WSR 99-02-024

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[Filed December 30, 1998, 11:05 a.m., effective March 30, 1999]



Date of Adoption: December 30, 1998.

Purpose: Chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards for longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations.

Subject: Longshoring and marine terminals.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) adopted federal requirements for longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operation industries after a lengthy nationwide consultation with the marine cargo handling industry. Federal-initiated amendments, as published in Federal Register Volume 62, Number 143, dated July 25, 1997, are made to be at least as effective as the federal standard. The federal-initiated amendments will establish additional compliance requirements.

OSHA requires that worker protection rules adopted under authority of the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA) be "at least as effective as" federal requirements. These adopted amendments will bring WISHA's existing rules into compliance with the new federal requirements.

Also, in keeping with the agency's on-going effort to make WISHA regulations easier to read and understand, state-initiated adopted amendments update, simplify and streamline existing rules by making minor housekeeping corrections and clarifications.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60001 Scope and applicability.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Add a requirement relating to employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans by adding a reference to chapter 296-24 WAC.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Delete outdated language relating to the department.

Add a requirement relating to first-aid by adding a reference to chapter 296-24 WAC.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60005 Definitions.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Replace outdated language relating to the department.

Delete numbering of definitions according to code reviser guidelines.



New section WAC 296-56-60006 Personnel.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to add existing requirements from WAC 296-56-60069 for better organization of information.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60009 Accident prevention program.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Add a requirement relating to employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans by adding a reference to chapter 296-24 WAC.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Replace outdated language relating to the department.

Add a requirement relating to first-aid by adding a reference to chapter 296-24 WAC.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60011 Slinging.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to slinging are made to replace existing language with federal-identical language. No new federal requirements are added.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60057 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to shipments of fumigated tobacco are made to be identical to the federal standard. Amendments will add the following federal requirements:

Containerized shipments of fumigated tobacco shall be aerated by opening the container doors for a period of forty-eight hours after the completion of fumigation and prior to loading.

A written warranty from the fumigation facility stating that the appropriate aeration period has been met.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60073 Miscellaneous auxiliary gear.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to miscellaneous auxiliary gear is made to be identical to the federal standard, which add federal requirements. This amendment:

Adds a requirement that synthetic web slings shall be removed from service if they display visible warning threads or markers designed to indicate excessive wear.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60077 Powered industrial trucks.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to powered industrial trucks are made to be identical to the federal standard. This amendment will add the following federal requirement:

Bulk cargo-moving vehicles are required to be equipped with rollover protection after July 26, 1999.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60079 General rules applicable to vehicles.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to vehicle general rules are made to replace existing language with federal-identical language. This amendment is made to correct a measurement.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60083 Cranes and derricks.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to either replace existing language with federal-identical language or add federal language to be identical to the federal standard. These amendments add the following federal requirements:

A seat (lap) belt shall be installed on the operator's seat of high speed container gantry cranes where the seat trolleys.

Limit switch bypass systems shall be secured during all cargo operations.

Employees shall not be hoisted on intermodal container spreaders while a load is engaged.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Clarify that WAC 296-56-60083 through 296-56-60103 apply to every kind of crane and derrick and to any other type of equipment performing the functions of a crane or derrick, except as noted.

Clarify that WAC 296-56-60083 through 296-56-60099 apply to cranes, derricks and crane operations.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60085 Crane load and limit devices.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Clarify that limit switches shall be installed on the main line and whip line assemblies of all cranes and derricks.

Require malfunctioning line limit switches be repaired prior to use.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60087 Winches.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to correct a reference.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60093 Certification of marine terminal material handling devices.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to replace outdated language relating to the department.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60097 Unit proof load test and inspection.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to clarify the need for manufacturer or engineer approved design specifications.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60098 Examination and inspection of cranes and derricks.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to examination and inspection of cranes and derricks are made to be identical to the federal standard. These amendments add the following federal requirements:

Special stevedoring gear must be inspected and tested as a unit before initial use.

Cargo handling gear with a SWL greater than five short tons are required to be proof load tested.

The safe working gear load, as specified in the standard, shall not be exceeded.

All cargo handling gear with a safe working load greater than five short tons shall have its safe working load plainly marked on it.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to be at least as effective as and consistent with the federal standard. These amendments:

Require (in the absence of specific requirements) that wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of a size and construction suitable for the purpose, and shall have the capacity to handle 5 (currently 4) times the expected load. Due to wire rope deterioration in the marine environment, a 5 to 1 safety factor is more appropriate. This amendment is consistent with federal requirements, as well as other existing WISHA requirements in chapter 296-56 WAC and other standards, and is "at least as effective as" the federal standard.

Delete the second sentence in subsection (10). Currently, cranes and derricks brought into the state from another jurisdiction are not required to be recertified in Washington provided they were certified with requirements similar to WISHA requirements. Because WISHA's existing certification requirements are more effective than those in other federal and state jurisdictions, it has historically been WISHA's practice to require recertification upon initial transfer of cranes and derricks to this state.

Replace outdated language relating to the department.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60103 Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to either replace existing language with federal-identical language or to add federal language to be identical to the federal standard. These amendments add the following federal requirements:

Containers must carry only completely assembled vehicles and no other cargo.

Containers must be marked on the outside indicating the container is carrying vehicles.

Vehicles must be loaded into a container at the marine terminal.

Each employee working in the immediate area of container handling equipment or in the terminal's traffic lanes shall wear a high visibility vest.

When hoisting containers by the top fittings, a less than vertical lift is permitted only:

If the container being lifted is an ISO closed box container.

The condition of the box is sound.

The speed of hoisting and lowering is moderated when heavily ladened containers are encountered.

The lift angle is at 80 to 90 degrees.

The distance between the lifting beam and the load is at least 8 feet and 2.4 inches.

The length of the spreader beam is at least 16.3 feet for a 20-foot container, and at least 36.4 feet for a 40-foot container.

Flat bed, low boy trailers and other similar equipment used to transport containers shall be marked with their cargo capacities.

Each tractor shall have all brake air lines connected when pulling trailers equipped with air brakes and have the brakes tested before operations.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60113 Foot protection.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to foot protection are made to be identical to the federal standard. These amendments add the following federal requirements:

The employer shall ensure that each employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries.

An ANSI reference is updated.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60115 Other protective measures.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Correct the spelling of "flotation."



Amended section WAC 296-56-60123 Guarding of edges.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to guarding of edges are made to correct a centimeter measurement.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60211 Portable ladders.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to portable ladders are made to:



Update ANSI standards.

Correct Newton value measurements.



Amended section WAC 296-56-60217 Spiral stairways.

Federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to spiral stairways are made to correct Newton value measurements.



Repealed section WAC 296-56-60059 First-aid and lifesaving facilities.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Move requirements relating to reporting injuries, stretchers, communication readily available, personal flotation devices, and life ladders to WAC 296-56-60115.

Delete this section and the requirements for first-aid. Requirements for first-aid are incorporated by referencing chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, Part A-1, in other areas of chapter 296-56 WAC.



Repealed section WAC 296-56-60060 First-aid training and certification.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to delete this section. Requirements for first-aid are incorporated by referencing chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, Part A-1, in other areas of chapter 296-56 WAC.



Repealed section WAC 296-56-60062 First-aid kit.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to delete this section. Requirements for first-aid are incorporated by referencing chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, Part A-1, in other areas of chapter 296-56 WAC.



Repealed section WAC 296-56-60065 First-aid station.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to delete this section. Requirements for first-aid are incorporated by referencing chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, Part A-1, in other areas of chapter 296-56 WAC.



Repealed section WAC 296-56-60067 First-aid room.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to delete this section. Requirements for first-aid are incorporated by referencing chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, Part A-1, in other areas of chapter 296-56 WAC.



Repealed section WAC 296-56-60069 Personnel.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to move existing requirements from this section to WAC 296-56-60006 for better organization of information. This section number is proposed to be deleted.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-56-60001 Scope and applicability, 296-56-60005 Definitions, 296-56-60009 Accident prevention program, 296-56-60011 Slinging, 296-56-60057 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives, 296-56-60073 Miscellaneous auxiliary gear, 296-56-60077 Powered industrial trucks, 296-56-60079 General rules applicable to vehicles, 296-56-60083 Cranes and derricks, 296-56-60085 Crane load and limit devices, 296-56-60087 Winches, 296-56-60093 Certification of marine terminal material handling devices, 296-56-60097 Unit proof load test and inspection, 296-56-60098 Examination and inspection of cranes and derricks, 296-56-60103 Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations, 296-56-60113 Foot protection, 296-56-60115 Other protective measures, 296-56-60123 Guarding of edges, 296-56-60211 Portable ladders and 296-56-60217 Spiral stairways; and repealing WAC 296-56-60059 First-aid and lifesaving facilities, 296-56-60060 First-aid training and certification, 296-56-60062 First-aid kit, 296-56-60065 First-aid station, 296-56-60067 First-aid room, and 296-56-60069 Personnel.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.040.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 98-17-079 on August 18, 1998.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: WAC 296-56-60083 Cranes and derricks, the department added a reference to chapter 296-24 WAC following subsection (10) for clarification.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, amended 14, repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 1, amended 17, repealed 6.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 1, amended 20, repealed 6.

Effective Date of Rule: March 30, 1999.

December 30, 1998

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-2342.3

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60001  Scope and applicability. (1) The rules included in this chapter apply throughout the state of Washington, to any and all waterfront operations under the jurisdiction of the department of labor and industries((, division of consultation and compliance)).

(2) These minimum requirements are promulgated in order to augment the general safety and health standards, and any other safety and health standards promulgated by the department of labor and industries which are applicable to all places of employment under the jurisdiction of the department of labor and industries. The rules of this chapter, and the rules of chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC are applicable to all longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations: Provided, That such rules shall not be applicable to those operations under the exclusive safety jurisdiction of the federal government.

(3) The provisions of this chapter shall prevail in the event of a conflict with, or duplication of, provisions contained in chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC. Specific standards which are applicable include, but are not limited to:

(a) Electrical--Chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.

(b) Toxic and hazardous substances are regulated by chapter 296-62 WAC. Where references to this chapter are given they are for informational purposes only. Where specific requirements of this chapter conflict with the provisions of chapter 296-62 WAC this chapter prevails. Chapter 296-62 WAC does not apply when a substance or cargo is contained within a manufacturer's original, sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with the department of transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements.

(c) Hearing conservation--Chapter 296-62 WAC Part K.

(d) Standards for commercial diving operations--Chapter 296-37 WAC.

(e) Safety requirements for scaffolding--Chapter 296-24 WAC Part J-1.

(f) Safe practices of abrasive blasting operations--Chapter 296-24 WAC Part H-2.

(g) Access to employee exposure and medical records--Chapter 296-62 WAC Part B.

(h) Respiratory protection--Chapter 296-62 WAC Part E.

(i) Safety standards for grain handling facilities--Chapter 296-99 WAC.

(j) Hazard communication purpose--Chapter 296-62 WAC Part C.

(k) Asbestos--Chapters 296-62 Part I-1 and 296-65 WAC.

(l) Permit - required confined spaces and confined space--Chapter 296-62 WAC Part M.

(m) Servicing multi-piece and single-piece rim wheels--Chapter 296-24 WAC Part D.

(n) First aid requirements--Chapter 296-24 WAC Part A-1.

(o) Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans--Chapter 296-24 WAC Part G-1.

(4) The provisions of this chapter do not apply to the following:

(a) Fully automated bulk coal handling facilities contiguous to electrical power generating plants.

(b) Facilities subject to the regulations of the office of pipeline safety regulation of the materials transportation bureau, department of transportation, to the extent such regulations apply.

(5) WAC 296-62-074 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to cadmium in every employment and place of employment covered by chapter 296-56 WAC in lieu of any different standard on exposures to cadmium that would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), 296-56-60001, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60001, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-56-60001, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-56-60001, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), 296-56-60001, filed 7/6/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60001, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60001, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60001, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60005  Definitions. (((1))) "Apron" means that open portion of a marine terminal immediately adjacent to a vessel berth and used in the direct transfer of cargo between the terminal and vessel.

(((2))) "Assistant director for the division of ((consultation and compliance)) WISHA services" means the assistant director of ((consultation and compliance)) WISHA services, department of labor and industries or his/her authorized representative.

(((3))) "Authorized," in reference to an employee's assignment, means selected by the employer for that purpose.

(((4))) "Cargo door" (transit shed door) means a door designed to permit transfer of cargo to and from a marine terminal structure.

(((5))) "Cargo packaging" means any method of containment for shipment, including cases, cartons, crates and sacks, but excluding large units such as intermodal containers, vans or similar devices.

(((6))) "Confined space" means a space that:

(((a))) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and

(((b))) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); and

(((c))) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

(((7))) "Conveyor" means a device designed exclusively for transporting bulk materials, packages or objects in a predetermined path and having fixed or selective points of loading or discharge.

(((8))) "Danger zone" means any place in or about a machine or piece of equipment where an employee may be struck by or caught between moving parts, caught between moving and stationary objects or parts of the machine, caught between the material and a moving part of the machine, burned by hot surfaces or exposed to electric shock. Examples of danger zones are nip and shear points, shear lines, drive mechanisms, and areas beneath counterweights.

(((9))) "Designated person" means a person who possesses specialized abilities in a specific area and is assigned by the employer to perform a specific task in that area.

(((10))) "Dock" means a wharf or pier forming all or part of a waterfront facility, including marginal or quayside berthing facilities; not to be confused with "loading dock" as at a transit shed or container freight station, or with the body of water between piers or wharves.

(((11))) "Dock facilities" includes all piers, wharves, sheds, aprons, dolphins, cranes, or other gear or equipment owned or controlled by the dock or facility owner, where cargo or materials are loaded, moved or handled to or from a vessel.

(((12))) "Dockboard" (bridge plate or car plate) means a device utilized to span the gap between railroad cars, or between railroad cars or highway vehicles and the loading dock or platform. A car plate may be fixed, adjustable, portable, powered, or unpowered.

(((13))) "Enclosed space" means an indoor space, other than a confined space, that may contain or accumulate a hazardous atmosphere due to inadequate natural ventilation. Examples of enclosed spaces are trailers, railcars, and storage rooms.

(((14))) "Examination," as applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, means a comprehensive survey consisting of the criteria outlined in WAC 296-56-60093 through 296-56-60097. The examination is supplemented by a unit proof test in the case of annual survey.

(((15))) "Flammable atmosphere" means an atmosphere containing more than ten percent of the lower flammable limit (LEL) of a flammable or combustible vapor or dust mixed with air. Such atmospheres are usually toxic as well as flammable.

(((16))) "Front-end attachments."

(((a))) As applied to power-operated industrial trucks, means the various devices, such as roll clamps, rotating and sideshifting carriages, magnets, rams, crane arms or booms, load stabilizers, scoops, buckets, and dumping bins, attached to the load end for handling lifts as single or multiple units.

(((b))) As applied to cranes, means various attachments applied to the basic machine for the performance of functions such as lifting, clamshell or magnet services.

(((17))) "Fumigant" is a substance or mixture of substances, used to kill pests or prevent infestation, which is a gas or is rapidly or progressively transformed to the gaseous state even though some nongaseous or particulate matter may remain and be dispersed in the treatment space.

(((18))) "Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere" means:

(((a))) Any substance listed in chapter 296-62 WAC;

(((b))) Any material in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 CFR Part 172;

(((c))) Any article not properly described by a name in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 CFR Part 172, but which is properly classified under the definition of those categories of dangerous articles given in 49 CFR Part 173;

(((d))) Atmospheres having concentrations of airborne chemicals in excess of permissible exposure limits as defined in chapter 296-62 WAC; or

(((e))) Any atmosphere with an oxygen content of less than nineteen and one-half percent by volume.

(((19))) "House falls" means spans and supporting members, winches, blocks, and standing and running rigging forming part of a marine terminal and used with a vessel's cargo gear to load or unload by means of married falls.

(((20))) "Inspection," as applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, includes a complete visual examination of all visible parts of the device.

(((21))) "Intermodal container" means a reusable cargo container of rigid construction and rectangular configuration intended to contain one or more articles of cargo or bulk commodities for transportation by water and one or more other transport modes without intermediate cargo handling. The term includes completely enclosed units, open top units, fractional height units, units incorporating liquid or gas tanks and other variations fitting into the container system, demountable or with attached wheels. It does not include cylinders, drums, crates, cases, cartons, packages, sacks, unitized loads or any other form of packaging.

(((22))) "Loose gear" means removable or replaceable components of equipment or devices which may be used with or as a part of assembled material handling units for purposes such as making connections, changing line direction and multiplying mechanical advantage. Examples include shackles and snatch blocks.

(((23))) "Marina" means a small harbor or boat basin providing dockage, supplies, and services for small craft.

(((24))) "Marine terminal" means wharves, bulkheads, quays, piers, docks and other berthing locations and adjacent storage or contiguous areas and structures associated with the primary movement of cargo or materials from vessel to shore or shore to vessel. It includes structures which are devoted to receiving, handling, holding, consolidation, loading or delivery of waterborne shipments and passengers, and areas devoted to the maintenance of the terminal or equipment. The term does not include production or manufacturing areas having their own docking facilities and located at a marine terminal nor storage facilities directly associated with those production or manufacturing areas.

(((25))) "Permit-required confined space (permit space)" means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:

(((a))) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

(((b))) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;

(((c))) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or

(((d))) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60005, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60005, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60005, filed 12/11/84.]



NEW SECTION



WAC 296-56-60006  Personnel. (1) Qualifications of machinery operators.

(a) Only those employees determined by the employer to be competent by reason of training or experience, who understand the signs, notices, and operating instructions and are familiar with the signal code in use shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch, or other power-operated cargo handling apparatus, or any power-operated vehicle, or give signals to the operator of any hoisting apparatus. Employees being trained and supervised by a designated individual may operate such machinery and give signals to operators during training.

(b) No employee known to have defective uncorrected eyesight or hearing, or to be suffering from heart disease, epilepsy, or similar ailments which may suddenly incapacitate the employee shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch, other power-operated cargo handling apparatus, or a power-operated vehicle.

(c) Persons who have recovered from a heart attack shall be exempted from the provisions of (b) of this subsection, as it pertains to their heart condition, provided:

(i) A medical release is obtained from their attending medical doctor.

(ii) The release shall state that the operation of a crane, winch, power-operated cargo handling apparatus, or power-operated vehicle, will not present a hazard to themselves or others.

(iii) An examination by a medical doctor, and renewal of the work release certification is required annually.

(2) Supervisory accident prevention proficiency.

(a) Immediate supervisors of cargo-handling operations of more than five persons shall satisfactorily complete a course in accident prevention. Employees newly assigned to supervisory duties shall be required to meet the provisions of this subsection (2)(a) within ninety days of such assignment.

(b) The course shall consist of instruction suited to the particular operations involved.

(c) No minor under eighteen years of age shall be employed in occupations involving the operation of any power-operated hoisting apparatus or assisting in such operations by performing work such as hooking on or landing drafts, rigging gear, etc.



[]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60009  Accident prevention program. (1) An accident prevention program, which provides equitable management-employee participation, shall be established in all establishments, industrial plants, or operations.

(2) It shall be the responsibility of the employer to initiate and maintain the accident prevention program necessary to comply with this section. The division of ((consultation and compliance)) WISHA services may be contacted for assistance in initiating and maintaining an effective accident prevention program.

(3) All accident prevention programs shall be tailored to the needs of the particular operation.

(4) Employer and employee representatives, as elected, delegated or appointed, shall attend and actively take part in frequent and regular safety committee meetings.

(5) Accident prevention programs shall provide for employer-employee safety meetings and frequent and regular safety inspections of job sites, materials, equipment, and operating procedures.

(6) A record of safety activities, such as inspections and meetings, shall be maintained by the employer for a period covering the previous twelve months and shall be made available, upon request, to noncompliance personnel of the department of labor and industries.

(7) Employees shall individually comply with all safety rules and cooperate with management in carrying out the accident prevention program.

(8) To make effective the preceding statement and promote on-the-job accident prevention, committees shall be established in each port. These committees shall consist of an equal number of port or stevedore company and longshoremen representatives at the job level with the industry or company safety supervisor serving as secretary and coordinator. Some functions of the committee are to maintain the interest of the workers in accident prevention by providing for their actual participation in the program, to direct their attention to the real causes of accidents, and to provide a means for making practical use of their intimate knowledge of working conditions and practices.

(9) It is intended that this program will produce mutually practical and effective recommendations regarding correction of accident-producing circumstances and conditions.





Note: For first aid requirements, see chapter 296-24 WAC Part A-1.





Note: For emergency plan and fire prevention plan requirements, see chapter 296-24 WAC Part G-1.







[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60009, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60009, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60009, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 86-02, filed 1/17/86)



WAC 296-56-60011  Slinging. (1) Drafts shall be safely slung before being hoisted. Loose dunnage or debris hanging or protruding from loads shall be removed.

(2) Bales of cotton, wool, cork, wood pulp, gunny bags, or similar articles shall be hoisted only by straps strong enough to support the weight of the bale. At least two hooks, each in a separate strap, shall be used.

(3) Unitized loads bound by bands or straps shall only be hoisted by the banding or strapping if the banding or strapping is suitable for hoisting and is strong enough to support the weight of the load.

(4) Additional means of hoisting shall be employed to ensure safe lifting of unitized loads having damaged banding or strapping.

(5) Case hooks shall be used only with cases designed to be hoisted by these hooks.

(6) Loads requiring continuous manual guidance during handling shall be guided by guide ropes (tag lines) that are long enough to control the load.

(7) Intermodal containers shall be handled in accordance with WAC 296-56-60103.

(8) The employer shall require employees to stay clear of the area beneath overhead drafts or descending lifting gear.

(9) Employees shall not be permitted to ride the hook or the load.

(10) Cargo handling bridles, such as pallet bridles, which are to remain attached to the hoisting gear while hoisting successive drafts, shall be attached by shackles, or other positive means shall be taken to prevent them from becoming accidentally disengaged from the cargo hook.

(((9))) (11) Drafts of lumber, pipe, dunnage and other pieces, the top layer of which is not bound by the sling, shall be slung in such a manner as to prevent sliders. Double slings shall be used on unstrapped dunnage, except, when due to the size of hatch or deep tank openings, it is impractical to use them.

(((10))) (12) Hand loaded buckets, tubs, bins and baskets used in handling bulk cargo shall not be loaded above their rim.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60011, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60011, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)



WAC 296-56-60057  Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives. (1) Whenever cargo in a space is or has been stowed, handled, or treated with a fumigant, pesticide, insecticide, or hazardous preservative, a determination shall be made as to whether a hazardous atmosphere is present in the space. Only employees protected as required in subsection (5) of this section shall enter the space if it is hazardous.

(2) Tests to determine the atmospheric concentration of chemicals used to treat cargo shall be:

(a) Appropriate for the hazard involved;

(b) Conducted by designated persons; and

(c) Performed at the intervals necessary to ensure that employee exposure does not exceed the permissible exposure limit for the chemical involved, see chapter 296-62 WAC.

(3) Results of any tests shall be available for at least thirty days.

(4) Chemicals shall only be applied to cargoes by designated persons.

(5) Only designated persons shall enter hazardous atmospheres. Whenever a hazardous atmosphere is entered the following provisions apply.

(a) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere shall be protected by respiratory and emergency protective equipment meeting the requirements of ((subpart)) part G of this standard; and

(b) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere shall be instructed in the nature of the hazard, precautions to be taken, and the use of protective and emergency equipment. Standby observers, similarly equipped and instructed, shall continuously monitor the activity of employees within such a space.

(6) Signs shall be clearly posted where fumigants, pesticides or hazardous preservatives have created a hazardous atmosphere. These signs shall note the danger, identify specific chemical hazards, and give appropriate information and precautions, including instructions for the emergency treatment of employees affected by any chemical in use.

(7) In the case of containerized shipments of fumigated tobacco, the contents of the container shall be aerated by opening the container doors for a period of forty-eight hours after the completion of fumigation and prior to loading. When tobacco is within shipping cases having polyethylene or similar bag liners, the aeration period shall be seventy-two hours. The employer shall obtain a written warranty from the fumigation facility stating that the appropriate aeration period has been met.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60057, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60057, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60057, filed 12/11/84.]



((PART D--FIRST AID, OPERATOR

QUALIFICATIONS))



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60073  Miscellaneous auxiliary gear. (1) Routine inspection.

(a) At the completion of each use, loose gear such as slings, chains, bridles, blocks, and hooks shall be so placed as to avoid damage to the gear. Loose gear shall be inspected and any defects corrected before re-use.

(b) All loose gear shall be inspected by the employer or his/her authorized representative before each use and, when necessary, at intervals during its use, to ensure that it is safe. Any gear which is found upon inspection to be unsafe shall not be used until it is made safe.

(c) Defective gear shall not be used. Distorted hooks, shackles, or similar gear shall be discarded.

(d) Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered, or repaired by welding shall be properly heat treated, and before again being put into use, shall be tested and reexamined in the manner set forth in WAC 296-56-60097 and 296-56-60098.

(2) The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of the tests with each unit of gear concerned clearly identified. The records shall be available for examination by division of consultation and compliance personnel and the employee safety committee.

(3) Wire rope and wire rope slings.

(a) The employer shall ascertain and adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for wire rope and wire rope slings and shall have such ratings available at the terminal. When the manufacturer is unable to supply such ratings, the employer shall use the tables for wire rope and wire rope slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI/ASME B30.9-1984. A design safety factor of at least five shall be maintained for the common sizes of running wire used as falls, in purchases or in such uses as light load slings. Wire rope with a safety factor of less than five may be used only:

(i) In specialized equipment, such as cranes designed to be used with lesser wire rope safety factors;

(ii) In accordance with design factors in standing rigging applications; or

(iii) For heavy lifts or other purposes for which a safety factor of five is impractical and for which the employer can demonstrate that equivalent safety is ensured.

(b) Wire rope or wire rope slings exhibiting any of the following conditions shall not be used:

(i) Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three or more broken wires in one strand in one rope lay;

(ii) Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure;

(iii) Evidence of heat damage;

(iv) Excessive wear, corrosion, deformation or other defect in the wire or attachments, including cracks in attachments;

(v) Any indication of strand or wire slippage in end attachments; or

(vi) More than one broken wire in the close vicinity of a socket or swaged fitting.

(c) Four by twenty-nine (4 x 29) wire rope shall not be used in any running rigging.

(d) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted. Coverings shall be removable so that splices can be examined. Means used to cover or blunt ends shall not damage the wire.

(e) Where wire rope clips are used to form eyes, the employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations, which shall be available at the terminal. If "U" bolt clips are used and the manufacturer's recommendations are not available, Table C-1 shall be used to determine the number and spacing of clips. "U" bolts shall be applied with the "U" section in contact with the dead end of the rope.



Table C-1-- Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips

Improved plow steel, rope diameter Minimum number of clips Minimum spacing


Drop

forged



Other

material



inches/(cm)
inches/(cm)
1/2 or less (1.3) 3 4 3 (7.6)
5/8 (1.6) 3 4 3 3/4 (9.5)
3/4 (1.9) 4 5 4 1/2 (11.4)
7/8 (2.2) 4 5 5 1/4 (13.3)
1 (2.5) 5 7 6 (15.2)
1 1/8 (2.7) 6 7 6 3/4 (17.1)
1 1/4 (3.2) 6 8 7 1/2 (18.1)
1 3/8 (3.5) 7 8 8 1/4 (21.0)
1 1/2 (3.8) 7 9 9 (22.9)


(f) Wire rope shall not be secured by knots.

(g) Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, bull wires, or in single parts used for hoisting shall not be formed by wire rope clips or knots.

(h) Eye splices in wire ropes shall have at least three tucks with a whole strand of the rope and two tucks with one-half of the wire cut from each strand. Other forms of splices or connections which are demonstrated to be equally safe may be used.

(i) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in bulling cargo, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.

(4) Natural fiber rope.

(a) The employer shall ascertain the manufacturer's ratings for the specific natural fiber rope used and have such ratings available at the terminal. The manufacturer's ratings shall be adhered to and a minimum design safety factor of five maintained.

(b) Eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks. Short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the center line.

(5) Synthetic rope.

(a) The employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's ratings and use recommendations for the specific synthetic fiber rope used and shall have such ratings available at the terminal.

(b) Unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer, when synthetic fiber ropes are substituted for manila ropes of less than three inches (7.62 cm) circumference, the substitute shall be of equal size. Where substituted for manila rope of three inches or more in circumference, the size of the synthetic rope shall be determined from the formula:



C.=.6(Cs2).+.4(Cm2)


Where C.= the required circumference of the synthetic rope in inches, Cs.= the circumference to the nearest one-quarter inch of a synthetic rope having a breaking strength not less than that of the size manila rope that would be required by subsection (4) of this section, and Cm.= the circumference of manila rope in inches which would be required by subsection (4) of this section. In making such substitution, it shall be ascertained that the inherent characteristics of the synthetic fiber are suitable for hoisting.

(6) Removal of natural and synthetic rope from service. Natural or synthetic rope having any of the following defects shall be removed from service:

(a) Abnormal wear;

(b) Powdered fiber between strands;

(c) Sufficient cut or broken fibers to affect the capacity of the rope;

(d) Variations in the size or roundness of strands;

(e) Discolorations other than stains not associated with rope damage;

(f) Rotting; or

(g) Distortion or other damage to attached hardware.

(7) Thimbles. Properly fitting thimbles shall be used where any rope is secured permanently to a ring, shackle or attachment, where practical.

(8) Synthetic web slings.

(a) Slings and nets or other combinations of more than one piece of synthetic webbing assembled and used as a single unit (synthetic web slings) shall not be used to hoist loads in excess of the sling's rated capacity.

(b) Synthetic web slings shall be removed from service if they exhibit any of the following defects:

(i) Acid or caustic burns;

(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;

(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;

(iv) Broken or worn stitches; ((or))

(v) Distortion or damage to fittings; or

(vi) Display of visible warning threads or markers designed to indicate excessive wear or damage.

(c) Defective synthetic web slings removed from service shall not be returned to service unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or similar entity. Each repaired sling shall be proof tested by the repairer to twice the slings' rated capacity prior to its return to service. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.

(d) Synthetic web slings provided by the employer shall only be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, which shall be made available upon request.

(e) Fittings shall have a breaking strength at least equal to that of the sling to which they are attached and shall be free of sharp edges.

(9) Chains and chain slings used for hoisting.

(a) The employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for safe working loads for the sizes of the wrought iron and alloy steel chains and chain slings used and shall have such ratings available. When the manufacturer is unable to provide such ratings, the employer shall use the tables for chains and chain slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI B30.9-1971.

(b) Proof coil steel chain, also known as common or hardware chain, and other chain not recommended by the manufacturer for slinging or hoisting shall not be used for slinging or hoisting.

(c)(i) Sling chains, including end fastenings, shall be inspected for visible defects before each day's use and as often as necessary during use to ensure integrity of the sling.

(ii) Thorough inspections of chains in use shall be made quarterly to detect wear, defective welds, deformation, increase in length or stretch. The month of inspection shall be indicated on each chain by color of paint on a link or by other effective means.

(iii) Chains shall be removed from service when maximum allowable wear, as indicated in Table C-2, is reached at any point of link.

(iv) Chain slings shall be removed from service when stretch has increased the length of a measured section by more than five percent; when a link is bent, twisted or otherwise damaged; or when a link has a raised scarf or defective weld.

(v) Only designated persons shall inspect chains used for slinging and hoisting.

Table C-2 -- Maximum Allowable

Wear at Any Point of Link

Chain size Maximum allowable wear
Inches Inches (cm)
1/4 (9/32) (0.6) 3/64 (0.1)
3/8 (1.0) 5/64 (0.2)
1/2 (1.3) 7/64 (0.3)
5/8 (1.6) 9/64 (0.4)
3/4 (1.9) 5/32 (0.4)
7/8 (2.2) 11/64 (0.4)
1 (2.5) 3/16 (0.5)
1 1/8 (2.9) 7/32 (0.6)
1 1/4 (3.2) 1/4 (0.6)
1 3/8 (3.5) 9/32 (0.7)
1 1/2 (3.8) 5/16 (0.8)
1 3/4 (4.4) 1 1/32 (0.9)


(d) Chains shall only be repaired under qualified supervision. Links or portions of chain defective under any of the criteria of WAC 296-56-60073 (9)(c) shall be replaced with properly dimensioned links or connections of material similar to that of the original chain. Before repaired chains are returned to service, they shall be tested to the proof test load recommended by the manufacturer for the original chain. Tests shall be performed by the manufacturer or shall be certified by an agency accredited for the purpose under WAC 296-56-60093. Test certificates shall be available at the terminal.

(e) Wrought iron chains in constant use shall be annealed or normalized at intervals not exceeding six months. Heat treatment certificates shall be available at the terminal. Alloy chains shall not be annealed.

(f) Kinked or knotted chains shall not be used for lifting. Chains shall not be shortened by bolting, wiring or knotting. Makeshift links or fasteners such as wire, bolts or rods shall not be used.

(g) Hooks, rings, links and attachments affixed to sling chains shall have rated capacities at least equal to that of the chains to which they are attached.

(h) Chain slings shall bear identification of size, grade and rated capacity.

(10) Shackles.

(a) If available, the manufacturer's recommended safe working loads for shackles shall not be exceeded. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, Table C-3 shall apply.

(b) Screw pin shackles used aloft in house fall or other gear, except in cargo hook assemblies, shall have their pins moused or otherwise effectively secured.

Table C-3 -- Safe Working Loads for Shackles

Material size Pin diameter Safe working load in 2,000 lb tons
Inches Inches (cm)
1/2 (1.3) 5/8 (1.6) 1.4
5/8 (1.6) 3/4 (1.9) 2.2
3/4 (1.9) 7/8 (2.2) 3.2
7/8 (2.2) 1 (2.5) 4.3
1 (2.5) 1 1/8 (2.9) 5.6
1 1/8 (2.9) 1 1/4 (3.2) 6.7
1 1/4 (3.2) 1 3/8 (3.5) 8.2
1 3/8 (3.5) 1 1/2 (3.8) 10.0
1 1/2 (3.8) 1 3/4 (4.4) 11.9
1 3/4 (4.4) 2 (5.0) 16.2
2 (5.0) 2 1/4 (5.7) 21.2


(c) Tables G-2 through G-5 shall be used to determine the safe working loads of various sizes and classifications of improved plow steel wire rope slings with various types of terminals. For sizes, classifications and grades not included in these tables the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer for specific, identifiable products shall be followed, however, a safety factor of not less than five shall be maintained.



(WAC 296-56-60073, Illus. 4)

Place illustration here.





TABLE G-2 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE, WIRE ROPE AND WIRE SLINGS

(IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)





Rope Diameter Inches
Single Leg
Vertical Choker
A B C A B C


6 x 19 Classification


1/4"


.59


.56


.53


.44


.42


.40
3/8" 1.3 1.2 1.1 .98 .93 .86
1/2" 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.5
5/8" 3.6 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.2
3/4" 5.1 4.9 4.2 3.8 3.6 3.1
7/8" 6.9 6.6 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.1
1" 9.0 8.5 7.2 6.7 6.4 5.4
1-1/8" 11 10 9.0 8.5 7.8 6.8


6 x 37 Classification


1-1/4"


13


12


10


9.9


9.2


7.9
1-3/8" 16 15 13 12 11 9.6
1-1/2" 19 17 15 14 13 11
1-3/4" 26 24 20 19 18 15
2" 33 30 26 25 23 20
2-1/4" 41 38 33 31 29 25


(A) -- Socket or Swaged Terminal attachment.

(B) -- Mechanical Sleeve attachment.

(C) -- Hand Tucked Splice attachment.





(WAC 296-56-60073, Illus. 6)

Place illustration here.





TABLE G-4 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, FIBER CORE, WIRE ROPE AND WIRE ROPE SLINGS

(In Tons of 2,000 pounds)







Rope dia. Inches
Single leg
Vertical Choker
A B C A B C


6 x 19 Classification
1/4 .55 .51 .49 .41 .38 .37
3/8 1.2 1.1 1.1 .91 .85 .80
1/2 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.4
5/8 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.1
3/4 4.8 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.3 2.9
7/8 6.4 5.9 5.1 4.8 4.5 3.9
1 8.4 7.7 6.7 6.3 5.8 5.0
1-1/8 10 9.5 8.4 7.9 7.1 6.3


6 x 37 Classification
1-1/4 12 11 9.8 9.2 8.3 7.4
1-3/8 15 13 12 11 10 8.9
1-1/2 17 16 14 13 12 10
1-3/4 24 21 19 18 16 14
2 31 28 25 23 21 18
(A) -- Socket or Swaged Terminal attachment.

(B) -- Mechanical Sleeve attachment.

(C) -- Hand Tucked Splice attachment.





(WAC 296-56-60073, Illus. 8)

Place illustration here.





(WAC 296-56-60073, Illus. 9)

Place illustration here.





(11) Hooks other than hand hooks.

(a) The manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed in determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available shall be tested to twice the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.

(b) Loads shall be applied to the throat of the hook since loading the point may overstress, bend, or spring the hook.

(c) Hooks shall be inspected once a month to see that they have not been bent by overloading. Bent or sprung hooks shall not be used.

(d) Crane hooks. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection shall be performed at least once each year. When testing by x-ray, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's standards for protection against radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.

(e) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or x-rays, whether or not under license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work.

(f) Teeth of case hooks shall not be split, cracked, or deformed.

(g) Jaws of patent clamp type plate hooks shall be kept in safe condition so that they will grip plates securely.

(12) Pallets.

(a) Pallets shall be made and maintained to safely support and carry loads being handled. Fastenings of reusable pallets used for hoisting shall be bolts and nuts, drive screws (helically threaded nails), annular threaded nails or fastenings of equivalent holding strength.

(b) Damaged pallets shall be stored in designated areas and identified.

(c) Reusable wing or lip-type pallets shall be hoisted by bar bridles or other suitable gear and shall have an overhanging wing or lip of at least three inches (76.2 mm). They shall not be hoisted by wire slings alone.

(d) Loaded pallets that do not meet the requirements of this paragraph shall be hoisted only after being placed on pallets meeting such requirements or shall be handled by other means providing equivalent protection.

(e) Bridles for handling flush end or box-type pallets shall be designed to prevent disengagement from the pallet under load.

(f) Pallets shall be stacked or placed to prevent falling, collapsing or otherwise causing a hazard under standard operating conditions.

(g) Disposable pallets intended only for one use shall not be re-used for hoisting.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60073, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60073, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), 296-56-60073, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60073, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60073, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60073, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 86-02, filed 1/17/86)



WAC 296-56-60077  Powered industrial trucks. (1) Applicability. This section applies to every type of powered industrial truck used for material or equipment handling within a marine terminal. It does not apply to over-the-road vehicles.

(2) General.

(a) Modifications, such as adding counterweights, that might affect the vehicle's capacity or safety shall not be performed without either the manufacturer's prior written approval or the written approval of a professional engineer experienced with the equipment who has consulted with the manufacturer, if available. Capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags or decals shall be changed to conform to the equipment as modified.

(b) Unauthorized personnel shall not ride on powered industrial trucks. A safe place to ride shall be provided when riding is authorized.

(c) When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load-engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized and brakes set. Unless the truck is in view and within twenty-five feet (7.6 m) of the operator, power shall be shut off. Wheels shall be blocked or curbed if the truck is on an incline.

(d) Powered industrial trucks shall not be operated inside highway vehicles or railcars having damage which could affect operational safety.

(e) Powered industrial trucks shall be marked with their rated capacities, which shall be visible to the operator.

(f) Only stable and safely arranged loads within the rated capacity of the truck shall be handled.

(g) Drivers shall ascend and descend grades slowly.

(h) Drivers shall slow down and sound the horn at crossaisles and other locations where visibility is obstructed.

(i) If the load obstructs the forward view drivers shall travel with the load trailing.

(j) Steering knobs shall not be used unless the truck is equipped with power steering.

(k) When powered industrial trucks use cargo lifting devices that have a means of engagement hidden from the operator, a means shall be provided to enable the operator to determine that the cargo has been engaged.

(l) When cargo is being towed on pipe trucks or similar equipment, a safe means shall be provided to protect the driver from sliding loads.

(3) Maintenance.

(a) Only designated persons shall perform maintenance and repair.

(b) Batteries on all powered trucks shall be disconnected during repairs to the primary electrical system unless power is necessary for testing and repair. On trucks equipped with systems capable of storing residual energy, that energy shall be safely discharged before work on the primary electrical system begins.

(c) Replacement parts whose function might affect operational safety shall be equivalent in strength and performance capability to the original parts which they replace.

(d) Braking systems or other mechanisms used for braking shall be operable and in safe condition.

(e) Powered industrial trucks shall be maintained in safe working order. Safety devices shall not be removed or made inoperative except as otherwise provided in this section. Trucks with a fuel system leak or any other safety defect shall not be operated.

(f) Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve fire hazards shall be conducted only in locations designated as safe for such repairs.

(4) Approved trucks.

(a) "Approved power-operated industrial truck" means one listed or approved for the intended use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(b) Approved trucks acquired and used after February 15, 1972, shall bear a label or other identification indicating testing laboratory approval.

(c) When the atmosphere in an area is hazardous and the provisions of United States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used.

(5) Duties of operator.

(a) A power-driven vehicle operator's special duties are:

(i) To operate the vehicle in a safe manner.

(ii) To test brakes, steering gear, lights, horns, or other warning devices, clutches, etc., before starting work.

(iii) To have the vehicle at all times under control so that it can be brought to an emergency stop in the clear space in front of the vehicle.

(iv) To back down any incline of two percent or more when traveling with a load on the fork lift jitney.

(b) Unobstructed view. When traveling, power-propelled vehicles shall at all times be operated in a manner giving the operator a reasonably unobstructed view in the direction of travel. Where this is impractical, the operator shall be directed in travel, by a person designated to do so.

(c) Employee riding safety. Operators and authorized passengers shall not be permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor shall they be permitted to ride while standing unless the vehicle is designed to be operated from a standing position.

(d) Moving vehicles. Vehicles shall be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. Special precautions shall be taken when pushing vehicles where view is obstructed. Vehicles shall not be pushed with blades of a forklift.

(e) Moving highway trailers. In all cargo operations involving the use of highway trailers, trailers shall be moved in such a manner that the moving trailer is completely under control at all times. Special caution shall be exercised when such trailers are moving on inclines. Trailers shall be loaded in a manner which will prevent the cargo from shifting, and the load in the trailer shall be evenly distributed so as not to cause the trailer to tip to one side.

(f) Prohibited forms of riding. Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of power-propelled vehicles is prohibited.

(g) Regular seats for riders. No one except the operator shall ride on power-driven vehicles unless regular seats are provided to accommodate passengers.

(h) Jumping on or off moving vehicles. Employees shall not jump on or off moving vehicles.

(i) Reporting defects. If a power-driven vehicle is at any time found to be in any way unsafe, the operator shall report same immediately to the person in charge and such vehicle shall not be used for production work until it has been made safe.

(6) Vehicle equipment and maintenance.

(a) Horns and lights. All power-propelled vehicles shall be provided with horns or other warning devices.

(b) Power-propelled vehicles used for night work, when required to travel away from an illuminated work area shall be equipped with a light or lights directed in the direction of travel in order to safely travel about the area.

(c) Guards on operator's platform. Every power truck operated from an end platform or standing position shall be equipped with a substantial guard securely attached to the platform or frame of the vehicle in such a manner as to protect the operator from falling objects and so designed that the operator can easily mount or dismount from the operating station.

(d) Seat cushions. All vehicles having a driver's seat shall be provided with resilient seat cushions fixed in place.

(e) Securing of counterbalances. Counterbalances of all power-driven vehicles shall be positively secured to prevent accidental dislodging, but may be a removable type which may be removed, if desired, prior to hoisting the vehicle.

(f) Exhaust pipes and mufflers. Exhaust pipes and mufflers of internal combustion engines, where workers are exposed to contact shall be isolated or insulated. Exhaust pipes shall be constructed to discharge not less than seventy-two inches above the floor on jitneys and eighty-four inches on forklifts or less than twenty inches from the floor.

(g) Ventilation where internal combustion vehicles are used. Internal combustion engines may be used only in areas where adequate ventilation is provided.

(h) Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas created by powered industrial truck operations shall not exceed the levels specified in WAC 296-56-60055.

(i) When disputes arise concerning degree of concentration, methods of sampling to ascertain the conditions should be referred to a qualified industrial hygienist.

(j) Cargo truck couplings. Couplings installed on cargo trucks (four-wheelers) shall be of a type which will prevent accidental disengaging.

(k) Operating levers. Operating levers on power-driven vehicles shall be so placed as not to project toward the operator's body.

(l) Front axle assembly. The front axle assembly on all trailers shall be securely fastened to the truck bed.

(m) Air line hook-up. Tractors hauling heavy duty highway trailers shall have an air line brake hook-up.

(n) Floor mats. On power-driven vehicles where the operator stands on a platform, resilient foot mats shall be securely attached.

(o) Cleaning vehicles. All power-propelled vehicles shall be cleaned at frequent intervals to remove any accumulation of dust and grease that may present a hazard.

(7) Forklift trucks.

(a) Overhead guards.

(i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, forklift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached overhead guards. Guards shall be constructed to protect the operator from falling boxes, cartons, packages, or similar objects.

(ii) Overhead guards shall not obstruct the operator's view, and openings in the top of the guard shall not exceed six inches (15.2 cm) in one of the two directions, width or length. Larger openings are permitted if no opening allows the smallest unit of cargo being handled to fall through the guard.

(iii) Overhead guards shall be built so that failure of the vehicle's mast tilting mechanism will not displace the guard.

(iv) An overhead guard, otherwise required by this paragraph, may be removed only when it would prevent a truck from entering a work space and if the operator is not exposed to low overhead obstructions in the work space.

(v) Overhead guards shall be large enough to extend over the operator during all truck operations, including forward tilt.

(b) Supplies to ship's rail. Cargo or supplies shall not be hoisted to or from ship's rail with a forklift. This does not apply to ramp or side port loading.

(c) Position of forks. When standing, lift forklift forks shall be lowered to floor. When moving, lift forklift forks shall be kept as low as possible.

(d) Forklift use in gangplank moving. Not less than two forklifts shall be used to place or remove gangplanks unless fork width prevents tipping and manufacturer's rated lifting capacity of the forklift is not exceeded.

(e) Forklift seat covers. Seats on forklifts shall be provided with a removable waterproof cover when they are exposed to the weather.

(f) Raised equipment to be blocked. Workers shall not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling. When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking shall be used in conjunction with the jack.

(g) Maximum speed. The maximum speed for forklifts on all docks shall not exceed eight miles per hour. The speed limit shall be prominently posted on such docks.

(h) Load backrest extensions. Where necessary to protect the operator, forklift trucks shall be fitted with a vertical load backrest extension to prevent the load from hitting the mast when the mast is positioned at maximum backward tilt. For this purpose, a "load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame to prevent raised loads from falling backward.

(i) Forks. Forks, fork extensions and other attachments shall be secured so that they cannot be accidentally dislodged, and shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(j) Counterweights. Counterweights shall be so affixed that they cannot be accidentally dislodged.

(k) Capacities and weights.

(i) Forklift truck rated capacities, with and without removable counterweights, shall not be exceeded. Rated capacities shall be marked on the vehicle and shall be visible to the operator. The vehicle weight, with and without counterweight, shall be similarly marked.

(ii) If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight of the load shall not exceed the combined rated lifting capacity of all trucks involved.

(l) Lifting of employees. Employees may be elevated by forklift trucks only when a platform is secured to the lifting carriage or forks. The platform shall meet the following requirements:

(i) The platform shall have a railing complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3).

(ii) The platform shall have toeboards complying with WAC 296-56-60123(4), if tools or other objects could fall on employees below.

(iii) When the truck has controls which are elevated with the lifting carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle.

(iv) Employees on the platform shall be protected from exposure to moving truck parts.

(v) The platform floor shall be skid resistant.

(vi) A truck operator shall be at the truck's controls when employees are elevated unless the truck's controls are elevated with the lifting carriage.

(vii) While employees are elevated, the truck may be moved only to make minor placement adjustments.

(8) Bulk cargo-moving vehicles.

(a) Where a seated operator may come into contact with projecting overhead members, crawler-type bulk-cargo-moving vehicles that are rider operated shall be equipped with operator guards.

(b) Guards and their attachment points shall be so designed as to be able to withstand, without excessive deflection, a load applied horizontally at the operator's shoulder level equal to the drawbar pull of the machine.

(c) After July 26, 1999, bulk cargo-moving vehicles shall be equipped with rollover protection of such design and construction as to prevent the possibility of the operator being crushed because of a rollover or upset.

(9) Straddle trucks.

(a) Accessibility. Straddle trucks shall have a permanent means of access to the operator's station, including any handholds necessary for safe ascent and descent.

(b) Guarding.

(i) Main sprockets and chains to the wheels shall be guarded as follows:

(A) The upper sprocket shall be fully enclosed;

(B) The upper half of the lower sprocket shall be enclosed; and

(C) The drive chain shall be enclosed to a height of eight feet (2.6 m) except for that portion at the lower half of the lower sprocket.

(ii) Gears shall be fully enclosed and revolving parts which may be contacted by the operator shall be guarded.

(iii) When straddle trucks are used in the vicinity of employees, personnel-deflecting guards shall be provided around leading edges of front and rear wheels.

(c) Visibility. Operator visibility shall be provided in all directions of movement.

(10) Trailer-spotting tractors.

(a) Trailer-spotting tractors (fifth wheels) shall be fitted with any hand grabs and footing necessary for safe access to the fifth wheel.

(b) Rear cab windows shall be of safety glass or equivalent material.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60077, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60077, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60077, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)



WAC 296-56-60079  General rules applicable to vehicles. (1) The requirements of this section apply to general vehicle use within marine terminals except in cases where the provisions of subsections (3) and (13) of this section are preempted by regulations of the department of transportation.

(2) Private vehicle parking in marine terminals shall be allowed only in designated areas.

(3) Trailers shall not be disconnected from tractors at loading docks until the road wheels have been immobilized. The road wheels shall be immobilized from the time the brake system is disconnected until braking is again provided. Supplementary front end support shall be employed as necessary to prevent tipping when a trailer is entered by a material handling vehicle. Rear end support shall be employed if rear wheels are so far forward as to allow tipping when the trailer is entered.

(4) The employer shall direct motor vehicle operators to comply with any posted speed limits, other traffic control signs or signals, and written traffic instructions.

(5) Stop signs shall be posted at main entrances and exits of structures where visibility is impaired, and at blind intersections, unless direct traffic control, warning mirror systems or other systems of equivalent safety are provided.

(6) Vehicular routes, traffic rules and parking areas shall be established, identified and used.

(7) Vehicle drivers shall warn anyone in traffic lanes of the vehicle's approach.

(8) Signs indicating pedestrian traffic shall be clearly posted at vehicular check-in and check-out lines and similar locations where employees may be working.

(9) A distance of not less than twenty feet (((4.5 m))) (6.1 m) shall be maintained between the first two vehicles in a check-in ((or)), check-out ((line)), road ability, or vessel loading ((or))/discharging line. This distance shall be maintained between any subsequent vehicles behind which employees are required to work.

(10) No unattended vehicle shall be left with its engine running unless secured against movement (see WAC 296-56-60077 for powered industrial trucks).

(11) When the rear of a vehicle is elevated to facilitate loading or discharging, a ramp shall be provided and secured. The vehicle shall be secured against accidental movement during loading or discharging.

(12) Only vehicle floors in safe condition shall be used.

(13) When flatbed trucks, platform containers or similar conveyances are loaded or discharged and the cargo consists of pipe or other products which could spread or roll to endanger employees, the cargo shall be contained to prevent movement.

(14) Vehicles used to transport employees within a terminal shall be maintained in safe working order and safety devices shall not be removed or made inoperable.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60079, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60079, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60079, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60083  Cranes and derricks. (1) Scope.

(a) This section through WAC 296-56-60103 applies to every kind of crane and derrick and to any other type of equipment performing the functions of a crane or derrick except as noted in (b) of this subsection.

(b) This section does not apply to small industrial truck-type cranes, container handling toploaders and sideloaders, chain hoists, and mobile straddle-type cranes incapable of straddling two or more intermodal containers (sixteen feet (4.88 m) in width).

(2) Ratings.

(a) Except for bridge cranes covered by subsection (7) of this section, cranes and derricks having ratings that vary with boom length, radius (outreach) or other variables shall have a durable rating chart visible to the operator, covering the complete range of the manufacturer's (or design) capacity ratings. The rating chart shall include all operating radii (outreach) for all permissible boom lengths and jib lengths as applicable, with and without outriggers, and alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such ratings. Precautions or warnings specified by the owner or manufacturer shall be included.

(b) The manufacturer's (or design) rated loads for the conditions of use shall not be exceeded.

(c) Designated working loads shall not be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations unless such increase receives the manufacturer's approval. When the manufacturer's services are not available or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering design analysis shall be performed or approved by a person accredited for certifying the equipment under WAC 296-56-60093. Cranes shall conform with the manufacturer's specifications or any current ANSI standards that apply. Engineering design analysis shall be performed by a registered professional engineer competent in the field of cranes and derricks. Any structural changes necessitated by the change in rating shall be carried out.

(3) Radius indicator. When the rated load varies with the boom radius, the crane or derrick shall be fitted with a boom angle or radius indicator visible to the operator.

(4) Prohibited usage.

(a) Equipment shall not be used in a manner that exerts sideloading stresses upon the crane or derrick boom.

(b) No crane or derrick having a visible or known defect that affects safe operation shall be used.

(5) Protective devices.

(a) When exposed moving parts such as gears, chains and chain sprockets present a hazard to employees during crane and derrick operations, those parts shall be securely guarded.

(b) Crane hooks shall be latched or otherwise secured to prevent accidental load disengagement.

(c) When hoisting personnel in an approved man basket, the hook shall have a positive safety latch to prevent rollouts.

(6) General.

(a) Operating controls.

(i) Crane and derrick operating controls shall be clearly marked, or a chart indicating their function shall be posted at the operator's position.

(ii) All crane controls shall operate in a uniform manner within a given port.

(iii) Overhead bridge and container gantry crane operating control levers shall be self-centering so that they will automatically move to the "off" position when the operator releases the control.

(b) Booms. Cranes with elevatable booms and without operable automatic limiting devices shall be provided with boom stops if boom elevation can exceed maximum design angles from the horizontal.

(c) Foot pedals. Foot pedals shall have a nonskid surface.

(d) Access. Ladders, stairways, stanchions, grab irons, foot steps or equivalent means shall be provided as necessary to ensure safe access to footwalks, cab platforms, the cab and any portion of the superstructure which employees must reach.

(i) Footwalks shall be of rigid construction, and shall be capable of supporting a load of one hundred pounds (4.79 kPa) per square foot.

(ii) If more than twenty feet (6.1 m) in height, vertical ladders shall comply with WAC 296-56-60209 (4), (5)(a), (5)(b)(iii) and (5)(b)(iv).

(iii) Stairways on cranes shall be equipped with rigid handrails meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123 (5)(a).

(iv) If the top of a ladder or stairway or any position thereof is located where a moving part of a crane, such as a revolving house, could strike an employee ascending or descending the ladder or stairway, a prominent warning sign shall be posted at the foot of the ladder or stairway. A system of communication (such as a buzzer or bell) shall be established and maintained between the foot of the ladder or stairway and the operator's cab.

(e) Operator's station. The cab, controls, and mechanism of the equipment shall be so arranged that the operator has a clear view of the load or signal person, when one is used. Cab glass, when used, shall be safety plate glass or equivalent and good visibility shall be maintained through the glass. Clothing, tools and equipment shall be stored so as not to interfere with access, operation, or the operator's view.

(f) A seat (lap) belt, meeting the requirements of 49 CFR 571.208-210 for a Type 1 seat belt assembly, shall be installed on the operator's seat of high speed container gantry cranes where the seat trolleys.

(g) Counterweights or ballast. Cranes shall be operated only with the specified type and amount of ballast or counterweights. Ballast or counterweight shall be located and secured only as provided in the manufacturer's or design specifications, which shall be available.

(((g))) (h) Outriggers. Outriggers shall be used according to the manufacturer's specifications or design data, which shall be available. Floats, when used, shall be securely attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks or other support shall be of sufficient size to support the outrigger, free of defects that may affect safety and of sufficient width and length to prevent the crane from shifting or toppling under load.

(((h))) (i) Exhaust gases. Engine exhaust gases shall be discharged away from the normal position of crane operating personnel.

(((i))) (j) Electrical equipment shall be so located or enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact. Designated persons may work on energized equipment only if necessary during inspection, maintenance, or repair.

(((j))) (k) Fire extinguisher.

(i) At least one portable fire extinguisher of at least 5-BC rating or equivalent shall be accessible in the cab of the crane or derrick.

(ii) No portable fire extinguisher using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents shall be used.

(((k))) (l) Rope on drums. At least three full turns of rope shall remain on ungrooved drums, and two turns on grooved drums, under all operating conditions. Wire rope shall be secured to drums by clamps, U-bolts, shackles, or equivalent means. Fiber rope fastenings are prohibited.

(((l))) (m) Assembly or disassembly of boom sections. Mobile crane booms being assembled or disassembled on the ground with or without the support of the boom harness shall be blocked to prevent dropping of the boom or boom sections.

(((m))) (n) Brakes.

(i) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane shall be equipped with at least one holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or gear train.

(ii) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane, except worm geared hoists, the angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the lowering direction, shall, in addition to a holding brake, be equipped with a controlled braking means to control lowering speeds.

(iii) Holding brakes for hoist units shall have not less than the following percentage of the rated load hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied:

(A) One hundred twenty-five percent when used with a controlled braking means.

(B) One hundred percent when used with a mechanically-controlled braking means.

(C) One hundred percent when two holding brakes are provided.

(iv) All power control braking means shall be capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated loads.

(((n))) (o) Each crane or derrick shall be equipped with sufficient lights to maintain five foot candles in the working area around the load hook. All crane ladders and machinery houses shall be illuminated at a minimum of two candle power.

(((o))) (p) Light fixtures connected to the boom, gantry legs, or machinery house shall be provided with safety devices which will prevent the light fixture from falling in case of bracket failure.

(((p))) (q) Electronic devices may be installed to prevent collision subject to approval of the accredited certification agency.

(((q))) (r) On all rail gantry cranes, truck guards shall extend on the ends of the trucks, close to the top of the rail to prevent worker's feet from being caught between the rail and wheel. This subsection does not apply if rail sweeps are present.

(((r))) (s) All hydraulic cylinders used to control crane booms or to provide crane stability (outriggers) shall be equipped with a pilot operated check valve or a device which will prevent the boom or outrigger from retracting in case of failure of a component of the hydraulic system.

(((s))) (t) Gantry cranes shall be provided with automatic rail clamps or other devices to prevent the crane from moving when not being used or when power is off.

(7) Rail-mounted cranes (excluding locomotive types).

(a) For the purposes of this section, rail-mounted cranes include bridge cranes and portal cranes.

(b) Rated load marking. The rated loads of bridge cranes shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane and in the cab. If there is more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or on its load block. Marking shall be legible from the ground level.

(c) Wind-indicating devices.

(i) Each rail-mounted bridge and portal crane located outside of an enclosed structure shall be fitted with an operable wind-indicating device.

(ii) The wind indicating device shall provide a visible or audible warning to alert the operator of high wind conditions. That warning shall be transmitted whenever the following circumstances are present:

(A) When wind velocity reaches the warning speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations; and

(B) When wind velocity reaches the shutdown speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations, at which work is to be stopped and the crane secured.

(iii) Instructions. The employer shall post operating instructions for high wind conditions in the operator's cab of each crane. Operators shall be directed to comply with these instructions. The instructions shall include procedures for responding to high wind alerts and for any coordination necessary with other cranes.

(d) Securing of cranes in high winds.

(i) When the wind reaches the crane's warning speed:

(A) Gantry travel shall be stopped; and

(B) The crane shall be readied for shutdown.

(ii) When the wind reaches the crane's shutdown speed:

(A) Any portion of the crane spanning or partially spanning a vessel shall be moved clear of the vessel if safe to do so; and

(B) The crane shall be secured against travel, using all available means of securing.

(e) The employer shall monitor local weather conditions by subscribing to a weather service or using equally effective means.

(f) Stops and bumpers.

(i) The ends of all tracks shall be equipped with stops or bumpers. If a stop engages the tread of the wheel, it shall be of a height not less than the radius of the wheel.

(ii) When more than one crane operates on the same runway or more than one trolley on the same bridge, each crane or trolley shall be equipped with bumpers or equivalent devices at adjacent ends subject to impact.

(g) Employee exposure to crane movement. When employees may be in the vicinity of the tracks, crane trucks shall be equipped with personnel-deflecting guards.

(h) Pedestrian clearance. If the track area is used for employee passage or for work, a minimum clearance of three feet (0.9 m) shall be provided between trucks or the structures of rail-mounted cranes and any other structure or obstruction. When the required clearance is not available on at least one side of the crane's trucks, the area shall not be used and shall be marked and identified.

(i) Warning devices. Rail-mounted cranes shall be equipped with an effective audible and visible travel warning device which shall be used to warn employees who may be in the path of the moving crane.

(j) Communications.

(i) Means of communication shall be provided between the operator's cab and the base of the gantry of all rail-mounted cranes. This requirement may be met by telephone, radio, sound-signaling system or other effective methods, but not solely by hand-signaling.

(ii) All rail-mounted cranes thirty ton and above capacity shall be equipped with a voice hailing device (PA system) from the operator to the ground, audible within one hundred feet.

(k) Limit switch bypass systems shall be secured during all cargo operations. Such bypass systems shall not be used except in an emergency or during noncargo handling operations such as stowing cranes or derricks or performing repairs. When a situation requiring the use of a bypass system or the readjustment of a limit switch arises, it shall be done only under the direction of a crane mechanic.

(l) Cranes and crane operations--Scope and application. The sections of this chapter, WAC 296-56-60083 through 296-56-60099, apply to cranes, derricks, and crane operations.

(((l))) (m) Signal persons. A signal person shall be required when a crane operator's visibility is obstructed. When a signal person is required to transmit hand signals, they shall be in such a position that the operator can plainly see the signals.

(((m))) (n) Signals. All operators and signal persons shall use standard signals as illustrated for longshore crane operations. (See Appendices C and D, at the end of this chapter.)

(((n))) (o) Signal person for power units. Where power units, such as cranes and winches are utilized and signaling is required, the operator shall be instructed as to who is authorized to give signals. The operator shall take signals only from such authorized person. In case of emergency, any worker shall be authorized to give a stop signal.

(i) No draft shall be hoisted unless the winch or crane operator can clearly see the draft itself or see the signals of any signal person associated with the operation.

(ii) Loads requiring continuous manual guidance while in motion shall be provided with tag lines.

(((o))) (p) Landing loads. Persons assisting in landing a load shall face the load and use caution to prevent themselves from getting in a position where they may be caught between the load and a fixed object.

(8) Stabilizing of locomotive cranes. Loads may be hoisted by locomotive cranes only if outriggers are in place, unless means are taken to prevent the load being carried by the truck springs of the crane.

(9) Operations.

(a) Use of cranes together. When two or more cranes hoist a load in unison, a designated person shall direct the operation and instruct personnel in positioning, rigging of the load and movements to be made.

(b) Guarding of swing radius. Accessible areas within the swing radius of the body of a revolving crane shall be physically guarded during operations to prevent an employee from being caught between the body of the crane and any fixed structure or between parts of the crane.

(c) Securing mobile crane components in transit. The crane's superstructure and boom shall be secured against rotation and carried in line with the direction of travel except when negotiating turns with an operator in the cab or when the boom is supported on a dolly. The empty hook or other attachment shall be secured.

(d) Unattended cranes. The following steps shall be taken before leaving a crane unattended between work periods:

(i) Suspended loads, such as those hoisted by lifting magnets or clamshell buckets, shall be landed unless the storage position or maximum hoisting of the suspended device will provide equivalent safety;

(ii) Clutches shall be disengaged;

(iii) The power supply shall be shut off;

(iv) The crane shall be secured against accidental travel; and

(v) The boom shall be lowered or secured against movement.

(e) Operating near electric power lines.

(i) Clearance. Unless electrical distribution and transmission lines are deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work, or unless insulating barriers not a part of or an attachment to the crane have been erected to prevent physical contact with lines, cranes may be operated near power lines only in accordance with following:

(A) For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be ten feet (3 m);

(B) For lines rated over 50 kV, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be either 10 feet (3 m) plus 0.4 inch (10 mm) for each 1 kV over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than ten feet; and

(C) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the clearance shall be a minimum of four feet (1.2 m).

(ii) Boom guards. Cage-type boom guards, insulating links or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but they shall not be used in place of the clearances required by subsection (9)(e)(i) of this section.

(iii) Determination of energized lines. Any overhead line shall be presumed to be energized until the owner of the line indicates that it is not energized.

(10) Protection for employees being hoisted.

(a) No employee shall be hoisted by the load hoisting apparatus of a crane or derrick except:

(i) On intermodal container spreaders, equipped in accordance with this subsection; or

(ii) In a boatswain's chair or other device rigged to prevent it from accidental disengagement from the hook or supporting member; or

(iii) On a platform meeting the following requirements:

(A) Enclosed by a railing or other means providing protection equivalent to that described in WAC 296-56-60123(3). If equipped with open railings, the platform shall be fitted with toe boards;

(B) Having a safety factor of four based on ultimate strength;

(C) Bearing a plate or permanent marking indicating maximum load rating, which shall not be exceeded, and the weight of the platform itself;

(D) Equipped with a device to prevent access doors, when used, from opening accidentally;

(E) Equipped with overhead protection for employees on the platform if they are exposed to falling objects or overhead hazards;

(F) Secured to the load line by means other than wedge and socket attachments, unless the free (bitter) end of the line is secured back to itself by a clamp placed as close above the wedge as possible.

(b) Except in an emergency, the hoisting mechanism of all overhead and container gantry cranes used to hoist personnel shall operate in power up and power down, with automatic brake application when not hoisting or lowering.

(c) Variable radius booms of a crane or derrick used to hoist personnel shall be so constructed or secured as to prevent accidental boom movement.

(d) Platforms or devices used to hoist employees shall be inspected for defects before each day's use and shall be removed from service if defective.

(e) Employees being hoisted shall remain in continuous sight of and communication with the operator or signal person.

(f) Operators shall remain at the controls when employees are hoisted.

(g) Cranes shall not travel while employees are hoisted, except in emergency or in normal tier to tier transfer of employees during container operations.

(h) When intermodal container spreaders are used to transfer employees to or from the tops of containers, the spreaders shall be equipped with a personnel platform equipped with fixed railings, provided that the railings have one or more openings for access. The openings shall be fitted with a means of closure, such as chains with hooks. Existing railings shall be at least thirty-six inches (0.91 m) in height. New railings installed after October 3, 1983 shall be forty-two inches (1.07 m), plus or minus three inches (7.6 cm), in height. The provisions of (a)(iii)(C), (D), and (F) of this subsection also apply to personnel platforms when container spreaders are used.

(i) Positive safety latch-type hooks or moused hooks shall be used.

(j) Employees shall not be hoisted on intermodal container spreaders while a load is engaged.

Additional requirements are located in WAC 296-24-23533.

(11) Routine inspection.

(a) Designated persons shall visually inspect each crane and derrick on each day of use for defects in functional operating components and shall report any defect found to the employer. The employer shall inform the operator of the findings.

(b) A designated person shall thoroughly inspect all functional components and accessible structural features of each crane or device at monthly intervals.

(c) Any defects found during such inspections which may create a safety hazard shall be corrected before further use. Repairs shall be performed only by designated persons.

(d) A record of monthly inspections shall be maintained for six months in or on the crane or derrick or at the terminal.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60083, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60083, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60083, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60083, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60083, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)



WAC 296-56-60085  Crane load and limit devices. (1) Except as provided in subsection (8) of this section, every crane shall be fitted with a load indicating device or alternative device in proper working condition.

The type or model or any load indicating or alternate device which is used shall provide:

(a) A direct indication in the cab of actual weight hoisted or a means of determining this by referencing a weight indication to crane ratings posted and visible to the operator. The use of a dynamometer or simple scale alone shall not meet this requirement; or

(b) Indications in the cab according to the radius and load at the moment; or

(c) A direct means to prevent an overload from occurring.

(2) Accuracy of the devices required by this section shall be such that any indicated load (or limit), including the sum of actual weight hoisted and additional equipment or "add ons" such as slings, sensors, blocks, etc., is within the range from no less than ninety-five percent of the actual true total load (five percent overload) to one hundred ten percent of the actual true total load (ten percent underload). Such accuracy shall be required over the range of the daily operating variables to be expected under the conditions of use.

(3) The device shall permit the operator to determine, before making any lift, that the indicating or substitute system is operative. In the alternative, if a device is so

mounted or attached to preclude such a determination, it may not be used unless it has been certified by the manufacturer to remain operable within the limits stated in subsection (2) of this section for a specific period of use. Checks for accuracy, using known values of load, shall be performed at the time of every certification survey (see WAC 296-56-60093) and at such additional times as may be recommended by the manufacturer.

(4) When a load indicating device or alternative system is so arranged in the supporting system (crane structure) that its failure could cause the load to be dropped, its strength shall not be the limiting factor of the supporting system (crane structure).

(5) Marking shall be conspicuously placed giving: Units of measure in pounds or both pounds and kilograms, capacity of the indicating system, accuracy of the indicating system, and operating instructions and precautions. In the case of systems utilizing indications other than actual weights, the marking shall include data on: The means of measurement, capacity of the system, accuracy of the system, operating instructions and precautions. If the system used provides no read-out, but it is such as to automatically cease crane operation when the rated load limit under any specific condition of use is reached, marking shall be provided giving the make and model of the device installed, a description of what it does, how it is operated, and any necessary precautions regarding the system. All weight indications, other types of loading indications, and other data required shall be readily visible to the operator.

(6) All load indicating devices shall be operative over the full operating radius. Overall accuracy shall be based on actual applied load and not on full scale (full capacity) load.

Explanatory note. For example, if accuracy of the load indicating device is based on full scale load and the device is arbitrarily set at plus or minus ten percent, it would accept a reading between ninety thousand and one hundred ten thousand pounds, at full capacity of a machine with one hundred thousand pounds, maximum rating, but would also allow a reading between zero and twenty thousand pounds, at that outreach (radius) at which the rating would be ten thousand pounds capacity--an unacceptable figure. If, however, accuracy is based on actual applied load under the same conditions, the acceptable range would remain the same with the one hundred thousand pound load but becomes a figure between nine thousand and eleven thousand pounds, a much different and acceptable condition, at the ten thousand pound load.

(7) When the device uses the radius as a factor in its use or in its operating indications, the indicated radius (which may be in feet and/or meters, or degrees of boom angle, depending on the system used) shall be a figure which is within the range of a figure no greater than one hundred ten percent of the actual radius to a figure which is no less than ninety-seven percent of the actual (true) radius. A conversion chart shall be provided whenever it is necessary to convert between degrees of radius and feet or meters.

(8) The load indicating device requirements of this section do not apply to a crane:

(a) Of trolley equipped bridge type while handling container known to be and identified as empty, or loaded, and in either case in compliance with the provisions of WAC 296-56-60103, or while hoisting other lifts by means of a lifting beam supplied by the crane manufacturer for the purpose, and in all cases within the crane rating;

(b) While handling bulk commodities or cargoes by means of clamshell bucket or magnet;

(c) While used to handle or hold hoses in connection with transfer of bulk liquids or other hose handled products; or

(d) While the crane is used exclusively to handle cargo or equipment the total actual gross weight of which is known by means of marking of the unit or units hoisted, when such total actual gross weight never exceeds eleven thousand two hundred pounds, and when eleven thousand two hundred pounds, is less than the rated capacity of the crane at the maximum outreach that is possible under the conditions of use at the time.

(9) Limit switches shall be installed on the main line and whip line assemblies, of all cranes and derricks, which will deactivate the hoisting power when a load reaches the upper limits of travel and at such other places as required by this chapter. Line limit switches shall be tested prior to or at the beginning of each shift to determine if they are functioning properly. Any malfunction shall be reported to the person in charge immediately and shall be repaired ((at the first reasonable opportunity)) prior to use.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60085, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60085, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60085, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60085, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 86-02, filed 1/17/86)



WAC 296-56-60087  Winches. (1) Moving winch parts which present hazards to employees shall be guarded.

(2) Winches shall have clearly identifiable and readily accessible stop controls.

(3) Portable winches shall be secured against accidental shifting while in use.

(4) Portable winches shall be fitted with limit switches if employees have access to areas from which it is possible to be drawn into the winch.

(5) The provisions of WAC 296-56-60083 (6)(((k))) (l) apply to winches.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60087, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60087, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60093  Certification of marine terminal material handling devices. (1) The employer shall not use any material handling device listed in WAC 296-56-60098(8) until he/she has ascertained that the device has been certified, as evidenced by current and valid documents attesting to compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-56-60097 and 296-56-60098.

(2) Certification surveys are to be completed for the conditions of use found at the time such surveys are performed. Equipment owners or users may change the configurations of the equipment according to the manufacturer's specifications without affecting the established certification status for the equipment.

(3) These rules apply to employment within a marine terminal including the loading, unloading, movement, or other handling of cargo, ship's stores, or gear within the terminal or into or out of any land carrier, holding or consolidation area, or any other activity within and associated with the overall operation and functions of the terminal, such as the use and routine maintenance of facilities and equipment.

(4) Inspection and test certificates shall be issued only for that equipment which meets or exceeds the requirements specified in these rules. All inspection and test certificates shall be issued through the office of the assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance, department of labor and industries, and shall be valid for a period not to exceed one year from the date of issuance.

(5) Equipment requiring certification shall be inspected by ((representatives of the division of consultation and compliance; or)) individuals who have received a "certificate of competency" from the assistant director, division of ((consultation and compliance)) WISHA services indicating that they are qualified and capable of performing such work.

(6) When deficiencies are found they shall be noted on forms provided for such purpose by the division of consultation and compliance. Copies shall be delivered to the owner of the equipment and the division of consultation and compliance at the headquarter's office by the person conducting such tests or inspections.

(7) A certificate of unit test or examination of equipment shall not be issued for any equipment found not to be in compliance with the provisions of this chapter.

(8) Persons desiring a "certificate of competency" shall demonstrate and document their capabilities and qualifications to the assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance, who will issue certificates to those persons who have demonstrated competency. The assistant director reserves the right to revoke such certificates at any time for cause. A "certificate of competency" shall be issued for a period of not more than three years. Applications for renewal may be made not more than sixty days prior to the expiration date shown on the certificate.

(9) The assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance or his/her representative, reserves the right to inspect such equipment or to witness or attend any test or inspection in order to ascertain the adequacy of any certification activity performed.

(10) Unless otherwise exempted, all cranes or derricks required to be certificated by these regulations shall have a current test certificate posted in the operator's cab or station. No person shall operate such crane or derrick unless a current valid certificate is posted.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60093, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60093, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60093, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60093, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60097  Unit proof load test and inspection. Cranes and derricks shall be proof load tested, rated and certified in tons (2,000 lbs..= 1 ton). Cranes and derricks shall be inspected and unit proof load tested prior to being put into use, after any significant modification or repairs of structural parts, or when deemed necessary by the assistant director of consultation and compliance or his/her designee. However, each crane or derrick shall be unit proof load tested at least once during each twelve-month period. Unit proof load tests shall be carried out by the use of weights as a dead load. When use of weights for unit proof load tests is not possible or reasonable a dynamometer or other recording test equipment may be used. Such equipment shall be tested for accuracy with certified calibrating equipment within twelve months prior to being used and a copy of the certified calibration test shall be made available to authorized representatives of the division of consultation and compliance upon request.

The weight of the objects used for a dead load weight test shall be certified and a record of the weight shall be made available upon request. Any replacements or repairs deemed necessary by the person conducting a test shall be carried out before application of the required proof load unit test.

(1) The proof load tests for derricks shall be conducted as follows:



Safe Working Load Proof Load
to 20 tons 25% in excess
20-50 tons 5 tons in excess
over 50 tons 10% in excess of manufacturer's recommended lifting capacity.


Proof load shall be applied at the designed maximum and minimum boom angles or radii, or if this is impractical, as close to these as practical. The angles or radii of test shall be stated in the certificate of test. Proof loads shall be swung as far as possible in all directions. The weight of auxiliary handling devices such as spreader bars, robots, clams, magnets, or other gear shall be considered a part of the load. Brakes shall be tested by holding the proof load suspended without other mechanical assistance. After satisfactory completion of a unit proof load test the derrick and all component parts thereof shall be carefully examined and nondestructive tests may be conducted to assure that the equipment is safe for use and has not been damaged in the unit proof load testing process.

(2) Unit proof load tests for cranes shall be carried out with the boom in the least stable direction relative to the mounting, based on the manufacturer's specifications.

Unit proof load tests for cranes shall be based on the manufacturer's load ratings for the conditions of use and shall, except in the case of bridge type cranes utilizing a trolley, consist of application of a proof load of ten percent in excess of the load ratings at maximum and minimum radius, and at such intermediate radii as the certifying authority may deem necessary in the circumstances. (The manufacturer's load ratings are usually based upon percentage of tipping loads under some conditions and upon limitations of structural competence at others, as well as on other criteria such as type of crane mounting, whether or not outriggers are used, etc. Some cranes utilizing a trolley may have only one load rating assigned and applicable at any outreach. It is important that the manufacturer's ratings be used.) Trolley equipped cranes shall be subject to a proof load of twenty-five percent in excess of the manufacturer's load rating. In cases of foreign manufacture, the manufacturer's specifications shall be subject to approval by the certifying authority. The weight of all auxiliary handling devices such as magnets, hooks, slings, and clamshell buckets shall be considered part of the load.

(3) ((In the event neither manufacturer's data nor design data on safe working loads (including any applicable limitations) are obtainable, the safe working load ratings assigned shall be based on the owner's information and warranty that those so assigned are correct. Unit test certificates shall state the basis for any safe working load assignment.

(4))) If the operation in which equipment is engaged never utilizes more than a fraction of the safe working load rating, the owner of the equipment may, at his/her option, have the crane or derrick certified for and operated at a lesser maximum safe working load in keeping with the use and based on radius and other pertinent factors, however, the equipment concerned shall be physically capable of operation at the original load rating and the load reduction shall not be for the purpose of avoiding correction of any deficiency.

(((5))) (4) Safe working load ratings shall not be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations without prior approval by the accredited certification agency. Such prior approval shall be based on the manufacturer's approval of such increase or documented engineering design analysis or both. All necessary structural changes shall be completed prior to approval by the accredited certification agency.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60097, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60097, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60097, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)



WAC 296-56-60098  Examination and inspection of cranes and derricks. (1) An examination shall be carried out in conjunction with each annual unit proof load test. The accredited person, or their authorized representative, shall make a determination as to correction of deficiencies found. The examination shall include the following: (Refer to WAC 296-56-60093(8) for definition of accredited person.)

(a) All functional operating mechanisms shall be examined for improper function, maladjustment, and excessive component wear, with particular attention to sheaves, pins, and drums. The examinations shall include operation with partial load, in which all functions and movements, including maximum possible rotation in both directions, are checked.

(b) All safety devices shall be examined for malfunction.

(c) Lines, tanks, valves, drains, pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems shall be examined for deterioration or leakage.

(d) Rope reeving shall comply with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(e) Deformed, cracked, or excessively corroded members in crane structure and boom shall be repaired or replaced as necessary.

(f) Loose bolts, rivets, or other connections shall be corrected.

(g) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts affecting safe operation shall be corrected.

(h) All brakes, used to control the load, boom or travel of the crane, shall be tested. Air, hydraulic, or electrically operated brakes shall be of such design as to set and stop the load if the source of power fails.

(i) Brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets shall be examined for excessive wear and free operation.

(j) Load, boom angle, or other indicators shall be checked over their full range. Defects in such indicators shall be immediately corrected.

(k) Where used, clamshell buckets or other similar equipment, such as magnets, shall be carefully examined in all respects, with particular attention to closing line wires and sheaves. The accredited person may supplement such examination by requesting any operational tests deemed appropriate.

(l) Careful examination of the junction areas of removable boom sections, particularly for proper seating, cracks, deformities, or other defects in securing bolts and in the vicinity of such bolts, shall be made.

(m) All platforms, steps and footwalks located on cranes where workers are exposed to the hazard of slipping shall be of a nonslip material. Wire rope used for railings on cranes shall be kept taut at all times.



Note: In critical areas such as footwalks along booms, a grating material should be used.



(n) No counterweights in excess weight of the manufacturer's specifications shall be fitted or used.

(o) Such other examination or supplemental functional tests shall be made as may be deemed necessary by the accredited person under the circumstances.

(2) Wire rope.

(a) All wire rope shall be inspected at least once a month, dependent upon conditions to which the wire ropes are subjected, and at intervals not exceeding a twelve-month period. Records of inspection of wire rope shall be kept and shall be available to the department of labor and industries representative. Records shall be kept for one year. Refer to the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-24013.

(b) Wire rope shall not be used if in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds ten percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect. Particular attention shall be given to the condition of those sections of wire rope adjacent to any terminal connections, those sections exposed to abnormal wear, and those sections not normally exposed for examination.

(c) Documentation available for inspection shall include wire rope test certificates relating to any replacements made since the last unit test or annual examination as required.

(d) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same construction as originally furnished by the equipment manufacturer or contemplated in the design, unless otherwise recommended by the equipment or wire rope manufacturer due to actual working conditions. In the absence of specific requirements, wire rope shall be of a size and construction suitable for the purpose, and shall have the capacity to handle ((four)) five times the heaviest expected load, verified by wire rope test certificate.

(e) Wire rope in use on equipment previously constructed and prior to initial certification of said equipment shall not be required to be tested but shall be subject to thorough examination at the time of initial certification of the equipment.

(3)(a) Accessory components. Container spreader bar twist locks shall be carefully examined periodically and at the time of annual examination and inspection. Cracked or deformed hooks shall be discarded immediately and not re-used.

(b) Crane hooks and container spreader bar twist lock. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection shall be performed at least once each year. When testing by x-ray, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's standards for protection against radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.

(4) In the event that heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, the latest heat treatment certificate attesting to compliance with the manufacturer's specifications shall be part of the available documentation. Heat treatment shall be carried out in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer by persons competent to perform such work.

(5) Replacement parts shall be of equal or better quality than the original equipment and suitable for the purpose. Repairs or modifications shall be such as to render the equipment equal to or better than the original construction or design.

(6) In cases of foreign manufactured cranes, there shall be an owner's warranty that the design is adequate for the intended use. The warranty shall be based on a thorough examination of the design specifications by a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.

(7) The certifications required by this section shall be performed in accordance with WAC 296-56-60093 by persons accredited by the assistant director of ((consultation and compliance)) WISHA services.

(8) The marine terminal material handling devices listed below shall be certified in the following manner:

(a) Each crane and derrick shall be tested and examined as a unit annually. A copy of the certificate of tests and examinations shall be posted in the crane operator's cab.

(b) Bulk cargo spouts and suckers, together with any portable extensions and rigging or outriggers supporting them vertically, shall be examined annually. Certificates attesting to the required examination shall be made readily available for inspection.

(c) Vertical pocket or bucket conveyors such as banana, sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine terminal facility shall be examined annually. The annual examination shall include all supporting structures, rigging, mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates attesting to the required examinations shall be readily available for inspection.

(d)(i) House fall cargo-handling gear shall be proof load tested as a unit upon initial certification and every fourth year thereafter. An examination shall be carried out in conjunction with each unit proof load test and annually thereafter. The unit test shall consist of a proof load of twenty-five percent in excess of the rated safe working load. Examinations shall include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting to the required tests and examinations shall be readily available for inspection.

(ii) House fall span beams or other house fall block supports shall be marked with the safe working load, which shall not be exceeded.

(e) Special gear.

(i) Special stevedoring gear provided by the employer, the strength of which depends upon components other than commonly used stock items such as shackles, ropes or chains, shall be tested as a unit in accordance with the following table before initially being put into use.





Table A



Safe Working Load


Proof Load
Up to 20 short tons . . . 25 percent in excess
Over 20 to 50 short tons . . . 5 short tons in excess
Over 50 short tons . . . 10 percent in excess


(ii) Special stevedoring gear provided by the employer that has a SWL of five short tons (10,000 or 4.5 metric tons) or less shall be inspected and tested as a unit before initial use according to (d) and (e) of this subsection or by a designated person (see Table A).

(iii) Every spreader not a part of ship's gear and used for hoisting intermodal containers shall be tested to a proof load equal to twenty-five percent in excess of its rated capacity. Additionally, any spreader which suffers damage necessitating structural repair shall be retested after repair and before being returned to service.

(((iii))) (iv) Certificates attesting to the required tests shall be available for inspection.

(v) All cargo handling gear covered by this section with a SWL greater than five short tons (10,000 lbs. or 4.5 metric tons) shall be proof load tested according to Table A every four years in accordance with subsection (7) of this section or by a designated person.

(f) Wire rope and loose gear used for material handling shall be tested and certified before being placed into use in accordance with the provisions of WAC 296-56-60097. Certificates attesting to the required tests, inspections and examinations shall be available.

(9) Disassembly and reassembly of equipment does not require recertification of the equipment provided that the equipment is reassembled and used in a manner consistent with its certification.

(10) Equipment certified in Washington and transferred to a site in another state does not require recertification in this state upon its return, until the next inspection or examination becomes due as if it had not been moved. ((Equipment certified in accordance with similar provisions of another jurisdiction and moved to a site in this state does not require certification upon initial transfer to this state.))

(11) Certification procedures shall not be construed as a substitute for, or cause for elimination of, normal operational inspection and maintenance routine throughout the year.

(12)(a) Every unit of equipment requiring annual certification shall have had such annual certification within the previous twelve months. Equipment requiring annual certification shall have had such annual certification within the previous twelve months, except that no annual certification is required within twelve months after any required certification. Annual examinations for certification may be accomplished up to one month early without effect on subsequent due dates.

(b) When certified equipment is out of service for six months or more beyond the due date of a certification inspection, an examination equivalent to an initial certification, including unit proof load test, shall be performed before the equipment re-enters service.

(13) Loose gear shall bear a legible mark indicating that it has been tested (see WAC 296-56-60097). Single sheave blocks shall be marked with safe working loads and proof test loads. Marks relating to testing shall be identifiable on the related certificates, which shall be available.

(14) The certification requirements of this section do not apply to the following equipment:

(a) Industrial trucks and small industrial crane trucks; and

(b) Any straddle truck not capable of straddling two or more intermodal containers sixteen feet (4.88 m) in width.

(15) Safe working load.

(a) The safe working load of gear as specified in this section shall not be exceeded.

(b) All cargo handling gear provided by the employer with a safe working load greater than five short tons (10,000 lbs. or 4.5 metric tons) shall have its safe working load plainly marked on it.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60098, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60098, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60098, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60098, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)



WAC 296-56-60103  Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations. (1) Every intermodal container shall be legibly and permanently marked with:

(a) The weight of the container when empty, in pounds;

(b) The maximum cargo weight the container is designed to carry, in pounds; and

(c) The sum of the maximum weight of the container with cargo, in pounds (gross container capacity).

(2) No container shall be hoisted by any crane or derrick unless the following conditions have been met:

(a) The employer shall ascertain from the carrier whether a container to be hoisted is loaded or empty. Empty containers shall be identified before loading or discharge in such a manner as will inform every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of loading or discharging, and every crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, that the container is empty. Methods of identification may include cargo plans, manifests or markings on the container.

(b) In the case of a loaded container:

(i) The actual gross weight shall be plainly marked so as to be visible to the crane operator, other hoisting equipment operator, signalman, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation; or

(ii) The cargo stowage plan or equivalent permanently recorded display serving the same purpose, containing the actual gross weight and the serial number or other positive identification of that specific container, shall be provided to the crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation.

(c) Every outbound loaded container which is received at a marine terminal ready to load aboard a vessel without further consolidation or loading shall be weighed to obtain the actual gross weight before being hoisted.

(d)(i) When container weighing scales are located at a marine terminal, any outbound container with a load consolidated at that terminal shall be weighed to obtain an actual weight before being hoisted.

(ii) If the terminal has no scales, the actual gross weight may be calculated on the basis of the container's contents and the container's empty weight. The weights used in the calculation shall be posted conspicuously on the container, with the name of the person making the calculation and the date.

(iii) Container weights shall be subject to random sample weight checks at the nearest weighing facility. In cases where such weight checks or experience otherwise indicate consistently inaccurate weights, the weight of containers so calculated at the source from which the inaccurate weights originated shall no longer be recognized as true gross weights. Such containers shall not be hoisted unless actual gross weights have been obtained by weighing.

(e) The following containers are exempted from the requirements of (c) and (d) of this subsection:

(i) Open type vehicle containers.

(ii) ((Dry, or closed type containers, which are being used to transport vehicles and which contain no other cargo, and have the contents clearly marked on the outside)) The container is marked on the outside in such a manner that an employee can readily discern that the container is carrying vehicles.

(iii) Containers built specifically for the carriage of compressed gases.

(iv) The container carries only completely assembled vehicles and no other cargo.

(v) The vehicles were loaded into the container at the marine terminal.

(f) The weight of loaded inbound containers from foreign ports shall be determined by weighing or by the method of calculation described in (d)(ii) of this subsection or by shipping documents.

(g) Any scale used within Washington state to weigh containers for the purpose of the requirements of this section shall meet the accuracy standards of the state or local public authority in which the scale is located.

(3) No container shall be hoisted if its actual gross weight exceeds the weight marked as required in subsection (1)(c) of this section, or if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device intended to be used.

(4)(a) Marked or designated areas shall be set aside within a container or roll-on roll-off terminal for passage of employees to and from active cargo transfer points, except where transportation to and from those points is provided by the employer.

(b) The employer shall direct employees to stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container. Employees shall stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container.

(5) Each employee((s)) working in the immediate area of container handling equipment or in the terminal's traffic lanes shall wear a high visibility vest((s, decals, reflectors)) (or equivalent protection).

Note to subsection (5): High visibility vests or equivalent protection means high visibility/retroreflective materials which are intended to provide conspicuity of the user by day through the use of high visibility (fluorescent) material and in the dark by vehicle headlights through the use of retroreflective material. The minimum area of material for a vest or equivalent protection is .5m(2)(760 in.(2)) for fluorescent (background) material and .13m(2)(197 in.(2)) for retroreflective material.

(6) Containers shall be handled using lifting fittings or other arrangements suitable and intended for the purposes as set forth in (a) and (c) of this subsection, except when damage to an intermodal container makes special means of handling necessary.

(a) Loaded intermodal containers of twenty feet (6.1 m) or more in length shall be hoisted as follows:

(i) When hoisting by the top fittings, the lifting forces shall be applied vertically from at least four top fittings or by means which will safely lift the container without damage. The lifting fittings provided shall be used.

(A) The container being lifted is an ISO closed box container;

(B) The condition of the box is sound;

(C) The speed of hoisting and lowering is moderated when heavily ladened containers are encountered;

(D) The lift angle is at eighty to ninety degrees;

(E) The distance between the lifting beam and the load is at least eight feet and 2.4 inches (2.5m); and

(F) The length of the spreader beam is at least 16.3 feet (5 m) for a twenty-foot container, and at least 36.4 feet (11 m) for a forty-foot container.

(ii) If hoisted from bottom fittings, the hoisting connections shall bear on the fittings only, making no other contact with the container. The angles of the four bridle legs shall not be less than thirty degrees to the horizontal in the case of forty foot (12.2 m) containers, thirty-seven degrees in the case of thirty foot (9.1 m) containers, or forty-five degrees in the case of twenty foot (6.1 m) containers.

(iii) Lifting containers by fork lift trucks or by grappling arms from above or from one side may be done only if the container is designed for this type of handling.

(b) Other means of hoisting may be used only if the containers and hoisting means are designed for such use.

(c)(i) When using intermodal container spreaders that employ lanyards for activation of load-disengagement, all possible precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental release of the load.

(ii) Intermodal container spreader twistlock systems shall be designed and used so that a suspended load cannot accidentally be released.

(d) Flat bed trucks or container chassis used to move intermodal containers shall be equipped with pins, flanges, or other means to prevent the container from shifting.

(e) Flat bed, low boy trailers (mafis) and other similar equipment used to transport containers shall be marked with their cargo capacities and shall not be overloaded.

(f) Each tractor shall have all brake air lines connected when pulling trailers equipped with air brakes and shall have the brakes tested before commencing operations.

(7)(a) Intermodal containers shall be inspected for defects in structural members or fittings before handling.

(b) Any intermodal container found to be unsafe shall be identified as such, promptly removed from service and repaired before being returned to service.

(8) Containers shall not be hoisted unless all engaged chassis twist locks are released.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60103, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-56-60103, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60103, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60103, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 86-02, filed 1/17/86)



WAC 296-56-60113  Foot protection. (1) The employer shall ((direct that employees exposed to impact, falling objects, or puncture hazards wear safety shoes, or equivalent protection)) ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects piercing the sole.

(2) Protective shoes shall bear identifying marks or labels indicating compliance with the manufacturing provisions of American National Standard for Men's Safety Toe Footwear, ANSI Z41.1-((1983)) 1991.

(3) The employer shall, through means such as vendors or local stores, make safety shoes readily available to all employees.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60113, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60113, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)



WAC 296-56-60115  Other protective measures. (1) Protective clothing.

(a) Employees performing work that requires special protective clothing shall be directed by the employer to wear the necessary special protective clothing.

(b) When necessary, protective clothing previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before reissuance.

(2) Personal ((floatation)) flotation devices.

(a) The employer shall provide, and shall direct the wearing of personal ((floatation)) flotation devices for those employees, such as line handlers, who are engaged in work in which they may fall into the water:

(i) When such employees are working in isolation: or

(ii) Where physical limitations of available working space creates a hazard of falling into the water; or

(iii) Where the work area is obstructed by cargo or other obstacles so as to prevent employees from obtaining safe footing for their work.

(b) Employees working on, over or along water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with and shall wear approved personal flotation devices.

(i) Employees are not considered exposed to the danger of drowning when:

(A) The water depth is known to be less than chest deep on the exposed individual;

(B) Working behind standard height and strength guardrails;

(C) Working inside operating cabs or stations which eliminate the possibility of accidental falling into the water;

(D) Wearing approved safety belts with lifeline attached so as to preclude the possibility of falling into the water.

(ii) Prior to and after each use, personal ((floatation)) flotation devices shall be inspected for defects which would reduce their designed effectiveness. Defective personal ((floatation)) flotation devices shall not be used.

(iii) To meet the requirement of (b) of this subsection, a personal ((floatation)) flotation device shall be approved by the United States Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD, or Type V PFD, or equivalent, pursuant to 46 CFR 160 (Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications) and 33 CFR 175.23 (Coast Guard Table of Devices Equivalent to Personal ((Floatation)) Flotation Devices). Ski belt or inflatable type personal ((floatation)) flotation devices are specifically prohibited.

(c) Life rings.

(i) Along docks, walkways or other fixed installations on or adjacent to open water more than five feet deep, approved life rings with line attached shall be provided. The life rings shall be spaced at intervals not to exceed two hundred feet and shall be kept in easily visible and readily accessible locations.

(ii) When employees are assigned work at other casual locations where exposure to drowning exists, at least one approved life ring with line attached shall be provided in the immediate vicinity of the work.

(iii) Work assigned over water where the vertical drop from an accidental fall exceeds fifty feet, is subject to specific procedures approved by the department.

(iv) Lines attached to life rings shall be at least ninety feet in length, at least one-quarter inch in diameter and have a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds.

(v) Life rings must be United States Coast Guard approved thirty inch size.

(vi) Life rings and attached lines must be maintained to retain at least seventy-five percent of their designed buoyancy and strength.

(3) Emergency facilities. When employees are exposed to hazardous substances which may require emergency bathing, eye washing or other facilities, the employer shall provide such facilities and maintain them in good working order.

(4) Employers shall instruct employees to report every injury, regardless of severity, to the employer.

(5) Stretchers permanently equipped with bridles for hoisting shall be readily accessible. A blanket or other suitable covering shall be available.

(6) Telephone or equivalent means of communication shall be readily available.

(7) Employees working on any bridge or structure leading to a detached vessel berthing installation shall wear United States Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices except where protected by railings, nets, or safety belts and lifelines.

(8) Life ladders. On all docks there shall be substantial built-in-place ladders, spaced at intervals not to exceed four hundred feet, to reach the lowest water use. When portable ladders are to be used, ladders may be bolted to the bullrail or dock structure, or ladders can be secured to an embedded eye bolt in a concrete dock surface. The immediate area where such ladders or fastenings are located shall be painted with a bright color or of a color which contrasts with the surrounding area. There shall be a ladder at each end of the dock.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60115, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60115, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60115, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60115, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)



WAC 296-56-60123  Guarding of edges. (1) Vehicle protection.

(a) Vehicle curbs, bull rails, or other effective barriers at least six inches (((13.74)) 15.24 cm) in height and six inches in width, shall be provided at the waterside edges of aprons and bulkheads, except where vehicles are prohibited. Curbs or bull rails installed after January 1, 1985, shall be at least ten inches (22.9 cm) in height.

(b) The provisions of (a) of this subsection also apply at the edge of any fixed level above the common floor area from which vehicles may fall, except at loading docks, platforms and skids where cargo is moved by vehicles.

(2) Employee protection.

(a) Guardrails shall be provided at locations where employees are exposed to falls of more than four feet from floor or wall openings or waterside edges, including bridges or gangway-like structures leading to pilings, vessel mooring or berthing installations.

(b) Guardrails are not required:

(i) At loading platforms and docks;

(ii) At waterside edges used for cargo or mooring line handling;

(iii) On the working sides of work platforms, skids, or similar workplaces which abut the work area; or

(iv) On railroad rolling stock, highway vehicles, intermodal containers, or similar equipment.

(c) Where guardrails are impractical due to machinery requirements or work processes, an alternate means of fall protection, such as nets, shall be used.

(3) Criteria for guardrails. Guardrails shall meet the following criteria:

(a) They shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least two hundred pounds (890 N) applied in any direction at mid-span of the top rail (when used), or at the uppermost point if there is no guard rail.

(b) If not of solid baluster, grillwork, slatted, or similar construction, guardrails shall consist of top rails and midrails. Midrails, when used, shall be positioned at approximately half the height of the top rail.

(c) The top surface of guardrails installed before October 3, 1983, shall be at least thirty-six inches (.091 m) high. Those installed after October 3, 1983, shall be forty-two inches (1.07 m) high, plus or minus two inches (5.1 cm), high.

(d) Any nonrigid railing such as chain or wire rope shall have a maximum sag, at the mid-point between posts, of not more than six inches (15.2 cm).

(e) Top rails shall be free of sharp edges and maintained in good repair.

(f) Rail ends shall not overhang. This does not prohibit scrollwork, boxed ends or similar nonhazardous projections.

(4) Toeboards. Toeboards shall be provided when employees below could be exposed to falling objects such as tools. Toeboards shall be at least three and one-half inches (8.9 cm) in height from top edge to floor level, and be capable of withstanding a force of fifty pounds (220 N) applied in any direction. Drainage clearance not in excess of one-eighth inch under toeboards is permitted.

(5) Stair railings. Stair railings shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least two hundred pounds (890 N) applied in any direction, and shall not be more than thirty-six inches (0.9 m) nor less than thirty-two inches (0.8 m) in height from the upper top rail surface to the tread surface in line with the leading edge of the tread. Railings and midrails shall be provided at any stairway having four or more risers, as follows:

(a) For stairways less than forty-four inches (1.12 m) wide, at least one railing; and

(b) For stairways more than forty-four inches (1.12 m) but less than eighty-eight inches (2.24 m) wide, a stair rail or handrail on each side, and if eighty-eight or more inches wide, an additional intermediate handrail.

(6) Condition. Railings shall be maintained free of sharp edges and in good repair.



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60123, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60123, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60123, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 86-02, filed 1/17/86)



WAC 296-56-60211  Portable ladders. (1) Scope and applicability. This section applies to all portable ladders, including job-made ladders for temporary use, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Standards for existing manufactured portable ladders.

(a) Rungs of manufactured portable ladders obtained before October 3, 1983, shall be capable of supporting a two hundred pound (((896)) 890 N) load without deformation.

(b) Rungs shall be evenly spaced from nine to sixteen and one-half inches (22.9 to 41.9 cm), center to center.

(c) Rungs shall be continuous members between rails. Each rung of a double-rung ladder (two side rails and a center rail) shall extend the full width of the ladder.

(d) Width between side rails at the base of the ladder shall be at least twelve inches (30 cm) for ladders ten feet (3.05 m) or less in overall length, and shall increase at least one-fourth inch (0.6 cm) for each additional two feet (0.61 m) of ladder length.

(3) Standards for manufactured portable ladders. Manufactured portable ladders obtained after October 3, 1983, shall bear identification indicating that they meet the appropriate ladder construction requirements of the following standards:

ANSI A14.1-((1981)) 1990 Safety Requirements for Portable Wood Ladders

ANSI A14.2-((1982)) 1990 Safety Requirements for Portable Metal Ladders

ANSI A14.5-((1981)) 1992 Safety Requirements for Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders

(4) Standards for job-made portable ladders. Job-made ladders shall:

(a) Have a minimum and uniform distance between rungs of twelve inches (30 cm), center to center;

(b) Be capable of supporting a two hundred fifty pound (((1100)) 1112 N) load without deformation; and

(c) Have a minimum width between side rails of twelve inches (30 cm) for ladders ten feet (3.05 m) in height. Width between rails shall increase at least one-fourth inch (0.6 cm) for each additional two feet (0.61 m) of ladder length.

(5) Maintenance and inspection.

(a) The employer shall maintain portable ladders in safe condition. Ladders with the following defects shall not be used and either shall be tagged as unusable if kept on the premises or shall be removed from the worksite:

(i) Broken, split or missing rungs, cleats, or steps;

(ii) Broken or split side rails;

(iii) Missing or loose bolts, rivets, or fastenings;

(iv) Defective ropes; or

(v) Any other structural defect.

(b) Ladders shall be inspected for defects prior to each day's use, and after any occurrence, such as a fall, which could damage the ladder.

(6) Ladder usage.

(a) Ladders made by fastening rungs or devices across a single rail are prohibited.

(b) Ladders shall not be used:

(i) As guys, braces, or skids; or

(ii) As platforms, runways, or scaffolds.

(c) Metal and wire-reinforced ladders with wooden side rails shall not be used when employees on the ladder might come into contact with energized electrical conductors.

(d) Individual sections from different multisectional ladders or two or more single straight ladders shall not be tied or fastened together to achieve additional length.

(e) Except for combination ladders, self-supporting ladders shall not be used as single straight ladders.

(f) Unless intended for cantilever operation, nonself-supporting ladders shall not be used to climb above the top support point.

(g) Ladders shall extend at least thirty-six inches (0.91 m) above the upper support level if employees are to leave or mount the ladder at that level, except that where such extension is impractical other equivalent means such as grab bars may be used to provide a hand grip.

(h) Ladders shall be securely positioned on a level and firm base.

(i) Ladders shall be fitted with slip-resistant bases and secured at top or bottom to prevent the ladder from slipping.

(j) Ladders shall be placed so that employees climbing are not exposed to injury from projecting objects or doors that open toward the ladder.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60211, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60211, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60211, filed 12/11/84.]



AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 86-02, filed 1/17/86)



WAC 296-56-60217  Spiral stairways. (1) Definition. "Spiral stairway" means one with closed circular form, uniform sector-shaped treads and a supporting column.

(2) Requirements. Spiral stairways shall meet the following requirements:

(a) Stairways shall conform to the minimum dimensions of Figure F-1;

(296-56-60217, Illus. 1)

Place illustration here.



Spiral Stairway--Minimum Dimensions


A (Half-tread width)




B


Normal use by

employees . . .



11 inches (27.9 cm)


6 inches (15.2 cm)
Limited access . . . 9 inches (22.9 cm) 5 inches (12.7 cm)


(b) Stairway risers shall be uniform and shall range from six and one-half to ten and one-half inches (16.5 to 26.7 cm) in height;

(c) Minimum loading capability shall be one hundred pounds per square foot (((448)) 445 N), and minimum tread center concentrated loading shall be three hundred pounds (((1344)) 1334 N);

(d) Railing shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123(3). If balusters are used, there shall be a minimum of one per tread. Handrails shall be a minimum of one and one-fourth inches (3.3 cm) in outside diameter; and

(e) Vertical clearance shall be at least six feet, six inches (1.98 m) above the top step.

(3) Maintenance. Spiral stairways shall be maintained in safe condition.



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60217, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-56-60217, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60217, filed 12/11/84.]



REPEALER



The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:



WAC 296-56-60059 First-aid and lifesaving facilities.

WAC 296-56-60060 First-aid training and certification.

WAC 296-56-60062 First-aid kit.

WAC 296-56-60065 First-aid station.

WAC 296-56-60067 First-aid room.

WAC 296-56-60069 Personnel.

Legislature Code Reviser 

Register

Washington State Code Reviser's Office