WSR 99-05-080

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[ Filed February 17, 1999, 11:37 a.m. , effective June 1, 1999 ]

Date of Adoption: February 17, 1999.

Purpose: Chapter 296-305 WAC, Safety standards for fire fighters and chapter 296-24 WAC, Part G-2, Fire protection.

Federal-initiated amendments relating to the above-referenced standards are adopted as a result of an OSHA letter dated December 9, 1997. Upon federal review, the state standard was found to be "not at least as effective as" the federal rule in several relatively minor areas. These federal-initiated adopted amendments will not establish additional compliance requirements beyond what is necessary to ensure that the state standard is "at least as effective as" the federal standard.

The state is also adopting state-initiated amendments for clarity and to correct housekeeping errors, which will not establish additional compliance requirements. The adopted amendments "at least as effective as" the federal standard.

Amended section WAC 296-24-58503 Scope, application and definitions applicable, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Change the definition of "Fire brigade" to make it identical and consistent with the proposed definition of "Industrial fire brigade" in chapter 296-305 WAC, Safety standards for fire fighters.

Amended section WAC 296-24-58505 Fire brigades, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Clarify the scope of this section to avoid misinterpretation or confusion with the scope of chapter 296-305 WAC, Safety standards for fire fighters.

Amended section WAC 296-305-01003 Scope and application, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Clarify the scope of this section to avoid misinterpretation or confusion with the scope of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part G-2, Fire protection (fire brigades).

Amended section WAC 296-305-01005 Definitions, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Modify the definition of "Industrial fire brigade" to make it at least as effective as the federal standard.
Modify the definition of "Initial stage (initial action)" for clarification.
Modify the definition of "Incipient (phase) fire" for clarification.
Added the following definitions: "Interior structural fire fighting," "Proximity protective clothing," "Rapid intervention team (RIT)," and "Respirator" for clarification.
Added a cross reference to the definition of "Structural fire fighting" to also see "Interior structural fire fighting."

Amended section WAC 296-305-01509 Management’s responsibility, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Clarify that employers must assure that employees are physically capable to do interior structural fire fighting.

Amended section WAC 296-305-02001 Personal protective equipment and protective clothing, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Update NFPA references.
Subsection (7)(e): This language is proposed to be deleted because there are no specific proximity protection requirements for SCBA in NFPA, and because it may not be possible for fire departments to comply with the second sentence of this subdivision. The language proposed for deletion reads, "Where the SCBA is worn over or outside the proximity protective garment, the fire department shall inform the member of the potential high levels of radiant heat that may result in the failure of the SCBA. The fire department shall require additional approved radiant reflective criteria, including but not limited to a protective cover, for the expected proximity fire fighting exposures when the SCBA is worn over or outside the proximity protective garment."

Amended section WAC 296-305-02003 Eye and face protection, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Clarify that all eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z87.1, 1989 edition.

Amended section WAC 296-305-02007 Hand protection, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Update an NFPA reference.

Amended section WAC 296-305-02013 Foot protection for structural fire fighting, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Update an NFPA reference.

Amended section WAC 296-305-02015 Head protection, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Update an NFPA reference.

Amended section WAC 296-305-04001 Respiratory equipment protection, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Correct housekeeping errors.
Renumber and reformat this section for better organization of information and clarity.
Updated an NFPA reference.

Amended section WAC 296-305-04501 Automotive fire apparatus design and construction, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Update CFR references.

Amended section WAC 296-305-04503 Automotive fire apparatus equipment, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Allow the employer options on hose loading operations.
Provide clarification on the scope of the requirement that all persons riding on a fire apparatus shall be seated and secured while the vehicle is in motion. The proposed amendment states that members actively performing necessary emergency medical care while the vehicle is in motion shall be restrained to the extent consistent with the effective provision of such emergency care.

Amended section WAC 296-305-05001 Emergency fireground operations--Structural, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Clarify the requirements during the "initial stage" of a structural fire.

Amended section WAC 296-305-05007 Trench rescue operations, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Change the requirement for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-305-05009 Watercraft rescue operations, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Change the approved personal flotation device (PFD) from a Type II to a Type III. A Type III PFD has the same minimum buoyancy as a Type II PFD.

Amended section WAC 296-305-06005 Ground ladders, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Add clarifying language relating to the procedures for strength service testing.

Amended section WAC 296-305-06007 Electrical, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Correct an error relating to appropriately sized plugs and sockets.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-24-58503 Scope, application and definitions, 296-24-58505 Fire brigades, 296-305-01003 Scope and application, 296-305-01005 Definitions, 296-305-01509 Management’s responsibility, 296-305-02001 Personal protective equipment and protective clothing, 296-305-02003 Eye and face protection, 296-305-02007 Hand protection, 296-305-02013 Foot protection for structural fire fighting, 296-305-02015 Head protection, 296-305-04001 Respiratory equipment protection, 296-305-04501 Automotive fire apparatus design and construction, 296-305-04503 Automotive fire apparatus equipment, 296-305-05001 Emergency fireground operations--Structural, 296-305-05007 Trench rescue operations, 296-305-05009 Watercraft rescue operations, 296-305-06005 Ground ladders, and 296-305-06007 Electrical.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.040.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 98-17-078 on August 18, 1998.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: As a result of written and oral comments received, the following sections are being changed as indicated below:


WAC 296-305-01005 Definitions.

The definition of "incipient (phase) fire" was modified for clarification. It reads, "The beginning of a fire; where the oxygen content in the air has not been significantly reduced and the fire is producing minute amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other gases; the room has a normal temperature and can be controlled or extinguished with a portable fire extinguisher or small hose, e.g., a kitchen stove fire."
A definition for "interior structural fire fighting" was added. It reads, "The physical activity of fire suppression, rescue or both, inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage. See structural fire fighting."
A definition for "proximity protective clothing" was added. It reads, "Radiant reflective protective garments configured as a coat and trousers, or as a coverall, and interface components that are designed to provide protection for the fire fighter's body from conductive, convective, and radiant heat."
A definition for "rapid intervention team (RIT)" was added. It reads, "On-scene team of at least two members designated, dedicated and equipped to effect an immediate rescue operation if the need arises."
A definition for "respirator" was added. It reads, "A device designed to protect the wearer from breathing harmful atmospheres. See respiratory protection."
A cross reference was added to the definition of "structural fire fighting" also see "interior structural fire fighting."

WAC 296-305-01509 Management's responsibility.

WAC 296-305-01509(7): This subsection was rewritten and formatted differently to create subsection (7)(a) and (b). It reads:
(7) Personnel.
(a) The employer shall assure that employees who are expected to do interior structural fire fighting are physically capable of performing duties that may be assigned to them during emergencies.
(b) The employer shall not permit employees with known physical limitations reasonably identifiable to the employer, for example, heart disease or seizure disorder, to participate in structural fire fighting emergency activities unless the employee has been released by a physician to participate in such activities.


WAC 296-305-02001 Personal protective equipment and protective clothing.

WAC 296-305-02001 (6)(a): This language was reworded for clarity. It reads, "Station/work uniforms if provided, shall meet the requirements as specified in the 1990 or 1994 edition of NFPA 1975."
WAC 296-305-02001 (8)(a): This language was reworded for clarity. It reads, "All turnout clothing purchased after the effective date of these regulations shall meet the requirements of the 1991 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting 1971 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971."


WAC 296-305-02003 Eye and face protection.

WAC 296-305-02003(1): The edition date of the referenced ANSI standard was added.


WAC 296-305-02007 Hand protection.

WAC 296-305-02007(4): This language was reworded for clarity. It reads, "Fire fighters' gloves used during structural fire fighting operations including rescue of victims from fires, and emergency medical operations where sharp or rough surfaces are likely to be encountered such as victim extrication's shall meet the requirements of the 1993 edition of NFPA, Standard on Gloves for Structural Fire Fighting 1973 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971."


WAC 296-305-02013 Foot protection for structural fire fighting.

WAC 296-305-02013(1): This language was reworded for clarity. It reads, "Protective footwear purchased after the effective date of this standard shall comply with the 1992 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Footwear for Structural Fire Fighting 1974 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971."


WAC 296-305-02015 Head protection.

WAC 296-305-02015(2): This language was reworded for clarity. It reads, "Helmets purchased thirty days after the adoption of this chapter shall meet the requirements of the 1992 edition of NFPA, Standard on Helmets for Structural Fire Fighting 1972 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971."


WAC 296-305-04001 Respiratory equipment protection.

WAC 296-305-04001 (1)(e): This language was reworded for clarity. It reads, "Meet the requirements of the 1992 or 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Open Circuit Self Contained Breathing Apparatus for Fire Fighters 1981."


WAC 296-305-05001 Emergency fire ground operations--Structural.

WAC 296-305-05001(10): This subsection has been reformatted and written more clearly for better understanding. It reads:
(10) Before beginning interior structural fire fighting operations, the incident commander must evaluate the situation and risks to operating teams.
(a) Except as provided in WAC 296-305-05001(11), fire fighters must not engage in interior structural fire fighting in the absence of at least two standby fire fighters.
(b) All standby fire fighters must be fully equipped with the appropriate protective clothing, protective equipment and SCBA.
(c) Standby members must remain aware of the status of fire fighters in the hazardous area.
(d) Standby members must remain in positive communication with the entry team(s), in full protective clothing with SCBA donned in the standby mode.
(e) Standby members may be permitted to perform other duties outside the hazardous area, provided constant communication is maintained between a standby member and the entry team(s), and provided that those duties will not interfere with the standby members' ability to participate in a rescue as appropriate.
(f) Early consideration should be given to providing one or more rapid intervention teams commensurate with the needs of the situation.
WAC 296-305-05001(11): This subsection has been reformatted and written more clearly for better understanding. It reads:
(11) In the "initial stage" of a structure fire-incident where only one team is operating in the hazardous area, where additional resources can reasonably be expected, and where exceptional circumstances indicate that immediate action may be necessary to prevent or mitigate the loss of life or serious injury to citizenry or fire fighters, at least one additional fire fighter must be assigned to stand by outside the hazardous area where the team is operating.
(a) The standby fire fighter must remain aware of the status of fire fighters in the hazardous area.
(b) The standby fire fighter must remain in positive communication with the entry team, in full protective clothing with SCBA donned in the standby mode.
(c) The standby fire fighter may be permitted to perform other duties outside the hazardous area, provided constant communications is maintained with the team in the hazardous area, and provided that those duties will not interfere with his or her ability to initiate a rescue as appropriate.
(d) Once additional resources have arrived on the scene, the incident must no longer be considered in its initial stage and all the requirements of WAC 296-305-05001(10) must be met.
Note: Nothing in this section shall prevent activities which may reasonably be taken by members first on the scene to determine the nature and extent of fire involvement.


WAC 296-305-05007 Trench rescue.

WAC 296-305-05007(2): This subsection has been modified to read, "Employees that directly engage in trench rescue operations shall be trained or shall be under the direct supervision of person(s) with adequate training in trench and excavation hazard recognition, equipment use and operational techniques."


WAC 296-305-06005 Ground ladders.

WAC 296-305-06005(12): This language was reworded for clarity. It reads, "All fireground ladders shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the 1994 edition of NFPA 1932. When metal ground ladders are tested, they shall be tested in accordance with the strength service testing procedures of the 1984 edition of NFPA 1932."

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 6, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 12, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 18, Repealed 0. Effective Date of Rule: June 1, 1999.

February 17, 1999

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-2358.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-22-015, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96)

WAC 296-24-58503
Scope, application and definitions applicable.

(1) Scope.  This section contains requirements for fire brigades, and all portable and fixed fire suppression equipment, fire detection systems, and fire or employee alarm systems installed to meet the fire protection requirements of this chapter.

(2) Application.  This section applies to all employments except for maritime, construction and agriculture.  

(3) Definitions applicable to this section.

(a) "After-flame," means the time a test specimen continues to flame after the flame source has been removed.

(b) "Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)," means a fluorinated surfactant with a foam stabilizer which is diluted with water to act as a temporary barrier to exclude air from mixing with the fuel vapor by developing an aqueous film on the fuel surface of some hydrocarbons which is capable of suppressing the generation of fuel vapors.

(c) "Approved," means acceptable to the director under the following criteria:

(i) If it is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or

(ii) With respect to an installation or equipment of a kind which no nationally recognized testing laboratory accepts, certifies, lists, labels, or determines to be safe, if it is inspected or tested by another federal agency and found in compliance with the provisions of the applicable National Fire Protection Association Fire Code; or

(iii) With respect to custom-made equipment or related installations which are designed, fabricated for, and intended for use by its manufacturer on the basis of test data which the employer keeps and makes available for inspection to the director; and

(iv) For the purposes of (c) of this subsection:

(A) Equipment is listed if it is of a kind mentioned in a list which is published by a nationally recognized testing laboratory which makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment and which states that such equipment meets nationally recognized standards or has been tested and found safe for use in a specified manner;

(B) Equipment is labeled if there is attached to it a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory which makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment and whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests to determine safe use in a specified manner;

(C) Equipment is accepted if it has been inspected and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to conform to specified plans or to procedures of applicable codes;

(D) Equipment is certified if it has been tested and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet nationally recognized standards or to be safe for use in a specified manner or is of a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and if it bears a label, tag, or other record of certification; and

(E) Refer to federal regulation 29 CFR 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(d) "Automatic fire detection device," means a device designed to automatically detect the presence of fire by heat, flame, light, smoke or other products of combustion.

(e) "Buddy-breathing device," means an accessory to self-contained breathing apparatus which permits a second person to share the same air supply as that of the wearer of the apparatus.

(f) "Carbon dioxide," means a colorless, odorless, electrically nonconductive inert gas (chemical formula CO2) that is a medium for extinguishing fires by reducing the concentration of oxygen or fuel vapor in the air to the point where combustion is impossible.

(g) "Class A fire," means a fire involving ordinary combustible materials such as paper, wood, cloth, and some rubber and plastic materials.

(h) "Class B fire," means a fire involving flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, greases and similar materials, and some rubber and plastic materials.

(i) "Class C fire," means a fire involving energized electrical equipment where safety to the employee requires the use of electrically nonconductive extinguishing media.

(j) "Class D fire," means a fire involving combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium and potassium.

(k) "Dry chemical," means an extinguishing agent composed of very small particles of chemicals such as, but not limited to, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-based potassium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, or monoammonium phosphate supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing and moisture absorption (caking) as well as to provide proper flow capabilities.  Dry chemical does not include dry powders.

(l) "Dry powder," means a compound used to extinguish or control Class D fires.

(m) "Education," means the process of imparting knowledge or skill through systematic instruction.  It does not require formal classroom instruction.

(n) "Enclosed structure," means a structure with a roof or ceiling and at least two walls which may present fire hazards to employees, such as accumulations of smoke, toxic gases and heat similar to those found in buildings.

(o) "Extinguisher classification," means the letter classification given an extinguisher to designate the class or classes of fire on which an extinguisher will be effective.

(p) "Extinguisher rating," means the numerical rating given to an extinguisher which indicates the extinguishing potential of the unit based on standardized tests developed by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.

(q) (("Fire brigade," (private fire department, industrial fire department) means an organized group of employees who are knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in at least basic fire fighting operations.

(r))) "Fixed extinguishing system," means a permanently installed system that either extinguishes or controls a fire at the location of the system.

(((s))) (r) "Flame resistance," is the property of materials, or combinations of component materials, to retard ignition and restrict the spread of flame.

(((t))) (s) "Foam," means a stable aggregation of small bubbles which flow freely over a burning liquid surface and form a coherent blanket which seals combustible vapors and thereby extinguishes the fire.

(((u))) (t) "Gaseous agent," is a fire extinguishing agent which is in the gaseous state at normal room temperature and pressure.  It has low viscosity, can expand or contract with changes in pressure and temperature, and has the ability to diffuse readily and to distribute itself uniformly throughout an enclosure.

(((v))) (u) "Halon 1211," means a colorless, faintly sweet smelling, electrically nonconductive liquefied gas (chemical formula CBrC1F2) which is a medium for extinguishing fires by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of fuel and oxygen.  It is also known as bromochlorodifluoromethane.

(((w))) (v) "Halon 1301," means a colorless, odorless, electrically nonconductive gas (chemical formula CBrF3) which is a medium for extinguishing fires by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of fuel and oxygen.  It is also known as bromotrifluoromethane.

(((x))) (w) "Helmet," is a head protective device consisting of a rigid shell, energy absorption system and chin strap intended to be worn to provide protection for the head or portions thereof, against impact, flying or falling objects, electric shock, penetration, heat and flame.

(((y))) (x) "Incipient stage fire," means a fire which is in the initial or beginning stage and which can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguishers, Class II standpipe or small hose systems without the need for protective clothing or breathing apparatus.

(y) Industrial fire brigade: An organized group of employees whose primary employment is other than fire fighting who are knowledgeable, trained and skilled in specialized operations based on site-specific hazards present at a single commercial facility or facilities under the same management.

(z) "Inspection," means a visual check of fire protection systems and equipment to ensure that they are in place, charged, and ready for use in the event of a fire.

(aa) "Interior structural fire fighting," means the physical activity of fire suppression, rescue or both, inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage.

(bb) "Lining," means a material permanently attached to the inside of the outer shell of a garment for the purpose of thermal protection and padding.

(cc) "Local application system," means a fixed fire suppression system which has a supply of extinguishing agent, with nozzles arranged to automatically discharge extinguishing agent directly on the burning material to extinguish or control a fire.

(dd) "Maintenance," means the performance of services on fire protection equipment and systems to assure that they will perform as expected in the event of a fire.  Maintenance differs from inspection in that maintenance requires the checking of internal fitting, devices and agent supplies.

(ee) "Multipurpose dry chemical," means a dry chemical which is approved for use on Class A, Class B and Class C fires.

(ff) "Outer shell," is the exterior layer of material on the fire coat and protective trousers which forms the outermost barrier between the fire fighter and the environment.  It is attached to the vapor barrier and liner and is usually constructed with a storm flap, suitable closures, and pockets.

(gg) "Positive-pressure breathing apparatus," means self-contained breathing apparatus in which the pressure in the breathing zone is positive in relation to the immediate environment during inhalation and exhalation.

(hh) "Predischarge employee alarm," means an alarm which will sound at a set time prior to actual discharge of an extinguishing system so that employees may evacuate the discharge area prior to system discharge.

(ii) "Quick disconnect valve," means a device which starts the flow of air by inserting of the hose (which leads from the facepiece) into the regulator of self-contained breathing apparatus, and stops the flow of air by disconnection of the hose from the regulator.

(jj) "Sprinkler alarm," means an approved device installed so that any waterflow from a sprinkler system equal to or greater than that from single automatic sprinkler will result in an audible alarm signal on the premises.

(kk) "Sprinkler system," means a system of piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards and installed to control or extinguish fires.  The system includes an adequate and reliable water supply, and a network of specially sized piping and sprinklers which are interconnected.  The system also includes a control valve and a device for actuating an alarm when the system is in operation.

(ll) "Standpipe systems:"

(i) "Class I standpipe system," means a two and one-half-inch (6.3 cm) hose connection for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

(ii) "Class II standpipe system," means a one and one-half-inch (3.8 cm) hose system which provides a means for the control or extinguishment of incipient stage fires.

(iii) "Class III standpipe system," means a combined system of hose which is for the use of employees trained in the use of hose operations and which is capable of furnishing effective water discharge during the more advanced stages of fire (beyond the incipient stage) in the interior of workplaces.  Hose outlets are available for both one and one-half-inch (3.8 cm) and two and one-half-inch (6.3 cm) hose.

(iv) "Small hose system," means a system of hose ranging in diameter from five-eighths-inch (1.6 cm) up to one and one-half-inch (3.8 cm) which is for the use of employees and which provides a means for the control and extinguishment of incipient stage fires.

(mm) "Total flooding system," means a fixed suppression system which is arranged to automatically discharge a predetermined concentration of agent into an enclosed space for the purpose of fire extinguishment or control.

(nn) "Training," means the process of making proficient through instruction and hands-on practice in the operation of equipment, including respiratory protection equipment, that is expected to be used in the performance of assigned duties.

(oo) "Vapor barrier," means that material used to prevent or substantially inhibit the transfer of water, corrosive liquids and steam or other hot vapors from the outside of a garment to the wearer's body.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  95-22-015, 296-24-58503, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96.  Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-06-068 (Order 93-17), 296-24-58503, filed 3/2/94, effective 3/1/95; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), 296-24-58503, filed 11/14/88; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-24-58503, filed 11/30/87.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-02-003 (Order 81-32), 296-24-58503, filed 12/24/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-32, filed 12/24/81)

WAC 296-24-58505
Fire brigades.

Scope and application.

(1) Scope.  This section applies only to fire brigades and contains requirements for the organization, training and required personal protective equipment of fire brigades whenever they are established by an employer.

(2) Application.  The requirements of this section apply to fire brigades, industrial fire departments and private or contractual type fire departments.  Personal protective equipment requirements apply only to members of fire brigades performing interior structural fire fighting.  The requirements of this section do not apply to airport crash rescue or forest fire fighting operations.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-02-003 (Order 81-32), 296-24-58505, filed 12/24/81.]

OTS-2359.3


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-01003
Scope and application.

(1) The rules of this chapter shall apply with respect to any and all activities, operations and equipment of employers and employees involved in providing fire protection services which are subject to the provisions of the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973 (chapter 49.17 RCW).

(2) The provisions of this chapter apply to all fire fighters and their work places, including the fire combat scene.  Although enforcement of applicable standards will result from provable violations of these standards at the fire combat scene, agents of the department will not act in any manner that will reduce or interfere with the effectiveness of the emergency response of a fire fighting unit.  Activities directly related to the combating of a fire will not be subjected to the immediate restraint provisions of RCW 49.17.130.

(3) In the development of this document many consensus standards of the industry were considered and evaluated as to adaptability to the Washington state fire service industry.  Where adaptable and meaningful, the fire fighter safety elements of these standards were incorporated into this WAC.  Chapter 296-305 WAC, shall be considered as the fire fighter safety standards for the state of Washington.

(4) The provisions of this chapter cover existing requirements that apply to all fire departments.  All fire departments shall have in place their own policy statement and operating instructions that meet or exceed these requirements.  This chapter contains state and/or federal performance criteria that fire departments shall meet.

(5) Unless specifically stated otherwise by rule, if a duplication of regulations, or a conflict exists between the rules regulating wildland fire fighting and other rules in the chapter, only the rules regulating wildland fire fighting shall apply to wildland fire fighting activities and equipment.

(6) The provisions of this chapter shall be supplemented by the provisions of the general safety and health standards of the department of labor and industries, chapters 296-24 (including Part G-2, Fire protection) and 296-62 WAC.  In the event of conflict between any provision(s) of this chapter and any provision(s) of the general safety and health standards, the provision(s) of this chapter shall apply.

(7) The provisions of this standard do not apply to industrial fire brigades, as defined in this chapter. Industrial fire brigades are covered under the provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part G-2, Fire protection.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-01003, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-01005
Definitions.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, words used in this chapter shall have the meaning given in this section.

Accident: An unexpected event that interrupts or interferes with the orderly progress of the fire department operations and may or may not include personal injury or property damage.

Accountability system: A system of fire fighter accountability that provides for the tracking and inventory of all members.

ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

Aerial ladder: A ladder mounted on top of an apparatus, hydraulic or pneumatic controlled.

Aerial tower: Telescopic elevating platform or water tower assembly usually with a ladder on top of the section.

Aerial platform: A device consisting of two or more booms or sections with a passenger carrying platform assembly.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

Apparatus: A mobile piece of fire equipment such as a pumper, aerial, tender, automobile, etc.

Approved:

(1) A method, equipment, procedure, practice, tool, etc., which is sanctioned, consented to, confirmed or accepted as good or satisfactory for a particular purpose or use by a person, or organization authorized to make such a judgment.

(2) Means approved by the director of the department of labor and industries or his/her authorized representative: Provided, however, That should a provision of this chapter state that approval by an agency or organization other than the department of labor and industries is required, such as Underwriters' Laboratories or the Bureau of Mines, the provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-1, shall apply.

Audiogram: A chart, graph, or table resulting from an audiometric test showing an individual's hearing threshold levels as a function of frequency.

Authorized person: A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site.

Beacon: A flashing or rotating light.

Bloodborne pathogens: Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans.  These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Blowup (wildfire): Sudden increase in fire intensity or rate of spread sufficient to preclude direct control or to upset existing control plans.  Often accompanied by violent convection and may have other characteristics of a fire storm.

Chemical-protective clothing: Items made from chemical-resistive materials, such as clothing, hood, boots, and gloves, that are designed and configured to protect the wearer's torso, head, arms, legs, hands, and feet from hazardous materials.  Chemical-protective clothing (garments) can be constructed as a single, or multi-piece, garment.  The garment may completely enclose the wearer either by itself or in combination with the wearer's respiratory protection, attached or detachable hood, gloves, and boots.

Chief: The employer representative highest in rank who is responsible for the fire department's operation.

Combat scene: The site where the suppression of a fire or emergency exists.

Confinement: Those procedures taken to keep a material in a defined or local area.

Confined space: Means a space that:

(1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and

(2) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry.); and

(3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

Containment: The actions taken to keep a material in its container (e.g. stop the release of the material or reduce the amount being released.)

Contaminated: The presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of nuisance materials foreign to the normal atmospheres, blood, hazardous waste, or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface.

Contaminated laundry: Laundry which has been soiled with blood or other potentially infectious materials or may contain contaminated sharps.

Contamination: The process of transferring a hazardous material from its source to people, animals, the environment, or equipment, which may act as a carrier.

dBA: A measure of noise level expressed as decibels measured on the "A" scale.

Deck pipe: A permanently mounted device which delivers a large stream of water.

Decontamination:

(1) The physical or chemical process of reducing and preventing the spread of contamination from persons or equipment used at a hazardous materials incident.

(2) The use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles and the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal.

Department: Department of labor and industries.

Director of fire department: The chief or principle administrator of the fire department.

Director: The director of the department of labor and industries, or his/her designated representative.

Disinfection: A procedure which inactivates virtually all recognized pathogenic microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms (example: bacterial endospores) on inanimate objects.

Drill tower: A structure which may or may not be attached to the station and which is principally used for training fire fighters in fire service techniques.

Driver: A person having satisfactorily completed the fire department's "requirements of driver" of a specific piece of fire apparatus.

Emergency: A sudden and unexpected event calling for immediate action.

Emergency incident: A specific emergency operation.

Emergency medical care: The provision of treatment to, and/or transportation of, patients which may include first-aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic life support, advanced life support, and other medical procedures that occur prior to arrival at a hospital or other health care facility.

Emergency operations: Activities of the fire department relating to rescue, fire suppression, emergency medical care, and special operations, including response to the scene of an incident and all functions performed at the scene.

Employee: An employee of an employer who is employed in the business of his/her employer whether by way of manual labor or otherwise and every person in this state who is engaged in the employment of or who is working under an independent contract the essence of which is their personal labor for an employer under this chapter whether by way of manual labor or otherwise.  Also see "Member."

Employer: Any person, firm, corporation, partnership, business trust, legal representative, or other business entity which engages in any business, industry, profession, or activity in this state and employs one or more employees or who contracts with one or more persons, the essence of which is the personal labor of such person or persons and includes the state, counties, cities, and all municipal corporations, public corporations, political subdivisions of the state, and charitable organizations.

Employer representative: A fire department officer authorized by the chief or director of the fire department to act in his/her behalf.

Engine (pumper): A piece of apparatus equipped with hose and a pump for the purpose of supplying water under pressure through hose lines.

Engineering control: Any procedure other than an administrative control that reduces exposures by modifying the source or reducing the exposure to an individual.  Examples of engineering controls include the use of isolation, containment, encapsulation, sound absorbing materials for noise control, and ventilation.

Explosion proof equipment: Equipment enclosed in a case that is capable of withstanding an explosion or a specified gas or vapor which may occur within it and of preventing the ignition of a specified gas or vapor surrounding the enclosure by sparks, flashes, or explosion of the gas or vapor within, and which operates at such an external temperature that it will not ignite a surrounding flammable atmosphere.

Fastest means available: The (nearest-closest) telephone, portable radio, mobile radio, telephone/radio dispatcher or any other mode of mechanical communication.

Fire apparatus: A fire department emergency vehicle used for rescue, fire suppression, or other specialized functions.

Fire boat: A fire department watercraft having a permanent, affixed fire fighting capability.

Fire combat training: Training received by fire fighters on the drill ground, drill tower, or industrial site to maintain the fire fighter's proficiency.

Fire department: An organization providing any or all of the following: Rescue, fire suppression, and other related activities.  For the purposes of this standard the term "Fire Department" shall include any public, private, or military organization engaging in this type of activity.

Fire department facility: Any building or area owned, operated, occupied, or used by a fire department on a routine basis.  This does not include locations where a fire department may be summoned to perform emergency operations or other duties, unless such premises are normally under the control of the fire department.

Fire department safety officer: The member of the fire department assigned and authorized as the principal safety officer to perform the duties and responsibilities specified in this standard.

Fire fighter: A member of a fire department whose duties require the performance of essential fire fighting functions or substantially similar functions.

Fire retardant: Any material used to reduce, stop or prevent the flame spread.

Fly: Extendible sections of ground or aerial ladders.

Foot stand, ladder: Devices attached to inside of beams of ladders that when folded down, provide foot space.

Ground jack: Heavy jacks attached to frame of chassis of aerial-equipped apparatus to provide stability when the aerial portion of the apparatus is used.

Ground mobile attack: The activities of wildland fire fighting with hose lines being used by personnel working around a moving engine.  See mobile attack.

Guideline: An organizational directive that establishes a standard course of action.

Halyard: Rope used on extension ladders for the purpose of raising or lowering fly section(s).  A wire cable may be referred to as a halyard when used on the uppermost fly section(s) of three or four section extension ladders.

Hazard communication program: A procedure to address comprehensively the issue of evaluating the potential hazards of chemicals and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees.  See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part C, Hazard Communications.

Hazardous area: The immediate area where members might be exposed to a hazard.

Hazardous atmosphere: Any atmosphere, either immediately or not immediately dangerous to life or health, which is oxygen deficient or which contains a toxic or disease-producing contaminant.

Hazardous condition: The physical condition or act which is causally related to accident occurrence.  The hazardous condition is related directly to both the accident type and the agency of the accident.

Hazardous material: A substance (solid, liquid, or gas) that when released is capable of creating harm to people, the environment, and property.

Hazardous substances: Substances that present an unusual risk to persons due to properties of toxicity, chemical activity, corrosivity, etiological hazards of similar properties.

HEPA filtration: High efficiency particulate air filtration found in vacuum system capable of filtering 0.3 micron particles with 99.97% efficiency.

Hose bed: Portion of fire apparatus where hose is stored.

Hose tower: A vertical enclosure where hose is hung to dry.

Hot zone: Area immediately surrounding a hazardous materials incident, which extends far enough to prevent adverse effects from hazardous materials releases to personnel outside the zone.  This zone is also referred to as the exclusion zone or the restricted zone in other documents.

Identify: To select or indicate verbally or in writing using recognized standard terms.  To establish the identity of; the fact of being the same as the one described.

IDLH: Immediately dangerous to life and health.

Imminent hazard (danger): An act or condition that is judged to present a danger to persons or property and is so immediate and severe that it requires immediate corrective or preventative action.

Incident commander: The person in overall command of an emergency incident.  This person is responsible for the direction and coordination of the response effort.

Incident command system (ICS): A system that includes: Roles, responsibilities, operating requirements, guidelines and procedures for organizing and operating an on-scene management structure.

Incipient (phase) fire: The beginning of a fire; where the oxygen content in the air has not been significantly reduced and the fire is producing minute amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other gases; the room has a normal temperature and can be controlled or extinguished with a portable fire extinguisher or small hose, e.g., a kitchen stove fire.

Industrial fire brigade: An organized group of employees whose primary employment is other than fire fighting((;)) who are knowledgeable, trained and skilled in ((the safe evacuation of employees during emergency situations, and in assisting in fire fighting operations)) specialized operations based on site-specific hazards present at a single commercial facility or facilities under the same management.

Initial stage (initial action): Shall encompass the control efforts taken by resources which are first to arrive at an incident ((requiring immediate action to prevent or mitigate the loss of life or serious injury to citizenry and fire fighters)).

Injury: Physical damage suffered by a person that requires treatment by a practitioner of medicine (a physician, nurse, paramedic or EMT) within one year of the incident regardless of whether treatment was actually received.

Interior structural fire fighting: The physical activity of fire suppression, rescue or both, inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage. See structural fire fighting.

Life safety or rescue rope: Rope dedicated solely for the purpose of constructing lines for supporting people during rescue, fire fighting, or other emergency operations, or during training evolutions.

Line: Rope when in use.

Live fire training: Any fire set within a structure, tank, pipe, pan, etc., under controlled conditions to facilitate the training of fire fighters under actual fire conditions.

Locking in: The act of securing oneself to a ladder by hooking a leg over a rung and placing top of foot against the other leg or against the ladder.

Manned station: See staffed station.

May: A permissive use or an alternative method to a specified requirement.

Member: A person involved in performing the duties and responsibilities of a fire department under the auspices of the organization.  A fire department member may be a full-time or part-time employee or a paid or unpaid volunteer, may occupy any position or rank within the fire department, and engages in emergency operations.  Also see Employee.

Mobile attack: The act of fighting wildland fires from a moving engine.

Monitor: A portable appliance that delivers a large stream of water.

Mop up: The act of making a wildfire/wildland fire safe after it is controlled, such as extinguishing or removing burning materials along or near the control line, felling snags, trenching logs to prevent rolling.

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

NIIMS: National Interagency Incident Management System.

NIOSH: National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.

Nondestructive testing: A test to determine the characteristics or properties of a material or substance that does not involve its destruction or deterioration.

Nonskid: The surface treatment that lessens the tendency of a foreign substance to reduce the coefficient of friction between opposing surfaces.

Occupational exposure: Means reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties.

Officer: (1) Person in charge of a particular task or assignment.

(2) A supervisor.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Other potentially infectious materials (OPIM): (1) The following body fluids: Semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids;

(2) Any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a human (living or dead); and

(3) HIV-containing cell or tissue cultures, organ cultures, and HIV-or HBV-containing culture medium or other solutions; and blood, organs, or other tissues from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.

Outrigger: Manually or hydraulically operated metal enclosures and jacks which are extended and placed in contact with the ground to give the apparatus a wide, solid base to support different loads.

Overhauling: That portion of fire extinguishment involving discovery of hidden fires or smoldering material.

PASS: Personal alert safety system.

PEL: Permissible exposure limit.

Personal protective equipment (PPE): (1) The equipment provided to shield or isolate a person from the chemical, physical, and thermal hazards that may be encountered at a hazardous materials incident.  Personal protective equipment includes both personal protective clothing and respiratory protection.  Adequate personal protective equipment should protect the respiratory system, skin, eyes, face, hands, feet, head, body, and hearing.

(2) Specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against a hazard.  General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts, or blouses) not intended to function as protection against a hazard are not considered to be personal protective equipment.

Place of employment: Any premises, room or other place where an employee or employees are employed for the performance of labor or service over which the employer has the right of access or control.  For the purposes of this code, fireground and emergency scenes are also considered places of employment.

Platform: The portion of a telescoping or articulating boom used as a working surface.

Positive communication: Visual, audible, physical, safety guide rope, or electronic means which allows for two way message generation and reception.

PPE: Personal protective equipment.

Prefire training: The training of fire fighters in recognizing sources and locations of potential fires and the method of fire combat to be used.

Probable fatality: (1) An occupational injury or illness, which, by the doctor's prognosis, could lead to death.

(2) An occupational injury or illness, which by its very nature, is considered life threatening.

Protective clothing: Equipment designed to protect the wearer from heat and/or hazardous materials contacting the skin or eyes.  Protective clothing is divided into five types:

(1) Structural fire fighting protective clothing;

(2) Liquid splash-protective clothing;

(3) Vapor-protective clothing;

(4) High temperature-protective proximity clothing; and

(5) Wildland fire fighting clothing.


Note: See Protective ensemble.


Protective ensemble: Multiple elements of clothing and equipment designed to provide a degree of protection for fire fighters from adverse exposures to the inherent risks of structural fire fighting operations and certain other emergency operations.  The elements of the protective ensemble are helmets, coats, trousers, gloves, footwear, interface components (hoods), and if applicable, personal alert system (PASS) devices, and self-contained breathing apparatus.

Proximity protective clothing: Radiant reflective protective garments configured as a coat and trousers, or as a coverall, and interface components that are designed to provide protection for the fire fighter's body from conductive, convective, and radiant heat.

Pumper: See engine.

Qualified: One who by possession of a recognized degree, certificate or professional standing, or who by knowledge, training or experience has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter, the work or the project.

Rapid intervention team (RIT): On-scene team of at least two members designated, dedicated and equipped to effect an immediate rescue operation if the need arises.

RCW: Revised Code of Washington.

Rescue: Those activities directed at locating endangered persons at an emergency incident and removing those persons from danger.

Rescue craft: Any fire department watercraft used for rescue operations.

Respirator: A device designed to protect the wearer from breathing harmful atmospheres. See respiratory protection.

Respiratory equipment: Self-contained breathing apparatus designed to provide the wearer with a supply of respirable atmosphere carried in or generated by the breathing apparatus.  When in use, this breathing apparatus requires no intake of air or oxygen from the outside atmosphere.

(1) Respirators (closed circuit): Those types of respirators which retain exhaled air in the system and recondition such air for breathing again.

(2) Respirators (open circuit): Those types of respirators which exhaust exhaled air to the outside of the mask into the ambient air.

(3) Respirators (demand): Those types of respirators whose input air to the mask is started when a negative pressure is generated by inhalation.

(4) Respirators (pressure demand): Those types of respirators which constantly and automatically maintain a positive pressure in the mask by the introduction of air when the positive pressure is lowered (usually from .018 psi to .064 psi) through the process of inhalation or leakage from the mask.

Respiratory protection: Equipment designed to protect the wearer from the inhalation of contaminants.  Respiratory protection is divided into three types:

(1) Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA);

(2) Positive pressure airline respirators;

(3) Negative pressure air purifying respirators.

Responding: The usual reference to the act of responding or traveling to an alarm or request for assistance.

Risk assessment: To set or determine the possibility of suffering harm or loss, and to what extent.

Safe and healthful working environment: The work surroundings of an employee with minimum exposure to unsafe acts and/or unsafe conditions.

Safety officer: Either the fire department safety officer or an assistant safety officer (see fire department safety officer).

Safety net: A rope or nylon strap net not to exceed 6-inch mesh, stretched and suspended above ground level at the base of drill tower, and at such a height that a falling body would be arrested prior to striking the ground.

Scabbard: A guard which will prevent accidental injury and covers the blade and pick of an axe or other sharp instrument when worn by the fire fighter.

SCBA: Self contained breathing apparatus.

Service testing: The regular, periodic inspection and testing of apparatus and equipment according to an established schedule and procedure, to insure that it is in safe and functional operating condition.

Shall: Mandatory.

Should: Recommended.

Signalman: A person so positioned that he/she can direct the driver when the drivers vision is obstructed or obscured.

SOP: Standard operating procedure or guidelines.

Staffed station: A fire station continuously occupied by fire fighters on scheduled work shifts.  The staffed station may also serve as headquarters for volunteers.

Standard operating procedure or guidelines: An organizational directive that establishes a standard course of action.  See SOP.

Station (fire station): Structure in which fire service apparatus and/or personnel are housed.

Structural fire fighting: The activities of rescuing, fire suppression, and property conservation involving buildings, enclosed structures, vehicles, vessels, or similar properties that are involved in a fire or emergency situation. See interior structural fire fighting.

Structural fire fighting protective clothing: This category of clothing, often called turnout or bunker gear, means the protective clothing normally worn by fire fighters during structural fire fighting operations.  It includes a helmet, coat, pants, boots, gloves, and a hood.  Structural fire fighters' protective clothing provides limited protection from heat but may not provide adequate protection from the harmful gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts that are encountered during hazardous materials incidents.

Support function: A hazardous chemical operation involving controlled chemical uses or exposures in nonflammable atmospheres with minimum threats in loss of life, personnel injury, or damage to property or to the environment.  Functions include decontamination, remedial cleanup of identified chemicals, and training.

Support function protective garment: A chemical-protective suit that meets the requirements of NFPA Standard on Support Function Garments, 1993.

Tail/running board: Standing space on the side or rear of an engine or pumper apparatus.

Team: Two or more individuals who are working together in positive communication with each other through visual, audible, physical, safety guide rope, electronic, or other means to coordinate their activities and who are in close proximity to each other to provide assistance in case of emergency.

Tillerman: Rear driver of tractor-trailer aerial ladder.

Trench: A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground.  The depth is generally greater than the width, but the width of a trench is not greater than 15 feet.

Turnout clothing: See structural fire fighting protective clothing.

Turntable: The rotating surface located at the base of an aerial ladder, or boom, on aerial apparatus.

Universal precaution: An approach to infection control.  According to the concept of universal precautions, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens.

Vapor barrier: Material used to prevent or substantially inhibit the transfer of water, corrosive liquids and steam or other hot vapors from the outside of a garment to the wearer's body.

Variance: An allowed or authorized deviation from specific standard(s) when an employer substitutes measures which afford an equal degree of safety.  Variances are issued as temporary or permanent with interim measures issued, when requested, until a determination or decision is made.

Vessel: Means every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water, including special-purpose floating structures not primarily designed for or used as a means of transportation on water.

WAC: Washington Administrative Code.

Wheel blocks (chocks): A block or wedge placed under a wheel to prevent motion.

Wildfire: An unplanned and unwanted fire requiring suppression action; an uncontrolled fire, usually spreading through vegetative fuels and often threatening structures.

Wildland fire: A fire burning in natural vegetation that requires an individual or crew(s) to expend more than one hour of labor to confine, control and extinguish.  Agencies may substitute crews to avoid the one hour bench mark or increase crew size to complete the job in less than one hour.  One hour was chosen as the maximum time that individuals should work in high temperatures in structural protective clothing.

Wildland fire fighting enclosure: A fire apparatus enclosure with a minimum of three sides and a bottom.

WISHA: Washington Industrial Safety Health Act.

Work environment: The surrounding conditions, influences or forces to which an employee is exposed while working.

Workplace: See place of employment.

WRD: WISHA regional directive.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-01005, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-01509
Management's responsibility.

(1) It shall be the responsibility of management to establish, supervise, maintain, and enforce, in a manner which is effective in practice:

(a) A safe and healthful working environment, as it applies to noncombat conditions or to combat conditions at a fire scene after the fire has been extinguished, as determined by the officer in charge.

(b) An accident prevention program as required by this chapter.

(c) Programs for training employees in the fundamentals of accident prevention.

(d) Procedures to be used by the fire department safety officer and incident commander to ensure that emergency medical care is provided for members on duty.

(e) An accident investigation program as required by this chapter.

(2) The fire department shall be responsible for providing suitable expertise to comply with all testing requirements in this chapter.  Such expertise may be secured from within the fire department, from equipment and apparatus manufacturers, or other suitable sources.

(3) Members who are under the influence of alcohol or drugs shall not participate in any fire department operations or other functions.  This rule does not apply to persons taking prescription drugs as directed by a physician or dentist providing such use does not endanger the worker or others.

(4) Alcoholic beverages shall not be allowed in station houses, except at those times when station houses are used as community centers, with the approval of management.

(5) A bulletin board or posting area exclusively for safety and health and large enough to display the required safety and health posters.  The WISHA poster (WISHA form F416-081-000) and other safety education material shall be provided.  A bulletin board of "white background" and "green trim" is recommended.

(6) The fire department shall develop and maintain a hazard communication program as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part C, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may routinely be exposed to, in the course of their employment.

(7) Personnel.

(a) The employer shall assure that employees who are expected to do interior structural fire fighting are physically capable of performing duties that may be assigned to them during emergencies.

(b) The employer shall not permit employees with known physical limitations reasonably identifiable to the employer, for example, heart disease or seizure disorder, to participate in structural fire fighting emergency activities unless the employee has been released by a physician to participate in such activities.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-01509, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-02001
Personal protective equipment and protective clothing.


Note: For wildland fire fighting personal protective equipment and clothing requirements see WAC 296-305-07003, Personal protective clothing and equipment for wildland fire fighting.


(1) Employers shall provide and maintain at no cost to the employee the appropriate protective ensemble/protective clothing to protect from the hazards to which the member is or is likely to be exposed.  Employers shall ensure the use of all protective equipment and clothing required by this standard.  Employers shall assure that the protective clothing and equipment ordered or purchased after the effective date of this standard meets the requirements of this standard.  Full protective equipment designated for the task, shall be worn for all department activities.

(2) Fire fighters shall be trained in the function, donning and doffing, care, use, inspection, maintenance and limitations of the protective equipment assigned to them or available for their use.

(3) Protective clothing and protective equipment shall be used and maintained in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.  A written maintenance, repair, retirement, servicing, and inspection program shall be established for protective clothing and equipment.  Specific responsibilities shall be assigned for inspection and maintenance.  This requirement applies to fire fighter's personally owned equipment as well as equipment issued by the employer.

(4) The fire department shall provide for the cleaning of protective clothing and contaminated station/work uniforms at no cost to the employee.  Such cleaning shall be performed by either a cleaning service, or at a fire department facility, that is equipped to handle contaminated clothing.


Note: See Appendix A.


(5) Personal protective equipment and clothing shall be of a type specified by NIOSH, MSHA, NFPA, ANSI, or as specifically referenced in the appropriate section of this chapter.

(6) Station/work uniforms.  Station/work uniforms are not themselves intended as primary protective garments.

(a) Station/work uniforms if provided, shall meet the requirements as specified in ((NFPA 1975,)) the 1990 or 1994 edition of NFPA 1975.

(b) All station/work uniforms purchased after the effective date of this regulation shall meet the requirements set forth in this standard.

(c) Station/work uniforms include trousers, and/or coveralls, but exclude shirts, underwear, and socks.

(d) Members shall not wear any clothing that is determined to be unsafe due to poor thermal stability or poor flame resistance when engaged in or exposed to the hazards of structural fire fighting.  Because it is impossible to ensure that every member will respond to an incident in a station/work uniform or will change out of fabrics that have poor thermal stability or ignite easily, before donning protective garments, the fire department shall inform members of the hazards of fabrics that melt, drip, burn, stick to the skin and cause burns to the wearer due to poor thermal stability or poor flame resistance.

(e) Garments meeting the requirements of WAC 296-305-07003(1), meet the intent of this section.

(f) Station/work uniforms purchased prior to the effective date of this chapter shall be acceptable for a period of two years or until the employers current inventory has been exhausted, whichever comes first.

(7) Turnout clothing/pants and coat:

Proximity clothing:

(a) All turnout clothing used as proximity clothing shall meet the requirements of NFPA, 1976 Standard on Protective Clothing for Proximity Fire Fighting, 1992 edition.

(b) There shall be at least a two-inch overlap of all layers of the protective coat and the protective trousers so there is no gaping of the total thermal protection when the protective garments are worn.  The minimum overlap shall be determined by measuring the garments on the wearer, without SCBA, with the wearer in the most stretched position, hands together reaching overhead as high as possible.

(c) Single piece protective coveralls shall not be required to have an overlap of all layers as long as there is continuous full thermal protection.

(d) Fire departments that provide protective coats with protective resilient wristlets secured through a thumb opening may provide gloves of the gauntlet type for use with these protective coats.  Fire departments that do not provide such wristlets attached to all protective coats shall provide gloves of the wristlet type for use with these protective coats.

(((e) Where the SCBA is worn over or outside the proximity protective garment, the fire department shall inform the member of the potential high levels of radiant heat that may result in the failure of the SCBA.  The fire department shall require additional approved radiant reflective criteria, including but not limited to a protective cover, for the expected proximity fire fighting exposures when the SCBA is worn over or outside the proximity protective garment.))

(8) Structural fire fighting clothing.

(a) All turnout clothing purchased after the effective date of these regulations shall meet the requirements of ((NFPA, Standard on Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting 1971, 1991 edition)) the 1991 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting 1971 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971.  In no case, shall fire fighters wear personal protective clothing manufactured prior to the 1986 edition, NFPA, Standard on Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting 1971.

(b) Turnout clothing shall be maintained as specified by the manufacturer.

(c) Repairs to turnout clothing shall be done to the manufacturers specification by qualified individuals approved by the manufacturer.  Repairs must be made using materials and methods in accordance with the applicable standards under which the article was produced.  Repairs include any and all alterations, modifications, additions, deletions or any other change made to the manufacturers PPE article.

(d) Turnout clothing which is damaged or does not comply with this section shall not be used.

(e) All turnout clothing shall be inspected semi-annually by an individual qualified by the employer.  Inspection intervals shall not exceed six months.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-02001, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-02003
Eye and face protection.

(1) Face and eye protection shall be provided for and used by fire fighters engaged in fire suppression and other operations involving hazards to the eye and face at all times when the face is not protected by the full facepiece of the SCBA. Primary face and eye protection appropriate for a given specific hazard shall be provided for, and used by, members exposed to that specific hazard. Such primary face and eye protection shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z87.1, 1989 edition.

(2) Persons whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses in spectacles, and who are required by this standard to wear eye protection, shall wear goggles or spectacles of one of the following types:

(a) Spectacles with protective lenses that provide optical correction.

(b) Goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of the spectacles.

(c) Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective lens.

(3) When limitations or precautions are indicated by the manufacturer, they shall be transmitted to the user and care taken to see such limitations and precautions are strictly observed.

(4) Care, use, and maintenance for any type of eye or face protection shall follow the manufacturers suggested recommendations.

(5) Goggles shall be inspected, cleaned and disinfected prior to being reissued to other employees.


Note: The helmet face shield alone does not always provide adequate eye protection against flying particles, splash, gases and vapors.  For known eye hazards, such as, but not limited to, cutting with power saws, chopping, drilling and using extrication equipment, the face shield should be worn with additional eye protection.


(6) Helmet face shields shall meet the requirements of NFPA, Standard Helmets for Structural Fire Fighting 1972, 1992 edition.

(7) For fire fighters that do not have a helmet face shield for eye and face protection, flexible or cushioned fitting goggles shall be provided.

(8) Goggles shall consist of a wholly flexible frame, forming a lens holder or a rigid frame with integral lens or lenses, having a separate, cushioned fitting surface on the full periphery of the facial contact area.

(a) Materials used shall be chemical-resistant, nontoxic, nonirritating and slow burning.

(b) There shall be a positive means of support on the face, such as an adjustable headband of suitable material or other appropriate means of support to retain the frame comfortable and snugly in front of the eyes.

(((c) Goggles shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z87.1.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-02003, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-02007
Hand protection.

(1) Fire fighters' gloves shall when worn with turnout clothing, provide protection to the wrist area.  In turnout clothing where wristlet protection is not provided fire fighters' gloves shall be closed at the top.

(2) Fire departments shall establish written policy and procedure for the care, use, cleaning, replacement and/or retirement criteria, and maintenance of gloves issued.

(3) Gloves purchased after the effective date of this chapter shall comply with this section.

(4) Fire fighters' gloves used during structural fire fighting operations including rescue of victims from fires, and emergency medical operations where sharp or rough surfaces are likely to be encountered such as victim extrications shall meet the requirements of ((NFPA, Standard on Gloves for Structural Fire Fighting 1973, 1993 edition)) the 1993 edition of NFPA, Standard on Gloves for Structural Fire Fighting 1973 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971.

(5) Fire fighters gloves are not designed to provide protection to all environments.  For gloves desired to fill the needs of a specific requirement see that specific section of this chapter.  It is the intent of this section to provide protection from intrusion throughout the glove body by certain common chemicals, and from bloodborne pathogens.  Fire departments shall consult the manufacturer's recommendation.

Note: Fire fighters should have their hands sized for compliance with the sizing chart as specified in NFPA, Standard on Gloves for Structural Fire Fighting 1973, 1993 edition.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-02007, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-02013
Foot protection for structural fire fighting.

(1) Protective footwear purchased after the effective date of this standard shall comply with ((NFPA 1974, Standard on Protective Footwear for Structural Fire Fighting, 1992 edition)) the 1992 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Footwear for Structural Fire Fighting 1974 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971.

(2) Fire departments shall establish written policy and procedure, care, use, maintenance, and retirement criteria for footwear in conjunction with the manufacturer's recommendations.


Note: Fire departments should establish cleaning and drying instruction including applicable warning regarding detergents, soaps, cleaning additives and bleaches for protective footwear.


(3) Fire fighter footwear may be resoled but the footwear upon resoling shall meet the requirements specified in this section.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-02013, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-02015
Head protection.

(1) Fire fighters who engage in or are exposed to the hazards of structural fire fighting shall be provided with and use helmets that meet the requirements of NFPA 1972, Standard on Helmets for Structural Fire Fighting, 1987 edition.

(2) Helmets purchased thirty days after the adoption of this chapter shall meet the requirements of ((NFPA, Standard on Helmets for Structural Fire Fighting 1972, 1992 edition)) the 1992 edition of NFPA, Standard on Helmets for Structural Fire Fighting 1972 or the 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 1971.

(3) Fire departments shall establish a written policy and procedure for the care, use, maintenance, and retirement criteria for helmets.

(4) Helmets shall be provided with face shields or goggles.

(5) Helmet accessories shall not interfere with the function of the helmet or its components parts and shall not degrade the helmets performance.

(6) Helmets shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.  No modifications shall be made without prior written approval from the manufacturer.

(7) Fire fighters shall follow the manufacturer's recommendations regarding cleaning, painting, marking, storage, and frequency and details of inspection.

Note: Helmets should be stored at room temperature and out of direct sunlight.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-02015, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-04001
Respiratory equipment protection.

(1) Fire fighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) shall:

(a) Be pressure demand type (positive pressure);

(b) Operate in the positive pressure mode only;

(c) Have a minimum of thirty minutes service duration;

(d) Be NIOSH certified; and

(e) Meet the requirements of ((NFPA, Standard on Open Circuit Self Contained Breathing Apparatus for Fire Fighters 1981, 1992 edition)) the 1992 or 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Open Circuit Self Contained Breathing Apparatus for Fire Fighters 1981.

(2) Closed circuit SCBA shall:

(a) Be positive pressure;

(b) Be NIOSH certified; and

(c) Have a minimum thirty-minute service duration.

(3) Members using SCBA's shall operate in teams of two or more.

(4) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, fire departments shall adopt ((and)), maintain and implement a written respiratory protection program that addresses the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, Respiratory protection and Part I-1, Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite.  This includes program administration, medical limitations, equipment limitations, equipment selection, inspection, use, maintenance, training, fit testing procedures, air quality, and program evaluation.


Note: Additional information on respirators and respirator usage can be found in ANSI Z88.2 - American National Standard for Respiratory Protection; ANSI Z88.5 - Practices for Respiratory Protection for Fire Service; various NFPA publications (1981, 1404, 1500, etc.), and the Washington State Fire Service Training Program for respiratory training and usage.


(5) When fire departments purchase compressed breathing air from a vendor, the fire department shall require the vendor to provide certification and documentation of breathing air quality ((quarterly)) as specified in subsection (((22))) (21) of this section and in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(6) When the fire department makes its own breathing air or uses vendor purchased breathing air, the air quality from compressors, cascade systems cylinders, shall be tested at least quarterly as specified in subsection (((22))) (21) of this section.

(7) ((Qualitative or quantitative)) Fit testing shall be conducted in accordance with this section and chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, Respiratory protection.

(a) Each new member shall be tested before being permitted to use SCBA's in a hazardous atmosphere.

(b) Only fire fighters with a properly fitting facepiece shall be permitted by the fire department to function in a hazardous atmosphere with SCBA.  (Reference WAC 296-62-07115(3) Respiratory Sealing Problems.)

(c) Fit testing shall be repeated:

(i) At least once every twelve months.

(ii) Whenever there are changes in the type of SCBA or facepiece used.

(iii) Whenever there are significant physical changes in the user.  Example: Weight change of ten percent or more, scarring of face seal area, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or any other condition that may affect the fit of the facepiece seal.

(d) The fit testing is done only in a negative-pressure mode.  If the facepiece is modified for fit testing, the modification shall not affect the normal fit of the device.  Such modified devices shall only be used for fit testing.

(e) The fit test procedures and test exercises described in WAC 296-62-07739, Asbestos, Appendix C, shall be followed unless stated otherwise in this chapter.

(f) Respirator fit test records shall include:

(i) Written guidelines for the respirator fit testing program including pass/fail criteria;

(ii) Type of respirator tested including manufacturer, model, and size;

(iii) Type of fit test and instrumentation or equipment used;

(iv) Name or identification of test operator;

(v) Name of person tested;

(vi) Date of test; and

(vii) Results of test.


Note: Fire fighters should be issued individual facepieces.


(8) Facial hair, contact lenses, and eye and face protective devices.

(a) A negative pressure respirator, any self-contained breathing apparatus, or any respirator which is used in an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) equipped with a facepiece shall not be worn if facial hair comes between the sealing periphery of the facepiece and the face or if facial hair interferes with the valve function.

(b) The wearer of a respirator shall not be allowed to wear contact lenses if the risk of eye damage is increased by their use.

(c) If a spectacle, goggle, or face shield must be worn with a facepiece, it shall be worn so as to not adversely affect the seal of the facepiece to the face.  See WAC 296-62-07115(3).

(d) Straps or temple bars shall not pass between the seal or surface of the respirator and the user's face.

(9) At the end of suppression activities (to include fire overhaul) and before returning to quarters:

(a) Fire fighters shall be decontaminated prior to removal of respirators whenever fire fighting activities resulted in exposure to a hazardous substance.

(b) When exchanging air supply bottles during suppression or overhaul activities, reasonable precautions shall be taken to maintain uncontaminated atmosphere to the breathing zone and facepiece supply hose.

(10) Self-contained respiratory equipment shall be available and used by all fire fighters who enter into hazardous atmospheres during structural fire fighting activities.

(((a))) (11) Positive pressure air line respirators may be used only for atmospheres other than IDLH and must be equipped with a five minute minimum capacity positive pressure escape bottle.

(((b) The self-contained air supply shall only be used for escape unless the service life of the air supply is greater than fifteen minutes.

(c) If the service life of the self-contained air supply is greater than fifteen minutes, it may be used to enter an IDLH atmosphere breathing from the self-contained air supply, provided that not more than twenty percent of the noted air supply is used during entry.

(11))) (a) If the service life of the auxiliary air supply is fifteen minutes or less it shall not be used for entry into an IDLH atmosphere but it may be used for escape purposes. The auxiliary air supply may be used for entry into an IDLH atmosphere only when the service life of the unit exceeds fifteen minutes and when not more than twenty percent of the noted air supply will be used during entry.

(b) The maximum length of hose for supplied air respirators is 300 feet (91 meters).  Such hose shall be heavy duty nonkinking and NIOSH approved.

(12) Respirators shall be provided for, and shall be used by, all personnel working in areas where:

(a) The atmosphere is hazardous;

(b) The atmosphere is suspected of being hazardous; or

(c) The atmosphere may rapidly become hazardous;

(13) Anytime fire fighters are working inside a confined space, such persons shall be provided with SCBA or air line respirator with escape bottle, and shall use the equipment unless the safety of the atmosphere can be established by testing and continuous monitoring.

(14) Fire fighters using a properly functioning SCBA shall not compromise the protective integrity of the SCBA by removing the facepiece for any reason in hazardous atmospheres or in atmospheres where the quality of air is unknown.

(15) Fire fighters shall receive training for each type and manufacturer of respiratory equipment available for their use, the step-by-step procedure for donning the respirator and checking it for proper function.  Required training shall include:

(a) Recognizing hazards that may be encountered;

(b) Understanding the components of the ((SCBA)) respirator;

(c) Understanding the safety features and limitations of the ((SCBA)) respirator; and

(d) Donning and doffing the ((SCBA)) respirator.

(16) After completing such training, each fire fighter shall practice at least quarterly, for each type and manufacture of respirator available for use, the step-by-step procedure for donning the respirator and checking it for proper function.

(17) Members shall be tested at least annually on the knowledge of ((SCBA)) respiratory protection equipment operation, safety, organizational policies and procedures, and facepiece seals, to the fire department's standard.  Such records shall remain part of the member training file.

(18) Members shall be allowed to use only the make, model, and size respirator for which they have passed a fit test within the last twelve months.

(19) In cases where there is a reported failure of ((an SCBA the unit)) a respirator, it shall be removed from service, tagged and recorded as such, and tested before being returned to service.

(20) Fire fighters shall be thoroughly trained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions on emergency procedures such as use of regulator bypass valve, corrective action for facepiece and breathing tube damage, and breathing directly from the regulator (where applicable).

(21) Compressed gaseous breathing air in the SCBA cylinder shall meet the requirements of ANSI/CGA G7.1 - Commodity Specification for Air, with a minimum air quality of grade D, as well as meeting a water vapor level of 24 ppm or less.

(22) SCBA cylinders shall be hydrostatically tested within the periods specified by the manufacturer and the applicable governmental agencies.

Additional reference: Chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-04001, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-04501
Automotive fire apparatus design and construction.

(1) All new fire apparatus with the exception of specialized equipment, shall conform to the following minimum safety standards contained in NFPA Booklets No. 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, and other 1900's.

(2) Fire apparatus, purchased after December 17, 1977, weighing 10,000 pounds or more shall conform with the following U.S. Department of Transportation standards, when applicable:

(a) ((571-121 Standard 121, Air brake systems;

(b) 571-106 Standard 106, Hydraulic brake hoses;

(c) 571-211 Standard 211, Wheel nuts, wheel discs, hub caps.)) 49 CFR Ch. V (10-93 edition) 571.121 "Air brake systems";

(b) 49 CFR Ch. V (10-93 edition) 571.106 "Hydraulic brake hoses";

(c) 49 CFR Ch. V (10-93 edition) 571-211 "Hydraulic brake hoses".

(3) Employers acquiring used apparatus or used equipment shall not be required to bring it under a more stringent code than the one in force at the time the apparatus was manufactured.  However, such vehicle must meet applicable U.S. Department of Transportation standards and WAC 296-24-233.

(4) Fire apparatus tailboards and steps shall have a nonskid rough surface.

(5) Exhaust systems shall be installed and maintained in proper condition, and shall be so designed as to minimize the exposure of the fire fighter to the exhaust gases and fumes.

(6) Spinner knobs shall not be attached to the steering handwheel of fire apparatus.

(7) The transmission shifting pattern of the apparatus shall be clearly stenciled or labeled and posted so it can be clearly read by the driver while operating the apparatus.

(8) The height of any apparatus, over seven feet in height from the ground to the top of the beacon or highest point of the apparatus, shall be clearly labeled in a place where it can be easily and clearly read by the driver while operating the apparatus.

(9) All apparatus in excess of 10,000 pounds loaded weight, shall have the weight of the vehicle in pounds and tons clearly labeled in a place where it can be easily and clearly read by the driver while operating the apparatus.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-04501, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-04503
Automotive fire apparatus equipment.

(1) Vehicles used to transport fire fighters and employer representatives shall have compartments for carrying sharp tools, saws, chisels, axes, etc., or if carried on the outside of the apparatus, equipment with sharp points and edges shall be covered to prevent injury to fire fighters and employer representatives.

(2) Personnel restraints for traveling.

(a) All persons riding on fire apparatus shall be seated and secured to the vehicle by seatbelts or safety harnesses at any time the vehicle is in motion.

(b) Seatbelts shall comply with U.S. Department of Transportation Part 49 CFR Section 571, Standards 209 and 210.

(c) Riding on tailsteps or in any other exposed position such as sidesteps or running boards shall be specifically prohibited.

(d) Standing while riding shall be specifically prohibited.

(e) Members actively performing necessary emergency medical care while the vehicle is in motion shall be restrained to the extent consistent with the effective provision of such emergency medical care. All other persons in the vehicle shall be seated and belted in approved seating positions while the vehicle is in motion.

(f) Fire departments permitting hose loading operations while the vehicle is in motion shall develop a written policy and guidelines addressing all safety aspects.


Note: Policy and operating guidelines should address:
The assigning of a member as a safety observer who should have an unobstructed view of the hose loading operation and be in visual and voice contact with the driver.
Allowed maximum fire apparatus speed when hose loading;
Control of nonfire department vehicular traffic; and
Allowing members in the hose bed, but limit standing to only when the vehicle is not moving.


Note: See WAC 296-305-07011(3) for exceptions for wildland vehicles.


(3) Each fire apparatus shall carry a current U.S. Department of Transportation chemical identification book or the equivalent.

(4) Ladders stowed on the sides of apparatus, which protrude past the tailboard, shall have guards over the protruding ends.

(5) No employer shall permit automotive fire apparatus equipment which has an obstructed view to the rear, to be used in reverse gear unless the equipment has in operation a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from the surrounding noise level.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-04503, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-05001
Emergency fireground operations--Structural.

(1) The fire department shall establish an incident command system (ICS) with written guidelines applying to all members involved in emergency operations.  All members involved in emergency operations shall be familiar with the ICS system.  Personnel shall be trained and qualified by their department in the incident command system prior to taking a supervisory role at an emergency scene.

(2) At an emergency incident, the incident commander shall be responsible for the overall safety of all members and all activities occurring at the scene.

(3) All emergency incidents shall be managed by an ICS((,)); the incident commander shall establish an organization with sufficient supervisory personnel to control the position and function of all members operating at the scene and to ensure that safety requirements are satisfied.

(4) At an emergency incident, the incident commander shall have the responsibility to:

(a) Assume and confirm command and take an effective command position.

(b) Perform situation evaluation that includes risk assessment.

(c) Initiate, maintain, and control incident communication.

(d) Develop an overall strategy and attack plan and assign units to operations.

(e) Develop an effective incident organization by managing resources, maintaining an effective span of control, and maintaining direct supervision over the entire incident by creating geographical and/or functional areas as appropriate for the scope and size of the incident.

(f) Review, evaluate, and revise the operational plan as required.

(g) Continue, transfer, and terminate command.

(5) The fire department shall develop a risk management policy that can be implemented into the function of incident command and the development of incident strategies.

The risk management policy should include direction and guidance to the incident commander in formulating incident planning relating to the level of risk that may be undertaken in any given incident to save lives and to save property in as safe a manner as dictated by the situation.

(6) The fire department shall establish written procedures and guidelines for tracking all members operating at an emergency incident.

(7) The incident command system shall provide for control of access to hazardous areas of the incident scene by department members.

(8) Fire fighters operating in hazardous areas at emergency structural fire incidents shall operate in teams of two or more.

Team members operating in hazardous areas shall be in communication with each other through visual, audible, physical, safety guide rope, or electronic means, or by other means in order to coordinate their activities.  Team members shall be in close proximity to each other to provide assistance in case of emergency.

(9) The fire department shall provide personnel for the rescue of members operating at emergency incidents as the need arises.

(10) ((In the "initial stage" of a structure fire-incident where only one team is operating in the hazardous area, at least one additional fire fighter shall be assigned to stand by outside of the hazardous area where the team is operating.

(a) The responsibility of the standby fire fighter shall be the maintaining awareness of the status of fire fighters in the hazardous area.

(b) The standby fire fighter shall remain in positive communication with the entry team, in full protective clothing with SCBA donned, in the standby mode.

(c) The standby fire fighter shall be permitted to perform other duties outside the hazardous area, provided constant communications is maintained with the team in the hazardous area.

(11) Once additional crews are on the scene and assigned, the incident shall no longer be considered in the initial stage.  At this point, the incident commander shall evaluate the situation and risks to operating crews.  First and primary consideration shall be given to providing a rapid intervention team(s) commensurately with the needs of the situation.

(a) A rapid intervention team shall consist of at least two members and shall be available for the rescue of a member or a crew if the need arises.

(b) A rapid intervention team(s) shall be fully equipped with the appropriate protective clothing, protective equipment, SCBA, and specialized rescue equipment needed, based on the specifics of the operation underway.

(c) The composition and structure of rapid intervention teams shall be flexible based on the type of incident, the size and complexity of the operation.)) Before beginning interior structural fire fighting operations, the incident commander must evaluate the situation and risks to operating teams.

(a) Except as provided in WAC 296-305-05001(11), fire fighters must not engage in interior structural fire fighting in the absence of at least two standby fire fighters.

(b) All standby fire fighters must be fully equipped with the appropriate protective clothing, protective equipment and SCBA.

(c) Standby members must remain aware of the status of fire fighters in the hazardous area.

(d) Standby members must remain in positive communication with the entry team(s), in full protective clothing the SCBA donned in the standby mode.

(e) Standby members may be permitted to perform other duties outside the hazardous area, provided constant communication is maintained between a standby member and the entry team(s), and provided that those duties will not interfere with the standby members' ability to participate in a rescue as appropriate.

(f) Early consideration should be given to providing one or more rapid intervention teams commensurate with the needs of the situation.

(11) In the "initial stage" of a structure fire-incident where only one team is operating in the hazardous area, where additional resources can reasonably be expected, and where exceptional circumstances indicate that immediate action may be necessary to prevent or mitigate the loss of life or serious injury to citizenry or fire fighters, at least one additional fire fighter must be assigned to stand by outside the hazardous area where the team is operating.

(a) The standby fire fighter must remain aware of the status of fire fighters in the hazardous area.

(b) The standby fire fighter must remain in positive communication with the entry team, in full protective clothing with SCBA donned in the standby mode.

(c) The standby fire fighter may be permitted to perform other duties outside the hazardous area, provided constant communications is maintained with the team in the hazardous area, and provided that those duties will not interfere with his or her ability to initiate a rescue as appropriate.

(d) Once additional resources have arrived on the scene, the incident must no longer be considered in its initial stage and all the requirements of WAC 296-305-05001(10) must be met.


Note: Nothing in this section shall prevent activities which may reasonably be taken by members first on the scene to determine the nature and extent of fire involvement.

(12) The fire department shall develop and maintain written guidelines for the safety of members at incidents that involve violence, unrest, or civil disturbance.  Such situations may include but not be limited to riots, fights, violent crimes, drug related situations, family disturbances, deranged individuals, and people interfering with fire department operations.

(13) Officers at emergency scenes shall maintain an awareness of the physical condition of members operating within their span of control and ensure that adequate steps are taken to provide for their safety and health.  The command structure shall be utilized to request relief and reassignment of fatigued crews.

(14) Wildfire suppression personal protective clothing/equipment shall not be utilized for interior attacks on structures.

(15) Teams in the hazardous area shall have positive communication capabilities with the incident command structure.  Incident radio communication capabilities within the incident command structure shall include monitoring of incident-assigned frequencies (including mutual aid radio frequencies).

(16) Prior to overhaul, buildings shall be surveyed for possible safety and health hazards.  Fire fighters shall be informed of hazards observed during the survey.

(17) During the overhaul phase officers shall identify materials likely to contain asbestos, limiting the breaching of structural materials to that which is necessary to prevent rekindle.

(18) Floatation devices shall be made available to fire fighters at incidents where drowning is a possibility.  This is not intended to include pools and hot tubs.

(19) Fire fighters shall not cut the electrical drip loop providing power to the structure nor pull the electrical meter.

(20) Traffic cones or other traffic control devices shall be utilized when vehicular traffic hazards exist at an emergency operation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-05001, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-05007
Trench rescue operations.

(1) Fire departments that engage in trench rescue operations shall adopt and maintain a written response program that addresses training and procedures to follow in emergency life threatening situations.

(2) Employees that directly engage in trench rescue operations shall be ((properly)) trained or shall be under the direct supervision of person(s) ((properly trained in operational procedures according to a Washington state accredited sixteen-hour emergency course or its equivalent)) with adequate training in trench and excavation hazard recognition, equipment use and operational techniques.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-05007, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-05009
Watercraft rescue operations.

(1) If a manufacturer's specifications are such that an engineer is required for the operation of a vessel, then one shall be provided.

(2) When fire boats perform rescue activities they shall have two dedicated personnel.  Any member not specifically required to operate the vessel, e.g., an operator (pilot) or engineer (if required by the manufacturers specification) may be used as a deck hand.  This may include the boat officer if his/her duties do not include operating the fire boat.

(3) Watercraft load capabilities shall not exceed the manufacturer's specifications.

(4) Each fire department shall determine the function of their watercraft; as fire fighting, rescue, or both.

(5) Watercraft operating within navigable waters of the state of Washington (as defined by the United States Coast Guard) shall comply with all of the rules of the United States Coast Guard.

(6) Fire boats operating within navigable waters of the state of Washington (as defined by the United States Coast Guard) shall have a fully dedicated pilot.

(7) The operator (pilot) of the watercraft is responsible for its safe operation.

(8) Training for all personnel shall represent the intent of the employer and physical characteristics of the vessel involved and shall be included in the employer's accident prevention program.

(a) All assigned personnel shall be trained in safe operation of watercraft and the operations the craft is intended to perform.

(b) All employees involved in water rescue shall be trained in water rescue techniques and wear Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices, Type ((2)) III, minimum.


Exception: Employees working below deck or in enclosed cabins.


(9) All employers operating watercraft in nonnavigable waters shall be responsible for training all employees to local hazards.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-05009, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-06005
Ground ladders.

This section establishes the minimum requirements for the construction, care and use of the common types of ladders used in fire combat.

(1) Ladder locks or pawls on extension ladders shall be so fastened or secured to the beams that vibration and use will not cause loosening of bolts and nuts.

(a) Pawls or ladder locks shall be so constructed that the hook portion of the pawl that engages the rung shall have sufficient bearing surface or area to prevent the hook from cutting into rungs when engaged.

(b) Such hooks shall be properly finished to eliminate sharp edges and points.

(2) Staypoles or tormenters shall be furnished on all extension ladders extending over forty feet.  Staypole or tormenters spikes shall not project beyond the butt of the ladder when nested.

(3) All ladders shall be stored in a manner to provide ease of access for inspection, and to prevent danger of accident when withdrawing them for use.

(4) Fire fighters shall climb and descend ground ladders with the fly in, for safety purposes, when not in conflict with the manufacturer's recommendations.  Even when ladders are routinely used in the fly out configuration, in adverse conditions fire fighters shall be permitted to climb and descend ground ladders with the fly in to assure secure footing.

(5) All ladders regardless of type shall be inspected thoroughly after each use.  Records shall be kept of the inspections and repairs.

(6) The following metal ladder components shall be checked:

(a) Rungs for welds, damage or weakness caused by overloading or bumping against other objects, looseness and cracks, etc.

(b) Beams for welds, rivets and bolts, signs of strain or metal fatigue, and deformation from heat or overloading.

(c) Bolts and rivets for tightness.

(d) Butt spurs for excessive wear or other defects.

(e) Halyards for the same defects listed for wood ladder halyards and cable halyards, for fraying or breaking.

(f) Heat sensor label, when provided, for change indicating heat exposure.

(7) The following wood ladder components shall be checked:

(a) Bolts for snugness and tightness without crushing the wood.

(b) Beams for dark streaks; when a wood ground ladder develops dark streaks in the beams, the ladder shall be removed from service and service tested as specified in this chapter, prior to further use.

(c) Protective varnish finish for damage or wear, at least once a month and redone annually or at such frequency as specified by the manufacturer.  If the protective finish becomes charred or blistered, the ladder shall be removed from service and service tested as specified in this chapter, prior to further use.

(8) Methods of fastening ladder halyards, either of wire or fibrous material, shall be in a manner that the connection is stronger than the halyard.

(9) Any defect noted in above visual inspection shall be corrected prior to testing.

(10) Every portable ladder shall be tested following the correction of defects disclosed by the visual inspections.

(11) New ground ladders purchased after the effective date of this chapter shall be constructed and certified in accordance with the requirements of NFPA Standard 1931, 1994 edition.

(12) All fireground ladders shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with the requirements of ((NFPA Standard 1932, 1994 edition)) the 1994 edition of NFPA 1932.  When metal ground ladders are tested, they shall be tested in accordance with the ((requirements)) strength service testing procedures of ((NFPA Standard 1932, 1984 edition)) the 1984 edition of NFPA 1932.

(a) Extension ladders that were constructed prior to the adoption of the 1984 edition of NFPA 1931, may, when tested in accordance with this chapter, be tested with a minimum test load of 400 pounds and a preload of 300 pounds.  Ladders tested under this exception shall be used with a maximum load limit of 500 pound distributed or 400 pound concentrated.  Ladders shall be tested in the configuration they are used.

(b) Additional requirements for wooden ground ladders; whenever any wood ground ladder has been exposed or is suspected of having been exposed to direct flame contact the ladder shall be service tested as specified in section 5-2 of NFPA Standard 1932, 1984 edition.


Note 1: Hardness testing and eddy current NDE testing is not required in the fire department annual maintenance inspection unless the individual ladder has been subjected to a high heat exposure which could have annealed the metal and diminished the structural integrity.  The ladder manufacturer's recommendations should be followed with respect to hardness and eddy current testing.
Note 2: Testing should follow the recommended procedures taught by Washington State Fire Protection Bureau.

Additional references: Chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-06005, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  88-14-108 (Order 88-11), 296-305-06005, filed 7/6/88.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  83-24-013 (Order 83-34), 296-305-06005, filed 11/30/83; Order 77-20, 296-305-06005, filed 10/18/77 and Emergency Order 77-24, filed 11/17/77, effective 12/17/77.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-06007
Electrical.

(1) Temporary lighting with the use of 110 - 120 VAC equipment.

(a) All lighting equipment shall be provided with heavy duty flexible cords with SO or SJ jackets or equivalent.  All lighting equipment shall be used with heavy duty flexible extension cords with 12-3 conductors with SO or SJ jackets or equivalent.

(b) Electrical cords shall have weather tight bodies and caps, 20 amp rated at 120 VAC with appropriately sized plugs and sockets.

(c) Temporary lights that are used in moist, damp, and/or other hazardous locations shall be approved for the purpose.

(d) Temporary lights shall be constructed so that water cannot enter or accumulate in wireways, lampholders or other electrical parts.

(e) Temporary lights that are used in moist and/or other hazardous locations shall have 120 VAC single-phase 15 and/or 20 amp in-line ((resetable)) resettable ground fault circuit interrupters.

(f) Temporary lights shall be equipped with a handle and be insulated from heat and possible electrical shock.

(g) Temporary lights shall not be suspended by their electrical cords unless cords and lights are designed and labeled for this means of suspension.

(h) Temporary lights shall be protected by guards of a nonconductive or insulated material to prevent accidental contact with the bulb.

(2) 120 VAC cord reels shall be approved for use in damp or hazardous locations.

(a) Bodies and caps shall be weather tight, 20 amp rated at 120 VAC.

(b) Cords on cord reels that do not exceed 150 feet in length shall be SO or SJ type jackets or equivalent.

(c) Cords that exceed 150 feet in length on reels, shall have 10-3 conductors.

(d) Cord reels that are not permanently mounted on a vehicle shall be insulated from the ground when in use.

(3) Twelve volt portable type hand lanterns shall be constructed of molded composition or other type approved for the purpose.

(a) Portable hand lanterns used in moist and/or other hazardous locations shall be operated at a maximum of 12 volts.

(b) Hand lamps shall be equipped with a handle and a substantial guard over the bulb and attached to the lampholder.

(4) Portable and vehicle-mounted generators.

(a) Portable generators.  Under the following conditions, the frame of a portable generator shall not be required to be grounded and shall be permitted to serve as the grounding electrode for a system supplied by the generator:

(i) The generator supplies only equipment mounted on the generator or cord-connected and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the generator, or both, and

(ii) The noncurrent-carrying metal part of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles are bonded to the generator frame.

(b) Vehicle-mounted generators.  Under the following conditions, the frame of a vehicle may serve as the grounding electrode for a system supplied by a generator located on the vehicle:

(i) The frame of the generator is bonded to the vehicle frame; and

(ii) The generator supplies only equipment located on the vehicle and/or cord-connected and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the vehicle or on the generator; and

(iii) The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles are bonded to the generator frame.

Additional references: Article 250 National Electrical Code.  Chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  96-11-067, 296-305-06007, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  83-24-013 (Order 83-34), 296-305-06007, filed 11/30/83; Order 77-20, 296-305-06007, filed 10/18/77 and Emergency Order 77-24, filed 11/17/77, effective 12/17/77.]

Legislature Code Reviser 

Register

Washington State Code Reviser's Office