WSR 98-10-073

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[Filed May 4, 1998, 10:30 a.m., effective January 1, 1999]



Date of Adoption: May 4, 1998.

Purpose: Guarding mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

The intention of this rule making is to produce regulations that are clearly understood and easy to follow. The protections offered by the rule have neither been strengthened nor lessened, but are intended to be equal to the protection currently offered. The adopted rule offers the employer more flexibility in determining how to comply with the requirements.

The regulations for guarding power transmission apparatus are being amended to reflect:

Plain language clarifications.

Requirements for employers to protect employees from hazards instead of requiring specific methods of guarding specific machinery.

Elimination of regulations that are technologically out of date.

Elimination of redundant regulations.

General requirements followed by additional specifications or exceptions.



Chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards.



WAC 296-24-205 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "Safeguarding power transmission parts."



WAC 296-24-20501 Definitions.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What is an employer's duty to protect employees from hazards of power transmission parts?"

Eliminate the definitions.

Implement a general requirement for the employer to protect employees against hazards associated with power transmission parts.

Offer the employer a range of methods of complying with the rule.



WAC 296-24-20503 General requirements.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What requirements must guards meet?"

Eliminate the specification requirements.

Outline the requirements that a guard must meet to be considered an adequate safeguard.



WAC 296-24-20505 Prime-mover guards.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What requirements must devices meet?"

Eliminate the prime-mover guard specification requirements.

Outline the requirements that a device must meet to be considered an adequate safeguard.



WAC 296-24-20507 Shafting.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What requirements must safeguarding by distance meet?"

Eliminate the shafting specification requirements.

Outline the requirements that safeguarding by distance must meet to be considered an adequate safeguard.



WAC 296-24-20509 Pulleys.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What requirements must safeguarding by location meet?"

Eliminate the pulley specification requirements.

Outline the requirements that safeguarding by location must meet to be considered an adequate safeguard.



WAC 296-24-20511 Belt, rope, and chain drives.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What other responsibilities beyond safeguarding does an employer have to protect employees from power transmission parts?"

Eliminate the belt, rope, and chain drive specification requirements.

Outline the additional requirements an employer must meet to eliminate hazards associated with power transmission parts.



WAC 296-24-20513 Gears, sprockets, and chains.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "When may a guardrail be used as a safeguard?"

Eliminate the gears, sprockets, and chains specification requirements.

List the circumstances under which an employer may substitute a guardrail for other safeguarding requirements.



WAC 296-24-20515 Guarding friction drives.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What are the additional requirements for flywheels?"

Eliminate the specification requirements for friction drives.

List the special safeguarding requirements that apply only to flywheels.



WAC 296-24-20517 Keys, setscrews, and other projections.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What are the additional requirements for shafting?"

Eliminate the specification requirements for keys and setscrews.

List the special safeguarding requirements that apply only to shafting.



WAC 296-24-20519 Collars and couplings.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What are the additional requirements for pulleys?"

Eliminate the specification requirements for collars and couplings.

List the special safeguarding requirements that apply only to pulleys.



WAC 296-24-20521 Bearings and facilities for oiling.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What are the additional requirements for belt, rope, and chain drives?"

Eliminate the specification requirements for oiling facilities.

List the special safeguarding requirements that apply only to belt, rope, and chain drives.



WAC 296-24-20523 Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What are the additional requirements for gears?"

Eliminate the specification requirements for clutches.

List the special safeguarding requirements that apply only to gears.



WAC 296-24-20525 Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What are the additional requirements for belt shifters?"

Eliminate the specification requirements for belt shifters.

List the special safeguarding requirements that apply only to belt shifters.



WAC 296-24-20527 Standard guards--General requirements.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "What are the alternate safeguarding requirements that apply to sewing machines?"

Eliminate the specification requirements for guards.

List the alternative safeguarding methods for sewing machines.



WAC 296-24-20529 Disk, shield, and "U" guards.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "Reserved for appendix."

Eliminate the specification requirements for guards.



WAC 296-24-20531 Approved materials.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "Reserved for appendix."

Eliminate the specification requirements for materials.



WAC 296-24-20533 Care of equipment.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Change the section title to "Reserved for appendix."

Eliminate the specification requirements for care of equipment that are now contained in other sections.



Chapter 296-301 WAC, Textile industry standards.



WAC 296-301-020 General safety requirements.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Bring the textile-specific requirements into the textiles chapter.

.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending Chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-205 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus, 296-24-20501 Definitions, 296-24-20503 General requirements, 296-24-20505 Prime-mover guards, 296-24-20507 Shafting, 296-24-20509 Pulleys, 296-24-20511 Belt, rope, and chain drives, 296-24-20513 Gears, sprockets, and chains, 296-24-20515 Guarding friction drives, 296-24-20517 Keys, setscrews, and other projections, 296-24-20519 Collars and couplings, 296-24-20521 Bearings and facilities for oiling, 296-24-20523 Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys, 296-24-20525 Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners, 296-24-20527 Standard guards--General requirements, 296-24-20529 Disk, shield, and "U" guards, 296-24-20531 Approved materials, and 296-24-20533 Care of equipment; chapter 296-301 WAC, Textile industry standards, WAC 296-301-020 General safety requirements.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17.]040, [49.17.]050.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 97-21-146 on October 22, 1997.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, amended 19, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Effective Date of Rule: January 1, 1999.

May 4, 1998

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-1566.1

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-205  ((Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.)) Safeguarding power transmission parts.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-205, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-205, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 89-03, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89)



WAC 296-24-20501  ((Definitions.)) What is an employer's duty to protect employees from hazards of power transmission parts? (((1) "Belts" include all power transmission belts, such as flat belts, round belts, V-belts, etc., unless otherwise specified.

(2) "Belt shifter" means a device for mechanically shifting belts from tight to loose pulleys or vice versa, or for shifting belts on cones of speed pulleys.

(3) "Belt pole" (sometimes called a "belt shipper" or "shipper pole") means a device used in shifting belts on and off fixed pulleys on line or countershaft where there are no loose pulleys.

(4) "Enclosed" for vertical and inclined belts means that only the portion of a belt that is seven feet or less from the floor is required to be enclosed by a guard.

(5) "Exposed to contact" means that the location of an object is such that a person is likely to come into contact with it and be injured.

(6) "Flywheels" include flywheels, balance wheels, and flywheel pulleys mounted and revolving on crankshaft of engine or other shafting.

(7) "Fully enclosed" applies to the sides of a power transmission system not guarded by location as described in WAC 296-24-20511 (1)(a), which includes both runs of a horizontal belt, pulley, and flywheel. Small units with slightly inclined belts are included in this category.

(8) "Maintenance runway" means any permanent runway or platform used for oiling, maintenance, running adjustment, or repair work, but not for passageway.

(9) "Nip-point belt and pulley guard" means a device which encloses the pulley and is provided with rounded or rolled edge slots through which the belt passes.

(10) "Point of operation" means that point at which cutting shaping, or forming is accomplished upon the stock and shall include such other points as may offer a hazard to the operator in inserting or manipulating the stock in the operation of the machine.

(11) "Prime movers" include steam, gas, oil, and air engines, motors, steam and hydraulic turbines, and other equipment used as a source of power.

(12) "Sheaves" mean grooved pulleys and shall be so classified unless used as flywheels.)) (1) An employer must protect employees from the hazards of power transmission parts created by:

(a) Moving objects;

(b) Flying objects;

(c) Falling objects; and

(d) Inherently hazardous surfaces, such as sharp edges, burrs, and protruding nails and bolts.

"Power transmission parts" means the mechanical components of a piece of equipment that, together with a source of power (sometimes referred to as a prime mover), provide the motion to a part of a machine or piece of equipment.

(2) An employer must use one or more of the methods of safeguarding listed below to eliminate the hazards described in subsection (1) of this section:

(a) Guard;

(b) Device;

(c) Safe distance; or

(d) Safe location.



Note: Guardrails are not generally accepted as a safeguarding method, but see WAC 296-24-20513 for exceptions when guardrails may be used.



Note: See WAC 296-24-20521(1) for a list of power transmission belts that are exempt from the requirements of this section.





[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-24-20501, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; Order 73-5, 296-24-20501, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20501, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 89-20, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90)



WAC 296-24-20503  ((General requirements.)) What requirements must guards meet? (((1) This section covers all types and shapes of power-transmission belts, except the following when operating at two hundred and fifty feet per minute or less:

(a) Flat belts one inch or less in width.

(b) Flat belts two inches or less in width which are free from metal lacings or fasteners.

(c) Round belts one-half inch or less in diameter.

(d) Single strand V-belts, the width of which is thirteen thirty-seconds inch or less.

(2) Vertical and inclined belts (WAC 296-24-20511 (3) and (4)) if not more than two and one-half inches wide and running at a speed of less than one thousand feet per minute, and if free from metal lacings or fastenings may be guarded with a nip-point belt and pulley guard.

(3) For the textile industry, because of the presence of excessive deposits of lint, which constitute a serious fire hazard, the sides and face sections only of nip-point belt and pulley guards are required, provided the guard shall extend at least six inches beyond the rim of the pulley on the in-running and off-running sides of the belt and at least two inches away from the rim and face of the pulley in all other directions.

(4) These standards cover the principal features with which power transmission safeguards shall comply. When there is no possibility of employee contact with power transmission belts during operation, the belts are "guarded by location" and no further guarding is required.

(5) The following criteria will apply when evaluating handwheels, nip points, and belts above the table top on light (domestic) and medium duty sewing machines for compliance. The conditions will apply in general industry and the light apparel manufacturing industries on machines using flat and round belts without metal lacings and fasteners. Machines used to sew materials such as leather, heavy canvas, denim, vinyl, or other types of heavy material are not included.

(a) The operator's hands are not in, near or on the wheel, nip point, or belt area when the machine is operating.

(b) The distance between the area where the operator is holding and feeding material with both hands, and the belt or wheel location, is sufficient to not expose the operator to the hazards.

(c) The table top is of sufficient size or arrangement to not expose any other employee in the work area or passing by the work area to the hazards.)) To safeguard using a guard, an employer must ensure that the guard:

(1) Prevents any part of an employee's body from reaching the hazard;

(2) Prevents objects from flying out toward, or falling onto, an employee;

(3) Is made of durable material designed to withstand the forces to which it could be exposed;

(4) Is securely fastened at least every three feet to a fixed part of the machine it safeguards or the building structure; and

(5) Creates no additional hazards such as from sharp edges or from motion between it and moving parts.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-24-20503, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-24-20503, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; Order 73-5, 296-24-20503, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20503, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20505  ((Prime-mover guards.)) What requirements must devices meet? (((1) Flywheels. Flywheels located so that any part is seven feet or less above floor or platform shall be guarded in accordance with the requirements of this section:

(a) With an enclosure of sheet, perforated, or expanded metal, or woven wire;

(b) With guard rails placed not less than fifteen inches nor more than twenty inches from rim. When flywheel extends into pit or is within 12 inches of floor, a standard toeboard shall also be provided;

(c) When the upper rim of flywheel protrudes through a working floor, it shall be entirely enclosed or surrounded by a guardrail and toeboard.

(d) For flywheels with smooth rims five feet or less in diameter, where the preceding methods cannot be applied, the following may be used: A disk attached to the flywheel in such manner as to cover the spokes of the wheel on the exposed side and present a smooth surface and edge, at the same time providing means for periodic inspection. An open space, not exceeding four inches in width, may be left between the outside edge of the disk and the rim of the wheel if desired, to facilitate turning the wheel over. Where a disk is used, the keys or other dangerous projections not covered by disk shall be cut off or covered. This subdivision does not apply to flywheels with solid web centers;

(e) Adjustable guard to be used for starting engine or for running adjustment may be provided at the flywheel of gas or oil engines. A slot opening for jack bar will be permitted;

(f) Wherever flywheels are above working areas, guards shall be installed having sufficient strength to hold the weight of the flywheel in the event of a shaft or wheel mounting failure.

(2) Cranks and connecting rods. Cranks and connecting rods, when exposed to contact shall be guarded in accordance with WAC 296-24-20527 and 296-24-20529, or by a guardrail as described in WAC 296-24-20531(5).

(3) Tail rods or extension piston rods. Tail rods or extension piston rods shall be guarded in accordance with WAC 296-24-20527 and 296-24-20529, or by a guardrail on sides and end, with a clearance of not less than fifteen nor more than twenty inches when rod is fully extended.

(4) Governor balls. Governor balls six feet or less from the floor or other working level, when exposed to contact, shall be provided with an enclosure extending to the top of the governor balls when at their highest position. The material used in the construction of this enclosure shall conform to WAC 296-24-20525 and 296-24-20529.)) To safeguard using a device, an employer must ensure that it:

(1) Stops motion of the power transmission parts before an employee is exposed to the hazard of coming into contact with a moving part; and

(2) Prevents the machine from restarting unless an employee manually resets it.



Note: Emergency stop controls or warning signals are not considered devices that, by themselves, effectively safeguard power transmission parts.





[Order 73-5, 296-24-20505, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20505, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20507  ((Shafting.)) What requirements must safeguarding by distance meet? (((1) Installation.

(a) Each continuous line of shafting shall be secured in position against excessive endwise movement.

(b) Inclines and vertical shafts, particularly inclined idler shafts, shall be securely held in position against endwise thrust.

(2) Guarding horizontal shafting.

(a) All exposed parts of horizontal shafting seven feet or less from floor or working platform excepting runways used exclusively for oiling, or running adjustments, shall be protected by a stationary casing enclosing shafting completely or by a trough enclosing sides and top or sides and bottom of shafting as location requires.

(b) Shafting under bench machines shall be enclosed by a stationary casing, or by a trough at sides and top or sides and bottom, as location requires. The sides of the trough shall come within at least six inches of the under side of table, or if shafting is located near floor within six inches of floor. In every case the sides of trough shall extend at least two inches beyond the shafting or protuberance.

(3) Guarding vertical and inclines shafting. Vertical and inclines shafting seven feet or less from floor or working platform, excepting maintenance runways, shall be enclosed with a stationary casing in accordance with requirements of WAC 296-24-20527 and 296-24-20531.

(4) Projecting shaft ends.

(a) Projecting shaft ends shall present a smooth edge and end and shall not project more than one-half the diameter of the shaft unless guarded by nonrotating caps or safety sleeves.

(b) Unused keyways shall be filled up or covered.

(5) Power-transmission apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms used exclusively for power transmission equipment shall be guarded in accordance with this section, except that the requirements for safeguarding belts, pulleys, and shafting need not be complied with when the following requirements are met:

(a) The basement, tower, or room occupied by transmission equipment is locked against unauthorized entrance.

(b) The vertical clearance in passageways between the floor and power transmission beams, ceiling, or any other objects, is not less than five feet six inches.

(c) The intensity of illumination conforms to the requirements of ANSI A11.1-1965 (R-1970).

(d) The footing is dry, firm, and level.

(e) The route followed by the oiler is protected in such manner as to prevent accident.)) To safeguard by distance, an employer must ensure that:

(1) The vertical distance between power transmission parts and a floor or walking or working surface is more than seven feet;

(2) The power transmission parts are supported so they will not fall on an employee below; and

(3) No parts or material may fall on an employee below.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20507, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20507, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20509  ((Pulleys.)) What requirements must safeguarding by location meet? (((1) Guarding. Pulleys, any parts of which are seven feet or less from the floor or working platform, shall be guarded in accordance with the standards specified in WAC 296-24-20527 and 296-24-20531. Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on which the point of contact between belt and pulley is more than six feet six inches from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disk covering the spokes.

(2) Location of pulleys.

(a) Unless the distance to the nearest fixed pulley, clutch, or hanger exceeds the width of the belt used, a guide shall be provided to prevent the belt from leaving the pulley on the side where insufficient clearance exists.

(b) Where there are overhanging pulleys on line, jack, or countershafts with no bearing between the pulley and the outer end of the shaft, a guide to prevent the belt from running off the pulley should be provided.

(3) Broken pulleys. Pulleys with cracks, or pieces broken out of rims, shall not be used.

(4) Pulley speeds. Pulleys intended to operate at rim speed in excess of manufacturers normal recommendations shall be specially designed and carefully balanced for the speed at which they are to operate.

(5) Compositions and wood pulleys. Composition or laminated wood pulleys shall not be installed where they are subjected to influences detrimental to their structural composition.)) To safeguard by location, an employer must ensure that the location of power transmission parts eliminates the possibility that any part of an employee's body can inadvertently reach the hazard.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20509, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20509, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)



WAC 296-24-20511  ((Belt, rope, and chain drives.)) What other responsibilities beyond safeguarding does an employer have to protect employees from power transmission parts? (((1) Horizontal belts and ropes.

(a) Where both runs of horizontal belts are seven feet or less from the floor level, the guard shall extend to at least fifteen inches above the belt or to a standard height (see Table O-12), except that where both runs of a horizontal belt are 42 inches or less from the floor, the belt shall be fully enclosed in accordance with WAC 296-24-20527 and 296-24-20531.

(b) In powerplants or power development rooms, a guardrail may be used in lieu of the guard required by (1)(a) of this section.

(2) Overhead horizontal belts.

(a) Overhead horizontal belts, with lower parts seven feet or less from the floor or platform, shall be guarded on sides and bottom in accordance with WAC 296-24-20531(3).

(b) Horizontal overhead belts more than seven feet above floor or platform shall be guarded for their entire length under the following conditions:

(i) If located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet or more per minute.

(ii) If center to center distance between pulleys is ten feet or more.

(iii) If belt is eight inches or more in width.

(c) Where the upper and lower runs of horizontal belts are so located that passage of persons between them would be possible, the passage shall be either:

(i) Completely barred by a guardrail or other barrier in accordance with WAC 296-24-20527 and 296-24-20531; or

(ii) Where passage is regarded as necessary, there shall be a platform over the lower run guarded on either side by a railing completely filled in with wire mesh or other filler, or by a solid barrier. The upper run shall be so guarded as to prevent contact therewith either by the worker or by objects carried by the worker. In powerplants only the lower run of the belt need be guarded.

(d) Overhead chain and link belt drives are governed by the same rules as overhead horizontal belts and shall be guarded in the same manner as belts.

(e) American or continuous system rope drives so located that the condition of the rope (particularly the splice) cannot be constantly and conveniently observed, shall be equipped with a telltale device (preferably electric-bell type) that will give warning when rope begins to fray.

(3) Vertical and inclined belts.

(a) Vertical and inclined belts shall be enclosed by a guard conforming to standards in WAC 296-24-20527 and 296-24-20531.

(b) All guards for inclined belts shall be arranged in such a manner that a minimum clearance of seven feet is maintained between belt and floor at any point outside of guard.

(4) Vertical belts. Vertical belts running over a lower pulley more than seven feet above floor or platform shall be guarded at the bottom in the same manner as horizontal overhead belts, if conditions are as stated in (2)(b)(i) and (iii) of this section.

(5) Cone-pulley belts.

(a) The cone belt and pulley shall be equipped with a belt shifter so constructed as to adequately guard the nip point of the belt and pulley. If the frame of the belt shifter does not adequately guard the nip point of the belt and pulley, the nip point shall be further protected by means of a vertical guard placed in front of the pulley and extending at least to the top of the largest step of the cone.

(b) If the belt is of the endless type or laced with rawhide laces, and a belt shifter is not desired, the belt will be considered guarded if the nip point of the belt and pulley is protected by a nip point guard located in front of the cone extending at least to the top of the largest step of the cone, and formed to show the contour of the cone in order to give the nip point of the belt and pulley the maximum protection.

(c) If the cone is located less than 3 feet from the floor or working platform, the cone pulley and belt shall be guarded to a height of 3 feet regardless of whether the belt is endless or laced with rawhide.

(6) Belt tighteners.

(a) Suspended counterbalanced tighteners and all parts thereof shall be of substantial construction and securely fastened; the bearings shall be securely capped. Means must be provided to prevent tightener from falling, in case the belt breaks.

(b) Where suspended counterweights are used and not guarded by location, they shall be so encased as to prevent accident.

(c) Belt tighteners, used for starting and stopping machinery, other than those which are securely held in "off" or "out of service" position by gravity, shall be provided with means or mechanism that will securely hold the belt tightener away from the belt when the machine or part thereof driven by the belt is not in use. Such means or mechanism shall be automatic in its action in gripping, latching or otherwise fastening itself to and holding the belt tightener in "off" or "out of service" position until manually released. (Released by hand.)

(d) Counterbalanced belt tighteners and all parts thereof shall be of substantial construction, and securely fastened. The bearings shall be securely capped. If exposed to contact, means shall be installed to catch the belt tightener, to prevent tightener from falling on any person below, should the belt break or throw the tightener.)) (1) An employer must remove, make flush, or guard with metal covers all projections on moving parts, including keys, setscrews, bolts, and nuts.

(a) An employer is not required to remove, make flush, or guard keys or setscrews:

(i) Within an enclosure;

(ii) Below the rim of a pulley that is less than twenty inches in diameter; or

(iii) Where employee contact is not possible.

(b) An employer must fill or cover unused keyways.

(c) An employer must use only cylindrical revolving collars and ensure that screws or bolts used in collars do not project beyond the outside of the collar.

(2) An employer must ensure that power transmission parts are inspected at least once every sixty days for compliance with this standard, and are kept in good working condition at all times. An employer's inspection must ensure that:

(a) A pulley with a crack or broken piece is not used.

(b) All bolts and screws holding power transmission equipment together or supporting the equipment are tight.

(c) Belts, lacings, and fasteners are in good repair.

(d) Power transmission parts are kept in proper alignment.

(3) An employer may safeguard any location used exclusively for power transmission parts by ensuring that the location:

(a) Is locked;

(b) Prohibits unauthorized entrance;

(c) Has a passageway with an effective vertical clearance of at least five feet six inches;

(d) Is well lit;

(e) Has a dry, level, firm floor; and

(f) Has a safe, well-marked route for an authorized employee to follow.

(4) If it is necessary to lubricate power transmission parts while the parts are moving, an employer must ensure that the tool an oiler uses, such as an oil can or grease gun, has a long spout to keep the oiler's hands away from the hazard.

(a) An oiler must wear closely fitting clothing.

(b) Drip cups and pans must be securely fastened.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-24-20511, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, 296-24-20511, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20511, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20513  ((Gears, sprockets, and chains.)) When may a guardrail be used as a safeguard? (((1) Gears. Gears shall be guarded in accordance with one of the following methods:

(a) By a complete enclosure; or

(b) By a standard guard as described in WAC 296-24-20531, at least seven feet high extending six inches above the mesh point of the gears; or

(c) By a band guard covering the face of gear and having flanges extended inward beyond the root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides. Where any portion of the train of gears guarded by a band guard is less than six feet from the floor a disk guard or a complete enclosure to the height of six feet shall be required.

(2) Hand-operated gears. (1) of this section does not apply to hand-operated gears used only to adjust machine parts and which do not continue to move after hand power is removed. However, the guarding of these gears is highly recommended.

(3) Sprockets and chains. All sprocket wheels and chains shall be enclosed unless they are more then seven feet above the floor or platform. Where the drive extends over other machine or working areas, protection against falling shall be provided. This section does not apply to manually operated sprockets.

(4) Openings for oiling. When frequent oiling must be done, openings with hinged or sliding self-closing covers shall be provided. All points not readily accessible shall have oil feed tubes if lubricant is to be added while machinery is in motion.)) (1) An employer may use a guardrail as a safeguard for:

(a) A flywheel, when the guardrail is at least fifteen inches from the rim;

(b) Cranks and connecting rods;

(c) Tail rods and extension piston rods, when the guardrail is at least fifteen inches from the fully extended end of the rod;

(d) A horizontal belt in a power generating room;

(e) A clutch, cutoff coupling, or clutch pulley in an engine room occupied only by an engine room attendant; or

(f) A runway used only for oiling, maintenance, running adjustment, or repair work.

(2) An employer must ensure that a guardrail:

(a) Has a toeboard at least four inches high; and

(b) Complies with WAC 296-24-75011.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20513, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20513, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20515  ((Guarding friction drives.)) What are the additional requirements for flywheels? ((The driving point of all friction drives when exposed to contact shall be guarded, all arm or spoke friction drives and all web friction drives with holes in the web shall be entirely enclosed, and all projecting belts on friction drives where exposed to contact shall be guarded.)) (1) When other safeguarding methods cannot be used, an employer must safeguard a spoked flywheel with a smooth rim five feet or less in diameter by using a disk guard. The disk must cover the flywheel spokes on the exposed side, and create a smooth surface and edge.

(a) An open space, a maximum of four inches wide, between the outside edge of the disk and the rim of the wheel may exist to turn the wheel over.

(b) A key or other uncovered projection must be cut off.

(2) An employer may provide an adjustable guard at the flywheel of a gas or diesel engine for starting the engine or for a running adjustment. A slot opening for a jack bar is permitted.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20515, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20515, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20517  ((Keys, setscrews, and other projections.)) What are the additional requirements for shafting? (((1) All projecting keys, setscrews, and other projections in revolving parts shall be removed or made flush or guarded by metal covers. This section does not apply to keys or setscrews within gear or sprocket casings or other enclosures, nor to keys, setscrews, or oilcups in hubs of pulleys less than twenty inches in diameter where they are within the plane of the rim of the pulley.



Note: It is recommended, however, that no projecting setscrews or oilcups be used in any revolving pulley or part of machinery.))



(1) An employer must secure shafting against excessive endwise movement.

(2) An employer must maintain shafting so that it is free from excess oil or grease and pitting from corrosion.

(3) An employer may safeguard shafting under a bench machine by using a guard that extends to:

(a) Within six inches of the underside of the table or the floor; and

(b) At least two inches beyond the shafting.

(4) An employer must ensure that projecting shaft ends:

(a) Have a smooth edge and project no more than one-half the diameter of the shaft; or

(b) Are guarded by a nonrotating cap or safety sleeve.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20517, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20517, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20519  ((Collars and couplings.)) What are the additional requirements for pulleys? (((1) Collars. All revolving collars, including split collars, shall be cylindrical, and screws or bolts used in collars shall not project beyond the largest periphery of the collar.

(2) Couplings. Shaft couplings shall be so constructed as to present no hazard from bolts, nuts, setscrews, or revolving surfaces. Bolts, nuts, and setscrews will, however, be permitted where they are covered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shafting and are countersunk or else do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.)) (1) An employer must ensure that a pulley is designed and balanced for the speed at which it operates.

(2) An employer may not use a composition or wood pulley where it is likely to deteriorate in the workplace.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20519, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20519, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20521  ((Bearings and facilities for oiling.)) What are the additional requirements for belt, rope, and chain drives? ((Self lubricating bearings are recommended and all drip cups and pans shall be securely fastened.)) (1) An employer is not required to safeguard belts operating at two hundred fifty linear feet per minute or less that are:

(a) Flat and one inch wide or less; or

(b) Flat and between one to two inches wide with no metal lacings or fasteners; or

(c) Round and one-half inch or less in diameter; or

(d) Single strand v-belts thirteen thirty-seconds inch wide or less.

(2) An employer may use a nip point belt and pulley guard on a vertical or inclined belt that:

(a) Is two and one-half inches wide or less;

(b) Is running at a speed of less than one thousand feet per minute; and

(c) Is free from metal lacings or fastenings.

"Nip-point belt and pulley guard" means a device that encloses the pulley and has rounded or rolled edge slots for the belt to pass through.

(3) When the space between the upper and lower runs of a horizontal belt would allow an employee to pass between them, an employer may:

(a) Guard along the upper run;

(b) Provide a platform over the lower run; and

(c) Provide a railing over the lower run that will prevent employees from leaving the platform.

(d) In a power generating room, only the lower run of a horizontal belt must be guarded.

(4) An employer must use a quarter-twist belt with an idler on a drive that runs in both directions.

(5) An employer must apply a dressing to a moving belt or rope where the belt or rope leaves the pulley.

(6) An employer may not safeguard by distance or location an overhead belt located more than seven feet above a floor or platform when:

(a) The belt is located over a passageway or work space and travels at a speed of one thousand eight hundred feet or more per minute; or

(b) The distance between the centers of its pulleys is ten feet or more; or

(c) The belt is wider than eight inches.

(7) An employer must ensure that a belt shifted by hand is not fastened with metal or other material that creates a hazard.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20521, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20521, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20523  ((Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys.)) What are the additional requirements for gears? (((1) Guards. Clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys having projecting parts, where such clutches are located seven feet or less above the floor or working platform, shall be enclosed by a stationary guard constructed in accordance with WAC 296-24-20527. A "U" type guard is permissible.

(2) Enginerooms. In enginerooms a guardrail, preferably with toeboard, may be used instead of the guard required by (1) of this section, provided such a room is occupied only by engineroom attendants.

(3) Bearings. A bearing support immediately adjacent to a friction clutch or cutoff coupling shall have self-lubricating bearings requiring attention at infrequent intervals.)) An employer is not required to safeguard hand-operated gears used only to adjust machine parts that do not continue to move when not being turned by hand.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20523, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20523, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)



WAC 296-24-20525  ((Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners.)) What are the additional requirements for belt shifters? (((1) Belt shifters.

(a) Tight and loose pulleys on all installations made on or after August 27, 1971, shall be equipped with a permanent belt shifter provided with mechanical means to prevent belt from creeping from loose to tight pulley. It is recommended that old installations be changed to conform to this rule.

(b) Belt shifter and clutch handles shall be rounded and be located as far as possible from danger of accidental contact, but within easy reach of the operator. Where belt shifters are not directly located over a machine or bench, the handles shall be cut off six feet six inches above floor level.

(c) All belt and clutch shifters of the same type in each shop should move in the same direction to stop machines, i.e., either all right or all left. This does not apply to friction clutch on countershaft carrying two clutch pulleys with open and crossed belts, respectively. In this case the shifter handle has three positions and the machine is at a standstill when clutch handle is in the neutral or center position.

(2) Belt shippers and shipper poles. The use of belt poles as substitutes for mechanical shifters is not recommended. Where necessity compels their use, they shall be of sufficient size to enable workers to grasp them securely. (A two-inch diameter or 1 1/2 by 2 inches cross-section is suggested.) Poles shall be smooth and preferably of straight grain hardwood, such as ash or hickory. The edges of rectangular poles should be rounded. Poles should extend from the top of the pulley to within about forty inches of floor or working platform.

(3) Belt perches. Where loose pulleys or idlers are not practicable, belt perches in form of brackets, rollers, etc., shall be used to keep idle belts away from the shafts. Perches should be substantial and designed for the safe shifting of belts.

(4) Belt fasteners. Belts which of necessity must be shifted by hand and belts within seven feet of the floor or working platform which are not guarded in accordance with WAC 296-24-20527 shall not be fastened with metal in any case, nor with any other fastening which by construction or wear will constitute an accident hazard.)) (1) An employer must ensure that the equipment listed below, if installed after August 17, 1971, has a permanent, mechanical belt shifter:

(a) Tight and loose pulleys; and

(b) A cone pulley belt.

(2) An employer must ensure that a belt shifter or clutch handle:

(a) Safeguards the nip point;

(b) Is rounded;

(c) Is within easy reach, but minimizes the chance of accidental contact with the operator; and

(d) Is located over a machine or bench, or has handles cut off six feet six inches above floor level.

(3) No belt shifter is required if:

(a) The belt is endless or laced with rawhide; and

(b) The nip point of the belt and pulley is safeguarded by a nip point guard in front of the cones;

(i) The guard must extend at least to the top of the largest step of the cone; and

(ii) The guard must be formed to show the contour of the cone.

(4) An employer must ensure that each belt shifter and clutch handle of the same type in a workplace moves in the same direction to stop a machine, i.e., either all right or all left.

(a) A friction clutch handle on a countershaft carrying two clutch pulleys with open and crossed belts is not required to move in the same direction; and

(b) The clutch handle must have three positions with the machine at rest when the clutch handle is in the center position.

(5) An employer must ensure that a belt tightener used to activate machinery:

(a) Is substantially constructed and securely fastened;

(b) Has bearings securely capped;

(c) Has a mechanism to prevent it from falling; and

(d) Is securely held in the "off" position by gravity, or by an automatic mechanism that must be released by hand.

(6) An employer may not use a belt pole to shift a belt on and off a fixed pulley. When a belt shifter cannot be used, an employer may use a belt pole that is:

(a) Smooth; and

(b) Large enough for an employee to grasp securely.

Note: A belt pole is also known as a "belt shipper" or "shipper pole."

(7) An employer must use a substantial belt perch, such as a bracket, roller, etc., to safely shift an idle belt away from the shaft when a loose pulley or idler is not practical.

(8) An employer must ensure that a bearing support immediately adjacent to a friction clutch or cutoff coupling has self-lubricating bearings requiring infrequent attention.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-24-20525, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 76-6, 296-24-20525, filed 3/1/76; Order 73-5, 296-24-20525, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20525, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20527  ((Standard guards--General requirements.)) What are the alternate safeguarding requirements that apply to sewing machines? (((1) Materials.

(a) Standard conditions shall be secured by the use of the following materials. Expanded metal, perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh on a frame of angle iron, or iron pipe securely fastened to floor or to frame of machine.

(b) All metal should be free from burrs and sharp edges.

(c) Wire mesh should be of the type in which the wires are securely fastened at every cross point either by welding, soldering, or galvanizing, except in case of diamond or square wire mesh made of No. 14 gage wire, 3/4-inch mesh or heavier.

(2) Methods of manufacture.

(a) Expanded metal, sheet or perforated metal, and wire mesh shall be securely fastened to frame by one of the following methods:

(i) With rivets or bolts spaced not more than five inches center to center. In case of expanded metal or wire mesh, metal strips or clips shall be used to form a washer for rivets or bolts.

(ii) By welding to frame every four inches.

(iii) By weaving through channel or angle frame, or if No. 14 gage 3/4-inch mesh or heavier is used by bending entirely around rod frames.

(iv) Where openings in pipe railing are to be filled in with expanded metal, wire mesh or sheet metal, the filler material shall be made into panels with rolled edges or bound with "V" or "U" edging of No. 24 gage or heavier sheet metal fastened to the panels with bolts or rivets spaced not more than five inches center to center. The bound panels shall be fastened to the railing by sheet-metal clips spaced not more than five inches center to center.

(v) Diamond or square mesh made of crimped wire fastened into channels, angle or round-iron frames, may also be used as a filler in guards. Size of mesh shall correspond to Table O-12.

(b) Where the design of guards requires filler material of greater area than 12 square feet, additional frame members shall be provided to maintain panel area within this limit.

(c) All joints of framework shall be made equivalent in strength to the material of the frame.)) No guard is required for a light or medium duty sewing machine if:

(1) It uses either a flat or a round belt without metal lacings and fasteners;

(2) The belt is located above the table top;

(3) The machine is not used to sew heavy materials such as leather, canvas, denim, or vinyl;

(4) The operators' hands are not in, near, or on the wheel, nip point, or belt area when the machine is operating;

(5) The distance between the area where the operator is holding and feeding material with both hands and the belt or wheel locations is great enough that the operator is not exposed to a motion hazard; and

(6) The table top is designed so that employees near the machine are not exposed to motion hazards while they work or as they pass by.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20527, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20527, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)



WAC 296-24-20529  ((Disk, shield, and "U" guards. (1) Disk guards. A disk guard shall consist of a sheet-metal disk not less than No. 22 gage fastened by "U" bolts or rivets to spokes of pulleys, flywheels, or gears. Where possibility of contact with sharp edges of the disk exists, the edge shall be rolled or wired. In all cases the nuts shall be provided with locknuts which shall be placed on the unexposed side of the wheel.

(2) Shield guards.

(a) A shield guard shall consist of a frame filled in with wire mesh, expanded, perforated, or solid sheet metal.

(b) If area of shield does not exceed six square feet the wire mesh or expanded metal may be fastened in a framework of 3/8-inch solid rod, 3/4-inch by 3/4-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron or metal construction of equivalent strength. Metal shields may have edges entirely rolled around a 3/8-inch solid iron rod.

(3) "U" guards. A "U" guard consisting of a flat surface with edge members shall be designed to cover the under surface and lower edge of a belt, multiple chain, or rope drive. It shall be constructed of materials specified in Table O-12, and shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-20531 (3) and (4). Edges shall be smooth and if size of guard requires, the edges shall be reinforced by rolling, wiring, or by binding with angle or flat iron.)) Reserve.



[Order 73-5, 296-24-20529, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20529, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)



WAC 296-24-20531  ((Approved materials. (1) Minimum requirements. The materials and dimensions specified in this section shall apply to all guards, except horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain guards more than seven feet above floor, or platform. (For the latter, see Table O-13.)

(a) Minimum dimensions of materials for the framework of all guards, except as noted in (1)(a)(iii) of this section shall be angle iron 1 inch by 1 inch by 1/8 inch, metal pipe of 3/4-inch inside diameter or metal construction of equivalent strength.

(i) All guards shall be rigidly braced every three feet or fractional part of their height to some fixed part of machinery or building structure. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment additional strength may be necessary.

(ii) The framework for all guards fastened to floor or working platform and without other support or bracing shall consist of 1 1/2-inch by 1 1/2-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron, metal pipe of 1 1/2-inch inside diameter, or metal construction of equivalent strength. All rectangular guards shall have at least four upright frame members each of which shall be carried to the floor and be securely fastened thereto. Cylindrical guards shall have at least three supporting members carried to floor.

(iii) Guards thirty inches or less in height and with a total surface area not in excess of ten square feet may have a frame work of 3/8-inch solid rod, 3/4-inch by 3/4-inch by 1/8-inch angle, or metal construction of equivalent strength. The filling material shall correspond to the requirements of Table O-12.

(b) The specifications given in Table O-12 and (1)(a) of this section are minimum requirements; where guards are exposed to unusual wear, deterioration or impact, heavier material and construction should be used to protect amply against the specific hazards involved.

(2) Wood guards.

(a) Wood guards may be used in the woodworking and chemical industries, in industries where the presence of fumes or where manufacturing conditions would cause the rapid deterioration of metal guards; also in construction work and in locations outdoors where extreme cold or extreme heat make metal guards and railings undesirable. In all other industries, wood guards shall not be used.

(i) Wood shall be sound, tough, and free from any loose knots.

(ii) Guards shall be made of planed lumber not less than one inch rough board measure, and edges and corners rounded off.

(iii) Wood guards shall be securely fastened together with wood screws, hardwood dowel pins, bolts, or rivets.

(iv) While no definite dimensions are given under this heading for framework or filler materials, wood guards shall be equal in strength and rigidity to metal guards specified in (1)(a) and (b) of this section and Table O-12.

(v) For construction of standard wood railing, see (5) of this section.

(3) Guards for horizontal overhead belts.

(a) Guards for horizontal overhead belts shall run the entire length of the belt and follow the line of the pulley to the ceiling or be carried to the nearest wall, thus enclosing the belt effectively. Where belts are so located as to make it impracticable to carry the guard to wall or ceiling, construction of guard shall be such as to enclose completely the top and bottom runs of belt and the face of pulleys.

(b) The guard and all its supporting members shall be securely fastened to wall or ceiling by gimlet-point lag screws or through bolts. In case of masonry construction, expansion bolts shall be used. The use of bolts placed horizontally through floor beams or ceiling rafters is recommended.

(c) Suitable reinforcement shall be provided for the ceiling rafters or overhead floor beams, where such is necessary, to sustain safely the weight and stress likely to be imposed by the guard. The interior surface of all guards, by which is meant the surface of the guard with which a belt will come in contact, shall be smooth and free from all projections of any character, except where construction demands it; protruding shallow roundhead rivets may be used. Overhead belt guards shall be at least one-quarter wider than belt which they protect, except that this clearance need not in any case exceed six inches on each side. Overhead rope drive and block and roller-chain-drive guards shall be not less than six inches wider than the drive on each side. In overhead silent chain-drive guards where the chain is held from laterial displacement on the sprockets, the side clearances required on drives of twenty inch centers or under shall be not less than one-fourth inch from the nearest moving chain part, and on drives of over twenty inch centers a minimum of one-half inch from the nearest moving chain part.

(d) Table O-13 gives the sizes of materials to be used and the general construction specifications of guards for belts ten inches or more in width. No material for overhead belt guards should be smaller than that specified in Table O-13 for belts ten to fourteen inches wide, even if the overhead belt is less than ten inches in width. However, No. 20 gage sheet metal may be used as a filler on guards for belts less than ten inches wide. Expanded metal, because of the sharp edges, should not be used as a filler in horizontal belt guards.

(e) For clearance between guards and belts, ropes or chains of various center to center dimensions between the shafts, see bottom of Table O-13.

(4) Guards for horizontal overhead-rope and chain-drives. Overhead-rope and chain-drive guard construction shall conform to the rules for overhead-belt guard construction of similar width, except that the filler material shall be of the solid type as shown in Table O-13, unless the fire hazard demands the use of open construction. A side guard member of the same solid filling material should be carried up in a vertical position two inches above the level of the lower run of the rope or chain drive and two inches within the periphery of the pulleys which the guard encloses thus forming a trough. These side filler members should be reinforced on the edges with 1 1/2-inch by 1/4-inch flat steel, riveted to the filling material at not greater than eight inch centers; the reinforcing strip should be fastened or bolted to all guard supporting members with at least one 3/8-inch rivet or bolt at each intersection, and the ends should be secured to the ceiling with lag screws or bolts. The filling material shall be fastened to the framework of the guard and the filler supports by 3/16-inch rivets spaced on 4-inch centers. The width of the multiple drive shall be determined by measuring the distance from the outside of the first to the outside of the last rope or chain in the group accommodated by the pulley.

(5) Guardrails and toeboards.

(a) Guardrail shall be forty-two inches in height, with midrail between top rail and floor.

(b) Posts shall be not more than eight feet apart; they are to be permanent and substantial, smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts, and splinters. If made of pipe, the post shall be one and one-fourth inches inside diameter, or larger. If made of metal shapes or bars, their section shall be equal in strength to that of one and one-half by one and one-half by three-sixteenths inch angle iron. If made of wood, the posts shall be two by four inches or larger. The upper rail shall be two by four inches, or two one by four strips, one at the top and one at the side of posts. The midrail may be one by four inches or more. The rails (metal shapes, metal bars, or wood), should be on that side of the posts which gives the best protection and support. Where panels are fitted with expanded metal or wire mesh as noted in Table O-12 the middle rails may be omitted. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment, additional strength may be necessary.

(c) Toeboards shall be four inches or more in height, of wood, metal, or of metal grill not exceeding one inch mesh. Toeboards at flywheel pits should preferably be placed as close to edge of the pit as possible.







TABLE O-12



TABLE OF STANDARD MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS



Material Clearance

from moving

part at

all points

Largest

mesh or

opening

allowable

Minimum gauge

(U.S. Standard)

or thickness



Minimum

height of

guard

from

floor or

platform

level



Inches


Inches


Inches


Feet
Woven wire. . . Under 2

2-4

Under 4

4-15

3/8

1/2

1/2

2

No. 16

No. 16

No. 16

No. 12

7

7

7

7

Expanded metal. . . Under 4

4-15

1/2

2

No. 18

No. 13

7

7

Perforated metal. . . Under 4

4-15

1/2

2

No. 20

No. 14

7

7

Sheet metal. . . Under 4

4-15

No. 22

No. 22

7

7

Wood or metal strip

crossed. . .

Under 4 3/8



Wood 3/4

Metal No. 16

7
4-15 2 Wood 3/4

Metal No. 16

7
Wood or metal strip not crossed. . . Under 4 1/2 width



Wood 3/4

Metal No. 16

7
4-15 1 width Wood 3/4

Metal No. 16



7
Standard rail. . . Min. 15

Max. 20




))

Reserve.



[Order 76-6, 296-24-20531, filed 3/1/76; Order 73-5, 296-24-20531, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20531, filed 5/7/73.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 80-21, filed 11/13/80)



WAC 296-24-20533  ((Care of equipment. (1) General. All power-transmission equipment shall be inspected at intervals not exceeding 60 days and be kept in good working condition at all times.

(2) Shafting.

(a) Shafting shall be kept in alignment, free from rust and excess oil or grease.

(b) Where explosives, explosive dusts, flammable vapors or flammable liquids exist, the hazard of static sparks from shafting shall be carefully considered.

(3) Bearings. Bearings shall be kept in alignment and properly adjusted.

(4) Hangers. Hangers shall be inspected to make certain that all supporting bolts and screws are tight and that supports of hanger boxes are adjusted properly.

(5) Pulleys.

(a) Pulleys shall be kept in proper alignment to prevent belts from running off.

(b) One or both pulleys carrying a nonshifting belt should have crowned faces.

(c) Cast-iron pulleys should be tested frequently with a hammer to disclose cracks in rim or spokes. It should be borne in mind that the sound is usually much different if the belt is or is not on the pulley.

(d) Split pulleys should be inspected to ascertain if all bolts holding together the sections of the pulley are tight.

(6) Care of belts.

(a) Quarter-twist belts when installed without an idler can be used on drives running in one direction only. They will run off a pulley when direction of motion is reversed.

(b) Inspection shall be made of belts, lacings, and fasteners and such equipment kept in good repair.

(c) Where possible, dressing should not be applied when belt or rope is in motion; but, if this is necessary, it should be applied where belts or rope leave pulley, not where they approach. The same precautions apply to lubricating chains. In the case of V-belts, belt dressing is neither necessary nor advisable.

(7) Lubrication. The regular oilers shall wear tightfitting clothing and should use cans with long spouts to keep their hands out of danger. Machinery shall be oiled when not in motion, wherever possible.

TABLE O-13



HORIZONTAL OVERHEAD BELTS, ROPES, AND CHAINS 7

FEET OR MORE ABOVE FLOOR OR PLATFORM

(Table O-13: Part 1--0" to 14")


Width


From 0" to 14"

inclusive



Material


MEMBERS
Framework. . . 1 1/2"x1 1/2"x1/4" Angle iron.
Filler (belt guards). . . 1 1/2"x3/16" Flat iron.
Filler and vertical

side member. . .

No. 20 A.W.G.



Solid sheet metal.
Filler supports. . . 2"x5/16" flat iron Flat and angle.
Guard supports. . . 2"x5/16 Flat iron.


FASTENINGS
Filler supports to framework. . . (2) 3/16" Rivets.
Filler flats to supports (belt guards). . . (1) 5/16" Flush rivets.
Filler to frame and supports (chain guards). . . 3/16" rivets spaced
Guard supports to frame work. . .

(2) 3/6"


Rivets or bolts.
Guard and supports to overhead ceiling. . .

1/4"x3 1/2" lag screws or 1/2" bolts
Lag screws or bolts.


DETAILS-SPACING, ETC.
Width of guards. . . One-quarter wider than belt, rope, or chain drive
Spacing between filler supports. . . 20" C. to C
Spacing between filler flats (belt guards). . . 2" apart
Spacing between guard supports. . . 36" C. to C


OTHER BELT GUARD

FILLING PERMITTED

Sheet metal fastened as in chain guards. . . No. 20 A.W.G.

Solid or perforated.
Woven wire, 2" mesh. . . No. 12 A.W.G.


CLEARANCE FROM OUTSIDE OF BELT, ROPE,

OR CHAIN DRIVE TO GUARD

Distance center to center of shafts. . . Up to 15' inclusive Over 40'.
Clearance from belt, or chain to guard. . . 6" 20".


(TABLE O-13: Part 2--Over 14" to 24")


Width


Over 14" to 24" inclusive


Material




MEMBERS
Framework. . . 2"x2"x5/16" Angle iron.
Filler (belt guards). . . 2"x3/16" Flat iron.
Filler and vertical side member. . .

No. 18 A.W.G.


Solid sheet metal.
Filler supports. . . 2"x3/8" flat iron Flat and angle.
Guard supports. . . 2"x3/8" Flat iron.


FASTENINGS
Filler supports to framework. . . (2) 3/6" Rivets.
Filler flats to supports (belt guards). . . (1) 5/16" Flush rivets.
Filler to frame and supports (chain guards). . .



8" centers on sides and 4" centers on bottom
Guard supports to frame work. . . (2) 7/16" Rivets or bolts.
Guard and supports to overhead ceiling. . .

5/8"x4" lag screws or 5/8" bolts


Lag screws or

bolts.



DETAILS-SPACING, ETC.
Width of guards. . .
Spacing between filler supports. . . 16" C. to C
Spacing between filler flats (beltguards). . . 2 1/2" apart
Spacing between guard supports. . . 36" C. to C


OTHER BELT GUARD

FILLING PERMITTED

Sheet metal fastened as in chain guards. . . No. 18 A.W.G. Solid or perforated.
Woven wire, 2" mesh. . . No. 10 A.W.G.


CLEARANCE FROM OUTSIDE OF BELT, ROPE,

OR CHAIN DRIVE TO GUARD

Distance center to center of shafts. . .

Over 15' to 25' inclusive
Over 40'.
Clearance from belt, or chain to guard. . . 10"

20".

(TABLE O-13: Part 3--Over 24")



Width


Over 24"


Material


MEMBERS
Framework. . . 3"x3"x3/8" Angle iron.
Filler (belt guards). . . 2"x5/16" Flat iron.
Filler and vertical side member. . . No. A.W.G. Solid sheet metal.
Filler supports. . . 2 1/2"x2 1/2"x1/4" angle Flat and angle.
Guard supports. . . 2 1/2"x3/8" Flat iron.


FASTENINGS
Filler supports to framework. . . (3) 1/2" Rivets.
Filler flats to supports (beltguards). . . (2) 3/8" Flush rivets.
Filler to frame and supports (chain guards). . .
Guard supports to frame work. . . (2) 5/8" Rivets or bolts.
Guard and supports to overhead

ceiling. . .





3/4"x6" lag screws or 3/4" bolts.
Lag screws or bolts.


DETAILS-SPACING, ETC.
Width of guards. . .
Spacing between filler supports. . . 16" C. to C.
Spacing between filler flats (belt guards). . . 4" apart
Spacing between guard supports. . . 36" C. to C.


OTHER BELT GUARD

FILLING PERMITTED

Sheet metal fastened as in chain guards. . . No. 18 A.W.G. Solid or perforated.
Woven wire, 2" mesh. . . No. 8 A.W.G.


CLEARANCE FROM OUTSIDE OF BELT, ROPE,

OR CHAIN DRIVE TO GUARD

Distance center to center of shafts. . .

Over 25' to 40' inclusive
Over 40'.
Clearance from belt, or chain to guard. . . 15" 20".

))

Reserve.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW. 80-17-015 (Order 80-21), 296-24-20533, filed 11/13/80; Order 73-5, 296-24-20533, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, 296-24-20533, filed 5/7/73.]

OTS-1567.1

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-19, filed 5/6/74)



WAC 296-301-020  General safety requirements. (1) Means of stopping machines. Every textile machine shall be provided with individual mechanical or electrical means for stopping such machines. On machines driven by belts and shafting a locking-type shifter or an equivalent positive device shall be used. On operations where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures, provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power.

(2) Handles. Stopping and starting handles shall be designed to the proper length to prevent the worker's hand or fingers from striking against any revolving part, gear guard, or any other part of the machine.

(3) Machine guarding. ((Mechanical power-transmission equipment shall be guarded in conformity with WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20531, of the general safety and health standards.)) An employer must ensure that power transmission parts are guarded according to the requirements of WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20527 of the general safety and health standards.



Exception: Only the side and face sections of a nip-point belt and pulley guard are required so that the guard extends at least:

(a) Six inches beyond the rim of the pulley on the in-running and off-running sides of the belt; and

(b) Two inches away from the rim and face of the pulley in all other directions.



(4) Housekeeping. Aisles and working spaces shall be kept in good order, clean and free of obstructions in accordance with requirements of WAC 296-24-120 through 296-24-12015, of the general safety and health standards.

(5) Inspection and maintenance. All guards and other safety devices, including starting and stopping devices, shall be properly maintained.

(6) Lighting and illumination. Lighting and illumination shall conform to the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC.

(7) Identification of piping systems. Identification of piping systems shall conform to American National Standard A13.1-1956.

(8) Identification of physical hazards. Identification of physical hazards shall be in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-135 through 296-24-13503, of the general safety and health standards.

(9) Steam pipes. All pipes carrying steam or hot water for process or servicing machinery, when exposed to contact and located within seven feet of the floor or working platform shall be covered with a heat-insulating material, or guarded with equivalent protection.



[Order 74-19, 296-301-020, filed 5/6/74.]

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