC system.)

HVAC system equipment: HVAC system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory-assembled packages, means for air circulation, air cleaning, air cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification; and optionally, either alone or in combination with a heating plant, the functions of heating and humidifying. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporatively cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages shall be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. The equipment may provide the heating function as a heat pump or by the use of electric elements. (The word "equipment" used without modifying adjective may, in accordance with common industry usage, apply either to HVAC system equipment or HVAC system components.)

Illumination: The density of the luminous flux incident on a surface; it is the quotient of the luminous flux by the area of the surface when the latter is uniformly illuminated.

Infiltration: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density.

Insulation baffle: A rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture, the purpose of which is to allow air to flow freely into the attic or crawl space and to prevent insulation from blocking the ventilation of these spaces, or the loss of insulation. Example materials for this purpose are sheet metal, or wax impregnated cardboard.

Luminaire: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the electric power supply.

Manual: Capable of being operated by personal intervention. (See Automatic.)

Net heat output: The change in the total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (not including supplementary heat and heat from boilers).

Net heat removal: The total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (without heat) or the difference in total heat content of the water or refrigerant entering and leaving the component.

New energy: Energy, other than recovered energy, utilized for the purpose of heating or cooling. (See energy.)

Nominal R-value: The thermal resistance of insulation as specified by the manufacturer according to recognized trade and engineering standards.

Nonrenewable energy sources: All energy sources that are not renewable energy sources including natural gas, oil, coal, wood, liquified petroleum gas, steam, and any utility-supplied electricity.

Occupancy: See the Washington State Building Code.

Opaque envelope areas: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose conditioned space, except openings for windows, skylights, doors, glazing and building service systems.

Open blown: Loose fill insulation pneumatically installed in an unconfined attic space.

Outdoor air: Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through the system.

Packaged terminal air conditioner: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended to serve a room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-10.)

Packaged terminal heat pump: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended for application in an individual room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-21.)

Permeance (perm): The ability of a material of specified thickness to transmit moisture in terms of amount of moisture transmitted per unit time for a specified area and differential pressure (grains per hourft2inches of HG). Permeance may be measured using ASTM E-96-72 or other approved dry cup method as specified in RS-1.

Pool cover: A vapor-retardant cover which lies on or at the surface of the pool.

Positive cooling supply: Mechanical cooling deliberately supplied to a space, such as through a supply register. Also, mechanical cooling indirectly supplied to a space through uninsulated surfaces of space cooling components, such as evaporator coil cases and cooling distribution systems which are capable of maintaining air temperatures within the space of eighty-five degrees F, or lower, at the exterior design conditions specified in Section 302.1. To be considered exempt from inclusion in this definition, such surfaces shall comply with the insulation requirements of this Code.

Positive heating supply: Heat deliberately supplied to a space by design, such as a supply register, radiator or heating element. Also, heat indirectly supplied to a space through uninsulated surfaces of service water heaters and space heating components, such as furnaces, boilers and heating and cooling distributions systems which are capable of maintaining air temperature within the space of fifty degrees F, or higher, at the exterior design conditions specified in Section 302.1. To be considered exempt from inclusion in this definition, such surfaces shall comply with the insulation requirements of this Code.

Power: In connection with machines, the time rate of doing work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h).

Public facility rest room: A rest room used by the transient public on a regular (rather than casual) basis. Examples include rest rooms in service stations, airports, train terminals and convention halls. Rest rooms incorporated with private guest rooms in hotels, motels or dormitories and rest room facilities intended for the use of employees and not usually used by the general public are not considered public facility rest rooms.

Radiant slab: A slab on grade containing heated pipes, ducts, or electric heating cables that constitute a radiant slab or portion thereof for a complete or partial heating of the structure.

Readily accessible: See the Washington State Mechanical Code.

Recooling: The removal of heat by sensible cooling of the supply air (directly or indirectly) that has been previously heated above the temperature to which the air is to be supplied to the conditioned space for proper control of the temperature of that space.

Recovered energy: Energy utilized which would otherwise be wasted (i.e. not contribute to a desired end use) from an energy utilization system.

Reheat: The application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air to provide cooling.

Renewable energy sources: Renewable energy sources of energy (excluding minerals) are derived from: (1) incoming solar radiation, including but not limited to, natural daylighting and photosynthetic processes; (2) energy sources resulting from wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and (3) energy derived from the internal heat of the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges.

Reset: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or lower value automatically or manually to conserve energy.

Roof/ceiling assembly: A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed exterior ambient conditions to and encloses a conditioned space. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including skylights.

Sequence: A consecutive series of operations.

Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions.

Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating.

Shaded: Glazed area which is externally protected from direct solar radiation by use of devices permanently affixed to the structure or by an adjacent building, topographical feature, or vegetation.

Shall: Denotes a mandatory code requirement.

Single family: One and two family residential dwelling units with no more than two units in a single building.

Skylight: A glazing surface that has a slope of less than sixty degrees from the horizontal plane.

Slab-on-grade, exterior: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is less than or equal to twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Slab-below-grade: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Small business: Any business entity (including a sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership, or other legal entity) which is owned and operated independently from all other businesses, which has the purpose of making a profit, and which has fifty or fewer employees, or which has a million dollars or less per year in gross sales, of window products.

Solar energy source: Source of natural daylighting and of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation.

Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the glazing product to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

Standard framing: All framing practices not defined as "intermediate" or "advanced" shall be considered standard. (See Advanced framed ceiling, Advanced framed walls, Intermediate framed wall.)

Substantial contact: A condition where adjacent building materials are placed in a manner that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported as to eliminate voids between materials, without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product.

System: A combination of central or terminal equipment or components and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as HVAC, service water heating or illumination.

Tapering: Installation of a reduced level of ceiling insulation at the eaves, due to reduced clearance.

Thermal by-pass: An area where the envelope surrounding the conditioned space is breached, or where an ineffective application compromises the performance of a thermal or infiltration barrier, increasing the structure's energy consumption by exposing finished surfaces to ambient conditions and additional heat transfer.

Thermal conductance (C): Time rate of heat flow through a body (frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady conditions (Btu/hrft2F).

Thermal resistance (R): The reciprocal of thermal conductance (hrft2F/Btu).

Thermal transmittance (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/hrft2F). The ((U-value)) U-factor applies to the fractional combinations of different materials used in series along the heat flow path.

Thermal transmittance, overall (((Uo))) (Uo): The overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope (Btu/hrft2F). The ((Uo-value)) Uo-factor applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the various parallel paths, such as windows, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building components, such as walls, floors or roof/ceiling.

Thermostat: An automatic control device actuated by temperature and designed to be responsive to temperature.

Total on-site energy input: The combination of all the energy inputs to all elements and accessories as included in the equipment components, including but not limited to, compressor(s), compressor sump heater(s), circulating pump(s), purge devices, fan(s), and the HVAC system component control circuit.

Transmission coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system to that of an unshaded single pane of double strength window glass under the same set of conditions.

((U-Value)) U-factor: (See thermal transmittance.)

U-Value: (See U-factor.)

Uniform Building Code: The Washington State Uniform Building Code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

Uniform Mechanical Code: The Washington State Uniform Mechanical Code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

Unitary cooling and heating equipment: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. Where such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Unitary heat pump: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Vapor retarder: A layer of low moisture transmissivity material (not more than 1.0 perm dry cup) placed over the warm side (in winter) of insulation, over the exterior of below grade walls, and under floors as ground cover to limit the transport of water and water vapor through exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. Vapor retarding paint, listed for this application, also complies with this Code.

Vaulted ceilings: All ceilings where enclosed joist or rafter space is formed by ceilings applied directly to the underside of roof joists or rafters.

Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned.

Ventilation air: That portion of supply air which comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

Walls (exterior): Any member or group of members which defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and which have a slope of sixty degrees or greater with the horizontal plane, and separates conditioned from unconditioned space. Band joists between floors are to be considered a part of exterior walls.

Zone: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device. Each dwelling unit in residential buildings shall be considered a single zone.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0201, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0201, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-05-059, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0402 Systems analysis.

402.1 Special Requirements for All Group R Occupancy:

402.1.1 Energy Budgets: Proposed buildings designed in accordance with this section shall be designed to use no more energy from non-renewable sources for space heating, and domestic hot water heating than a standard building whose enclosure elements and energy consuming systems are designed in accordance with section 502.2 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone, and heating system type. Energy derived from renewable sources may be excluded from the total annual energy consumption attributed to the alternative building.

402.1.2 Calculation of Energy Consumption: The application for a building permit shall include documentation which demonstrates, using a calculation procedure as listed in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate, that the proposed building's annual space heating energy use does not exceed the annual space heating and water heating energy use of a standard building conforming to Chapter 5 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone. The total calculated annual energy consumption shall be shown in units of kWh/ft2/year or Btu/ft2/year of conditioned area.

402.1.3 Input Values: The following standardized input values shall be used in calculating annual space heating budgets:

parameter value

Thermostat set point, heating 65 F

Thermostat set point, cooling 78 F

Thermostat night set back 65 F

Thermostat night set back period 0 hours

Internal gain

R-3 units 3000 Btu/hr

R-1 units 1500 Btu/hr

Domestic Hot Water Heater Setpoint 120 F

Domestic Hot Water Consumption 20 gallons/person/day.

Minimum heat storage Calculated using standard engineering practice for the actual building or as approved.

Site weather data Typical meteorological year (TMY) or ersatz TMY data for the closest appropriate TMY site or other sites as approved.

Heating equipment efficiency

Electric resistance heat 1.00

Heat Pumps 6.80 HSPF.

Other Fuels 0.78 AFUE.

The standard building shall be modeled with glazing area distributed equally among the four cardinal directions. Parameter values that may be varied by the building designer to model energy saving options include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Overall thermal transmittance, Uo, of building envelope or individual building components;

2. Heat storage capacity of building;

3. Glazing orientation; area; and ((shading)) solar heat gain coefficients;

4. Heating system efficiency.

402.1.4 Solar Shading and Access: Building designs using passive solar features with eight percent or more south facing equivalent glazing to qualify shall provide to the building official a sun chart or other approved documentation depicting actual site shading for use in calculating compliance under this section. The building shall contain at least forty-five Btu/F for each square foot of south facing glass.

402.1.5 Infiltration: Infiltration levels used shall be set at 0.35 air changes per hour for thermal calculation purposes only.

402.1.6 Heat Pumps: The heating season performance factor (HSPF) for heat pumps shall be calculated using procedures consistent with section 5.2 of the U.S. Department of Energy Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, including heat pumps published in the December 27, 1979 Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 24.10 CFR 430. Climate data as specified above, the proposed buildings overall thermal performance value (Btu/F) and the standardized input assumptions specified above shall be used to model the heat pumps HSPF.

402.2 Energy Analysis: Compliance with this chapter will require an analysis of the annual energy usage, hereinafter called an annual energy analysis.

EXCEPTION: Chapters 5, and 6 of this Code establish criteria for different energy-consuming and enclosure elements of the building which, will eliminate the requirement for an annual systems energy analysis while meeting the intent of this Code.

A building designed in accordance with this chapter will be deemed as complying with this Code if the calculated annual energy consumption is not greater than a similar building (defined as a "standard design") whose enclosure elements and energy-consuming systems are designed in accordance with Chapter 5.

For an alternate building design to be considered similar to a "standard design," it shall utilize the same energy source(s) for the same functions and have equal floor area and the same ratio of envelope area to floor area, environmental requirements, occupancy, climate data and usage operational schedule.

402.3 Design: The standard design, conforming to the criteria of Chapter 5 and the proposed alternative design shall be designed on a common basis as specified herein:

The comparison shall be expressed as kBtu or kWh input per square foot of conditioned floor area per year at the building site.

402.4 Analysis Procedure: The analysis of the annual energy usage of the standard and the proposed alternative building and system design shall meet the following criteria:

a. The building heating/cooling load calculation procedure used for annual energy consumption analysis shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of effect of factors specified in section 402.5.

b. The calculation procedure used to simulate the operation of the building and its service systems through a full-year operating period shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of the effect of system design, climatic factors, operational characteristics, and mechanical equipment on annual energy usage. Manufacturer's data or comparable field test data shall be used when available in the simulation of systems and equipment. The calculation procedure shall be based upon eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours of operation of the building and its service systems.

402.5 Calculation Procedure: The calculation procedure shall cover the following items:

a. Design requirements--Environmental requirements as required in Chapter 3.

b. Climatic data--Coincident hourly data for temperatures, solar radiation, wind and humidity of typical days in the year representing seasonal variation.

c. Building data--Orientation, size, shape, mass, air, moisture and heat transfer characteristics.

d. Operational characteristics--Temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, control mode for occupied and unoccupied hours.

e. Mechanical equipment--Design capacity, part load profile.

f. Building loads--Internal heat generation, lighting, equipment, number of people during occupied and unoccupied periods.

EXCEPTION: Group R Occupancy shall comply with calculation procedures in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate.

402.6 Documentation: Proposed alternative designs, submitted as requests for exception to the standard design criteria, shall be accompanied by an energy analysis comparison report. The report shall provide technical detail on the two building and system designs and on the data used in and resulting from the comparative analysis to verify that both the analysis and the designs meet the criteria of Chapter 4 of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0402, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0502 Building envelope requirements.

502.1 General:

502.1.1: The stated U- or ((F-value)) F-factor of any component assembly, listed in Table 5-1 or 5-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall or opaque floor may be increased and the ((U-value)) U-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the ((U-values)) U-factors specified in this Section.

The ((U-values)) U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters ((19-27)) 21-29 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter 10 where applicable.

For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the ((U-value)) U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:

1. Results of laboratory or field measurements.

2. Standard RS-25, listed in Chapter 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.

3. The zone method as provided in Chapter ((22)) 24 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.

4. Results of parallel path correction factors for effective framing/cavity R-values as provided from the following table for metal stud walls and roof/ceilings:

((wall framing cavity insulation

R-11 R-19

2 x 4 @ 16" o.c. 5.50 -

2 x 4 @ 24" o.c. 6.60 -

2 x 6 @ 16" o.c. - 7.60

2 x 6 @ 24" o.c. - 8.55))

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-0502, Illus. 1)




[Open Style:Columns On]

502.1.2: For consideration of thermal mass effects, see section 402.4.

502.1.3: When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:

a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and

b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.

502.1.4 Insulation:

502.1.4.1 General: All insulating materials shall comply with sections 2602 and/or 707 of the Uniform Building Code. Substantial contact of the insulation with the surface being insulated is required. All insulation materials shall be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions to achieve proper densities and maintain uniform R-values and shall be installed in a manner which will permit inspection of the manufacturer's R-value identification mark. To the maximum extent possible, insulation shall extend over the full component area to the intended R-value.

Alternatively, the thickness of roof/ceiling and wall insulation that is either blown in or spray-applied shall be identified by inches of thickness, density and R-value markers installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) through the attic, ceiling and/or wall space. In attics, the markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness and minimum settled thickness with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access. The thickness of installed attic insulation shall meet or exceed the minimum initial installed thickness shown by the marker. In cathedral ceilings and walls, the markers shall be affixed to the rafter and wall frame at alternating high and low intervals and marked with the minimum installed density and R-value with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the conditioned room area.

502.1.4.2 Insulation Materials: All insulation materials including facings such as vapor barriers or breather papers installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies, walls, crawl spaces, or attics shall have a flame spread rating of less than 25 and a smoke density not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with UBC Standard 8-1.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with section 2602 of the Uniform Building Code.

2. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces of Types III, IV and V construction, the flame spread and smoke developed limitations do not apply to facing, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.

3. Cellulose insulation shall comply with section 707 of the Uniform Building Code.

502.1.4.3 Clearances: Where required, insulation shall be installed with clearances according to manufacturer's specifications. Insulation shall be installed so that required ventilation is unobstructed. For blown or poured loose fill insulation, clearances shall be maintained through installation of a permanent retainer.

502.1.4.4 Access Hatches and Doors: Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment which prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer must be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.

502.1.4.5 Roof/Ceiling Insulation: Open-blown or poured loose fill insulation may be used in attic spaces where the slope of the ceiling is not more than 3 feet in 12 and there is at least 30 inches of clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge. When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided so as to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation. Baffles shall be, rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture. Requirements for baffles for ceiling insulation shall meet the Uniform Building Code section 1505.3 for minimum ventilation requirements. When feasible, the baffles shall be installed from the top of the outside of the exterior wall, extending inward, to a point 6 inches vertically above the height of noncompressed insulation, and 12 inches vertically above loose fill insulation.

502.1.4.6 Wall Insulation: Insulation installed in exterior walls shall comply with the provisions of this section. All wall insulation shall fill the entire cavity. Exterior wall cavities isolated during framing shall be fully insulated to the levels of the surrounding walls. All faced insulation shall be face stapled to avoid compression.

502.1.4.7 Floor Insulation: Floor insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the surface being insulated. Insulation supports shall be installed so spacing is no more than 24 inches on center. Foundation vents shall be placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation.

EXCEPTION: Insulation may be omitted from floor areas over heated basements, heated garages or underfloor areas used as HVAC supply plenums. See Uniform Mechanical Code section 607 for underfloor supply plenum requirements. When foundation walls are insulated, the insulation shall be attached in a permanent manner. The insulation shall not block the airflow through foundation vents when installed. When foundation vents are not placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation, a permanently attached baffle shall be installed at an angle of 30 from horizontal, to divert air flow below the lower surface of the floor insulation.

502.1.4.8 Slab-On-Grade: Slab-on-grade insulation, installed inside the foundation wall, shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally beneath the slab for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Insulation installed outside the foundation shall extend downward to a minimum of 24 inches or to the frostline. Above grade insulation shall be protected.

EXCEPTION: For monolithic slabs, the insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab to the bottom of the footing.

502.1.4.9 Radiant Slabs: The entire area of a radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the soil, with a minimum of R-10 insulation. The insulation shall be an approved product for its intended use. If a soil gas control system is present below the radiant slab, which results in increased convective flow below the radiant slab, the radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the sub-slab gravel layer.

502.1.4.10 Below Grade Walls: Below grade exterior wall insulation used on the exterior (cold) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the top of the footing and shall be approved for below grade use. Above grade insulation shall be protected.

Insulation used on the interior (warm) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the below grade floor level.

502.1.5 Glazing and Door ((U-Values)) U-factors: Glazing and door ((U-values)) U-factors shall be determined in accordance with sections 502.1.5.1 and 502.1.5.2. All products shall be labeled with the NFRC certified or default ((U-value)) U-factor. The labeled ((U-value)) U-factor shall be used in all calculations to determine compliance with this Code. Sealed insulating glass shall conform to, or be in test for, ASTM E-774-81 class A.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. For glazed wall systems, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 through 6-6 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater:

a. Double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e=0.10 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, and a non-aluminum spacer (as defined in footnote 1 to Table 10-6B), and

b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.

The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 vertical glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."

2. For overhead glazing, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the overhead glazing U-factor requirement in all Table 6-1 through 6-6 options except the unlimited glazing area options (Option VIII in Table 6-2, Option IX in Table 6-4, and Option VIII for Climate Zone 1 and Option IX for Climate Zone 2 in Table 6-6):

a. Either, double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e=0.20 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, or, triple glazed plastic domes, and

b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.

The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 overhead glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."

3. For solariums with a floor area which does not exceed 300 square feet, assemblies which comply with the features listed in exception 2 are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 through 6-6 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater.

The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirements using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."

502.1.5.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing ((U-Values)) U-Factors: ((U-values)) U-factors for glazing shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC. Compliance shall be based on the Residential Model Size ((AA)). Product samples used for ((U-value)) U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Products that are listed in the NFRC Certified Products Directory or certified to the NFRC standard shall not use default values.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. ((Untested)) Glazing products without NFRC ratings may be assigned default ((U-values)) U-factors from Table 10-6A for vertical glazing and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.

2. ((Overhead glazing and)) Units without NFRC ratings produced by a small business may be assigned default ((U-values)) U-factors from Table 10-6A for garden windows, from Table 10-6B for other vertical glazing, and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.

((3. Passive air inlets are not required to be part of the tested assembly.

4. Compliance for tested overhead glazing shall be based on NFRC Model Size BB.))

502.1.5.2 Standard Procedure for Determination of Door ((U-Values)) U-factors: Half-lite and full-lite doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default ((U-values)) U-factors from Table 10-6D. All other doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default ((U-values)) U-factors from Table 10-6C.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. ((U-values)) U-factors determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC.

2. The default values for the opaque portions of doors shall be those listed in Table 10-6C, provided that the ((U-value)) U-factor listed for a door with a thermal break shall only be allowed if both the door and the frame have a thermal break.

3. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the ((U-value)) U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.

502.1.6 Moisture Control:

502.1.6.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as specified in the following cases.

EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

502.1.6.2 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. The vapor retarder shall have a one perm dry cup rating or less (i.e., four mil[0.004 inch thick] polyethylene or kraft faced material).

502.1.6.3 Roof/Ceilings: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of 12 inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. Faced batt insulation where used as a vapor retarder shall be face stapled. Single rafter joist vaulted ceiling cavities shall be of sufficient depth to allow a minimum one inch vented air space above the insulation.

502.1.6.4: Vapor retarders shall not be required in roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation averages 12 inches or greater.

502.1.6.5: Vapor retarders shall not be required where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.

502.1.6.6 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. Faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.

502.1.6.7 Ground Cover: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped 12 inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.

EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of 3-1/2 inches.

502.2 Thermal Criteria for Group R Occupancy:

502.2.1 UA Calculations: The proposed UA as calculated using Equations 2 and 3 shall not exceed the target UA as calculated using Equation 1. For the purpose of determining equivalent thermal performance, the glazing area for the target UA shall be calculated using ((figures)) values in Table 5-1((, and all the glazing shall be located in the wall area)). The opaque door area shall be the same in the target UA and the proposed UA.

EXCEPTION: Log and solid timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" and with space heat type other than electric resistance, are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

502.2.2 Space Heat Type: The following two categories comprise all space heating types:

1. Electric Resistance: Space heating systems which include baseboard units, radiant units and forced air units as either the primary or secondary heating system.

EXCEPTION: Electric resistance systems for which the total electric heat capacity in each individual dwelling unit does not exceed the greater of: 1) One thousand watts (1000 w) per dwelling unit, or; 2) One watt per square foot (1 w/ft2) of the gross floor area.

2. Other: All gas, wood, oil and propane space heating systems, unless electric resistance is used as a secondary heating system, and all heat pump space heating systems. (See EXCEPTIONS, Electric Resistance, section 502.2.2 above.)

502.3 Reserved.

502.4 Air Leakage:

502.4.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all buildings and structures, or portions thereof, and only to those locations separating outdoor ambient conditions from interior spaces that are heated or mechanically cooled.

502.4.2 Doors and Windows, General: Exterior doors and windows shall be designed to limit air leakage into or from the building envelope. Site-constructed doors and windows shall be sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.

502.4.3 Seals and Weatherstripping:

a. Exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundation, between walls and roof and wall panels; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors and roofs; and all other openings in the building envelope for all occupancies and all other openings in between units in R-1 occupancy shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed or weatherstripped to limit air leakage. Other exterior joints and seams shall be similarly treated, or taped, or covered with moisture vapor permeable housewrap.

b. All exterior doors or doors serving as access to an enclosed unheated area shall be weatherstripped to limit leakage around their perimeter when in a closed position.

c. Site built windows are exempt from testing but shall be made tight fitting. Fixed lights shall have glass retained by stops with sealant or caulking all around. Operating sash shall have weatherstripping working against overlapping trim and a closer/latch which will hold the sash closed. The window frame to framing crack shall be made tight with caulking, overlapping membrane or other approved technique.

d. Openings that are required to be fire resistive are exempt from this section.

502.4.4 Recessed Lighting Fixtures: When installed in the building envelope, recessed lighting fixtures shall meet one of the following requirements:

1. Type IC rated, manufactured with no penetrations between the inside of the recessed fixture and ceiling cavity and sealed or gasketed to prevent air leakage into the unconditioned space.

2. Type IC rated, installed inside a sealed box constructed from a minimum 1/2 inch thick gypsum wall board, or constructed from a preformed polymeric vapor barrier, or other air tight assembly manufactured for this purpose.

3. Type IC rated, certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The lighting fixture shall be tested at 75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0502, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0502, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

NOTES:

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0503 Building mechanical systems.

503.1 General: This section covers the determination of design requirements, system and component performance, control requirements, insulating systems and duct construction.

EXCEPTION: Special applications, including but not limited to hospitals, laboratories, thermally sensitive equipment, and computer rooms may be exempted from the requirements of this section when approved by the building official.

503.2 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads, and System Sizing Limits: The design parameters specified in Chapter 3 shall apply for all computations.

503.2.1 Calculation Procedures: Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems are required and shall be calculated in accordance with accepted engineering practice, including infiltration and ventilation.

503.2.2 Space Heating and Space Cooling System Sizing Limits: Building mechanical systems for all buildings which provide space heating and/or space cooling shall be sized no greater than ((one)) two hundred ((fifty)) percent (200%) of the heating and cooling design loads as calculated above.

EXCEPTIONS: The following limited exemptions from the sizing limit shall be allowed, however, in all cases heating and/or cooling design load calculations shall be submitted.

1. For equipment which provides both heating and cooling in one package unit, including heat pumps with electric heating and cooling and gas-pack units with gas heating and electric cooling, compliance need only be demonstrated for either the space heating or space cooling system size.

2. Natural gas- or oil-fired space heating equipment whose total rated space heating output in any one dwelling unit is fifty-six thousand Btu/h or less may exceed the ((one hundred fifty)) two hundred (200%) percent sizing limit provided that the installed equipment has an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of not less than the sum of seventy-eight percent plus one percent for every five thousand Btu/h that the space heating equipment output exceeds the design heating load of the dwelling unit.

3. Stand-by equipment may be installed if controls and other devices are provided which allow redundant equipment to operate only when the primary equipment is not operating.

503.3 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling: ((Each temperature control zone shall include thermostatic controls installed and operated to sequence the use of heating and cooling energy to satisfy the thermal and/or humidity requirement of the zone. Controls shall prevent reheating (heating air that is cooler than system mixed air), recooling (cooling air that is warmer than the system mixed air), mixing or simultaneous supply of warm air (warmer than system return air mixed air) and cold air (cooler than system mixed air), or other simultaneous operation of heating and cooling systems to one zone. For the purposes of this section, system mixed air is defined as system return air mixed with the minimum ventilation air requirement by section 303)) Systems and equipment that provide simultaneous heating and cooling shall comply with the requirements in, as appropriate, Section 1422 or Section 1435.

((EXCEPTIONS:

1. Variable air volume systems designed to reduce the air supply to each zone during periods of occupancy to the larger of the following:

a. Thirty percent or less of the peak supply volume.

b. The minimum allowed to meet ventilation requirements of section 303.

c. 0.5 cfm/ft2 of zone conditioned area before reheating, recooling or mixing takes place. Consideration shall be given to supply air temperature reset control.

2. The energy for reheating, or providing warm air in mixing systems, is provided entirely from recovered energy that would otherwise be wasted, or from renewable energy sources. In addition, the system shall comply with section 503.7 without exception.

3. Areas where specific humidity levels are required to satisfy process needs.

4. Where special pressurization relationships or cross- contamination requirements are such that variable air volume systems are impractical, supply air temperatures shall be reset by representative building load or outside air temperature.))

503.4 HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements:

503.4.1 Equipment Components:

503.4.1.1: The requirements of this section apply to equipment and mechanical component performance for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems. Equipment efficiency levels are specified. Data furnished by the equipment supplier or certified under a nationally recognized certification program or rating procedure shall be used to satisfy these requirements. Equipment efficiencies shall be based on the standard rating conditions in Tables 5-4, 5-5 or 5-6 as appropriate.

503.4.1.2: Where components from more than one manufacturer are assembled into systems regulated under this section, compliance for each component shall be as specified in sections 503.4.2 through 503.4.6 of this Code.

503.4.2: HVAC System Heating Equipment Heat Pump-heating Mode. Heat pumps whose energy input is entirely electric shall have a coefficient of performance (COP) heating, not less than the values in Table 5-7. Heat Pumps with supplementary backup heat other than electricity shall meet the requirements of Table 5-7.

503.4.2.1: These requirements apply to, but are not limited to, unitary (central) heat pumps (air source and water source) in the heating mode, water source (hydronic) heat pumps as used in multiple-unit hydronic HVAC systems, and heat pumps in the packaged terminal air-conditioner in the heating mode.

503.4.2.3 Supplementary Heater: The heat pump shall be installed with a control to prevent supplementary backup heater operation when the operating load can be met by the heat pump compression cycle alone.

503.4.2.4 Heat Pump Controls: Requirements for heat pump controls are listed in section 503.8.3.5 of this Code.

503.4.3 HVAC System Combustion Equipment: For Group R Occupancy, all gas, oil, and propane central heating systems shall have a minimum AFUE of 0.78*. All other Group R Occupancy heating equipment fueled by gas, oil, or propane shall be equipped with an intermittent ignition device, or shall comply with the efficiencies as required in the 1987 National Appliances Energy Conservation Act (Public Law 100-12).

* HVAC Heating system efficiency trade-offs shall be made using Chapters 4 or 6 of this Code.

503.4.4 Packaged and Unitary HVAC System Equipment, Electrically Operated, Cooling Mode: HVAC system equipment as listed below, whose energy input in the cooling mode is entirely electric, shall have an energy efficiency ratio (EER) or a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) cooling not less than values in Table 5-8.

503.4.4.1: These requirements apply to, but are not limited to, unitary (central) and packaged terminal heat pumps (air source and water source); packaged terminal air conditioners.

503.4.5 ((Reserved.

503.4.6 Reserved.)) Other HVAC Equipment: HVAC equipment, other than that addressed in Sections 503.4.2 through 503.4.4, shall have a minimum performance at the specified rating conditions not less than the values shown in Tables 14-1 through 14-3.

503.5 Reserved.

503.6 Balancing: The HVAC system design shall provide a means for balancing air and water systems. Balancing the system shall include, but not be limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.

503.7 Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle): ((Each fan system shall be designed to use up to and including one hundred percent of the fan system capacity for cooling with outdoor air automatically whenever its use will result in lower usage of new energy. Activation of economizer cycle shall be controlled by sensing outdoor air enthalpy or outdoor air dry-bulb temperature alone or alternate means approved by the building official)) Systems and equipment that provide mechanical cooling shall comply with Section 1413 and, as appropriate, Section 1423 or Section 1433.

((EXCEPTIONS: Cooling with outdoor air is not required under any one or more of the following conditions:

1. The fan system capacity is less than three thousand five hundred cfm or total cooling capacity is less than ninety thousand Btu/h.

2. The quality of the outdoor air is so poor as to require extensive treatment of the air and approval by the building official.

3. The need for humidification or dehumidification requires the use of more energy than is conserved by the outdoor air cooling on an annual basis.

4. The use of outdoor air cooling may affect the operation of other systems so as to increase the overall energy consumption of the building.

5. When energy recovered from an internal/external zone heat recovery system exceeds the energy conserved by outdoor air cooling on an annual basis.

6. When all space cooling is accomplished by a circulating liquid which transfers space heat directly or indirectly to a heat rejection device such as a cooling tower without use of a refrigeration system.

7. When the use of one hundred percent outside air will cause coil frosting, controls may be added to reduce the quantity of outside air. However, the intent of this exception is to use one hundred percent air in lieu of mechanical cooling when less energy usage will result and this exception applies only to direct expansion systems when the compressor is running.))

503.8 Controls:

503.8.1 Temperature Control: Each system shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows:

503.8.1.1: When used to control heating only: Fifty-five degrees to seventy-five degrees F.

503.8.1.2: When used to control cooling only: Seventy degrees to eighty-five degrees F.

503.8.1.3: When used to control both heating and cooling, it shall be capable of being set from fifty-five degrees to eighty-five degrees F and shall be capable of operating the system heating and cooling in sequence. The thermostat and/or control system shall have an adjustable deadband of not less than ten degrees F.

503.8.2 Humidity Control: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture to maintain specific selected relative humidities in space or zones, a humidistat shall be provided. Humidistats shall be capable of being set to prevent new energy from being used to produce space-relative humidity above thirty percent.

EXCEPTION: Special uses requiring different relative humidities may be permitted when approved by the building official.

503.8.3 Zoning for Temperature Control:

503.8.3.1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings: At least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature shall be provided for each separate system. In addition, a readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each zone or floor.

503.8.3.2 Multifamily Dwellings: For multifamily dwellings, each individual dwelling unit shall have at least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature. A readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each room. Spaces other than living units shall meet the requirements of 503.8.3.3.

503.8.3.3 Reserved.

503.8.3.4 Control Setback and Shut-off:

((1.)) Residential Occupancy Groups. One- and Two-Family and Multifamily dwellings--The thermostat required in section 503.8.3.1 or section 503.8.3.2, or an alternate means such as a switch or clock, shall provide a readily accessible, manual or automatic means for reducing the energy required for heating and cooling during the periods of non-use or reduced need, such as, but not limited to unoccupied periods and sleeping hours. Lowering thermostat set points to reduce energy consumption of heating systems shall not cause energy to be expended to reach the reduced setting.

((2. Reserved.))

503.8.3.5 Heat Pump Controls: Programmable thermostats are required for all heat pump systems. The cut-on temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for the supplementary heat, and the cut-off temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for the supplementary heat. Heat pump thermostats will be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day. The automatic setback thermostat shall have the capability of limiting the use of supplemental heat during the warm-up period.

503.9 Air Handling Duct System Insulation: Ducts, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated per Table 5-11.

EXCEPTIONS: Duct insulation (except where required to prevent condensation) is not required in any of the following cases:

1. When the heat gain or loss of the ducts, without insulation, will not increase the energy requirements of the building.

2. Within the HVAC equipment.

3. Exhaust air ducts.

4. Supply or return air ducts installed in unvented crawl spaces with insulated walls, basements, or cellars in one- and two-family dwellings.

503.10 Duct Construction: All duct work shall be constructed in accordance with Standards RS-15, RS-16, RS-17, RS-18, RS-19 or RS-20, as applicable, and the Uniform Mechanical Code.

503.10.1: High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with the applicable standards in Chapter 7 of this Code with the rate of air leakage not to exceed the maximum rate specified in that standard.

503.10.2: When low-pressure supply air ducts are located outside of the conditioned space, all HVAC ductwork seams and joints, both longitudinal and transverse, shall be taped and sealed with products approved by the building official only. Ductwork joints shall be mechanically fastened with a minimum of three fasteners per joint for a cylindrical duct. Use Table 5-11 for duct insulation requirements.

503.10.3: Requirements for Automatic or manual dampers are found in the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

503.11 Piping Insulation: All piping installed to serve buildings (and within) shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 5-12. For service hot water systems see section 504.7. If water pipes are outside of conditioned space then the pipe insulation requirement shall be R-3 minimum for nonrecirculating hot and cold water pipes. For recirculating service hot and cold water pipes use Table 5-12 for pipe sizes and temperatures.

EXCEPTION: Piping insulation is not required within unitary HVAC equipment.

((503.11.1 Other Insulation Thickness: Insulation thickness in Table 5-12 is based on insulation having thermal resistance in the range of 4.0 to 4.6 per inch of thickness on a flat surface at a mean temperature of seventy-five degrees F. Minimum insulation thickness shall be increased for materials having R-values less than 4.0 per inch, or may be reduced for materials having R-values greater than 4.6 per inch.

a. For materials with thermal resistance greater than R = 4.6 per inch, the minimum insulation thickness may be reduced as follows:

4.6 x (Table 5-12 Thickness) = New Minimum Thickness

Actual Resistance

b. For materials with thermal resistance less than R = 4.0 per inch, the minimum insulation thickness shall be increased as follows:

4.0 x (Table 5-10 Thickness) = New Minimum Thickness

Actual Resistance

c. Additional insulation with vapor barriers shall be provided to prevent condensation where required by the building official.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0503, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 92-01-140, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92)

WAC 51-11-0504 Service water heating.

504.1 Scope: The purpose of this section is to provide criteria for design and equipment selection that will produce energy savings when applied to service water heating.

504.2 Water Heaters, Storage Tanks and Boilers:

504.2.1 Performance Efficiency: All Storage water heaters shall meet the requirements of the 1987 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and be so labeled. All electric water heaters in unheated spaces or on concrete floors shall be placed on an incompressible, insulated surface with a minimum thermal resistance of R-10.

For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:

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(WAC 51-11-0504, Illus. 1)




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504.2.2 Insulation: Heat loss from unfired hot-water storage tanks shall be limited to a maximum of 9.6 Btu/hr/ft2 of external tank surface area. The design ambient temperature shall be no higher than sixty-five degrees F.

504.2.3 Combination Service Water Heating/Space Heating Boilers: Service water heating equipment shall not be dependent on year round operation of space heating boilers.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems with service/space heating boilers having a standby loss Btu/h less than:

(13.3 pmd + 400)/n

determined by the fixture count method

where:

pmd = probably maximum demand in gallons/hour as determined in accordance with Chapter 37 of Standard RS-11.

n = fraction of year when outdoor daily mean temperature exceeds 64.9 F.

The standby loss is to be determined for a test period of twenty-four-hour duration while maintaining a boiler water temperature of ninety degrees F above an ambient of sixty degrees F and a five foot stack on appliance.

2. For systems where the use of a single heating unit will lead to energy savings, such unit shall be utilized.

504.3 Automatic Controls: Service water heating systems shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable of adjustment from the lowest to the highest acceptable temperature settings for the intended use. Temperature setting range shall be set to one hundred twenty degrees F or forty-nine degrees C.

504.4 Shutdown: A separate switch shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to electric service water heating systems. A separate valve shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to the main burner(s) of all other types of service water heater systems.

504.5 Swimming Pools:

504.5.1: All pool heaters shall be equipped with readily accessible ON/OFF switch to allow shutting off the operation of the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Controls shall be provided to allow the water temperature to be regulated from the maximum design temperature down to sixty-five degrees F.

504.5.2 Pool Covers: Heated swimming pools shall be equipped with a pool cover, approved by the building official.

504.6 Pump Operation: Circulating hot water systems shall be controlled so that the circulation pump(s) can be conveniently turned off, automatically or manually, when the hot water system is not in operation.

504.7 Pipe Insulation: For recirculating and non-recirculating systems, piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with section 503.11 and Table 5-12.

504.8 Conservation of Hot Water:

504.8.1 Showers and Lavatories: Showers and lavatories used for other than safety reasons shall be equipped with flow control devices or specially manufactured showerheads or aerators to limit the total water flow rate as set forth in chapter 51-26 WAC, as measured with both hot and cold faucets turned on to their maximum flow.

((504.8.2 Lavatories in Restrooms of Public Facilities:

504.8.2.1: Lavatories in restrooms of public facilities shall be equipped with a metering valve designed to close by spring or water pressure when left unattended (self-closing) and limit the flow rate as set forth in chapter 51-26 WAC.

EXCEPTION: Separate lavatories for physically handicapped persons shall not be equipped with self-closing valves.

504.8.2.2: Lavatories in restrooms of public facilities shall be equipped with devices which limit the outlet temperature to a maximum of one hundred ten degrees F.))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-05-059, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0525 Equation 1--Group R Occupancy.

(((WAC 51-11-0525, Equation 1)))




(WAC 51-11-0525, Equation 1)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0525, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0525, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-05-059, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0527 Equation 3--Group R Occupancy.

(((WAC 51-11-0527, Equation 3)))




(WAC 51-11-0527, Equation 3)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0527, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0527, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0530 Table 5-1.

(((WAC 51-11-0530, Table 5-1)))




(WAC 51-11-0530, Table 5-1)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0530, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0530, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 92-01-140, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92)

WAC 51-11-0541 Table 5-12.

(((WAC 51-11-0541, Table 5-12)))




(WAC 51-11-0541, Table 5-12)




[Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0541, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-05-059, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0602 Building envelope requirements for Group R Occupancy.

602.1 Roof/Ceiling: Ceilings below vented attics and single-rafter, joist-vaulted ceilings shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for ceilings in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable.

602.2 Exterior Walls Both Above and Below Grade: Above grade exterior walls shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable. The following walls should be considered to meet R-19 without additional documentation:

1. 2 x 6 framed and insulated with R-19 fiberglass batts.

2. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-13 fiberglass batts plus R-3.2 foam sheathing.

3. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-11 fiberglass batts plus R-5.0 foam sheathing.

602.3 Exterior Walls (Below Grade): Below grade exterior walls surrounding conditioned space shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for below grade walls in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable.

602.4 Slab-on-grade Floors: Slab-on-grade floors shall be insulated along their perimeter to not less than the nominal R-values specified for slab-on-grade floors in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable. Slab insulation shall be installed in compliance with section 502.1.4.8. See Chapter 5, section 502.1.4.9, for additional requirements for radiant slab heating.

602.5 Floors Over Unconditioned Space: Floors over unconditioned spaces, such as vented crawl spaces, unconditioned basements, and parking garages shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value shown for floors over unconditioned spaces, in Tables 6-1 to 6-6.

602.6 Exterior Doors: Doors shall comply with Sections 602.6.1 and 602.6.2.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Doors whose area and ((U-value)) U-factor are included in the calculations for compliance with the requirements for glazing in section 602.7 shall be exempt from the door ((U-value)) U-factor requirements prescribed in Tables 6-1 to 6-6.

2. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the ((U-value)) U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.

602.6.1 Exterior Door Area: For half-lite and full-lite doors, the glazing area shall be included in calculating the allowed total glazing area in Section 602.7.1. Single glazing used for ornamental, security or architectural purposes shall be calculated using the exception to Section 602.7.2.

602.6.2 Exterior Door ((U-Value)) U-Factor: Doors, including fire doors, shall have a maximum area weighted average ((U-value)) U-factor not exceeding that prescribed in Tables 6-1 to 6-6.

602.7 Glazing:

602.7.1 Glazing Area: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall not exceed the percentage of gross conditioned floor area specified in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. This area shall also include any glazing in doors.

602.7.2 Glazing ((U-Value)) U-Factor: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall have an area weighted average ((U-value)) U-factor not to exceed that specified in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. ((U-values)) U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with section 502.1.5((.1)). These areas and ((U-values)) U-factors shall also include any doors using the exception of section 602.6.

If the ((U-values)) U-factors for all vertical and overhead glazing products are below the ((U- value)) appropriate U-factor specified, then no calculations are required. If compliance is to be achieved through an area weighted calculation, then the areas and ((U-values)) U-factors shall be included in the plans submitted with a building permit application.

EXCEPTION: Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes and double glazed garden windows with a wood or vinyl frame shall be exempt from the U-factor calculations but shall have its area doubled and shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area as allowed for in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. The maximum area (before doubling) allowed for the total of all single glazing and garden windows is one percent of the floor area.

602.8 Air Leakage For Group R Occupancy: The minimum air leakage control measures shall be as specified in section 502.4 as applicable.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0602, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0625 Table 6-1.

(((WAC 51-11-0625, Table 6-1)))




(WAC 51-11-0625, Table 6-1)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0625, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0625, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0626 Table 6-2.

(((WAC 51-11-0626, Table 6-2)))




(WAC 51-11-0626, Table 6-2)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0626, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0626, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0626, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0627 Table 6-3.

(((WAC 51-11-0627, Table 6-3)))




(WAC 51-11-0627, Table 6-3)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0627, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0627, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0627, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0628 Table 6-4.

(((WAC 51-11-0628, Table 6-4)))




(WAC 51-11-0628, Table 6-4)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0628, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0628, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0628, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0629 Table 6-5.

(((WAC 51-11-0629, Table 6-5)))




(WAC 51-11-0629, Table 6-5)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0629, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0629, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0629, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0630 Table 6-6.

(((WAC 51-11-0630, Table 6-6)))




(WAC 51-11-0630, Table 6-6)




[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0630, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0630, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0630, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0701 Standards. The standards and portions thereof, which are referred to in various parts of this Code shall be part of the Washington State Energy Code and are hereby declared to be a part of this Code.

code

standard

no. title and source

RS-1

((1989)) 1997 ASHRAE ((Handbook of)) Fundamentals Handbook

((RS-2

Standard Method of Test for Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors, Specification E283-84 of ASTM.

Specifications for Aluminum Windows, ANSI A134.1, 1972.

Specifications for Aluminum Sliding Glass Doors, ANSI A134.2, 1972.

Industry Standard for Wood Window Units, NWWDA IS-2-87, Industry Standard for Wood Sliding Patio Doors, NWWDA IS-3-88.

RS-2B

AAMA 1503.1-88, 1988 Voluntary Test Method for Thermal transmittance of windows, doors and glazed wall sections.

RS-2C

ASTM C236-87 test for thermal conductance and transmittance of built-up sections by means of a guarded hot box; and ASTM C976-82 thermal performance of building assemblies by means of the calibrated hot box.

RS-3

ASHRAE Standard 62-89 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.))

RS-2 through RS-3 (Reserved.)

RS-4

ASHRAE Standard ((55-81)) 55-92 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

((RS-5

DOE Test Procedures for Water Heaters, 10 CFR Part 430 Appendix E to Subpart B.

RS-6

Household Automatic Electric Storage-Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972.

RS-7

Gas Water Heaters, Volume III, Circulating Tank, Instantaneous and Large Automatic Storage-Type Water Heaters, ANSI Z21.10.3, 1974.

RS-8

IES Lighting Handbook, Illuminating Engineering Society, 1984 Reference Volume, 1987 Application Volume.))

RS-5 through RS-8 (Reserved.)

RS-9

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989, Efficient Design of New Buildings Except New Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

RS-10

Standard for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ARI Standard ((310-90)) 310/380-93.

RS-11

((1987)) 1995 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Applications Handbook.

((RS-12

Energy Calculations I: Procedures for Determining Heating and Cooling Loads for Computerizing Energy Calculations--Algorithms for Building Heat Transfer Subsystems, ASHRAE 1975.

RS-13

Energy Calculations II: Procedures for Simulating the Performance of Components and Systems for Energy Calculations, 3rd Edition, ASHRAE 1975.

RS-14

Standard for Positive Displacement Refrigerant Compressor and Condensing Units, ARI Standard 520-74.))

RS-12 through RS-14 (Reserved.)

RS-15

((1988)) 1996 ASHRAE System and Equipment Handbook.

RS-16

SMACNA, Installation Standards for Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems((--Installation Standards, SMACNA, February, 1977)), 6th Edition, 1988.

RS-17

SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible ((Construction Standards, 1st Edition, Washington, D.C., 1985)), 2nd Edition, 1995.

RS-18

Same as Standard RS-17.

RS-19

SMACNA, Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, 6th Edition, ((Washington, D.C., 1990)) 1992.

RS-20

((1990)) 1994 ASHRAE Refrigeration ((Volume)) Handbook.

RS-21

((Standard for Package Terminal Heat Pumps, ARI Standard 380-90.)) Same as Standard RS-10.

((RS-22

ASTM E779-87 Standard practice for measuring air leakage by the fan pressurization method.

RS-23

ASTM E741 Standard practice for measuring air leakage by the tracer dilution method.

RS-24

Standard 24 CFR Part 3280 HUD.))

RS-22 through RS-24 (Reserved.)

RS-25

Thermal Bridge in Sheet Metal Construction from Appendix E of Standard RS-9.

RS-26

Super Good Cents Technical Reference.

accredited authoritative agencies


((AAMA refers to the American Architectural Manufacturers Association, 35 East Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60601))

ANSI refers to the American National Standards Institute, Inc., ((1430 Broadway,)) 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY ((10018)) 10036

Phone (212) 642-4900 Fax (212) 398-0023, Internet www.ansi.org

ARI refers to the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute, ((1815 North Fort Myer Drive)) 4301 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 425, Arlington, VA ((22209)) 22203

Phone (703) 524-8800 Fax (703) 528-3816, Internet www.ari.org

ASHRAE refers to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329

Phone (404) 636-8400 Fax (404) 321-5478, Internet www.ashrae.org

ASTM refers to the American Society for Testing and Materials, ((1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103)) 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

Phone (610) 832-9585 Fax (610) 832-9555, Internet www.astm.org

IES refers to the Illuminating Engineering Society, ((345 East 47th Street)) 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY ((10017)) 10005-4001

Phone (212) 248-5000 Fax (212) 248-5017, Internet www.ies.org

((NESCA refers to the National Environmental System Contractors Association, 1501 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209))

NFRC refers to the National Fenestration Rating Council, Incorporated, 1300 Spring Street, Suite 120, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

Phone (301) 589-NFRC Fax (301) 588-0854, Internet www.nfrc.org

((NWWDA refers to the National Wood Window and Door Association, 1400 East Toughy Avenue, Suite G-54, Des Plaines, IL 60018))

SMACNA refers to the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc., ((8224 Old Courthouse Rd., Tysons Corner, Vienna, VA 22180)) 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, P.O. Box 221230, Chantilly, VA 20153-1230

Phone (703) 803-2980 Fax (703) 803-3732, Internet www.smacna.org

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0701, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0800 Section 0800--Suggested software for chapter 4 systems analysis approach for Group R occupancy.

Program Name: Source

CALPAS 3

((BERKELEY SOLAR GROUP

455 Santa Clara Ave.

Oakland, CA 94610

(415) 843-7600))

BSG Software

40 Lincoln Street

Lexington, MA 02173

(617) 861-0109

((DATACAL

SUNRISE ENERGY, INC.

5708 43rd Ave E.

Tacoma, WA 98443

(206) 922-5218

DOE 2

ACROSOFT INTERNATIONAL, INC.

9745 E. Hampten Ave. Suite 230

Denver, CO 80231

(303) 368-9225))

DOE 2 ACROSOFT/CAER Engineers

1204-1/2 Washington Avenue

Golden, CO 80401

303-279-8136



F-LOAD

F-CHART SOFTWARE

4406 Fox Bluff Rd.

Middleton, WI 53562

(((608) 836-8536))

(608) 836-8531

MICROPAS

ENERCOMP

((123 C Street

Davis, CA 95616

(916) 753-3400))

1721 Arroyo Drive

Auburn, CA 95603

(800) 755-5903

SUNDAY

ECOTOPE

2812 East Madison St.

Seattle, WA 98112

(206) 322-3753

WATTSUN 5.6

((WSEO

809 Legion Way S.E.

Olympia, WA 98504

Attn: Hank Date

(360) 956-2031))

WSU Extension

925 Plum Street

Building 4

Olympia, WA 98504-3165

(360) 956-2000

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0800, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1002 Section 1002: Below grade walls and slabs.

1002.1 General: Table 10-1 lists heat-loss coefficients for below-grade walls and floors.

Coefficients for below-grade walls are given as ((U-values)) U-factors (((Btu/Fhr)) Btu/hrF per square foot of wall area). Coefficients for below-grade slabs are listed as ((F-values)) F-factors (((Btu/Fhr)) Btu/hrF per lineal foot of slab perimeter).

Below-grade wall ((U-values)) U-factors are only valid when used with the accompanying below-grade slab ((F-value)) F-factor, and vice versa.

1002.2 Component Description: All below-grade walls are assumed to be eight-inch concrete. The wall is assumed to extend from the slab upward to the top of the mud sill for the distance specified in Table 10-1, with six inches of concrete wall extending above grade.

Interior insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts placed in the cavity formed by 2x4 framing on twenty-four inch centers with one-half inch of gypsum board as the interior finish material. Exterior insulation is assumed to be applied directly to the exterior of the below-grade wall from the top of the wall to the footing. The exterior case does not assume any interior framing or sheetrock.

In all cases, the entire wall surface is assumed to be insulated to the indicated nominal level with the appropriate framing and insulation application. Coefficients are listed for wall depths of two, three and one-half, and seven feet below grade. Basements shallower than two feet should use on-grade slab coefficients.

Heat-loss calculations for wall areas above grade should use above-grade wall ((U-values)) U-factors, beginning at the mudsill.

1002.3 Insulation Description: Coefficients are listed for the following four configurations:

1. Uninsulated: No insulation or interior finish.

2. Interior insulation: Interior 2x4 insulated wall without a thermal break between concrete wall and slab.

3. Interior insulation w/thermal break: Interior 2x4 insulated wall with R-5 rigid board providing a thermal break between the concrete wall and the slab.

4. Exterior insulation: Insulation applied directly to the exterior surface of the concrete wall.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(((WAC 51-11-1002, Table 10-1)))




(WAC 51-11-1002, Table 10-1)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1002, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1003 Section 1003: On-grade slab floors.

1003.1 General: Table 10-2 lists heat-loss coefficients for heated on-grade slab floors, in units of Btu/Fhr per lineal foot of perimeter.

1003.2 Component Description: All on-grade slab floors are assumed to be six-inch concrete poured directly onto the earth. The bottom of the slab is assumed to be at grade line. Monolithic and floating slabs are not differentiated.

Soil is assumed to have a conductivity of 0.75 Btu/hrFft2. Slabs two-feet or more below grade should use basement coefficients.

1003.3 Insulation Description: Coefficients are provided for the following three configurations:

Two-Foot (or four-foot) vertical: Insulation is applied directly to the slab exterior, extending downward from the top of the slab to a depth of two-feet (or four-feet) below grade.

Two-Foot (or four-foot) horizontal: Insulation is applied directly to the underside of the slab, and run horizontally from the perimeter inward for two-feet (or four-feet). The slab edge is exposed in this configuration.

Note: A horizontal installation with a thermal break of at least R-5 at the slab edge should use the vertical-case ((F-values)) F-factors.

Fully insulated slab: Insulation extends from the top of the slab, along the entire perimeter, and completely covers the area under the slab.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-1003, Table 10-2)




(WAC 51-11-1003, Table 10-2)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1003, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1004 Section 1004: Crawlspace floors.

1004.1 General: Tables 10-3 and 10-4 list heat-loss coefficients for floors over crawlspaces in units of Btu/Fhr per square foot of floor.

They are derived from procedures listed in RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, assuming an average outdoor temperature of 45 F, an average indoor temperature of 65 F, and a crawlspace area of one thousand three hundred fifty ft2 and one hundred fifty ft of perimeter. The crawlspace is assumed to be 2.5-feet high, with twenty-four inches below grade and six inches above grade.

1004.2 Crawlspace Description: Four crawlspace configurations are considered: Vented, unvented, enclosed and heated plenum.

Vented crawlspaces: Assumed to have three air-changes per hour, with at least one ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated.

Floors over unheated areas, such as garages, may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.

Unvented crawlspaces: Assumed to have 1.5 air changes per hour, with less than one ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated. Floors over unheated basements may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.

Heated-plenum crawlspaces: Assumed to have 0.25 air-changes per hour, with no foundation vents. Heated supply air from central furnace is blown into a crawlspace and allowed to enter the living space unducted via holes cut into the floor.

Enclosed floors: Assumes no buffer space, and a covering of one-half inch of T1-11 on the exterior of the cavity exposed to the outside air.

1004.3 Construction Description: Floors are assumed to be either joisted floors framed on sixteen inch centers, or post and beam on four by eight foot squares. Insulation is assumed to be installed under the subflooring between the joists or beams with no space between the insulation and the subfloor. Insulation is assumed to be uncompressed.

Perimeter insulation is assumed to extend from the top of the rim joist to the crawlspace floor and then inward along the ground (on top of the ground cover) for at least twenty-four inches.

Floor coverings are assumed to be light carpet with rubber pad.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(((WAC 51-11-1004, Tables 10-3 and 10-4)))




(WAC 51-11-1004, Table 10-3)




(WAC 51-11-1004, Table 10-4)




(WAC 51-11-1004, Table 10-4A)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1004, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1005 Section 1005: Above-grade walls.

Section 1005.1 General: Table 10-5 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of above-grade walls (Btu/Fhr per square foot). They are derived from procedures listed in RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, assuming exterior air films at 7.5-mph wind speed.

Insulation is assumed to uniformly fill the entire cavity and to be installed as per manufacturer's directions. All walls are assumed to be finished on the inside with one-half inch gypsum wallboard, and on the outside with either beveled wood siding over one-half inch plywood sheathing or with five-eighths inch T1-11 siding. Insulated sheathing (either interior or exterior) is assumed to cover the entire opaque wall surface.

1005.2 Framing Description: Three framing types are considered, and defined as follows:

Standard: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use three studs and each opening is framed using two studs. Headers consist of double 2X or single 4X material with an air space left between the header and the exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections use two studs in the exterior wall.

Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .19

Insulated cavity .77

Headers .04

Intermediate: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and each opening is framed by two studs. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.

Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .18

Insulated cavity .78

Headers .04

Advanced: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.

Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .13

Insulated cavity .83

Headers .04

1005.3 Component Description: Default coefficients for ((three)) four types of walls are listed: single-stud walls, metal stud walls, strap walls, and double-stud walls.

Single-Stud Wall: Assumes either 2x4 or 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. Headers are solid for 2x4 walls and double 2x for 2x6 walls, with either dead-air or rigid-board insulation in the remaining space.

Metal Stud Wall: Assumes metal studs spaced on 16 or 24 inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities. Continuous rigid board insulation is applied without creating uninsulated voids in the wall assembly.

Strap Wall: Assumes 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. 2x3 or 2x4 strapping is run horizontally along the interior surface of the wall to provide additional space for insulation.

Double-Stud Wall: Assumes an exterior structural wall and a separate interior, non-structural wall. Insulation is placed in both wall cavities and in the space between the two walls. Stud spacing is assumed to be on twenty-four inch centers for both walls.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(((WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)))




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5)




(WAC 51-11-1005, Tables 10-5A)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1005, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-05-059, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1006 Section 1006 Default ((U-values)) U-factors for glazing and doors.

1006.1 Untested Glazing and Doors: Untested glazing and doors shall be assigned the ((U-values)) U-factors from Tables 10-6A, 10-6B, 10-6C ((or)), 10-6D, or 10-6E as appropriate.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(((WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6A)))




(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6A)






(((WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6B)






(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6B)))




(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6B)






(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6B)






(((WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6C)))




(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6C)




(((WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6D)






(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6D)))




(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6D)






(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6D)






(WAC 51-11-1006, Table 10-6E)






[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-1006, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

[Open Style:Columns On]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1007 (((Reserved.))) Section 1007 Ceilings.

1007.1 General: Table 10-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units of Btu/hrF per square foot of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 F and an outdoor temperature of 45 F.

1007.2 Component Description: The three types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 hrft2F/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-factors for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:

U-Factor for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38

4/12 0.036 0.031

5/12 0.035 0.030

6/12 0.034 0.029

7/12 0.034 0.029

8/12 0.034 0.028

9/12 0.034 0.028

10/12 0.033 0.028

11/12 0.033 0.027

12/12 0.033 0.027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of 0.016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of three air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

Metal Truss Framing: Overall system tested values for the roof/ceiling Uo for metal framed truss assemblies from approved laboratories shall be used, when such data is acceptable to the building official.

Alternatively, the Uo for roof/ceiling assemblies using metal truss framing may be obtained from Tables 10-7A, 10-7B, 10-7C, 10-7D and 10-7E.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-1007, Table 10-7)




(WAC 51-11-1007, Tables 10-7A through 10-7E)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1007, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1008 ((Section 1007 Ceilings.)) Section 1008 Air infiltration.

((1007.1 General: Table 10-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units of Btu/Fhr per square foot of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. Ceiling U-values are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 F and an outdoor temperature of 45 F.

1007.2 Component Description: The three types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 hrFft2/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-Values for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:

U-Value for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38

4/12 .036 .031

5/12 .035 .030

6/12 .034 .029

7/12 .034 .029

8/12 .034 .028

9/12 .034 .028

10/12 .033 .028

11/12 .033 .027

12/12 .033 .027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of .016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of three air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-1008, Table 10-7)))


[Open Style:Columns On]

1008.1 General: Tables 10-8 and 10-9 list effective air change rates and heat capacities for heat loss due to infiltration.

Estimated seasonal average infiltration rate in air changes per hour (ACH) is given for standard air-leakage control (see section 502.4 of this code for air leakage requirements). The effective air-change rate shall be used in calculations for compliance under either the Component Performance or Systems Analysis approaches.

Heat loss due to infiltration shall be computed using the following equation:

Qinfil = ACHeff* HCP

where: Qinfil = Heat loss due to air infiltration

ACHeff = the effective air infiltration rate in Table 10-8

HCP = the Heat Capacity Density Product for the appropriate elevation or climate zone as given below.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-1008, Tables 10-8 and 10-9)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1008, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1009 ((Section 1008 Air infiltration.)) Section 1009 Mass.

((1008.1 General: Tables 10-8 and 10-9 list effective air-change rates and heat capacities for heat loss due to infiltration.

Estimated seasonal average infiltration rate in air changes per hour (ACH) is given for standard air-leakage control (see section 502.4 Air Leakage for All Occupancies). The effective air-change rate shall be used in calculations for compliance under either the Component Performance or Systems Analysis approaches.

Heat loss due to infiltration shall be computed using the following equation:

Qinfil = ACHeff* HCP

where: Qinfil = Heat loss due to air infiltration

ACHeff = the effective infiltration rate in Table 10-8

HCP = the Heat Capacity Density Product for the appropriate elevation or climate zone as given below.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-1009, Tables 10-8 and 10-9)))


[Open Style:Columns On]

1009.1 General: Table 10-10 lists default mass-values for residential construction types. All calculations are based on standard ASHRAE values for heat-storage capacity as listed in Standard RS-1 Chapter 24.

Thermal capacity of furniture is ignored, as is heat storage beyond the first four inches of mass thickness. All mass is assumed to be in direct contact with the conditioned space. Concrete separated from the heated volume by other materials must multiply the listed concrete mass value by the result of the following formula:

Ln(R-value) x (-.221) + 0.5

Where:

Ln = Natural log

R-value = R-value of material covering concrete

Note: All default values for covered concrete slabs have been adjusted according to this procedure.

1009.2 Mass Description: Mass is divided into two types: Structural and additional.

Structural Mass: Includes heat-storage capacity of all standard building components of a typical residential structure, including floors, ceilings, and interior and exterior walls in Btu/ft2F of floor area. It also assumes exterior wall, interior wall and ceiling surface area approximately equals three times the floor area.

Additional Mass: Includes any additional building material not part of the normal structure, which is added specifically to increase the building's thermal-storage capability. This category includes masonry fireplaces, water or trombe walls, and extra layers of sheetrock. Coefficients are in Btu/ft2F of surface area of material exposed to conditioned space. The coefficient for water is Btu/Fgallon.

1009.3 Component Description: Light frame assumes one inch thick wood flooring with five-eighths inch sheetrock on ceilings and interior walls, and walls consisting of either five-eighths inch sheetrock or solid logs. Slab assumes a four-inch concrete slab on or below grade, with five-eighths inch sheetrock on exterior and interior walls and ceiling, and with separate values for interior or exterior wall insulation. Adjustments for slab covering is based on R-value of material. Additional mass values are based on the density multiplied by the specific heat of the material adjusted for listed thickness.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-1009, Table 10-10)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1009, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1120 Scope. This Code sets forth minimum requirements for the design of new or altered buildings and structures or portions thereof that provide facilities or shelter for public assembly, educational, business, mercantile, institutional, storage, factory, and industrial occupancies by regulating their exterior envelopes and the selection of their HVAC, service water heating, electrical distribution and illuminating systems and equipment for efficient use and conservation of energy.

EXCEPTION: The provisions of this code do not apply to temporary growing structures used solely for the commercial production of horticultural plants including ornamental plants, flowers, vegetables, and fruits. "Temporary growing structure" means a structure that has the sides and roof covered with polyethylene, polyvinyl, or similar flexible synthetic material and is used to provide plants with either frost protection or increased heat retention. A temporary growing structure is not considered a building for purposes of this code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1120, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1130 Application to existing buildings. Additions, alterations or repairs, changes of occupancy or use, ((and)) or historic buildings that do not comply with the requirements for new buildings, shall comply with the requirements in Sections 1130 through 1134 as applicable.

EXCEPTION: The building official may approve designs of alterations or repairs which do not fully conform with all of the requirements of Sections 1130 through 1134 where in the opinion of the building official full compliance is physically impossible and/or economically impractical and the alteration or repair improves the energy efficiency of the building.

In no case shall energy code requirements be less than those requirements in effect at the time of the initial construction of the building.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1130, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1132 Alterations and repairs. Alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without the use of the exception in Section 1130. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the following requirements are met:

1132.1 Building Envelope: Alterations or repairs shall comply with nominal R-values and glazing requirements in Table 13-1 or 13-2.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Storm windows installed over existing glazing.

2. Glass replaced in existing sash and frame provided that glazing is of equal or lower U-factor.

3. For solar heat gain coefficient compliance, glazing with a solar heat gain coefficient equal to or lower than that of the other existing glazing.

4. Existing roof/ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are insulated to full depth with insulation having a minimum nominal value of R-3.0 per inch installed per Sections 1311 and 1313.

5. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities, provided that any new cavities added to existing walls and floors comply with Exception 4.

6. Existing roofs where the roof membrane is being replaced and

a. The roof sheathing or roof insulation is not exposed; or

b. If there is existing roof insulation below the deck.

In no case shall the energy efficiency of the building be decreased.

1132.2 Building Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with Chapter 14 of this Code.

1132.3 Lighting and Motors: Tenant improvements, alterations or repairs where 60 percent or more of the fixtures are new shall comply with Sections 1531 and 1532. Where less than 60 percent of the fixtures are new, the installed lighting wattage shall be maintained or reduced. Where 60 percent or more of the lighting fixtures in a suspended ceiling are new, and the existing insulation is on the suspended ceiling, the roof/ceiling assembly shall be insulated according to the provisions of Chapter 13 Section 1311.2.

Where new wiring is being installed to serve added fixtures and/or fixtures are being relocated to a new circuit, controls shall comply with Sections 1513.1 through 1513.5. Where a new lighting panel with all new raceway and conductor wiring from the panel to the fixtures is being installed, controls shall comply with Section 1513.6.

Those motors which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section 1511.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1132, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1133 Change of occupancy or use. Changes of occupancy or use shall comply with the following requirements:

a. Any unconditioned space that is altered to become ((conditioned)) semi-heated, cooled, or fully heated, or any semi-heated space that is altered to become cooled or fully heated space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this Code.

b. Any Group R Occupancy which is converted to other than a Group R Occupancy shall be required to comply with all of the provisions of Sections 1130 through 1132 of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1133, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-03-017, filed 1/7/97, effective 7/1/97)

WAC 51-11-1210 Application of terms. For the purposes of this Code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives, shall be as set forth in this chapter. Where terms are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted meanings within the context with which they are used. In the event there is a question about the definition of a term, the definitions for terms in the Codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 and the edition of Webster's dictionary referenced therein shall be considered as the sources for providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

((AAMA: American Architectural Manufacturers Association.))

ADDITION: See the Washington State Building Code.

ADVANCED FRAMED CEILING: Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. (See Standard Framing and Section 2007.2 of this Code.)

ADVANCED FRAMED WALLS: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall. (See Standard Framing and Section 2005.2 of this Code.)

AFUE - ANNUAL FUEL UTILIZATION EFFICIENCY: Unlike steady state conditions, this rating is based on average usage including on and off cycling as set out in the standardized Department of Energy Test Procedures.

AIR CONDITIONING, COMFORT: The process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet requirements of the conditioned space.

ARI: Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials.

AUTOMATIC: Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See Manual.)

BELOW GRADE WALLS: Walls or the portion of walls which are entirely below the finished grade or which extend two feet or less above the finish grade.

BOILER CAPACITY: The rate of heat output in Btu/h measured at the boiler outlet, at the design inlet and outlet conditions and rated fuel/energy input.

BUILDING ENVELOPE: The elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, or to or from unconditioned spaces, or to or from semi-heated spaces, or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 1301.

BUILDING, EXISTING: See the Washington State Building Code.

BUILDING OFFICIAL: The official authorized to act in behalf of a jurisdiction code enforcement agency or its authorized representative.

BUILDING PROJECT: A building or group of buildings, including on-site energy conversion or electric-generating facilities, which utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under one ownership.

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA: (See Gross Conditioned Floor Area.)

CONDITIONED SPACE: A cooled space, heated space (fully heated), heated space (semi-heated), or indirectly conditioned space.

COOLED SPACE: An enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible capacity

a. exceeds 5 Btu/(hft2), or

b. is capable of maintaining space dry bulb temperature of 90 degrees F or less at design cooling conditions.

COP - COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE: The ratio of the rate of net heat output (heating mode) or heat removal (cooling mode) to the rate of total on-site energy input to the heat pump, expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. (See Net Heat Output, Net Heat Removal, Total On-Site Energy Input.)

DAYLIGHTED ZONE:

a. Under overhead glazing: The area under overhead glazing whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the overhead glazing dimension in that direction plus either the floor to ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

b. At vertical glazing: The area adjacent to vertical glazing which receives daylighting from the glazing. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed daylighting analysis is provided, the daylighting zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylighting zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus either two feet on each side (the distance to an opaque partition) or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

DAYLIGHT SENSING CONTROL (DS): A device that automatically regulates the power input to electric lighting near the glazing to maintain the desired workplace illumination, thus taking advantage of direct or indirect sunlight.

DEADBAND: The temperature range in which no heating or cooling is used.

DESIGN COOLING CONDITIONS: The cooling outdoor design temperature from the 0.5 percent column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

DESIGN HEATING CONDITIONS: The heating outdoor design temperature from the 0.6 percent column for winter from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

DOOR AREA: Total area of door measured using the rough opening and including the door and frame.

DOOR: All operable opening areas, which are not glazing, in the building envelope including swinging and roll-up doors, fire doors, smoke vents and access hatches.

DWELLING UNIT: See the Washington State Building Code.

EER - ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO: The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions.

ECONOMIZER, AIR: A ducting arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling supply fan system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather.

ECONOMIZER, WATER: A system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled directly, indirectly, or both, by evaporation of water or by other appropriate fluid in order to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration.

EFFICIENCY, HVAC SYSTEM: The ratio of useful energy (at the point of use) to the energy input for a designated time period, expressed in percent.

EMISSIVITY: The ability to absorb infrared radiation. A low emissivity implies a higher reflectance of infrared radiation.

ENERGY: The capacity for doing work; taking a number of forms which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical; in customary units, measured in kilowatt-hours (Kwh) or British thermal units (Btu). (See New energy.)

ENERGY, RECOVERED: (See Recovered energy.)

EXTERIOR ENVELOPE: (See Building envelope.)

FACADE AREA: Vertical projected area including nonhorizontal roof area, overhangs, cornices, etc. measured in elevation in a vertical plane parallel to the plane of the building face.

FLOOR OVER UNCONDITIONED SPACE: A floor which separates a conditioned space from an unconditioned space which is buffered from exterior ambient conditions including vented crawl spaces and unconditioned basements or other similar spaces, or exposed to exterior ambient conditions including open parking garages and enclosed garages which are mechanically ventilated.

F-FACTOR: The perimeter heat loss factor expressed in Btu/hft F.

F-VALUE: (See F-Factor.)

GLAZING: All areas, including the frames, in the shell of a conditioned space that let in natural light including windows, clerestories, skylights, sliding or swinging glass doors and glass block walls.

GLAZING AREA: Total area of the glazing measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the daylight opening area is less than fifty percent of the door area, the glazing area is the daylight opening area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the door area.

GROSS CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA: The horizontal projection of that portion of interior space which is contained within exterior walls and which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system, and which has an average height of five feet or greater, measured from the exterior faces.

GROSS EXTERIOR WALL AREA: The normal projection of the building envelope wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system and which separates conditioned space from: Unconditioned space, or semi-heated space, or exterior ambient conditions or earth; includes opaque wall, vertical glazing and door areas. The gross area of walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, vertical glazing areas, and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to exterior ambient conditions and enclose a conditioned space including interstitial areas between two such spaces. (See Below Grade Wall.)

GROSS FLOOR AREA: The sum of the areas of the several floors of the building, including basements, cellars, mezzanine and intermediate floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating buildings, but excluding: Covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces, pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chimneys, roof overhangs and similar features.

GROSS ROOF/CEILING AREA: A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed to exterior ambient conditions and encloses a conditioned space. The assembly does not include those components that are separated from a heated and/or cooled space by a vented airspace. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including overhead glazing.

GUEST ROOM: See the Washington State Building Code.

HEAT: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.

HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY: The physical property of materials (mass) located inside the building envelope to absorb, store, and release heat.

HEATED SPACE (FULLY HEATED): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an un-insulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is

a. capable of maintaining a space dry-bulb temperature of 45 degrees F or greater at design heating conditions; or

b. 8 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 12 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2.

HEATED SPACE (SEMI-HEATED): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an un-insulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system

a. whose output capacity is 3 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 5 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2; and

b. is not a Heated Space (Fully Heated).

HSPF - HEATING SEASON PERFORMANCE FACTOR: The total heating output (in Btu) of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total (watt hour) electric power input during the same period, as determined by test procedures consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy "Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, Including Heat Pumps" published in RS-30. When specified in Btu per watt hour an HSPF of 6.826 is equivalent to a COP of 2.0.

HUMIDISTAT: A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

HVAC: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

HVAC SYSTEM COMPONENTS: HVAC system components provide, in one or more factory-assembled packages, means for chilling and/or heating water with controlled temperature for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned spaces of the buildings. Types of HVAC system components include, but are not limited to, water chiller packages, reciprocating condensing units and water source (hydronic) heat pumps. (See HVAC system equipment.)

HVAC SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: (See Efficiency, HVAC system.)

HVAC SYSTEM EQUIPMENT: HVAC system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory-assembled packages, means for air circulation, air cleaning, air cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification; and optionally, either alone or in combination with a heating plant, the functions of heating and humidifying. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporatively cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages shall be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. The equipment may provide the heating function as a heat pump or by the use of electric elements. (The word "equipment" used without modifying adjective may, in accordance with common industry usage, apply either to HVAC system equipment or HVAC system components.)

INDIRECTLY CONDITIONED SPACE: An enclosed space within a building that is not a heated or cooled space, whose area weighted heat transfer coefficient to heated or cooled spaces exceeds that to the outdoors or to unconditioned spaces; or through which air from heated or cooled spaces is transferred at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour. Enclosed corridors between conditioned spaces shall be considered as indirectly conditioned space. (See Heated Space, Cooled Space and Unconditioned Space.)

INFILTRATION: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density.

INSULATION BAFFLE: A rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture, the purpose of which is to allow air to flow freely into the attic or crawl space and to prevent insulation from blocking the ventilation of these spaces, or the loss of insulation. Example materials for this purpose are sheet metal, or wax impregnated cardboard.

INSULATION POSITION:

a. Exterior Insulation Position: A wall having all or nearly all of its mass exposed to the room air with the insulation on the exterior of the mass.

b. Integral Insulation Position: A wall having mass exposed to both room and outside air, with substantially equal amounts of mass on the inside and outside of the insulation layer.

c. Interior Insulation Position: A wall not meeting either of the above definitions; particularly a wall having most of its mass external to the insulation layer.

IPLV - INTEGRATED PART-LOAD VALUE: A single number figure of merit based on part-load EER or COP expressing part-load efficiency for air-conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for the equipment as specified in the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) procedures.

LUMINAIRE: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the electric power supply.

MANUAL: Capable of being operated by personal intervention.

(See Automatic.)

MICROCELL: A wireless communication facility consisting of an antenna that is either: (a) Four (4) feet in height and with an area of not more than five hundred eighty (580) square inches; or (b) if a tubular antenna, no more than four (4) inches in diameter and no more than six (6) feet in length; and the associated equipment cabinet that is six (6) feet or less in height and no more than forty-eight (48) square feet in floor area.

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

NFRC: National Fenestration Rating Council.

NET HEAT OUTPUT: The change in the total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (not including supplementary heat and heat from boilers).

NET HEAT REMOVAL: The total difference in heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (without heat) or the difference in total heat content of the water or refrigerant entering and leaving the component.

NEW ENERGY: Energy, other than recovered energy, utilized for the purpose of heating or cooling. (See Energy.)

NOMINAL R-VALUE: The thermal resistance of insulation as specified by the manufacturer according to recognized trade and engineering standards.

NONRENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES: All energy sources that are not renewable energy sources including natural gas, oil, coal, wood, liquified petroleum gas, steam, and any utility-supplied electricity.

NONRESIDENTIAL: All buildings and spaces in the Uniform Building Code (UBC) occupancies other than Group R.

OCCUPANCY: See the Washington State Uniform Building Code.

OCCUPANCY SENSOR: A device that detects occupants within an area, causing any combination of lighting, equipment or appliances to be turned on or shut off.

OPAQUE ENVELOPE AREAS: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose conditioned space, except openings for doors, glazing and building service systems.

OPEN BLOWN: Loose fill insulation pneumatically installed in an unconfined attic space.

OUTDOOR AIR (OUTSIDE AIR): Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through a building.

OVERHEAD GLAZING: A glazing surface that has a slope of less than sixty degrees from the horizontal plane.

PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONER: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended to serve a room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-10.)

PERMEANCE (PERM): The ability of a material of specified thickness to transmit moisture in terms of amount of moisture transmitted per unit time for a specified area and differential pressure (grains per hourft2inches of HG). Permeance may be measured using ASTM E-96-72 or other approved dry cup method as specified in RS-1.

PERSONAL WIRELESS SERVICE FACILITY: A Wireless Communication Facility (WCF), including a microcell, which is a facility for the transmission and/or reception of radio frequency signals and which may include antennas, equipment shelter or cabinet, transmission cables, a support structure to achieve the necessary elevation, and reception and/or transmission devices or antennas.

POOL COVER: A vapor-retardant cover which lies on or at the surface of the pool.

POWER: In connection with machines, the time rate of doing work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h).

PROCESS ENERGY: Energy consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than the maintenance of building comfort or amenities for building occupants.

RADIANT FLOOR: A floor assembly, on grade or below, containing heated pipes, ducts, or electric heating cables that constitute a floor or portion thereof for complete or partial heating of the structure.

READILY ACCESSIBLE: See the Washington State Mechanical Code.

RECOOLING: The removal of heat by sensible cooling of the supply air (directly or indirectly) that has been previously heated above the temperature to which the air is to be supplied to the conditioned space for proper control of the temperature of that space.

RECOVERED ENERGY: Energy utilized which would otherwise be wasted (i.e., not contribute to a desired end use) from an energy utilization system.

REHEAT: The application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air to provide cooling.

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES: Renewable energy sources (excluding minerals) derived from: (1) incoming solar radiation, including but not limited to, natural daylighting and photosynthetic processes; (2) energy sources resulting from wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and (3) energy derived from the internal heat of the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges.

RESET: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or lower value automatically or manually to conserve energy.

ROOF/CEILING ASSEMBLY: (See Gross Roof/Ceiling Area.)

SEER - SEASONAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO: The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period, in Btu's, divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours, during the same period, as determined by 10 CFR, Part 430.

SEMI-HEATED SPACE: Sub-category of Heated Space. (See Heated Space.)

SEQUENCE: A consecutive series of operations.

SERVICE SYSTEMS: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions.

SERVICE WATER HEATING: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating.

SHADED: Glazed area which is externally protected from direct solar radiation by use of devices permanently affixed to the structure or by an adjacent building, topographical feature, or vegetation.

SHADING COEFFICIENT: The ratio of solar heat gain occurring through non-opaque portions of the glazing, with or without integral shading devices, to the solar heat gain occurring through an equivalent area of unshaded, 1/8-inch thick, clear, double-strength glass.

Note: Heat gains to be compared under the same conditions. See Chapter 26 of Standard RS-27, listed in Chapter 17 of this Code.

SHALL: Denotes a mandatory Code requirement.

SKYLIGHT: (See Overhead Glazing.)

SLAB-BELOW-GRADE: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

SLAB-ON-GRADE, EXTERIOR: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is less than or equal to twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

SOLAR ENERGY SOURCE: Source of natural daylighting and of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the glazing product to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted, or convected into the space.

SPLIT SYSTEM: Any heat pump or air conditioning unit which is provided in more than one assembly requiring refrigeration piping installed in the field.

STANDARD FRAMING: All framing practices not defined as "intermediate" or "advanced" shall be considered standard. (See Advanced framed ceiling, Advanced framed walls, Intermediate framed wall.)

SUBSTANTIAL CONTACT: A condition where adjacent building materials are placed in a manner that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported as to eliminate voids between materials, without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product.

SYSTEM: A combination of central or terminal equipment or components and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as HVAC, service water heating or illumination.

TAPERING: Installation of a reduced level of ceiling insulation at the eaves, due to reduced clearance.

THERMAL BY-PASS: An area where the envelope surrounding the conditioned space is breached, or where an ineffective application compromises the performance of a thermal or infiltration barrier, increasing the structure's energy consumption by exposing finished surfaces to ambient conditions and additional heat transfer.

THERMAL CONDUCTANCE (C): Time rate of heat flow through a body (frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady conditions (Btu/hft2F).

THERMAL RESISTANCE (R): The reciprocal of thermal conductance (hft2F/Btu).

THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/hft2F).

THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, OVERALL (Uo): The overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope (Btu/hft2F). The Uo-factor applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the various parallel paths, such as glazing, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building components, such as walls, floors or roof/ceiling.

THERMOSTAT: An automatic control device actuated by temperature and designed to be responsive to temperature.

TOTAL ON-SITE ENERGY INPUT: The combination of all the energy inputs to all elements and accessories as included in the equipment components, including but not limited to, compressor(s), compressor sump heater(s), circulating pump(s), purge devices, fan(s), and the HVAC system component control circuit.

TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system to that of an unshaded single pane of double strength window glass under the same set of conditions.

U-FACTOR: (See Thermal Transmittance.)

U-VALUE: (See U-Factor.)

UNCONDITIONED SPACE: Space within a building that is not a conditioned space. (See Conditioned Space).

UNIFORM BUILDING CODE: The Washington State Uniform Building Code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE: The Washington State Uniform Mechanical Code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

UNIFORM PLUMBING CODE (UPC): The Washington State Uniform Plumbing Code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

UNITARY COOLING AND HEATING EQUIPMENT: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. Where such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

UNITARY HEAT PUMP: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

VAPOR RETARDER: A layer of low moisture transmissivity material (not more than 1.0 perm dry cup) placed over the warm side (in winter) of insulation, over the exterior of below grade walls, and under floors as ground cover to limit the transport of water and water vapor through exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. Vapor retarding paint, listed for this application, also meets this definition.

VAULTED CEILINGS: All ceilings where enclosed joist or rafter space is formed by ceilings applied directly to the underside of roof joists or rafters.

VENTILATION: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned.

VENTILATION AIR: That portion of supply air which comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

VERTICAL GLAZING: A glazing surface that has a slope of sixty degrees or greater from the horizontal plane.

WALLS (EXTERIOR): Any member or group of members which defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and which have a slope of sixty degrees or greater with the horizontal plane, and separates conditioned from unconditioned space. Band joists between floors are to be considered a part of exterior walls.

ZONE: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device. Each dwelling unit in residential buildings shall be considered a single zone.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.074, 19.27A.020 and 19.27A.025. 97-03-017, 51-11-1210, filed 1/7/97, effective 7/1/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1210, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1312 Glazing and doors.

1312.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing and Door U-Factors: U-Factors for glazing and doors shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with Standard RS-31 by a certified independent agency licensed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). Compliance shall be based on the Residential or the Nonresidential Model Size ((AA or BB)). Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Unlabeled glazing and doors shall be assigned the default U-factor in Section 2006.

1312.2 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient and Shading Coefficient: Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), shall be determined, certified and labelled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard by a certified, independent agency, licensed by the NFRC.

EXCEPTION: Shading coefficients (SC) shall be an acceptable alternate for compliance with solar heat gain coefficient requirements. Shading coefficients for glazing shall be taken from Chapter ((27)) 29 of RS-27 or from the manufacturer's test data.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1312, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1323 Glazing. Glazing shall comply with Section 1312 and Tables 13-1 or 13-2. All glazing shall be, at a minimum, double glazing.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Vertical glazing located on the street level story of a retail occupancy provided the glazing is double-glazed with a minimum 1/2 inch airspace and does not exceed 75 percent of the gross exterior wall area of the street level story which does not exceed 20 feet in height. When this exception is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes. The 75 percent area may be exceeded on the street level, if the additional glass area is provided from allowances from other areas of the building.

2. Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area, U-factor calculation and SHGC as allowed in the Tables 13-1 or 13-2. The maximum area allowed for the total of all single glazing is one percent of the gross exterior wall floor area.

1323.1 Area: The percentage of total glazing (vertical and overhead) area relative to the gross exterior wall area shall not be greater than the appropriate value from Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the vertical glazing U-factor, overhead glazing U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient selected.

1323.2 U-Factor: The area-weighted average U-factor of vertical glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. The area-weighted average U-factor of overhead glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with Section 1312.

1323.3 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient: The area-weighted average solar heat gain coefficient of ((vertical)) all glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and U-factor. ((The area-weighted average solar heat gain coefficient of overhead glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and U-factor.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1323, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1331 General. Buildings or structures whose design heat loss rate (UAp) and solar heat gain coefficient (((SHGCp))) rate (SHGC*Ap) are less than or equal to the target heat loss rate (UAt) and solar heat gain coefficient (((SHGCt))) rate (SHGC*At) shall be considered in compliance with this section. The stated U-factor, F-factor or allowable area of any component assembly, listed in Tables 13-1 or 13-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall, opaque door, glazing, floor over conditioned space, slab on grade floor, radiant floor or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor or F-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors, F-factors or allowable areas specified in this section.

EXCEPTION: For buildings or structures utilizing the other space heat type (including heat pumps and VAV) compliance path, for the gross opaque wall, opaque door and glazing (vertical and overhead) area only, compliance may also be shown using the ENVSTD diskette version 2.1 or later of Standard RS-9, or an approved alternative, with the following additional requirements:

1. Only the Exterior Wall Requirements portion of ((RS-32)) the ENVSTD computer program may be used under this exception.

2. Overhead glazing shall be added to vertical glazing, and shall be input as 1/4 north, 1/4 east, 1/4 south and 1/4 west facing.

3. Lighting loads shall be determined according to Table 15-1.

4. Equipment loads shall be determined from Table 3-1 of Standard RS-29.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1331, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1334 Solar heat gain coefficient rate calculations. Solar heat gain coefficient shall comply with Section 1323.3. The target SHGCAt and the proposed SHGCAp shall be calculated using Equation 13-3 and 13-4 and the corresponding areas and SHGCs from Table 13-1 or 13-2.

(WAC 51-11-1334, Equation 13-1)




(WAC 51-11-1334, Equation 13-1)




(WAC 51-11-1334, Equation 13-2)




(WAC 51-11-1334, Equation 13-3 and 13-4)




(((WAC 51-11-1334, Table 13-1)))




(WAC 51-11-1334, Table 13-1)




(((WAC 51-11-1334, Table 13-2)))




(WAC 51-11-1334, Table 13-2)




[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1334, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1411 HVAC equipment performance requirements.

1411.1 General: Equipment shall have a minimum performance at the specified rating conditions not less than the values shown in Tables 14-1 through 14-3.

1411.2 Rating Conditions: Cooling equipment shall be rated at ARI test conditions and procedures when available. Where no applicable procedures exist, data shall be furnished by the equipment manufacturer.

1411.3 Combination Space and Service Water Heating: ((Equipment whose listed principal function is service water heating and which is used to provide additional functions (e.g., space heating) as part of a combination system, shall comply with minimum performance requirements for the principal function category.)) For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-1411, Illus. 1)


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1411.4 Packaged Electric Heating and Cooling Equipment: Packaged electric equipment providing both heating and cooling with a total cooling capacity greater than 20,000 Btu/h shall be a heat pump.

EXCEPTION: unstaffed equipment shelters or cabinets used solely for personal wireless service facilities.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1411, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1412 Controls.

1412.1 Temperature Controls: Each system shall be provided with at least one temperature control device. Each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls responding to temperature within the zone. At a minimum, each floor of a building shall be considered as a separate zone.

1412.2 Deadband Controls: When used to control both comfort heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall be capable of a deadband of at least 5 degrees F within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is shut off or reduced to a minimum.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Special occupancy, special usage, or code requirements where deadband controls are not appropriate.

2. Buildings complying with Section 1141.4, if in the proposed building energy analysis, heating and cooling thermostat setpoints are set to the same temperature between 70 degrees F and 75 degrees F inclusive, and assumed to be constant throughout the year.

3. Thermostats that require manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.

1412.3 Humidity Controls: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture, a humidistat shall be provided.

1412.4 Setback and Shut-Off: HVAC systems shall be equipped with automatic controls capable of accomplishing a reduction of energy use through control setback or equipment shutdown during periods of non-use or alternate use of the spaces served by the system. The automatic controls shall have a minimum seven-day clock and be capable of being set for seven different day types per week.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Systems serving areas which require continuous operation at the same temperature setpoint.

2. Equipment with full load demands of 2 Kw (6,826 Btu/h) or less may be controlled by readily accessible manual off-hour controls.

1412.4.1 Dampers: Outside air intakes, exhaust outlets and relief outlets serving conditioned spaces shall be equipped with dampers which close automatically when the system is off or upon power failure. ((Stair shaft and elevator shaft smoke relief openings shall be equipped with normally open dampers. These dampers shall remain closed in normal operation until activated by the fire alarm system or other approved smoke detection system.))

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Systems serving areas which require continuous operation.

2. Combustion air intakes.

1412.5 Heat Pump Controls: Unitary air cooled heat pumps shall include microprocessor controls that minimize supplemental heat usage during start-up, set-up, and defrost conditions. These controls shall anticipate need for heat and use compression heating as the first stage of heat. Controls shall indicate when supplemental heating is being used through visual means (e.g., LED indicators).

1412.6 Combustion Heating Equipment Controls: Combustion heating equipment with a capacity over 225,000 Btu/h shall have modulating or staged combustion control.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Boilers.

2. Radiant heaters.

1412.7 Balancing: Each air supply outlet or air or water terminal device shall have a means for balancing, including but not limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1412, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1414 Ducting systems.

1414.1 Sealing: Duct work which is designed to operate at pressures above 1/2 inch water column static pressure shall be sealed in accordance with Standard RS-18. Extent of sealing required is as follows:

1. Static pressure: 1/2 inch to 2 inches; seal transverse joints.

2. Static pressure: 2 inches to 3 inches; seal all transverse joints and longitudinal seams.

3. Static pressure: Above 3 inches; seal all transverse joints, longitudinal seams and duct wall penetrations.

Duct tape and other pressure sensitive tape shall not be used as the primary sealant where ducts are designed to operate at static pressures of 1 inch W.C. or greater.

1414.2 Insulation: Ducts and plenums that are constructed and function as part of the building envelope, by separating interior space from exterior space, shall meet ((the)) all applicable requirements of Chapter 13. These requirements include insulation installation, moisture control, air leakage, and building envelope insulation levels. Unheated equipment rooms with combustion air louvers must be isolated from the conditioned space by insulating interior surfaces to a minimum of R-11 and any exterior envelope surfaces per Chapter 13. Outside air duct runs are considered building envelope until they,

1. connect to the heating or cooling equipment, or

2. are isolated from the exterior with an automatic shut-off damper.

Once outside air ducts meet the above listed requirements, any runs within conditioned space must comply with Table 14-5 requirements.

Other ducts and plenums shall be thermally insulated per Table 14-5.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Within the HVAC equipment.

2. Exhaust air ducts not subject to condensation.

3. Exposed ductwork within a space that serves that space only.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1414, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1421 System type. To qualify as a simple system, systems shall be one of the following:

a. Air cooled, constant volume packaged equipment, which provide heating, cooling or both, and require only external connection to duct work and energy services.

b. Air cooled, constant volume split systems, which provide heating, cooling or both, with cooling capacity of ((54,000)) 84,000 Btu/h or less.

c. Heating only systems which have a capacity of less than 5,000 cfm or which have a minimum outside air supply of less than 70 percent of the total air circulation.

All other systems shall comply with Sections 1430 through 1438.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1421, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1422 Controls. In addition to the control requirements in Section 1412, where separate heating and cooling equipment serve the same temperature zone, thermostats shall be interlocked to prevent simultaneous heating and cooling. Systems which provide heating and cooling simultaneously to a zone are prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1422, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1423 Economizers. Economizers meeting the requirements of Section 1413 shall be installed on ((packaged roof top)) single package unitary fan-cooling units having a supply capacity of greater than 1,900 cfm or a total cooling capacity greater than 54,000 Btu/h.

The total capacity of all units without economizers shall not exceed 240,000 Btu/h per building, or 10% of its aggregate cooling (economizer) capacity, whichever is greater.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1423, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1433 Economizers. Economizers meeting the requirements of Section 1413 shall be installed on the following systems:

a. ((Packaged roof top)) Single package unitary fan-cooling units with a supply capacity of greater than 1,900 cfm or a total cooling capacity greater than 54,000 Btu/h.

b. Other individual fan-cooling units with a supply capacity of greater than 2,800 cfm or a total cooling capacity greater than 84,000 Btu/h.

The total capacity of all units without economizers shall not exceed 240,000 Btu/h per building, or 10% of its aggregate cooling (economizer) capacity, whichever is greater.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Systems with air or evaporatively cooled condensers and that either one of the following can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the enforcing agency:

a. Special outside air filtration and treatment, for the reduction and treatment of unusual outdoor contaminants, makes an air economizer infeasible.

b. The use of outdoor air cooling affects the operation of other systems (such as humidification, dehumidification, and supermarket refrigeration systems) so as to increase the overall building energy consumption.

2. Systems for which at least 75 percent of the annual energy used for mechanical cooling is provided from site-recovery or site-solar energy source.

3. A water economizer system, which is capable of cooling supply air by indirect evaporation. Such a system shall be designed and capable of being controlled to provide 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outside air temperatures of 50 degrees F dry-bulb/45 degrees F wet-bulb and below. For this calculation, all factors including solar and internal load shall be the same as those used for peak load calculations, except for the outside air temperatures.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1433, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1452 ((Pool water heaters. Pool water heaters using electric resistance heating as the primary source of heat are prohibited for pools over 2,000 gallons.)) (Reserved.)

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1452, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1454 Pool covers. Heated pools shall be equipped with a vapor retardant pool cover on or at the water surface. Pools heated to more than 90 degrees F shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12.

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(WAC 51-11-1454, Table 14-1)




(WAC 51-11-1454, Table 14-2)




(WAC 51-11-1454, Table 14-3 and 14-4)




(((WAC 51-11-1454, Table 14-5)))




(WAC 51-11-1454, Table 14-5)




(WAC 51-11-1454, Table 14-6)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1454, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1512 Exempt lighting.

1512.1 Exempt Spaces: The following rooms, spaces, and areas, are exempt from the lighting power requirements in Sections 1520 and 1530 but shall comply with all other requirements of this chapter.

1. Areas in which medical or dental tasks are performed.

2. High risk security areas or any area identified by ((safety)) building officials as requiring additional lighting.

3. Spaces designed for primary use by the visually impaired, hard of hearing (lip-reading) or by senior citizens.

4. Food preparation areas.

5. Outdoor manufacturing, greenhouses, and processing areas.

6. Electrical/mechanical equipment rooms.

7. Outdoor athletic facilities.

8. Inspection and restoration areas in galleries and museums.

1512.2 Exempt Lighting Equipment: The following lighting equipment and tasks are exempt from the lighting requirements of Section 1520 and need not be included when calculating the installed lighting power under Section 1530 but shall comply with all other requirements of this chapter. All other lighting in areas that are not exempted by Section 1512.2, where exempt tasks and equipment are used, shall comply with all of the requirements of this chapter.

1. Special lighting needs for research.

2. Emergency lighting that is automatically OFF during normal building operation.

3. Lighting ((for)) integral to signs, and permanently ballasted lighting fixtures for walkways and pathways.

4. Lighting that is part of machines, equipment or furniture.

5. Lighting that is used solely for indoor plant growth during the hours of 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.

6. Lighting for theatrical productions, television broadcasting (including sports facilities), audio-visual presentations, and special effects lighting for stage areas and dance floors in entertainment facilities.

7. Lighting for art exhibits, non-retail displays, portable plug in display fixtures, and show case lighting.

8. Exterior lighting for public monuments.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1512, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1530 ((Component performance)) Lighting power allowance option. The installed lighting wattage shall not exceed the lighting power allowance. Lighting wattage includes lamp and ballast wattage. Wattage for fluorescent lamps and ballasts shall be tested per ANSI Standard C82.2-1984.

The wattage used for any unballasted fixture shall be the maximum UL listed wattage for that fixture regardless of the lamp installed. The wattage used for track lighting shall be ((the maximum of actual luminaire wattage or 50 watts per lineal foot of track)):

a. for line voltage track, 50 watts per lineal foot of track or actual luminare wattage, whichever is greater

b. for low voltage track, 25 watts per lineal foot of track or the VA rating of the transformer, whichever is greater.

No credit towards compliance with the lighting power allowances shall be given for the use of any controls, automatic or otherwise.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1530, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1701 Scope. The following standards ((will))shall apply to Chapters 11 through 20.

The standards and portions thereof, which are referred to in various parts of this Code shall be part of the Washington State Energy Code and are hereby declared to be a part of this Code.

code

standard

no. title and source

RS-1 Same as RS-27

RS-2 through RS-8 (Reserved)

RS-9 ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989, Efficient Design of Buildings

Except New Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

RS-10 Standard for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ARI Standard 310/380-93.

RS-11 through RS-17 (Reserved)

RS-18 SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible ((Construction Standards, 1st Edition)), 2nd Edition, 1995.

RS-19 through RS-24 (Reserved)

RS-25 Thermal Bridges in Sheet Metal Construction from Appendix E of RS-9.

RS-26 Super Good Cents Technical Reference (Builder's Field Guide).

RS-27 ((1993)) 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.

RS-28 ((1992 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook.)) (Reserved.)

RS-29 Commercial Building Design by Systems Analysis.

RS-30 Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 430 (March 14, 1988).

RS-31 National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard 100((-91)), 1997 Edition.

accredited authoritative agencies


ANSI refers to the American National Standards Institute, Inc., ((1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018)) 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036

Phone (212) 642-4900 Fax (212) 398-0023, Internet www.ansi.org

ARI refers to the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute, 4301 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 425, Arlington, VA 22203

Phone (703) 524-8800 Fax (703) 528-3816, Internet www.ari.org

ASHRAE refers to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329

Phone (404) 636-8400 Fax (404) 321-5478, Internet www.ashrae.org

ASTM refers to the American Society for Testing and Materials, ((1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103)) 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

Phone (610) 832-9585 Fax (610) 832-9555, Internet www.astm.org

CTI refers to the Cooling Tower Institute, ((P.O. Box 73383 Houston TX 77273)) 530 Wells Fargo Drive, Suite 218, Houston, TX 77090

Phone (281) 583-4087 Fax (281) 537-1721, Internet www.cti.org

IES refers to the Illuminating Engineering Society, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005-4001

Phone (212) 248-5000 Fax (212) 248-5017, Internet www.ies.org

NFRC refers to the National Fenestration Rating Council, 1300 Spring Street, Suite 120, Silver Spring, MD 20910

Phone (301) 589-NFRC Fax (301) 588-0854, Internet www.nfrc.org

SMACNA refers to the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc., 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, P.O. Box 221230 Chantilly, VA ((22021-1209)) 20153-1230.

Phone (703) 803-2980 Fax (703) 803-3732, Internet www.smacna.org

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1701, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-2005 Above grade walls.

2005.1 General: Table 20-5, 20-5a and 20-5b list heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of above-grade wood stud frame walls, metal stud frame walls and concrete masonry walls (Btu/hft2F). They are derived from procedures listed in Standard RS-27, listed in Chapter 17.

2005.2 Framing Description: For wood stud frame walls, three framing types are considered, and defined as follows:

Standard: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use three studs and each opening is framed using two studs. Headers consist of double 2X or single 4X material with an air space left between the header and the exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections use two studs in the exterior wall.

Standard framing weighting factors:

Studs and plates 0.19

Insulated cavity 0.77

Headers 0.04

Intermediate: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and each opening is framed by two studs. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.

Intermediate framing weighting factors:

Studs and plates 0.18

Insulated cavity 0.78

Headers 0.04

Advanced: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.

Advanced Framing Weighting Factors:

Studs and plates 0.13

Insulated cavity 0.83

Headers 0.04

2005.3 Component Description: For wood stud frame walls, default coefficients for three types of walls are listed: Single-stud walls, strap walls, and double-stud walls.

Single-Stud Wall: Assumes either 2x4 or 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. Headers are solid for 2x4 walls and double 2x for 2x6 walls, with either dead-air or rigid-board insulation in the remaining space.

Strap Wall: Assumes 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. 2x3 or 2x4 strapping is run horizontally along the interior surface of the wall to provide additional space for insulation.

Double-Stud Wall: Assumes an exterior structural wall and a separate interior, nonstructural wall. Insulation is placed in both wall cavities and in the space between the two walls. Stud spacing is assumed to be on twenty-four inch centers for both walls.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5)




(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5)




(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5)




(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5)




(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5)




(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5)




Metal Stud Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 20-5a may be used for purposes of calculating metal stud wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter ((22)) 24 of Standard RS-27.

(((WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5a)))




(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5a)


Concrete Masonry Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 20-5b may be used for purposes of calculating concrete masonry wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE isothermal planes calculation method as provided in Chapter ((22)) 24 of Standard RS-27.

(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5b)




(WAC 51-11-2005, Table 20-5b)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-2005, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-2006 Default U-factors for glazing and doors.

2006.1 Untested Glazing and Doors: Untested glazing and doors shall be assigned the following U-factors:

(((WAC 51-11-2006, Table 20-6)))




(WAC 51-11-2006, Table 20-6)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-2006, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-2007 Ceilings.

2007.1 General: Table 20-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units of Btu/hft2F of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in Standard RS-27, listed in Chapter 17. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 degrees F and an outdoor temperature of 45 degrees F.

2007.2 Component Description: The three types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 (hft2F)/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-factors for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:

U-Factor for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38

4/12 0.036 0.031

5/12 0.035 0.030

6/12 0.034 0.029

7/12 0.034 0.029

8/12 0.034 0.028

9/12 0.034 0.028

10/12 0.033 0.028

11/12 0.033 0.027

12/12 0.033 0.027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of 0.016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of three air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

Metal Truss Framing: Overall system tested values for the roof/ceiling Uo for metal framed truss assemblies from approved laboratories shall be used, when such data is acceptable to the building official.

Alternatively, the Uo for roof/ceiling assemblies using metal truss framing may be obtained from Tables 20-7A, 20-7B, 20-7C, 20-7D and 20-7E.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-2007, Table 20-7)




(WAC 51-11-2007, Tables 20-7A through 20-7E)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-2007, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-99903 Section 3--Specific modeling assumptions.

The specific modeling assumptions consist of methods and assumptions for calculating the standard energy consumption for the standard building and the proposed energy consumption of the proposed design. In order to maintain consistency between the standard and the proposed design energy consumptions, the input assumptions in this section shall be used.

"Prescribed" assumptions shall be used without variation. "Default" assumptions shall be used unless the designer can demonstrate that a different assumption better characterizes the building's use over its expected life. Any modification of a default assumption shall be used in modeling both the standard building and the proposed design unless the designer demonstrates a clear cause to do otherwise.

3.1 Orientation and Shape: The standard building shall consist of the same number of stories and gross floor area for each story as the proposed design. Each floor shall be oriented exactly as the proposed design. The geometric form shall be the same as the proposed design.

3.2 Internal Loads: Internal loads shall be modeled as noted in the following parts of Section 3.2. The systems specified for calculating the standard energy consumption in Section 3.2 are intended only as constraints in calculating the consumption. They are not intended as requirements or recommendations for systems to be used in the proposed building or for the calculation of the proposed energy consumption.

3.2.1 Occupancy: Occupancy schedules shall be default assumptions. The same assumptions shall be made in computing proposed energy consumption as were used in calculating the standard energy consumption. Occupancy levels vary by building type and time of day. Table 3-1 establishes the density presented as ft2/person of conditioned floor area that will be used by each building type. Table 3-2 establishes the percentage of the people that are in the building by hours of the day for each building type.

3.2.2 Lighting: The interior and exterior lighting power allowance for calculating the standard energy consumption shall be determined from Sections 1531 and 1532. The lighting power used to calculate the proposed energy consumption shall be the actual lighting power of the proposed lighting design. Exempt lighting in the standard design shall be equal to the exempt lighting in the proposed design.

Lighting levels in buildings vary based on the type of uses within buildings, by area and by time of day. Table 3-2 contains the lighting energy profiles which establish the percentage of the lighting load that is switched ON in each prototype or reference building by hour of the day. These profiles are default assumptions and can be changed if required when calculating the standard energy consumption to provide, for example, a 12 hour rather than an 8 hour work day or to reflect the use of automatic lighting controls. The lighting schedules used in the standard and proposed designs shall be identical and shall reflect the type of controls to be installed in the proposed design. The controls in the proposed design shall comply with the requirements in Section 1513 and no credit shall be given for the use of any additional controls, automatic or otherwise.

3.2.3 Receptacle: Receptacle loads and profiles are default assumptions. The same assumptions shall be made in calculating proposed energy consumption as were used in calculating the standard energy consumption. Receptacle loads include all general service loads that are typical in a building. These loads should include additional process electrical usage but exclude HVAC primary or auxiliary electrical usage. Table 3-1 establishes the density in W/ft2 to be used. The receptacle energy profiles shall be the same as the lighting energy profiles in Table 3-2. This profile establishes the percentage of the receptacle load that is switched ON by hour of the day and by building type.

3.3 Envelope

3.3.1 Insulation and Glazing: Glazing area and U-factor of the standard building envelope shall be determined by using the Target UA requirements of Equation 13-1 and U-factor values in Table 13-1 or 13-2. The glazing solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) or shading coefficient of the standard building shall be the lesser of 0.65 and the SHGC required by Table 13-1 or 13-2 for the vertical or overhead glazing area for the appropriate wall type. The opaque area U-factors of the standard building shall be determined by using the Target UA requirements from Equation 13-1 including the appropriate mass for walls. The insulation characteristics and glazing area are prescribed assumptions for the standard building for calculating the standard energy consumption. In the calculation of the proposed energy consumption of the proposed design, the envelope characteristics of the proposed design shall be used. The standard design shall use the maximum glazing areas listed in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate use. The distribution of vertical glazing in the gross wall area of the standard design shall be equal to the distribution of vertical glazing in the proposed design or shall constitute an equal percentage of gross wall area on all sides of the standard building. The distribution of overhead glazing in the gross roof/ceiling area of the standard design shall be equal to the distribution of overhead glazing in the proposed design. The distribution of doors in the gross opaque wall area of the standard design shall be identical to the distribution of doors in the proposed design.

3.3.2 Infiltration: For standard and proposed buildings, infiltration assumptions shall be equal.

3.3.3 Envelope and Ground Absorptivities: For the standard building, absorptivity assumptions shall be default assumptions for computing the standard energy consumption and default assumptions for computing the proposed energy consumption. The solar absorptivity of opaque elements of the building envelope shall be assumed to be 70 percent. The solar absorptivity of ground surfaces shall be assumed to be 80 percent (20 percent reflectivity).

3.3.4 Window Treatment: No draperies or blinds shall be modeled for the standard or proposed building.

3.3.5 Shading: For standard building and the proposed design, shading by permanent structures and terrain shall be taken into account for computing energy consumption whether or not these features are located on the building site. A permanent fixture is one that is likely to remain for the life of the proposed design. Credit may be taken for external shading devices that are part of the proposed design.

3.4 HVAC Systems and Equipment: For the standard building, the HVAC system used shall be the system type used in the proposed design. If the proposed HVAC system type does not comply with Sections 1432 through 1438, the standard design system shall comply in all respects with those sections.

Exception: When approved by the building official, a prototype HVAC system may be used, if the proposed design system cannot be modified to comply with Sections 1422 and 1432 through 1438, as a standard design. Use of prototype HVAC systems shall only be permitted for the building types listed below. For mixed-use buildings, the floor space of each building type is allocated within the floor space of the standard building. The specifications and requirements for the HVAC systems of prototype buildings shall be those in Table 3-3.

1. assembly 6. restaurant

2. health/institutional 7. retail (mercantile)

3. hotel/motel 8. school (educational)

4. light manufacturing 9. warehouse (storage)

5. office (business)

3.4.1 HVAC Zones: HVAC zones for calculating the standard energy consumption and proposed energy consumption shall consist of at least four perimeter and one interior zone per floor, with at least one perimeter zone facing each orientation. The perimeter zones shall be fifteen feet in width or one-third the narrow dimension of the building when this dimension is between 30 and 45 feet inclusive or half the narrow dimension of the building when this dimension is less than thirty feet.

Exceptions:

1. Building types such as assembly or warehouse may be modeled as a single zone if there is only one space.

2. Thermally similar zones, such as those facing one orientation on different floors, may be grouped together for the purposes of either the standard or proposed building simulation.

3.4.2 Process Equipment Sizing: Process sensible and latent loads shall be equal in calculating both the standard energy consumption and the proposed energy consumption. The designer shall document the installation of process equipment and the size of process loads.

3.4.3 HVAC Equipment Sizing: The equipment shall be sized to include the capacity to meet the process loads. For calculating the proposed energy consumption, actual air flow rates and installed equipment size shall be used in the simulation. Equipment sizing in the simulation of the proposed design shall correspond to the equipment intended to be selected for the design and the designer shall not use equipment sized automatically by the simulation tool.

Equipment sizing for the standard design shall be based on the same as the proposed design or lesser sizing ratio of installed system capacity to the design load for heating and for cooling.

Chilled water systems for the standard building shall be modeled using a reciprocating chiller for systems with total cooling capacities less than 175 tons, and centrifugal chillers for systems with cooling capacities of 175 tons or greater. For systems with cooling capacities of 600 tons or more the standard energy consumption shall be calculated using two centrifugal chillers, lead/lag controlled. Chilled water shall be assumed to be controlled at a constant 44 degree F temperature rise, from 44 degrees F to 56 degrees F, operating at 65 percent combined impeller and motor efficiency. Condenser water pumps shall be sized using a 10 degree F temperature rise, operating at 60 percent combined impeller and motor efficiency. The cooling tower shall be an open circuit, centrifugal blower type sized for the larger of 85 degrees F leaving water temperature or 10 degrees F approach to design wetbulb temperature. The tower shall be controlled to provide a 65 degrees F leaving water temperature whenever weather conditions permit, floating up to design leaving water temperature at design conditions.

3.4.4 Variable Speed: The energy of the combined fan system per air volume at design conditions (w/cfm) of the proposed design shall be equal to that of the standard design.

Variable air volume fan systems in the standard building shall be variable speed.

3.5 Service Water Heating: The service water heating loads for prototype buildings are defined in terms of Btu/person-hour in Table 3-1. The values in the table refer to energy content of the heated water. The service water heating loads from Table 3-1 are default for all buildings. The same service-water-heating load assumptions shall be made in calculating proposed energy consumption as were used in calculating the standard energy consumption. The service water heating system for the standard building shall be modeled as closely as possible as if it were designed in accordance with the ASHRAE Handbook, ((1987)) 1995 HVAC Systems and Applications Volume and meeting all the requirements of Sections 1440 through 1442.

3.6 Controls

3.6.1: All occupied conditioned spaces in standard and proposed design buildings in all climates shall be simulated as being both heated and cooled.

Exceptions:

1. If a building or portion of a building is to be provided with only heating or cooling, both the standard building and the proposed design shall be simulated using the same assumptions.

2. If warehouses are not intended to be mechanically cooled, both the standard and proposed energy consumption shall be modeled assuming no mechanical cooling.

3.6.2: Space temperature controls for the standard building, shall be set at 70 degrees F for space heating and 75 degrees F for space cooling, with a deadband in accordance with Section 1412.2. The system shall be OFF during off-hours according to the appropriate schedule in Table 3-2, except that the heating system shall cycle ON if any space should drop below the night setback setting 55 degrees F. There shall be no similar setpoint during the cooling season. Lesser deadband ranges may be used in calculating the proposed energy consumption.

Exceptions:

1. Setback shall not be modeled in determining either the standard or proposed energy consumption if setback is not realistic for the proposed design such as a facility being operated 24 hours/day. For instance, health facilities need not have night setback during the heating season.

2. If deadband controls are not to be installed, the proposed energy consumption shall be calculated with both heating and cooling thermostat setpoints set to the same value between 70 degrees F and 75 degrees F inclusive, assumed to be constant for the year.

3.6.3: When providing for outdoor air ventilation when calculating the standard energy consumption, controls shall be assumed to close the outside air intake to reduce the flow of outside air to 0.0 cfm during "setback" and "unoccupied" periods. Ventilation using inside air may still be required to maintain scheduled setback temperature. Outside air ventilation, during occupied periods, shall be as required by the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code chapter 51-13 WAC.

3.6.4: If humidification is to be used in the proposed design, the same level of humidification and system type shall be used in the standard building.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-1)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2A)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2B)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2C)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2D)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2E)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2F)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2G)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2H)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2I)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-2J)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-3)




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-3 (cont.))




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-3 (cont.))




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3-3 (cont.))




(WAC 51-11-99903, Table 3.3 footnotes)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-99903, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-99904 Section 4--Suggested software for systems analysis approach.

4.1 Programs Acceptable for Projects for Full-Year Hourly Analysis

Program Name Source

ADM-DOE ADM Associates

((3299)) 3239 Ramos Circle

Sacramento, CA 95827

916-363-8383

((Micro-Axcess 10.1, PC Edison Electric

Institute

PO Box 1235

Roswell, GA 30077

404-993-2406))

Blast 3.0 (Level 193) Blast Support Office

University of Illinois

Dept. of Mechanical and

Industrial Engineering

1206 W. Green Room 30, MEB

Urbana, ((Il)) IL 61801

1-800-842-5278

((DOE 2.1 Energy Science and Technology

Software Center

PO Box 1220

Oakridge, TN 37831-1020

615-576-2606))

DOE 2.1 Energy Science Technology

Software Center (ESTSC)

PO Box 1020

Oakridge, TN 37831-1020

423-576-2606

ESAS Ross Meriweather

Consulting, Engineering

3315 Outrider

San Antonio, TX 78247-4405

((512-490-7081))

210-490-7081

ESP-II Automated Procedures for

Engineering Consultants, Inc.

((Miami Valley Tower, Suite

2100))

40 W. 4th ((St)) Centre,

Suite 2100

Dayton, OH 45402

((513-228-2602))

937-228-2602

((HAP 2.02 Carrier Air Conditioning

655 S. Orcas, Suite 10

Seattle, WA 98108

206-767-6340))

HAP 2.02 Carrier Building Systems

and Services

3215 South 116th St., Suite 133

Tukwila, WA 98168

(206) 439-0097

((MICRO-DOE Acrosoft International, Inc.

9745 E. Hampden Ave,

Suite 230

Denver, CO 80231

303-368-9225))

MICRO-DOE2 ACROSOFT/CAER Engineers

1204-1/2 Washington Avenue

Golden, CO 80401

303-279-8136

((ULTRA 600 Version 11.9))

Trace 600 Version 16.08 The Trane Co.

3600 Pammel Creek Rd.

Lacrosse, WI 54601

608-787-3926

4.2 Programs only Acceptable for Commercial Buildings 25,000 Square Feet or Less

Program Name Source

ADM.2 ADM Associates

((3299)) 3239 Ramos Circle

Sacramento, CA 95827

916-363-8383

((ASEAM Advanced Sciences Inc.

2000 N. 15th St., Suite 407

Arlington, VA 22201-2627

703-243-4900))

ASEAM U.S. Department of Energy

Clearinghouse

1(800) DOE-EREC (363-3732)

Building Energy Elite Software

Analysis and Easy DOE PO Drawer 1194

Bryan, TX 77806

409-846-2340

ESE Sea Gate

((5001 W. 80th))

5100 W. 82nd St., Suite 204

Bloomington, MN 55437

612-844-8000

((Trakload 4.0)) SRC Systems

((Load Shaper)) ((1300 Clay St., Suite 850

Market Manager Oakland, CA 94612

510-839-2700))

2855 Telegraph Ave., Suite 410

Berkeley, CA 94705

510-848-8400

XENCAP 4.5 XENERGY

492 9th Street, Suite 220

Oakland, CA 94607

510-891-0446



[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-99904, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

REPEALER

The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:

WAC 51-11-0606 Reserved.

WAC 51-11-0607 Reserved.

WAC 51-11-0608 Reserved.

WAC 51-11-1010 Section 1009 Mass.

Legislature Code Reviser

Register

Washington State Code Reviser's Office