WSR 08-15-161

PROPOSED RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed July 23, 2008, 9:24 a.m. ]

     Original Notice.

     Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 07-15-067 on July 17, 2007.

     Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: This rule making is in response to chapter 27, Laws of 2007 (ESHB 2171) requiring the department of labor and industries to have rules relating to certification of crane inspectors and cranes. The legislature intends to promote the safe condition and operation of cranes used in construction work by establishing certification requirements for construction cranes. The legislature intends that standards for safety of construction cranes and for certification of personnel operating cranes in construction work be established.


NEW SECTIONS:


WAC 296-155-529 Crane certifier accreditation and crane certification.

• This section is only a title. No requirements are located in this section.

WAC 296-155-52900 Scope.

• Add language to this section relating to what this part covers. This section also includes specific exemptions to the proposed rule.

WAC 296-155-52902 Definitions.

• This section contains applicable definitions relating to cranes. They are: Accredited crane certifier, apprentice operator or trainee, articulating boom crane, audible signal, bogie, boom (equipment other than tower crane), boom (tower cranes), boom angle indicator, boom hoist limiting device, boom length indicator, boom stop, boom suspension systems, certified crane inspector, climbing, counterjib (counterweight jib), counterweight, crane, crane/derrick type, crane operator, crawler crane, critical lift, crossover points, dedicated pile-driver, derrick, directly under the load, dismantling, drum rotation indicator, electrical contact, equipment, equipment criteria, fall protection equipment, flange points, floating cranes/derricks, free rated load test, hoist, hoisting, jib, land crane/derrick, load, load moment (or rated capacity) indicator, load moment (or rated capacity) limiter, locomotive crane, load sustaining/bearing parts, luffing boom, luffing jib limiting device, mobile cranes, multiple lift rigging, nationally recognized accrediting agency, nonstandard tower crane base, occasional or routine maintenance and repair work, operational aid, operational controls, operator, overhead and gantry cranes, pendants, powerhouse, power lines, qualified crane operator, qualified person, rated capacity, rated capacity indicator, rated capacity limiter, RPE, RPSE, running wire rope, safety devices, safety or health standard, taglines, tower crane, travel bogie (tower cranes), two blocking.

WAC 296-155-531 Crane certifier accreditation process.

• This section is only a title. No requirements are located in this section.

WAC 296-155-53100 Accreditation of certifiers of cranes and derricks -- Requirements.

• This section requires that any person engaging in the testing, examination or inspection for the certification of a crane, used in lifting at a construction site must apply for and obtain a certificate of accreditation from the department.
• This section requires that any person authorized by the department to certify maritime cranes prior to the effective date of this rule may continue to perform services under this regulation until January 1, 2012.
• This section requires that crane certifiers accredited by any other state or governmental entity may be authorized to inspect cranes in Washington state provided the certifier submits an application and resume along with the certificate of accreditation from that state or governmental entity, and the types of cranes they are authorized to inspect.
• This section requires that no person that has modified, altered, or repaired a crane which affected a load sustaining member of the crane may conduct the certifying inspection and proof load testing of that particular crane within the same certification period.

WAC 296-155-53102 Accreditation -- Application form and applicant qualifications.

• This section requires a person to submit an application to the department along with successfully completing a written examination in order to become accredited to certify cranes.
• This section requires that an applicant must meet specific criteria in order to be accredited.
• This section requires that all applicants must demonstrate at least five years of crane related experience, of which two years must be actual crane inspection activities.

WAC 296-155-53104 Issuance of accreditation.

• This section requires that the department may impose restrictions on the scope and use of the accreditation, such as limiting it to specific types of cranes based on the qualifications of the applicant.
• This section requires that the department must deny issuance of an accreditation if the applicant does not satisfy the requirements of this proposed rule.

WAC 296-155-53106 Accreditation application -- Processing time.

• This section requires that within forty-five calendar days of receipt of a completed application for an accreditation the department must inform the applicant in writing that it is either complete and accepted for filing or that it is deficient and what specific information or documentation is required to complete the application and will inform the applicant if the applicant is eligible to take the written examination.
• This section requires that within seventy-five calendar days from the date of completion of the written examinations the department must inform the applicant in writing of its decision regarding the issuance of the certificate of accreditation.

WAC 296-155-53108 Duration and renewal of an accreditation.

• This section requires that the accreditation will be valid for three years. Also, that crane certifiers must complete forty hours of crane related training every three years.
• This section requires that the application for renewal must be filed with the department not less than sixty days prior to expiration of the accredited crane certifier's certification.
• This section requires that an applicant is considered active if he/she has certified at least twenty-one cranes during their accreditation period.
• This section requires that at a minimum, all applicants for renewal must successfully complete the written examinations every six years.

WAC 296-155-53110 Revocation or suspension of an accreditation.

• This section requires that the department may suspend or revoke a certificate of accreditation if criteria listed in this section have been identified.
• This section requires that before any certificate can be suspended or revoked, the certificate holder must be given written notice of the department's intention. The notice must specify the reasons for the department action and must give the certificate holder the opportunity to attend a hearing before the department.
• This section requires that a hearing will be held at the department's headquarters office or at such other location as may be designated by the assistant director and must be presided over an authorized representative of the assistant director.
• This section requires that a final suspension or revocation decision may be appealed to the superior court for the state of Washington in either the county in which the certificate holder resides or in Thurston County within thirty days after the suspension or revocation order is entered.
• This section requires that the filing of an appeal must not stay the suspension or revocation, and such action must remain in effect until such time as the applicant presents proof that the specified written conditions required by the department are met or until otherwise ordered after resolution of the appeal.

WAC 296-155-53112 Monitoring of accredited crane certifiers.

• This section requires that the department must monitor accredited crane certifiers to ensure that these certifiers certify cranes in accordance with all applicable Washington state laws and regulations.

WAC 296-155-53114 Issuance of temporary and annual certificates of operation.

• This section requires that accredited crane certifiers must issue a temporary certificate of operation if upon inspection and load proof testing no deficiencies were found that would affect the safe operation of the crane.
• This section requires that the accredited crane certifier must submit inspection worksheets and proof of load testing to the department within ten working days from the completion of the inspection and proof load test.
• This section requires that the accredited crane certifier must notify the department within five working days if upon inspection the certifier identifies deficiencies that would affect the safe operation or load handling capabilities of the crane.
• This section requires that after the accredited crane certifier has verified that all deficiencies have been corrected and the crane has successfully passed a proof load test the accredited crane certifier will issue a temporary certificate of operation.
• This section requires that the accredited crane certifier must attach an identification sticker to each crane and crane component whether or not currently installed but that has been inspected and approved for use.
• This section requires that the accredited crane certifier must maintain complete and accurate records pertaining to each crane of all inspections, tests and other work performed as well as copies of all notices of crane safety deficiencies, verifications of correction of crane safety deficiencies, and crane certifications issued for the previous five years and provide these records to the department upon request.

WAC 296-155-532 Crane certification requirements for cranes.

• This section is only a title. No requirements are located in this section.

WAC 296-155-53200 General inspection criteria, wire rope inspection and removal criteria, and pre-proof load test requirements for all cranes.

• This section contains requirements relating to general inspection criteria, wire rope inspection and removal criteria, and pre-proof load testing for all cranes.

WAC 296-155-53202 Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Mobile cranes.

• This section contains additional requirements for inspection criteria and proof load testing for mobile cranes.

WAC 296-155-53204 Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Articulating boom cranes.

• This section contains additional requirements for inspection criteria and proof load testing for articulating cranes.

WAC 296-155-53206 Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Tower cranes.

• This section contains additional requirements for inspection criteria and proof load testing for tower cranes.

WAC 296-155-53208 Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Self-erecting tower cranes.

• This section contains additional requirements for inspection criteria and proof load testing for self-erecting tower cranes.

WAC 296-155-53210 Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Overhead and bridge cranes.

• This section contains additional requirements for inspection criteria and proof load testing for overhead and bridge cranes.

WAC 296-155-53212 Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Derricks.

• This section contains additional requirements for inspection criteria and proof load testing for derricks.

WAC 296-155-53214 Crane decertification and reinstatement.

• This section requires that if any of the following occurs the crane certification becomes invalid:
- Contact with an energized power line.
- Any overload, other than proof load testing, or one that has been approved in writing in advance by the crane manufacturer or registered professional engineer.
- Any significant modification or significant repairs of a load substaining/bearing part.
• This section requires that the owner or lessee must notify the crane certification section within twenty-four [hours] if any of the above occurs.
• This section requires that the certification can be reinstated only after affected components have been reinspected by an accredited crane certifier.

WAC 296-155-533 Crane operator qualifications and certification.

• This section is only a title. No requirements are located in this section.

WAC 296-155-53300 Operator qualifications and certification.

• This section contains requirements that the employer must ensure that prior to operating any crane covered under this chapter, the crane operator must meet the following criteria:
- Have a valid crane operator certificate, for the type of crane to be operated, issued by a crane operator testing organization accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency.
- Have crane hours of experience as indicated in this rule.
- Has passed a substance abuse test conducted by a recognized laboratory.
• This section contains requirements relating to a prequalification/certification training period.
• This section requires that employer must obtain documentation showing hours of crane operator experience and crane related experience separated out by crane type and capacity.
• This section requires that the employer can accept a declaration from the crane operator attesting to actual hours of crane operator experience and crane related experience. Hours documented prior to 2010 will count towards the hour requirements of actual crane operating experience and crane related experience.
• This section requires that beginning January 1, 2010, crane operator experience and crane related experience must be documented and separated out by crane type and capacity.

     Hearing Location(s): At the Yakima Clarion Hotel, 1507 North First Street, Yakima, WA, on August 26, 2008, at 10:00 a.m.; at the Doubletree Hotel, 322 North Spokane Falls Court, Spokane, WA, on August 27, 2008, at 10:00 a.m.; at the Heathman Lodge, 7801 N.E. Greenwood Drive, Vancouver, WA, on September 3, 2008, at 10:00 a.m.; at the Doubletree Hotel Seattle Airport, 18740 International Boulevard, Seattle, WA, on September 4, 2008, at 10:00 a.m.; and at the Tumwater Comfort Inn, 1620 74th Avenue S.W., Tumwater, WA, on September 5, 2008, at 10:00 a.m.

     Date of Intended Adoption: November 4, 2008.

     Submit Written Comments to: Cindy Ireland, Safety and Health Specialist, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, e-mail mooc235@lni.wa.gov, phone (360) 902-5522, fax (360) 902-5619, by 5:00 p.m., September 12, 2008.

     In addition to written comments, the department will accept comments submitted to fax (360) 902-5619. Comments submitted by fax must be ten pages or less.

     Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Beverly Clark by August 12, 2008, (360) 902-5516 or clah@lni.wa.gov.

     Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: This proposal will require that all construction cranes in the state of Washington to be certified by an accredited crane certifier. The certifier will be required to apply for and obtain a certificate of accreditation from the department pursuant to this proposal. See Title of Rule above.

     This proposal will require that crane operators must have up to two thousand hours of documented experience in order to operate a crane without the supervision of a qualified operator. See Title of Rule above.

     Reasons Supporting Proposal: Construction cranes are not currently regulated in this state. In November 2006, a tower crane collapsed and killed an individual in Bellevue, Washington. Damage ranged in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. In the aftermath of this event, structural problems were found and corrected in other cranes. Cranes are hundreds of tons of equipment in the air under direct control of one person. If heavy equipment is appropriately put together, inspected, maintained, and used, it is safe. Construction is growing in this state and it is important for public health, safety and welfare that this proposal is adopted. See Title of Rule above.

     Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060.

     Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW, RCW 49.17.400, 49.17.410, 49.17.420, 49.17.430, and 49.17.440.

     Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.

     Agency Comments or Recommendations, if any, as to Statutory Language, Implementation, Enforcement, and Fiscal Matters: None.

     Name of Proponent: Department of labor and industries, governmental.

     Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, Tumwater, Washington, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Stephen M. Cant, Tumwater, Washington, (360) 902-5495.

     A small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW.

Small Business Economic Impact Statement

     The small business economic impact statement (SBEIS) analysis evaluates the provisions of the proposed rule over which L&I had discretion, specifically operator certification hours, inspector certification, and annual crane certification. L&I has attempted to quantify the costs and benefits of the proposed rule changes based on anticipated compliance requirements of the proposed rule and without the proposed rule. The analysis uses existing rules and laws as the baseline for the analysis.

     Ultimately, L&I assessed costs associated only with crane inspector certification requirements (requirement to have five years experience: Two years actual inspection experience and three years related experience; successfully passing a written examination; forty hours of continuing education every three years; maintaining active status by conducting twenty-one crane inspections every three years; reapplying every three years; retaking certification exams every six years) and crane recertification requirements following contact with an energized power line (requirement to have crane reinspected and recertified following contact with an energized power line). L&I did not analyze costs associated with crane operator hour requirements due to the fact that the legislation (RCW 49.17.430 (2)(b)) requires crane operators to have up to two thousand hours of experience. If L&I chose not to enact rules setting forth specific hour requirements for crane operators, crane operators could be required to obtain two thousand hours of experience.

     Costs were estimated using a worst-case scenario:

     Accreditation: The largest 10% of construction firms are very large, averaging over three thousand employees. They have costs of $3 per employee for employment of their accredited crane certifiers. The small firms seem to specialize and have costs of over $800 per employee for employment of their accredited crane certifiers.

     Power Line Strike: In the unlikely event that a large company hits a power line once every ten years, the cost is only $0.08 per employee where for a small firm it would be $17 to $26 per employee.

     These costs were used to estimate the cost per employee. When you compare the cost per employee for small and large companies, it is clear that the cost per employee is two orders of magnitude higher for the small and, therefore, the proposed rule has a disproportionate impact on small business. The ratio of costs to employment for large and small firms indicates that the impact of both benefits and costs of the proposed rule is disproportionate. Therefore, cost minimizing features are required.

     The law requires L&I to reduce the cost for small business if it is legal and feasible to do so. L&I has taken several actions to reduce the impact of the proposed rule on small businesses, as follows:

• Reduction in training hours required for operators from two thousand hours set forth in RCW 49.17.430 (2)(b) and allowable practices under the proposed rule, which reduces this requirement depending on the type of crane and the crane capacity.
• Reduction in proposed experience requirement for crane certifiers (WAC 296-155-53102(2), requiring five years experience) from initial proposals to require between five - ten years experience.
• Reduction in the number of examinations crane certifier applicants will need to take (WAC 296-155-53102(4), requiring a minimum of two exams and a maximum of six exams) from initial proposals to require applicants to take all six examinations.
• Lengthening the time between crane certifier reapplication periods (WAC 296-155-53108(3), requiring certifiers to reapply every three years) from initial proposals that certifiers reapply more frequently.
• Lengthening the time between which crane certifiers must retake certification examinations (WAC 296-155-53108(3), requiring certifiers retake exams every six years) from initial proposals that certifiers retake the exams more frequently.
• Reducing the amount of continuing education training crane certifiers must take during certification period (WAC 296-155-53108, requiring forty hours every three years) from higher amounts initially proposed.
• Reducing the number of inspections crane certifiers must conduct during certification period (WAC 296-155-53108(2), requiring twenty-one inspections every three years) from higher amounts initially proposed.
• Allowing additional time for compliance. L&I intends to adopt this rule before the legislatively required date of January 1, 2010. This will allow employers and others time to come into compliance with the requirements of the proposed rule.
• Providing a grace period for certified maritime crane inspectors and inspectors certified by other states to ensure an adequate number of crane certifiers are available to conduct crane inspections.
• Reduced fines for small businesses. RCW 49.17.180(7) requires L&I to give consideration to the size of an employer's business when calculating penalties associated with citations.
• Crane certification validity. Limiting the bases to invalidate the crane operating certificate and require reinspection of the crane (WAC 296-155-53214 (1)(a), requiring reinspection and recertification after contact with an energized power line).

     L&I anticipates that the net benefit to all employers is approximately $0.7 million per year.

     The SBEIS analysis assumes a ten-year savings of about 20% of the $.4 million in business costs due to lives saved, a nine-year cost of ten million for accreditation and recertifying cranes, and a ten-year savings of $18 million for reduced training costs.

     The SBEIS analysis yields an annual increase of eight jobs per year from this net savings.

     Small Business Involvement in Rule Making: During the course of this rule making, L&I held two sets of state-wide stakeholder meetings to obtain input and feedback from stakeholders, including small businesses and small business associations, on the content of the rule proposal. L&I also created a specialized stakeholder group including small business representatives and associations (such as Association of Washington Businesses, Association of General Contractors, Independent Business Association, Roofing Contractors' Association). This stakeholder group was significantly involved in the development of the proposed rules. The proposed rule language is a result of consensus from this stakeholder group and input from stakeholders across the state. Small businesses were also included in the development of the economic analyses and will be included in the public hearings that will be held around the state in August and September, 2008.

     A list of affected industries is included in Section 7 and Appendix 3 of the full SBEIS report.

     A copy of the statement may be obtained by contacting Cindy Ireland, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, phone (360) 902-5522, fax (360) 902-5619, e-mail mooc235@lni.wa.gov. You can also view this report on the department of labor and industries' web site at http://www.lni.wa.gov/safety/topics/atoz/cranes/default.asp.

     A cost-benefit analysis is required under RCW 34.05.328. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis may be obtained by contacting Cindy Ireland, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, phone (360) 902-5522, fax (360) 902-5619, e-mail mooc235@lni.wa.gov.

     The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) evaluates the provisions of the proposed rule over which L&I had discretion, specifically operator certification hours, inspector certification, and annual crane certification. L&I has attempted to quantify the costs and benefits of the proposed rule changes based on anticipated compliance requirements of the proposed rule and without the proposed rule. The analysis uses existing rules and laws as the baseline for the analysis. L&I has determined on a preliminary basis that the benefits of the proposed rule are greater than the costs and that L&I is proposing the least burdensome alternative of the rule.

     Conclusion: The proposed rule is expected to result in approximate net benefits of $0.7 million per year. L&I estimates the approximate annual benefit is $1.9 million per year. L&I estimates the annual cost of the proposed rule is approximately $1.2 million. The net for each year is approximately $0.7 million.

     Ultimately, L&I assessed costs associated only with crane inspector certification requirements (requirement to have five years experience: Two years actual inspection experience and three years related experience; successfully passing a written examination; forty hours of continuing education every three years; maintaining active status by conducting twenty-one crane inspections every three years; reapplying every three years; retaking certification exams every six years) and crane recertification requirements (requirement to have crane reinspected and recertified following contact with an energized power line) following contact with an energized power line. L&I did not analyze costs associated with crane operator hour requirements due to the fact that the legislation (RCW 49.17.430 (2)(b)) requires crane operators to have up to two thousand hours of experience. If L&I chose not to enact rules setting forth specific hour requirements for crane operators, crane operators could be required to obtain two thousand hours of experience.

     Costs: L&I estimates the annual cost of the proposed rule ranges from $615,000 to $623,000. The total estimated cost for a nine-year cycle of training is $5.5 to $5.6 million. These costs come from:

• Training – the training and accreditation costs are evaluated as a nine-year cycle since the requirements for renewal at three and six years differ. There are approximately 45,720 crane and tower crane operators nationwide and approximately nine hundred in Washington working in this job class. The average employment per firm of operators is 28.8. In addition, small companies on average hire .6 new inexperienced operators per year and large companies hire about twenty-five new inexperienced operators each year. The average across all firms is five new inexperienced operators each year per firm. Employees will need to be trained for certifying cranes. Survey results indicate that most small companies expect to use their own operators to certify their cranes. Most of the larger owners expect to hire outside certifiers. Further, the small companies appear to specialize and dominate the mobile crane industry. Finally, the small companies appear to pay their experienced employees more than the large companies.
• Cranes will need to be recertified after contact with energized power lines.
• Wages are a large factor in estimating the costs. Based on the reported wages in the survey, operator wages range from $20 to $31 per hour depending on experience. Inspector wages range from $24.40 per hour for inexperienced inspectors to $63 for experienced inspectors.
     Benefits: The law created the potential for benefits from reduced accidents. In writing the proposed rule, L&I has attempted to reduce some of the possible training costs implied by the two thousand hour operator experience requirement without significantly reducing the increased safety benefits. L&I estimates the benefit of reduced training costs are approximately $19 million and the benefit of reduced mortality is $260,000.

     L&I estimates the approximate annual benefit is $1.9 million per year.

     Least Burdensome Alternative: L&I believes the proposed rule is the least burdensome approach, given the following alternatives considered for proposal:

• Reduction in training hours required for operators from two thousand hours set forth in RCW 49.17.430 (2)(b) and allowable practices under the proposed rule, which reduces this requirement depending on the type of crane and the crane capacity.
• Reduction in proposed experience requirement for crane certifiers (WAC 296-155-53102(2), requiring five years experience) from initial proposals to require between five - ten years experience.
• Reduction in the number of examinations crane certifier applicants will need to take (WAC 296-155-53102(4), requiring a minimum of two exams and a maximum of six exams) from initial proposals to require applicants to take all six examinations.
• Lengthening the time between crane certifier reapplication periods (WAC 296-155-53108(3), requiring certifiers to reapply every three years) from initial proposals that certifiers reapply more frequently.
• Lengthening the time between which crane certifiers must retake certification examinations (WAC 296-155-53108(3), requiring certifiers retake exams every six years) from initial proposals that certifiers retake the exams more frequently.
• Reducing the amount of continuing education training crane certifiers must take during certification period (WAC 296-155-53108, requiring forty hours every three years) from higher amounts initially proposed.
• Reducing the number of inspections crane certifiers must conduct during certification period (WAC 296-155-53108(2), requiring twenty-one inspections every three years) from higher amounts initially proposed.
• Allowing additional time for compliance. L&I intends to adopt this rule before the legislatively required date of January 1, 2010. This will allow employers and others time to come into compliance with the requirements of the proposed rule.
• Providing a grace period for certified maritime crane inspectors and inspectors certified by other states to ensure an adequate number of crane certifiers are available to conduct crane inspections.
• Reduced fines for small businesses. RCW 49.17.180(7) requires L&I to give consideration to the size of an employer's business when calculating penalties associated with citations.
• Crane certification validity. Limiting the bases to invalidate the crane operating certificate and require reinspection of the crane (WAC 296-155-53214 (1)(a), requiring reinspection and recertification after contact with an energized power line).

July 23, 2008

Judy Schurke

Director

OTS-1591.3


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-529   Crane certifier accreditation and crane certification.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-52900   Scope.   (1) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, this part applies to power-operated cranes and derricks used in construction that can hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load (with or without attachments). Such equipment includes, but is not limited to: Articulating boom cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes); crawler cranes; floating cranes; cranes on barges; locomotive cranes; mobile cranes (such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes); multipurpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load; industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; a crane on a monorail; tower cranes (such as fixed jib ("hammerhead boom"), luffing boom and self-erecting); pedestal cranes; portal cranes; overhead and gantry cranes; straddle cranes; side-boom tractors; derricks; and variations of such equipment.

     (2) Exemptions. WAC 296-155-529 through 296-155-53214 do not apply to the following:

     (a) Equipment included in subsection (1) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for nonhoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps.

     (b) Power shovels, excavators, wheel loaders, backhoes, loader backhoes, track loaders. This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended loads.

     (c) Automotive wreckers and tow trucks when used to clear wrecks and haul vehicles.

     (d) Service trucks with mobile lifting devices designed specifically for use in the power line and electric service industries or handling associated materials to be installed or removed from utility poles.

     (e) Equipment originally designed as vehicle-mounted aerial devices (for lifting personnel) and self-propelled elevating work platforms.

     (f) Hydraulic jacking systems, including telescopic/hydraulic gantries.

     (g) Stacker cranes.

     (h) Powered industrial trucks (forklifts).

     (i) Mechanic's truck with a hoisting device when used in activities related to equipment maintenance and repair.

     (j) Equipment that hoists by using a come-a-long or chainfall.

     (k) Dedicated drilling rigs.

     (l) Gin poles used for the erection of communication towers.

     (m) Tree trimming and tree removal work.

     (n) Anchor handling with a vessel or barge using an affixed A-frame.

     (o) Roustabouts.

     (p) Service cranes with booms that rotate manually.

     (q) Machines equipped with a boom that is limited to up and down movement only and does not rotate.

     (r) Cranes used on-site in manufacturing facilities or powerhouses for occasional or routine maintenance and repair work; and

     (s) Crane operators operating cranes on-site in manufacturing facilities or powerhouses for occasional or routine maintenance and repair work.

     (3) Where provisions of this standard direct an operator, crewmember, or other employee to take certain actions, the employer must establish, effectively communicate to the relevant persons, and enforce work rules, to ensure compliance with such provisions.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-52902   Definitions.   Accredited crane certifier means a crane inspector who has been accredited by the department.

     Apprentice operator or trainee means a crane operator who has not met requirements established by the department under RCW 49.17.430.

     Articulating boom crane means a crane whose boom consists of a series of folding, pin connected structural members, typically manipulated to extend or retract by power from hydraulic cylinders.

     Audible signal means a signal made by a distinct sound or series of sounds. Examples include, but are not limited to, sounds made by a bell, horn, or whistle.

     Bogie. See "travel bogie."

     Boom (equipment other than tower crane) means an inclined spar, strut, or other long structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick. Typically, the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible, cantilevered type, latticed section, cable supported type or articulating type.

     Boom (tower cranes) on tower cranes: If the "boom" (i.e., principal horizontal structure) is fixed, it is referred to as a jib; if it is moveable up and down, it is referred to as a boom.

     Boom angle indicator means a device which measures the angle of the boom relative to horizontal.

     Boom hoist limiting device includes boom hoist disengaging device, boom hoist shut-off, boom hoist disconnect, boom hoist hydraulic relief, boom hoist kick-outs, automatic boom stop device, or derricking limiter. This type of device disengages boom hoist power when the boom reaches a predetermined operating angle. It also sets brakes or closes valves to prevent the boom from lowering after power is disengaged.

     Boom length indicator indicates the length of the permanent part of the boom (such as ruled markings on the boom) or, as in some computerized systems, the length of the boom with extensions/attachments.

     Boom stop includes boom stops (belly straps with struts/standoff), telescoping boom stops, attachment boom stops, and backstops. These devices restrict the boom from moving above a certain maximum angle and toppling over backward.

     Boom suspension systems means a system of pendants, running ropes, sheaves, and other hardware which supports the boom tip and controls the boom angle.

     Certified crane inspector means a crane certifier accredited by the department.

     Climbing means the process in which a tower crane is raised to a new working height, either by adding additional tower sections to the top of the crane (top climbing), or by a system in which the entire crane is raised inside the structure (inside climbing).

     Counterjib (counterweight jib) means a horizontal member of the tower crane on which the counterweights and usually the hoisting machinery are mounted.

     Counterweight means weight used to supplement the weight of equipment in providing stability for lifting loads by counterbalancing those loads.

     Crane means power-operated equipment used in construction that can hoist, lower, and horizontally move a suspended load. "Crane" includes, but is not limited to: Articulating boom cranes, such as knuckle-boom cranes; crawler cranes; floating cranes; cranes on barges; locomotive cranes; mobile cranes, such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck mounted, and boom truck cranes; multipurpose machines when configured to hoist and lower by means of a winch or hook and horizontally move a suspended load; industrial cranes, such as carry-deck cranes; dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; a crane on a monorail; tower cranes, such as fixed jib, hammerhead boom, luffing boom, and self-erecting; pedestal cranes; portal cranes; overhead and gantry cranes; straddle cranes; side-boom tractors; derricks; and variations of such equipment.

     Crane/derrick type means cranes or derricks as established by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Crane operator means an individual engaged in the operation of a crane.

     Crawler crane means equipment that has a type of base mounting which incorporates a continuous belt of sprocket driven track.

     Critical lift means a lift that:

     • Exceeds seventy-five percent of the crane or derrick rated load chart capacity; or

     • Requires the use of more than one crane or derrick.

     Crossover points means locations on a wire rope which is spooled on a drum where one layer of rope climbs up on and crosses over the previous layer. This takes place at each flange of the drum as the rope is spooled onto the drum, reaches the flange, and begins to wrap back in the opposite direction.

     Dedicated pile-driver is a machine that is designed to function exclusively as a pile-driver. These machines typically have the ability to both hoist the material that will be pile-driven and to pile-drive that material.

     Derrick is an apparatus consisting of a mast or equivalent member held at the end by guys or braces, with or without a boom, for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes.

     Directly under the load means a part or all of an employee is directly beneath the load.

     Dismantling includes partial dismantling (such as dismantling to shorten a boom or substitute a different component).

     Drum rotation indicator is a device on a crane or hoist which indicates in which direction and at what relative speed a particular hoist drum is turning.

     Electrical contact means when a person, object, or equipment makes contact or comes close in proximity with an energized conductor or equipment that allows the passage of current.

     Equipment means equipment covered by this part.

     Equipment criteria means instructions, recommendations, limitations and specifications.

     Fall protection equipment means guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems.

     Flange points means a point of contact between rope and drum flange where the rope changes layers.

     Floating cranes/derricks means equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation.

     Free rated load test means testing stability and operation of crane, carrier, wheels, tires, tracks, brakes, etc., under load, when lifting without outriggers and/or traveling with the load are permitted at the activity for the type of crane being tested.

     Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding rope onto or off a drum.

     Hoisting means the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.

     Jib means an extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads. The jib may be in line with the boom or offset to various angles in the vertical plane of the boom. For tower cranes, see boom (tower cranes).

     Land crane/derrick means equipment not originally designed by the manufacturer for marine use by permanent attachment to barges, pontoons, vessels, or other means of flotation.

     Load is the weight of the object being lifted or lowered, including the weight of the load-attaching equipment such as the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other auxiliary attachment.

     Load moment (or rated capacity) indicator means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load X radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity, and indicates to the operator the percentage of capacity at which the equipment is working. Lights, bells, or buzzers may be incorporated as a warning of an approaching overload condition.

     Load moment (or rated capacity) limiter means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load X radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity, and when the rated capacity is reached, it shuts off power to those equipment functions which can increase the severity of loading on the equipment, e.g., hoisting, telescoping out, or luffing out. Typically, those functions which decrease the severity of loading on the equipment remain operational, e.g., lowering, telescoping in, or luffing in.

     Locomotive crane means a crane mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on a railroad track.

     Load sustaining/bearing parts means those parts of a crane that support the crane or load and upon failure could cause dropping, uncontrolled shifting, or uncontrolled movement of the crane or load.

     Luffing boom is a member hinged to the rotating superstructure and used for supporting the hoisting tackle.

     Luffing jib limiting device is similar to a boom hoist limiting device, except that it limits the movement of the luffing jib.

     Mobile cranes means a lifting device incorporating a cable suspended latticed boom or hydraulic telescopic boom designed to be moved between operating locations by transport over the road. These are referred to in Europe as a crane mounted on a truck carrier.

     Multiple lift rigging means a rigging assembly manufactured by wire rope rigging suppliers that facilitates the attachment of up to five independent loads to the hoist rigging of a crane.

     Nationally recognized accrediting agency is an organization that, due to its independence and expertise, is widely recognized as competent to accredit testing organizations.

     Nonstandard tower crane base means any deviation from the structural support or base configuration recommended by the crane manufacturer.

     Occasional or routine maintenance and repair work means regular, customary and foreseeable work necessary to keep equipment in good repair and/or condition. This also includes regular, customary and foreseeable work necessary to return equipment to sound condition after damage.

     Operational aid means an accessory that provides information to facilitate operation of a crane or that takes control of particular functions without action of the operator when a limiting condition is sensed. Examples of such devices include, but are not limited to, the following: Anti-two-block device, rated capacity indicator, rated capacity (load) limiter, boom angle or radius indicator, lattice boom hoist disconnect device, boom length indicator, crane level indicator, drum rotation indicator, load indicator, and wind speed indicator.

     Operational controls means levers, switches, pedals and other devices for controlling equipment operation.

     Operator is a person who is operating the equipment.

     Overhead and gantry cranes includes overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, launching gantry cranes, and similar equipment, irrespective of whether it travels on tracks, wheels, or other means.

     Pendants includes both wire and bar types. Wire type: A fixed length of wire rope with mechanical fittings at both ends for pinning segments of wire rope together. Bar type: Instead of wire rope, a bar is used. Pendants are typically used in a latticed boom crane system to easily change the length of the boom suspension system without completely changing the rope on the drum when the boom length is increased or decreased.

     Powerhouse means a plant wherein electric energy is produced by conversion from some other form of energy (e.g., chemical, nuclear, solar, mechanical, or hydraulic) by means of suitable apparatus. This includes all generating station auxiliaries and other associated equipment required for the operation of the plant. Not included are stations producing power exclusively for use with communication systems.

     Power lines means electrical distribution and electrical transmission lines.

     Qualified crane operator means a crane operator who meets the requirements established by the department under RCW 49.17.430.

     Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

     Rated capacity means the maximum working load permitted by the manufacturer under specified working conditions. Such working conditions typically include a specific combination of factors such as equipment configuration, radii, boom length, and other parameters of use.

     Rated capacity indicator, see load moment indicator.

     Rated capacity limiter, see load moment limiter.

     RPE means a registered professional engineer licensed under RCW 18.43.040(1).

     RPSE means a registered professional structural engineer licensed under RCW 18.43.040(1).

     Running wire rope is a wire rope that moves over sheaves or drums.

     Safety devices, examples of safety devices are, but are not limited to, the following: Crane level indicator, horn, boom/jib or trolley stops, hydraulic holding device/check valve, rail clamps, rail stops, brakes, deadman control or forced neutral return control, emergency stop switch, guards, handrails, audible and visual alarms, etc.

     Safety or health standard means a standard adopted under this chapter.

     Taglines means a rope (usually fiber) attached to a lifted load for purposes of controlling load spinning and pendular motions or used to stabilize a bucket or magnet during material handling operations.

     Tower crane means a type of lifting structure which utilizes a vertical mast or tower to support a working boom (jib) suspended from the working boom. While the working boom may be fixed horizontally or have luffing capability, it can always rotate about the tower center to swing loads. The tower base may be fixed in one location or ballasted and moveable between locations.

     Travel bogie (tower cranes) means an assembly of two or more axles arranged to permit vertical wheel displacement and equalize the loading on the wheels.

     Two blocking means a condition in which a component that is uppermost on the hoist line such as the load block, hook block, overhaul ball, or similar component, comes in contact with the boom tip, fixed upper block or similar component. This binds the system and continued application of power can cause failure of the hoist rope or other component.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-531   Crane certifier accreditation process.  

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53100   Accreditation of crane certifiers of cranes and derricks -- Requirements.   (1) Any person engaging in the testing, examination or inspection for the certification of a crane, used in lifting at a construction site, must apply for and obtain a certificate of accreditation from the department pursuant to this rule. For the purposes of this rule an "accredited crane certifier" refers to any individual holding a certificate of accreditation pursuant to this regulation.

     (2) Any person authorized by the department to certify maritime cranes prior to the effective date of this rule may continue to perform services under this regulation until January 1, 2012. Any accredited crane certifier desiring to continue providing services pursuant to this rule must have applied for and obtained a certificate of accreditation under these rules from the department prior to January 1, 2012. Maritime certifiers wishing to perform construction crane certifications must notify the department that they will perform construction crane certifications. In addition, the maritime certifier must specify which cranes they are qualified to inspect under their maritime certificate. The department may issue these individuals a provisional accreditation specifying the crane types they are authorized to inspect which will be valid through December 31, 2011, or upon expiration of their maritime certification, whichever is earlier. Any provisionally accredited crane certifier desiring to continue providing services pursuant to this rule must have applied for and obtained a certificate of accreditation under these rules from the department prior to January 1, 2012.

     (3) Crane certifiers accredited by any other state or governmental entity may be authorized to inspect cranes in Washington state provided the certifier submits an application and resume along with the certificate of accreditation from that state or governmental entity, and the types of cranes they are authorized to inspect. The department may issue these individuals a provisional accreditation specifying the crane types they are authorized to inspect which will be valid through December 31, 2011, or upon expiration of their out-of-state certification, whichever is earlier. Any provisionally accredited crane certifier desiring to continue providing services pursuant to this rule must have applied for and obtained a certificate of accreditation under these rules from the department prior to January 1, 2012.

     (4) No person that has modified, altered, or repaired a crane which affected a load sustaining member of the crane may conduct the certifying inspection and proof load testing of that particular crane within the same certification period.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53102   Accreditation -- Application form and applicant qualifications.   (1) An accreditation to certify cranes pursuant to this rule may be obtained by submitting a completed application to the division of occupational safety and health (DOSH) and successfully completing written examinations developed and administered by the department or its authorized representative. Application forms may be obtained by calling the:

     Crane certification section of DOSH 360-902-4943 or by written request to:


     P.O. Box 44650, Olympia, WA 98504-4650


     (2) An applicant seeking an accreditation must satisfy all of the following criteria:

     (a) An application with an attached resume must be submitted to the department based on experience with the various crane types per the ASME B30 series. The application and resume must include knowledge, training and experience with verifiable references.

     (b) All applicants must possess knowledge of chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work, as well as American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standards, relating to the design, testing, inspection and operation of cranes, including those specifically applicable to the types of cranes for which an accreditation will be issued.

     (c) All applicants must demonstrate at least five years crane related experience, of which two years must be actual crane inspection activities. The other three years may include experience in duties such as a crane operator, crane mechanic, crane shop foreman, crane operations supervision, or rigging specialist. Related education may be substituted for related experience at a ratio of two years of education for one year of experience up to three years. Related education could include such courses in engineering, physics, applied mathematics, applied science courses in nondestructive testing, construction technology, technical courses in heavy equipment mechanic, welding technology, etc.

     (3) Application form. Any application for accreditation will be accepted by the department upon the filing of a completed application. All information and attachments must be given under penalty of perjury. The application must include, but not be limited to, the following:

     (a) A statement of the crane types per the ASME B30 series the applicant desires to certify pursuant to the accreditation.

     (b) A statement of qualifications and experience, including their capacities, satisfying at a minimum the criteria set forth in this section as well as any and all other qualifications the applicant wishes the department to consider.

     (c) Any other relevant information the applicant desires to be considered by the department.

     (4) Written examinations. Applicants to be approved for accreditation must successfully complete the written examinations administered by the department or its authorized representative.

     (a) Once the department receives the application and resume, the department will make the determination and notify the applicant if they meet the minimum qualifications to take the written examinations.

     (b) The first written examination will include a general knowledge of operation, testing, inspection and maintenance requirements, and the duties and recordkeeping responsibilities required by this rule.

     (c) The other written examinations will include safe operating and engineering principles and practices with respect to specific crane types subject to the accreditation, including inspection and proof loading requirements.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53104   Issuance of accreditation.   (1) The department may impose restrictions on the scope and use of the accreditation, such as limiting it to specific types of cranes based upon the qualifications of the applicant. The accreditation issued by the department will identify any limitations imposed by the department and the types of cranes the certifier is authorized to certify.

     (2) The department must deny issuance of an accreditation if the applicant does not satisfy the requirements of this rule.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53106   Accreditation application -- Processing time.   (1) Within forty-five calendar days of receipt of a completed application for an accreditation, the department must inform the applicant in writing that it is either complete and accepted for filing or that it is deficient and what specific information or documentation is required to complete the application and will inform the applicant if the applicant is eligible to take the written examination. An application is considered complete if it is in compliance with the requirements of this rule.

     (2) Within seventy-five calendar days from the date of completion of the written examinations, the department must inform the applicant in writing of its decision regarding the issuance of the certificate of accreditation.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53108   Duration and renewal of an accreditation.   (1) The accreditation will be valid for three years. Crane certifiers must complete forty hours of crane related training every three years, in courses recognized by the department.

     (2) Application for renewal must be filed with the department not less than sixty days prior to expiration of the accredited crane certifier's certification. A renewal may be obtained by filing a completed application for renewal meeting the requirements of WAC 296-155-53102 hereof providing the applicant has been actively inspecting cranes during their prior accreditation period. An applicant is considered active if he/she has certified at least twenty-one cranes during their accreditation period. If the applicant certified cranes in another state, then that applicant must provide documentation showing they were active during their accreditation period. An applicant who has not certified at least twenty-one cranes during the accreditation period may take the written exam to become recertified.

     (3) At a minimum, all applicants for renewal must successfully complete the written examinations every six years.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53110   Revocation or suspension of an accreditation.   (1) The department may suspend or revoke a certificate issued under the provisions of these rules upon the following grounds:

     (a) Permitting the duplication or use of one's own accreditation certificate by another;

     (b) Performing work for which accreditation has not been received;

     (c) Any person who obtains accreditation through fraudulent representation of accreditation requirements such as education, training, professional registration, or experience;

     (d) Any person who falsifies training documentation;

     (e) The holder of the certificate is found to be incompetent to carry out the work for which the certificate was issued;

     (f) Gross negligence, gross incompetence, a pattern of incompetence, or fraud in the certification of a crane;

     (g) Willful or deliberate disregard of any occupational safety standard while certifying a crane;

     (h) Misrepresentation of a material fact in applying for, or obtaining, a license to certify under this chapter;

     (i) Failure by an accredited crane certifier to maintain records;

     (j) Failure by an accredited crane certifier to report crane safety deficiencies affecting the safe operation of a crane while in the process of conducting an annual certification inspection;

     (k) Failure to meet or comply with the requirements of this rule or the limitations imposed on the accreditation; or

     (l) Performance of work not in compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

     (2) Before any certificate may be suspended or revoked, the certificate holder must be given written notice of the department's intention, mailed by certified mail, return receipt requested to the address as shown on the application form. The notice must specify the reasons for the department action and must give the certificate holder the opportunity to attend a hearing before the department. The department must also include within the notice of revocation or suspension specific conditions which must be met before the applicant will be entitled to apply for a new certification. At the suspension/revocation hearing the department must give the certificate holder the opportunity to produce witnesses and give testimony.

     (3) The hearing will be held at the department's headquarters office or at such other location as may be designated by the assistant director and must be presided over by an authorized representative of the assistant director. Following the informal hearing the department will issue a final decision on suspension or revocation.

     (4) A final suspension or revocation decision may be appealed to the superior court for the state of Washington in either the county in which the certificate holder resides or in Thurston County within thirty days after the suspension or revocation order is entered.

     (5) The filing of an appeal must not stay the suspension or revocation, and such action must remain in effect until such time as the applicant presents proof that the specified written conditions required by the department are met or until otherwise ordered after resolution of the appeal.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53112   Monitoring of accredited crane certifiers.   The division of occupational safety and health must monitor accredited crane certifiers to ensure that these certifiers certify cranes in accordance with all applicable Washington state laws and regulations. Monitoring activities will include, but not be limited to, audits of crane certifier's activities, complaint inspections, referrals, or accident investigations.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53114   Issuance of temporary and annual certificates of operation.   (1) Accredited crane certifiers will issue a temporary certificate of operation if upon inspection and load proof testing no deficiencies were found that would affect the safe operation of the crane.

     (2) The accredited crane certifier will submit inspection worksheets and proof of load testing to the department within ten working days from the completion of the inspection and load proof test for consideration of the department for the issuance of a permanent certificate of operation.

     (3) If the accredited crane certifier upon inspection of a crane identifies deficiencies that would affect the safe operation or load handling capabilities of the crane, the accredited crane certifier must notify the department within five working days from completion of the on-site inspection by submitting the worksheet that identifies the deficiencies. If deficiencies are found that affect the safe operation or load handling capabilities of the crane, no temporary certificate of operation will be issued until all identified deficiencies have been corrected and verified by an on-site visit by an accredited crane certifier.

     (4) After the accredited crane certifier has verified that all deficiencies have been corrected and the crane has successfully passed a load proof test, the accredited crane certifier will issue a temporary certificate of operation. The accredited crane certifier will submit inspection worksheets and proof of load testing to the owner or lessee and within ten days of completion of the inspection to the department for consideration of the department for the issuance of an annual certificate of operation.

     (5) The accredited crane certifier must attach an identification sticker if not already attached and legible to each crane and crane component (component meaning: Luffing boom, swing-away jibs, fly sections, jibs at variable offsets and boom sections). The identification sticker number must be entered on the inspection worksheet submitted to the department. Identification stickers may only be removed by a department representative or an accredited crane certifier.


Note: Certified components may be installed without voiding the annual proof load test, providing the component was proof load tested within the prior four-year period.

     (6) Certificates of operation issued by the department under the crane certification program established in this section are valid for one year from the effective date of the temporary operating certificate issued by the certified crane inspector.

     (7) The temporary or annual certificate of operation must be posted in the operator's cab or with the operator's manual.

     (8) Maintaining required records. Accredited crane certifiers are required to maintain complete and accurate records pertaining to each crane of all inspections, tests and other work performed as well as copies of all notices of crane safety deficiencies, verifications of correction of crane safety deficiencies, and crane certifications issued for the previous five years and provide these records to the department upon request. Failure by an accredited crane certifier to maintain required records may result in accreditation suspension or revocation.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-532   Crane certification requirements for cranes.  

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53200   General inspection criteria, wire rope inspection and removal criteria, and preproof load test requirements for all cranes.   (1) The accredited crane certifier must review the following documents as part of the crane certification process:

     (a) Crane maintenance records of critical components to ensure maintenance of these components has been performed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

     (b) Crane periodic and frequent inspection documentation.

     (2) Safety devices. Make sure all safety devices are installed on equipment in accordance with the requirements located in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L.

     (3) Operational aids. Operations must not begin unless operational aids are in proper working order, except where the owner or lessee meets the specified temporary alternative measures. See chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L for the list of operational aids.


Note: All accredited crane certifiers must meet and follow the requirements relating to fall protection, located in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, Fall restraint and fall arrest.

     (4) General.

     (a) The accredited crane certifier must determine that the configurations of the crane are in accordance with the manufacturer's equipment criteria.

     (b) Where the manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable, a registered professional engineer (RPE), familiar with the type of equipment involved, must ensure criteria are developed for the equipment configuration.

     (5) Wire rope.

     (a) Wire ropes must meet the crane or wire rope manufacturer's specifications for size, type and inspection requirements. In the absence of the manufacturer's specifications, follow the requirements for removal criteria located in this section, including Table 1.


Table 1 - Wire Rope Inspection/Removal Criteria
     (See also Figure 1 - Wire Rope)

Crane Type Running Ropes*

# of allowable broken wires in

Rotation Resistant*

     # of allowable broken wires in

Standing Ropes*

     # of allowable broken wires

1 rope lay 1 strand in 1 lay 1 rope lay 1 strand in 1 lay in 1 lay beyond end connection at end connection
Mobile 6 3 2 (in 6xd) 4 (in 30xd) 2 1
Articulating 6 3 Consult rope mfg. Consult rope mfg. 2 1
Tower 12 4 4 2 -- --
Self-Erector 12 4 4 2 -- --
Overhead Bridge 12 4 2 (in 6xd) 4 (in 30xd) -- --
Derricks 6 3 Consult rope mfg. Consult rope mfg. 2 1

* Also remove if you detect 1 wire broken at the contact point with the core or adjacent strand; so called valley breaks or evidence from any heat damage from any cause.

     (b) The accredited crane certifier must perform a complete and thorough inspection covering the surface of the working range plus three additional wraps on the drum of the wire ropes.

     (c) If a deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the accredited crane certifier as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard, the crane must not be certified until:

     (i) The wire rope is replaced and verified by the accredited crane certifier; or

     (ii) If the deficiency is localized, the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope; the undamaged portion may continue to be used. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited.

     (d) Remove wire rope from service if reductions from nominal diameter are greater than those shown below in Table 2.


Table 2 - Maximum Allowable Reduction from Nominal Diameter

Rope Diameter Maximum Allowable Reduction from Nominal Diameter
Up to 5/16 inch (8 mm) 1/64 inch (0.4 mm)
3/8 inch (9.5 mm) to 1/2 inch (13 mm) 1/32 inch (0.8 mm)
9/15 inch (14.5 mm) to 3/4 inch (19 mm) 3/64 inch (1.2 mm)
7/8 inch (22 mm) to 1 1/8 inch (29 mm) 1/16 inch (1.6 mm)
Over 1 1/8 inch (32 mm) to 1 1/2 inch (38 mm) 3/32 inch (2.4 mm)

     (e) Replacement rope must be of a compatible size and have a strength rating at least as great as the original rope furnished or recommended by the crane manufacturer.


Figure 1 - Wire Rope


     (6) Prior to performing a proof load test:

     (a) A safe test area must be selected and all traffic and unauthorized personnel and equipment must be cleared from test area. This test area must be roped off or otherwise secured to prevent entry of unauthorized personnel and equipment;

     (b) Rigging gear must be inspected by a qualified person prior to using for load test of crane;

     (c) The employer must ensure all load test personnel understand the safety procedures of the test;

     (d) Proof load tests, with the exception of tower cranes, are overload tests and extreme caution must be observed at all times. Personnel must remain clear of suspended loads and areas where they could be struck in the event of boom failure. The test load must be raised only to a height sufficient to perform the test;

     (e) During tests, safe operating speeds must be employed. Rated speeds in accordance with manufacturer's specifications need not be attained. Emphasis must be placed on the ability to safely control loads through all motions at normal speeds;

     (f) Proof load tests require the use of certified weights, or scaled weights using a certified scale with a current certificate of calibration;

     (g) Proof load tests must not exceed the manufacturer's specifications. Where these specifications are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must develop written specifications.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53202   Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Mobile cranes.   (1) After it is determined that the crane configurations meet the criteria in WAC 296-155-53200, the accredited crane certifier must conduct a visual inspection of the following components, if applicable, which can be visually inspected without disassembly (not including removal of inspection covers):

     (a) All control and drive mechanisms for adjustments interfering with proper operation and for excessive wear or contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter;

     (b) Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage, particularly those which flex in normal operation;

     (c) Hydraulic system for proper fluid level;

     (d) Safety latches on hooks for damage;

     (e) Hooks for deformation, cracks, excessive wear, or damage such as from chemicals or heat;

     (f) A legible and applicable operator's manual and load chart is in the operator's cab or station;

     (g) A portable fire extinguisher, with a basic minimum extinguishing rating of ten BC must be installed in the cab or at the machinery housing;

     (h) Crane cleanliness and housekeeping. Inspect for trash, oil, grease, debris or excessive dirt on crane components and catwalks, if applicable;

     (i) Wire rope reeving for compliance with the manufacturer's specifications;

     (j) Wire rope, in accordance with WAC 296-155-53200(5);

     (k) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of apparent excessive deterioration, dirt or moisture accumulation;

     (l) Tires (when in use) for proper inflation and condition;

     (m) Ground conditions around the equipment for proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers and supporting foundations, ground water accumulation, or similar conditions;

     (n) The equipment for level position;

     (o) Operator cab windows for significant cracks, breaks, or other deficiencies that would hamper the operator's view;

     (p) Rails, rail stops, rail clamps and supporting surfaces when the equipment has rail traveling;

     (q) Equipment structure (including the boom and, if equipped, the jib):

     (i) Structural members: Deformed, cracked, or significantly corroded.

     (ii) Bolts, rivets and other fasteners: Loose, failed or significantly corroded.

     (iii) Welds for cracks.

     (r) Sheaves and drums for cracks or significant wear;

     (s) Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers and locking devices for distortion, cracks or significant wear;

     (t) Brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls and ratchets for excessive wear;

     (u) Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation (including significant inaccuracies);

     (v) Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants for safety-related problems (such as leaking exhaust and emergency shut-down feature), condition and operation;

     (w) Chains and chain drive sprockets for excessive wear of sprockets and excessive chain stretch;

     (x) Travel steering, brakes, and locking devices, for proper operation;

     (y) Tires for damage or excessive wear;

     (z) Hydraulic, pneumatic and other pressurized hoses, fittings and tubing, as follows:

     (i) Flexible hose or its junction with the fittings for indications of leaks.

     (ii) Threaded or clamped joints for leaks.

     (iii) Outer covering of the hose for blistering, abnormal deformation or other signs of failure/impending failure.

     (iv) Outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting for indications of excessive abrasion or scrubbing.

     (aa) Hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors, as follows:

     (i) Performance indicators: Unusual noises or vibration, low operating speed.

     (ii) Loose bolts or fasteners.

     (iii) Shaft seals and joints between pump sections for leaks.

     (bb) Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, as follows:

     (i) Drifting.

     (ii) Rod seals and welded joints for leaks.

     (iii) Cylinder rods for scores, nicks and dents.

     (iv) Case (barrel) for significant dents.

     (v) Rod eyes and connecting joints: Loose or deformed.

     (cc) Outrigger pads/floats and slider pads for excessive wear or cracks; cribbing/dunnage for proper installation;

     (dd) Electrical components and wiring for cracked or split insulation and loose or corroded terminations;

     (ee) Legible warning labels and decals as required by the manufacturer;

     (ff) Operator seat: Missing or unusable;

     (gg) Equipped with original, or the equivalent, steps, ladders, handrails, guards;

     (hh) Steps, ladders, handrails, guards: In unusable/unsafe condition;

     (2) Crane deficiencies. If the accredited crane certifier determines other findings need to be monitored, the accredited crane certifier must provide written notification to the owner or lessee.

     (3) Operational testing. An operational test must be made without a load applied to the hook of the following items if they are applicable to the crane to ensure they function correctly:

     (a) Load lifting/hoisting and lowering mechanisms;

     (b) Boom lifting/hoisting and lowering mechanisms;

     (c) Boom extension and retraction mechanism;

     (d) Swing mechanism;

     (e) Travel mechanism;

     (f) Brakes and clutches;

     (g) Limit, locking, and safety devices;

     (h) Suspension systems for cranes that work on rubber (tires); and

     (i) During the operational testing, special attention must be paid to hydraulic and pneumatic valves: Spools (sticking, improper return to neutral, and leaks); leaks; valve housing cracks; relief valves.

     (4) Annual and quadrennial proof load testing.

     (a) Proof loads test must be completed on all hoist lines. The test load must be at least one hundred percent but not to exceed one hundred and ten percent of rated capacity (i.e., for the crane's configuration of reeving, boom length, etc.). The rated capacity must be the capacity shown on the posted load chart or as limited by other factors such as hook block capacity or wire rope line pull if the crane is not fully reeved. The test load includes the weight of (or deduction values for) the hook, block, slings, and auxiliary lifting devices (and for some cranes hoist wire rope not accounted for in load charts), and the combined weight deduction values must be subtracted from the nominal test load in order to determine the amount of test weights to be used. Follow original equipment manufacturer (OEM) load chart instructions for weight deduction values. Check accuracy of load indicators where installed. Test procedures for these cranes must follow OEM procedures and recommendations.

     (b) Annual proof load testing. After the crane has passed the visual and operational tests, a proof load test must be conducted in the as-configured condition and must be performed within the structural and stability section of the manufacturer's load chart, as applicable. This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

     (c) Quadrennial proof load testing. No major component (luffing boom, swing-away jibs, fly sections, jibs at variable offsets and boom sections) may be used unless it has been proof load tested within the prior four-year period. For jibs with variable offset angles, tests at the maximum offset used and maximum extension of all boom sections.

     (i) This test must be performed in accordance with this section and documented on the form or in the format approved by the department.

     (ii) A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the inspection.

     (d) Free rated load test ("on rubber"). Check the stability and operation of crane, carrier, wheels, tires, tracks, brakes, etc., under load by performing the following tests, when lifting without outriggers and/or traveling with the load are permitted at the activity for the type of crane being tested.


Note: Ensure all free rated load tests "on rubber" lifting requirements established by the OEM are complied with. Attach taglines to the load to control oscillation. For cranes with outriggers, extend outriggers and maintain minimal clearance (three to four inches) above ground. Test personnel must stand clear of tires during load tests. This test is only required if the owner/lessee wants an "on rubber" certification. If the crane has "on rubber" capabilities and the owner does not desire this certification, the crane certifier must document it on the certification document.

     (i) Maximum free rated load. Hoist maximum free rated test load at minimum possible radius over the rear (or over the front as required by the OEM). Slowly boom down to the maximum radius for the load. With boom and load hoist pawls (dogs) engaged where applicable, complete (d)(i)(A) and (B) of this subsection.

     (A) Rotate through the appropriate working arc;

     (B) Travel a minimum of fifty feet with test load over the rear (or front as required by the OEM) with the boom parallel to the longitudinal axis of the crane carrier.

     (ii) Stability test. Repeat the step in (d)(i) of this subsection with a test load corresponding to the radii determined as follows: For telescoping boom cranes, test with the boom approximately halfway between fully retracted and fully extended but do not exceed OEM's boom length limitation for lifting on rubber. If no ratings are governed by stability, no stability test is required.


Note: When lifting test loads, always lift the load well within the maximum radius and slowly boom down to a premeasured radius. Lift the test load only high enough to perform the required tests.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53204   Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Articulating boom cranes.   (1) After it is determined that the crane configurations meet the criteria in WAC 296-155-53200, the accredited crane certifier must visually inspect the following items, if applicable, on cranes for sound physical condition and that they are functional within the manufacturer's recommendations (not including removal of inspection covers):

     (a) All control and drive mechanisms for adjustments interfering with proper operation and for excessive wear or contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter;

     (b) Safety devices for malfunction;

     (c) All hydraulic hoses, particularly those which flex in normal operation of crane functions;

     (d) Hooks and latches for deformation, chemical damage, cracks, and wear;

     (e) Rope reeving for compliance with crane manufacturer's specifications;

     (f) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt, and moisture accumulation;

     (g) Hydraulic system for proper oil level and leaks;

     (h) Excessively worn or damaged tires. Recommended inflation pressure, cuts, and loose wheel nuts;

     (i) Connecting pins and locking device for wear and damage;

     (j) Deformed, cracked, or corroded members in the crane structure and carrier;

     (k) Loose bolts, particularly mounting bolts;

     (l) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums;

     (m) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, and locking devices;

     (n) Excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts and lining;

     (o) Travel steering, braking, and locking devices, for malfunction;

     (p) Hydraulic, pneumatic and other pressurized hoses, fittings and tubing, as follows:

     (i) Flexible hose or its junction with the fittings for indications of leaks.

     (ii) Threaded or clamped joints for leaks.

     (iii) Outer covering of the hose for blistering, abnormal deformation or other signs of failure/impending failure.

     (iv) Outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting for indications of excessive abrasion or scrubbing;

     (q) Hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors, as follows:

     (i) Performance indicators: Unusual noises or vibration, low operating speed.

     (ii) Loose bolts or fasteners.

     (iii) Shaft seals and joints between pump sections for leaks;

     (r) Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, as follows:

     (i) Drifting.

     (ii) Rod seals and welded joints for leaks.

     (iii) Cylinder rods for scores, nicks and dents.

     (iv) Case (barrel) for significant dents;

     (s) Crane cleanliness and housekeeping. Inspect for trash, oil, grease, debris or excessive dirt on crane components and catwalks, if applicable;

     (t) Legible warning labels and decals as required by the manufacturer;

     (u) A portable fire extinguisher, with a basic minimum extinguishing rating of ten BC must be installed in the cab or at the machinery housing;

     (v) A legible and applicable operator's manual and load chart is in the operator's cab or station.

     (2) Annual proof load testing of articulating boom cranes.

     (a) Annual proof load testing. After the crane has passed the visual and operational tests, the accredited crane certifier must ensure a proof load test is conducted and must be performed within the structural and stability section of the manufacturer's load chart, as applicable. This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

     (b) Test loads must not be less than one hundred percent or more than one hundred and ten percent of the rated load, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

     (c) Hoist the tests load to assure that the load is supported by the crane and held by the hoist brake(s).

     (d) Swing the crane, if applicable, the full range of its swing.

     (e) Boom the crane up and down within allowable working radius for the test load.

     (f) Lower the test load, stop and hold the load with the brake(s).

     (3) Quadrennial proof load testing. If the articulating boom crane has a jib or boom extension, these components may not be used unless it has been proof load tested within the prior four-year period.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53206   Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Tower cranes.   (1) Tower cranes and tower crane assembly parts must be inspected by a crane certifier both prior to assembly, following erection of the tower crane, after each climbing operation, or reconfiguring the boom, jib, or counterjib before placing the crane in service.

     (2) The accredited crane certifier must verify a registered professional structural engineer, licensed under chapter 18.43 RCW, has certified that the crane foundations and underlying soil are adequate support for the tower crane with its maximum overturning movement.

     (3) Prior to erecting a tower crane on a nonstandard tower crane base, the accredited crane certifier must verify that the engineering configuration of this base has been reviewed and acknowledged as acceptable by an independent registered professional structural engineer, licensed under chapter 18.43 RCW.

     (4) The accredited crane certifier must review the following documents as part of the crane certification process for the current location and inspection period:

     (a) Crane maintenance records of critical components to ensure maintenance of these components has been performed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations;

     (b) Crane periodic and frequent inspection documentation.

     (5) After it is determined that the crane configurations meet the criteria in WAC 296-155-53200, the accredited crane certifier must visually inspect the following items, if applicable, on tower cranes for sound physical condition and that they are functional within the manufacturer's recommendations (not including removal of inspection covers):

     (a) All control and drive mechanisms for interfering with proper operation and for excessive wear or contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter;

     (b) Motion limiting devices for proper operation with the crane unloaded; each motion should be inched into its limiting device by carefully running at slow speed;

     (c) Load limiting devices for proper operation and accuracy of settings;

     (d) Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage, particularly those which flex in normal operation;

     (e) Hydraulic system for proper fluid level;

     (f) Hydraulic, pneumatic and other pressurized hoses, fittings and tubing, as follows:

     (i) Flexible hose or its junction with the fittings for indications of leaks.

     (ii) Threaded or clamped joints for leaks.

     (iii) Outer covering of the hose for blistering, abnormal deformation or other signs of failure/impending failure.

     (iv) Outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting for indications of excessive abrasion or scrubbing;

     (g) Hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors, as follows:

     (i) Performance indicators: Unusual noises or vibration, low operating speed.

     (ii) Loose bolts or fasteners.

     (iii) Shaft seals and joints between pump sections for leaks;

     (h) Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, as follows:

     (i) Drifting.

     (ii) Rod seals and welded joints for leaks.

     (iii) Cylinder rods for scores, nicks and dents.

     (iv) Case (barrel) for significant dents;

     (i) Electrical components for malfunctioning, signs of apparent excessive deterioration, dirt or moisture accumulation, wiring for cracked or split insulation, and loose or corroded terminations;

     (j) Stationary cranes for manufacturer's recommended grounding of structure and power supply. Rail traveling cranes for grounding of each rail and the power supply per the manufacturer's recommendations;

     (k) Runway rail and clamps. Inspect for loose, broken or missing clamps;

     (l) Hooks and safety latches for deformation, cracks, excessive wear, or damage such as from chemicals or heat;

     (m) Wedges and supports of climbing cranes for looseness or dislocation;

     (n) Braces or guys supporting cranes' masts (towers) and anchor bolt base connections for looseness;

     (o) Crane structure (including the boom, jib and counter jib):

     (i) Structural members: Deformed, cracked, or significantly corroded.

     (ii) Bolts, rivets and other fasteners: Loose, failed or significantly corroded.

     (iii) Welds for cracks.

     (p) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums;

     (q) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and clamping devices, sprockets, and drive chains or belts;

     (r) Excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets;

     (s) Load, wind, and other indicators for inaccuracies outside the tolerances recommended by the manufacturer;

     (t) Travel mechanisms for malfunction, excessive wear or damage;

     (u) A legible and applicable operator's manual and load chart is in the operator's cab;

     (v) Crane cleanliness and housekeeping. Inspect for trash, oil, grease, debris or excessive dirt on crane components and catwalks, if applicable;

     (w) A portable fire extinguisher, with a basic minimum extinguishing rating of ten BC must be installed in the cab or at the machinery housing;

     (x) When applicable, tower tie-in collars, struts, and connections to building structure are structurally sound, free of cracks, distortion, excessive wear or corrosion. Pins and structural bolts are tight and installed per the manufacturer's specification;

     (y) Ballast blocks in place and secured per manufacturer's recommendations;

     (z) For cranes that telescope, the raising mechanism operates within the manufacturer's specifications;

     (aa) For cranes that top climb, the climbing frame operates within the manufacturer's specifications;

     (bb) A means to prevent traveling tower cranes running into stops while under power;

     (cc) A functional audible warning alarm that automatically sounds whenever the traveling tower crane travels;

     (dd) Wire rope reeving for compliance with the manufacturer's specifications;

     (ee) Wire rope, in accordance with WAC 296-155-53200(5);

     (ff) Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation (including significant inaccuracies);

     (gg) Legible warning labels and decals as required by the manufacturer;

     (hh) Steps, ladders, handrails and guards are in safe and usable condition.

     (6) Additional requirements for tower cranes prior to performing a proof load test.


Note: General requirements relating to preproof load tests for all cranes are located in WAC 296-155-53200.

     (a) When tower cranes are erected, and before placing in service, all functional motions, motion limiting, load limiting devices, locking and safety devices, brakes and clutches must be tested for operation and be within the manufacturer's specification prior to placing the crane in operation.

     (b) Proof load tests require the use of certified weights, or scaled weights using a certified scale with a current certificate of calibration.

     (c) Functional motion test must be at crane manufacturer's rated load. Each test must include:

     (i) Load hoisting and lowering;

     (ii) Jib (boom) hoisting and lowering, or trolley travel;

     (iii) Slewing motion;

     (iv) Travel motion when rail mounted;

     (v) Brakes and clutches; and

     (vi) Limit, locking, and safety devices.


Note: Functional motion tests made after climbing or telescoping may be performed without a load.

     (d) The functional motion test listed in (c) of this subsection must continue until all controls, drives, and braking systems have been engaged and have functioned per the crane manufacturer's specifications.

     (e) Order in which tests of tower cranes are to be performed is as follows:

     (i) Functional motion test without rated load;

     (ii) Functional motion test at crane manufacturer's rated load. For other than traveling cranes, these tests may be combined with test of base structural support or foundation system given in (c) of this subsection;

     (iii) Test of base structural support or foundation under (f) of this subsection.

     (f) During functional motion tests, the crane's base structural support or foundation system must be visually checked by the accredited crane certifier. If any part of the crane's base structural support or foundation system shows excessive visual displacement, visual distress, or audible distress, then the lifted load must be lowered at hoist creep speed and all crane operations are to cease. An evaluation must then be made by the accredited crane certifier.

     (7) Proof load testing of tower cranes. Setting hoist load limits for tower cranes.

     (a) Annual proof load testing. After the crane has passed the visual and operational tests, the accredited crane certifier must ensure a proof load test is conducted and must be performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

     (b) Tower crane hoist load limit switches must be set in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications using specified certified weights. Procedure is to be verified by the accredited crane certifier. In the absence of the manufacturer's specifications, hoist load limit switches must be verified by means of a static test using test loads of one hundred and two and one-half percent to one hundred and ten percent of the applicable ratings. Test loads are to be lifted at creep speed until just clear of the ground.

     (c) Setting of hoist load limits must be documented on the form provided by the department. A copy of the completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten days upon completion of the examination.

     (d) After erection of fixed freestanding tower cranes, the base structural support or foundation system on which the crane is supported must be tested before placing the crane in service. The test must be conducted with the crane manufacturer's rated load placed at maximum radius permitted by site conditions. When the base structural support or foundation is symmetrical, the crane's jib (boom) must be rotated through ninety degrees with ten minute stops at the starting position and at each forty-five degree position. When the support is asymmetrical, the crane's jib (boom) must be rotated through three hundred and sixty degrees with ten minute stops at the starting position and at each forty-five degree position.

     (e) After erection of rail traveling tower cranes, the base structural support or foundation system to which the rail is attached must be tested before placing the crane in service. The test must be conducted with the crane manufacturer's rated load placed at maximum radius permitted by site conditions. The jib (boom) must be located over the bogie. The crane must travel the entire length of runway, returning with the same load over the bogie on the opposite rail.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53208   Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Self-erecting tower cranes.   (1) After it is determined that the crane configurations meet the criteria in WAC 296-155-53200, the accredited crane certifier must visually inspect the following items, if applicable, on cranes for sound physical condition and that they are functional within the manufacturer's recommendations (not including removal of inspection covers):

     (a) For cranes that telescope the internal tower by a climbing frame, the climbing mechanism is structurally sound; is free of cracks, distortion, excessive wear or corrosion; operates within the manufacturer's specifications;

     (b) Structural bolts are tightened;

     (c) All control and drive mechanisms for interfering with proper operation and for excessive wear or contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter;

     (d) Motion limiting devices for proper operation with the crane unloaded; each motion should be inched into its limiting device by carefully running at slow speed;

     (e) Load limiting devices for proper operation and accuracy of settings;

     (f) Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage, particularly those which flex in normal operation;

     (g) Hydraulic system for proper fluid level;

     (h) Hydraulic, pneumatic and other pressurized hoses, fittings and tubing, as follows:

     (i) Flexible hose or its junction with the fittings for indications of leaks.

     (ii) Threaded or clamped joints for leaks.

     (iii) Outer covering of the hose for blistering, abnormal deformation or other signs of failure/impending failure.

     (iv) Outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting for indications of excessive abrasion or scrubbing;

     (i) Hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors, as follows:

     (i) Performance indicators: Unusual noises or vibration, low operating speed.

     (ii) Loose bolts or fasteners.

     (iii) Shaft seals and joints between pump sections for leaks;

     (j) Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, as follows:

     (i) Drifting.

     (ii) Rod seals and welded joints for leaks.

     (iii) Cylinder rods for scores, nicks and dents.

     (iv) Case (barrel) for significant dents;

     (k) Electrical components for malfunctioning, signs of apparent excessive deterioration, dirt or moisture accumulation, wiring for cracked or split insulation, and loose or corroded terminations;

     (l) Ensure crane is grounded per manufacturer's specifications;

     (m) Hooks and safety latches for deformation, cracks, excessive wear, or damage such as from chemicals or heat;

     (n) Crane structure (including the boom, jib and counter jib):

     (i) Structural members: Deformed, cracked, or significantly corroded.

     (ii) Bolts, rivets and other fasteners: Loose, failed or significantly corroded.

     (iii) Welds for cracks;

     (o) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums;

     (p) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and clamping devices, sprockets, and drive chains or belts;

     (q) Excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets;

     (r) Load, wind, and other indicators for inaccuracies outside the tolerances recommended by the manufacturer;

     (s) A legible and applicable operator's manual and load chart is in the operator's station;

     (t) Crane cleanliness and housekeeping. Inspect for trash, oil, grease, debris or excessive dirt on crane components and catwalks, if applicable;

     (u) A portable fire extinguisher, with a basic minimum extinguishing rating of ten BC must be installed in the cab or at the machinery housing;

     (v) Ballast blocks in place and secured per manufacturer's recommendations;

     (w) Wire rope reeving for compliance with the manufacturer's specifications;

     (x) Wire rope, in accordance with WAC 296-155-53200(5);

     (y) Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation (including significant inaccuracies);

     (z) Legible warning labels and decals as required by the manufacturer;

     (aa) Steps, ladders, handrails and guards are in safe and usable condition.

     (2) Additional requirements for self-erecting tower cranes prior to performing a proof load test.


Note: General requirements relating to preproof load tests for all cranes are located in WAC 296-155-53200.

     (a) Functional motion test must be at crane manufacturer's rated load. Each test must include:

     (i) Load hoisting and lowering;

     (ii) Jib (boom) hoisting and lowering, or trolley travel;

     (iii) Slewing motion;

     (iv) Brakes and clutches;

     (v) Limit, locking, and safety devices.

     (b) The functional motion test listed in (a) of this subsection must continue until all controls, drives, and braking systems have been engaged and have functioned per the crane manufacturer's specifications.

     (c) Order in which tests of self-erecting tower cranes are to be performed is as follows:

     (i) Functional motion test without rated load;

     (ii) Functional motion test at crane manufacturer's rated load. These tests may be combined with test of base structural support or foundation system given in (a) of this subsection.

     (d) During functional motion tests, the crane's base structural support or foundation system must be visually checked by the accredited crane certifier. If any part of the crane's base structural support or foundation system shows excessive visual displacement, visual distress, or audible distress, then the lifted load must be lowered at hoist creep speed and all crane operations are to cease. An evaluation must then be made by the accredited crane certifier.

     (3) Annual proof load testing of self-erecting tower cranes.

     (a) Annual proof load testing. After the crane has passed the visual and operational tests, the accredited crane certifier must ensure a proof load test is conducted and must be performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

     (b) The structural support or foundation examination during proof load test:

     (i) This test must be conducted with the rated load placed at maximum radius permitted by site conditions. The superstructure must be rotated through three hundred sixty degrees with five-minute stops at each outrigger position. If any part of the support structure becomes displaced or distressed, all crane operations must stop until an evaluation is made by a qualified person.

     (ii) For rail-mounted cranes, a load test must be conducted with the jib in the position causing maximum loading on one wheel or bogie. The test must comprise traveling the entire length of the runway, then returning with the same load on the other rail. If a sleeper or support becomes displaced or damaged, crane operations must stop until an evaluation is made by a qualified person or until track ballast has been reset, or repairs made and a satisfactory test performed.

     (c) Self-erecting tower crane hoist load limit switches must be set in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications using specified certified weights. Procedure is to be verified by the accredited crane certifier.

     (d) Setting of hoist load limits must be documented on the form provided by the department. A copy of the completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten days upon completion of the examination.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53210   Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Overhead and bridge cranes.   (1) After it is determined that the crane configurations meet the criteria in WAC 296-155-53200, the accredited crane certifier must visually inspect, without disassembly, and if applicable, the following items on overhead and bridge cranes for sound physical condition and that they are functional within the manufacturer's recommendations (not including removal of inspection covers):

     (a) Controllers. Control mechanisms for interfering with proper operation. Control and drive mechanisms for apparent excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants, water or other foreign matter;

     (b) Load hooks. Inspect for damage wear to hook nuts, mousing device and hook swivel. Check for deformation, cracks, excessive wear, or damage such as from chemicals or heat. Inspect blocks for wear to sheaves, check plates, and pins. Check for loose pins, bolts and guards;

     (c) Sheaves and bearings. Check all sheaves and bearings for lubrication and excessive wear. Ensure sheaves turn freely. Check sheave pin locking device;

     (d) Structural supports. Inspect for damage or bent girders, girder seat top plate, diaphragms and structural column connections. Check for loose bolts or rivets, and cracks;

     (e) Bridge inspection.

     (i) Check complete structure for broken, cracked, damaged, missing, or corroded parts and members.

     (ii) Handrails, walkways, and ladders. Inspect for loose, missing, bent, deteriorated or misaligned members, loose bolts, rivets, broken welds and hangers;

     (f) Brackets. Check for cracked or corroded welds, missing or loose bolts, bent or cracked brackets;

     (g) End stops. Inspect for damaged wheels, broken welds, loose or missing bolts, damaged bumpers, missing pins or damaged plates;

     (h) Runway rail and clamps. Inspect for loose, broken or missing clamps. Check the condition of railhead and side wear, rail splice plates and/or welds, rail gaps and associated bolts, wedges, connectors and rail switches;

     (i) Crane alignment. Inspect for proper bridge end float while crane travels in both directions on runway. Check all corner connections for rust, shear marks, loose or missing bolts, nuts and washers. Inspect square marks and legibility of dimension;

     (j) Wheels and bearings. Inspect wheels for wear, flat spots, chips, flange wear, cracks, loose axle pins, or securing devices. Check bearing clearance, chatter, loose bearing caps and lubrication;

     (k) Trolley. Check for loose, missing, broken or bent members. Inspect for loose, faulty or missing coupling guards. Check for broken, loose or missing axle pins. Inspect for axle pins displaying excessive wear;

     (l) Trolley rail. Inspect for bent or damaged members, loose bolts, rivets, guards, trolley rail clamps, end stops and broken welds. Check condition of rail head and side wear, rail splice plates and/or welds and rail gaps;

     (m) Trolley conductors. Inspect insulators and clamps, loose connectors, bent, pitted or damaged wires or collectors;

     (n) Shafts, couplings, and bearings. Inspect shafts for vibration, cuts and nicks, loose or worn keyways and misalignment. Check coupling for wear, loose bolts or keys and misalignment. Inspect bearing for clearance, chatter, loose bearing caps and proper lubrication;

     (o) Gearing. Inspect gears for worn teeth, cracked teeth, superficial root cracks, pitting, unusual indentation or wear marks, full contact or end loading, loose set screws and keys. Check guards and covers. Inspect gear cases for excessive noise and vibration, proper lubrication and leaking;

     (p) Wire rope and drum. Inspect wire rope for damage. Check rope clip fittings and associated mounting hardware for wear and damage. Inspect drum grooves for excessive wear. Inspect drum pedestal and bearing condition. Check for cracks in drum;

     (q) Electrical items. Check all contacts for proper alignment and evidence of excess heating or unusual arcing. Inspect all coils, contact leads, shunts and wires, fuses or overload devices for loose connections and evidence of overheating. Inspect panel board and arc shields for cracks, loose bolts, dirt and moisture. Check panel marking for legibility. Inspect speed control resistors for damaged insulation, cracked or broken grids, loose connections, bolts and brackets;

     (r) Motor. Inspect for damage, bearing noise, vibration and lubrication, spark and cleanliness of commutator and brush wear, loose hold down bolts and motor brackets. Inspect commutator or slip rings for evidence of overheating and brush sparking. Inspect motor leads and insulators, damaged or deteriorated insulation and loose connections. Inspect brush holder for proper clearance to commutator or slip rings, and freedom of brushes;

     (s) Brakes. Inspect for wear in linkage, pins and cams, weakness of springs, wear and condition of lining, smoothness of the drum, heat check crack and clearance between drum or disk. Inspect for improper solenoid air gap; evidence of overheating; damaged brass, and loose core laminations; delay or restriction in opening of brakes;

     (t) Hoist brakes. Inspect for wear in linkage, pins and cams, weakness of springs, wear and condition of lining, smoothness of drum, heat check cracks and clearance between drum or disk. Inspect for improper solenoid air gap; evidence of overheating; damaged brass, and loose core laminations; delay or restriction in opening of brakes;

     (u) Limit switches. Remove covers and inspect all electrical and mechanical components for malfunction including contacts, springs, ratchets, pins, arm and insulators, rollers, cams and dogs. Inspect cover gaskets, counterweight guides. Check all securing bolts and guards. Check for weather or moisture damage. Check for proper operation;

     (v) Crane cleanliness and housekeeping. Inspect for trash, oil, grease, debris or excessive dirt on crane components and catwalks, if applicable;

     (w) Operation of crane controls. Operate all crane controls and check for proper operation. Check for smooth and regular motions without abnormal sensations, hesitations, binding, vibrations, shimmy, or irregularity;

     (x) Warning device/fire protection. Inspect for proper operation of sirens, horns, bells and lights. Check switches and inspect wiring and connections;

     (y) A legible and applicable operator's manual and load chart is in the operator's cab or station;

     (z) A portable fire extinguisher, with a basic minimum extinguishing rating of ten BC must be installed in the cab or at the machinery housing.

     (2) Annual proof load testing of bridge/overhead cranes.

     (a) Annual proof load testing. After the crane has passed the visual and operational tests, the accredited crane certifier must ensure a proof load test is conducted and must be performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations or a registered professional structural engineer (RPSE). This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

     (b) The proof load test must be at least one hundred percent but not to exceed one hundred twenty-five percent of the rated capacity.

     (c) This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

     (d) Hoist the test load a distance to assure that the load is supported by the crane and held by the hoist brake(s).

     (e) Transport the test load by means of the trolley for the full length of the bridge, as practical.

     (f) Transport the test load by means of the bridge for the full length of the runway in one direction with the trolley as close to the extreme right-hand end of the crane as practical, and in the other direction with the trolley as close to the left-hand end of the crane as practical.

     (g) Lower the test load, and stop and hold the test load with the brake(s).

     (h) Mechanical load brake tests. Hoist test load and hold for five minutes.

     Release the holding brake, either mechanically or electrically to verify mechanical load brake function or hoist the rated load then lower, monitoring the hoist for any speed control issues.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53212   Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing -- Derricks.   (1) After it is determined that the derrick configurations meet the criteria in WAC 296-155-53200, the accredited derrick certifier must visually inspect the following items, if applicable, on derricks for sound physical condition and that they are functional within the manufacturer's recommendations (not including removal of inspection covers):

     (a) All control and drive mechanisms for adjustments interfering with proper operation and for excessive wear or contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter;

     (b) All chords and lacing, tension in guys, plumb of the mast, external indication of deterioration or leakage in air or hydraulic systems;

     (c) Derrick hooks for deformation or cracks, distortion causing an increase in throat opening of five percent not to exceed one-quarter inch or as recommended by the manufacturer. Any wear exceeding ten percent (or as recommended by the manufacturer) of the original section dimension of the hook;

     (d) Rope reeving for noncompliance with derrick manufacturer's specifications;

     (e) Hoist brakes, clutches, and operating levers;

     (f) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt and moisture accumulation;

     (g) Structural members for deformation, cracks, and corrosion;

     (h) Crane cleanliness and housekeeping. Inspect for trash, oil, grease, debris or excessive dirt on crane components and catwalks, if applicable;

     (i) Bolts and rivets for tightness;

     (j) Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, sheaves, drums, rollers, locking and clamping devices, for wear, cracks, and distortion;

     (k) Gudgeon pin for cracks, wear and distortion;

     (l) Foundation or supports for continued ability to sustain the imposed loads;

     (m) A legible and applicable operator's manual and load chart is in the operator's cab or station;

     (n) A portable fire extinguisher, with a basic minimum extinguishing rating of ten BC must be installed in the cab or at the machinery housing.

     (2) Annual proof load testing of derricks.

     (a) Annual proof load testing. After the derrick has passed the visual and operational tests, the accredited derrick certifier must ensure a proof load test is conducted and must be performed at the maximum and minimum boom angles or radii or as close to these as practical and at such intermediate radii as the derrick manufacturer or RPSE may deem necessary. This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

     (b) Proof load tests and safe working load ratings must be based on the designed load ratings at the ranges of boom angle or operating radii. Proof loads must be as per the manufacturer's recommendations. When the manufacturer recommendations are not available follow the requirements in Table 3 below:


Table 3 - Derrick Load Test

Safe Working Load

     SWL

Proof Load
Up to 20 tons 25 percent in excess
20-50 tons 5 tons in excess
Over 50 tons 10 percent in excess

     (c) Hoist the test load a few inches and hold to verify that the load is supported by the derrick and held by the hoist brake(s).

     (d) Swing the derrick, if applicable, the full range of its swing, at the maximum allowable working radius for the test load.

     (e) Boom the derrick up and down within the allowable working radius for the test load.

     (f) Lower the test load, stop and hold the load with the brake(s).

     (g) After satisfactory completion of a proof load test, the derrick and all component parts thereof shall be carefully examined in all applicable requirements in this section.

     (h) This test must be documented on the form or in the format approved by the department. A copy of this completed form and inspection worksheets must be sent to the department within ten working days upon completion of the examination.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53214   Crane decertification and reinstatement.   (1) If any of the following occur, the certification becomes invalid:

     (a) Contact with an energized power line;

     (b) Any overload, other than proof load testing, or one that has been approved in writing in advance by the crane manufacturer or a RPE;

     (c) Any significant modifications or significant repairs of a load sustaining/bearing part.


Note: Replacement of hoisting rope does not constitute decertification.

     (2) The owner or lessee must notify the crane certification section by phone within twenty-four hours if any of the above occurs.

     (3) The certification may be reinstated only after affected components have been reinspected by an accredited crane certifier. If the accredited crane certifier identifies any deficiencies during the reinspection, the deficiencies must be corrected before the certification can be reinstated. If the accredited crane certifier believes proof load testing should be conducted prior to reinstatement of the certification, proof load testing shall be conducted. In the case of major modifications or repairs to important load sustaining/bearing parts, proof load testing shall be performed prior to reinstatement. The accredited crane certifier must notify the department that the certification has been reinstated.

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OTS-1592.2


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-533   Crane operator qualifications and certification.  

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-155-53300   Operator qualifications and certification.   (1) Prior to operating any crane covered under chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L, with the exception of the trainee/apprentice requirements outlined in subsection (2) of this section, the employer must ensure that the crane operator:

     (a) Has a valid crane operator certificate, for the type of crane to be operated, issued by a crane operator testing organization accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency. The operator certification must include a successful passing of a written and practical examination.


Notes: • An operator's certificate issued by the accredited testing agency is valid for a five-year period, and must be renewed to ensure operators maintain qualified operator status.
• For self-erecting tower cranes, the department will accept a tower crane certification issued by a nationally accrediting testing agency.
• For derricks, the department will accept, at a minimum, a lattice boom truck or crawler mobile crane operator's certificate.

     (b) Has crane hours of experience as shown in Table 1; and

     (c) Pass a substance abuse test conducted by a recognized laboratory.


Exemption: When it is necessary in the performance of their duties, manufacture representatives, factory representatives and maintenance personnel are not required to be certified crane operators.

Crane Operator Experience
Table 1

Crane Type Number of Hours of Actual Crane Operating Experience Number of Hours of Crane Related Experience
(1) Mobile Cranes
(a) Lattice Boom Crawler Cranes (LBC) 300 tons and above

1000 Hours

300 tons and above

1000 Hours

300 tons and above

1000 Hours

Under 300 tons

500 Hours

(b) Lattice Boom Truck Cranes (LBT) 300 tons and above

1000 Hours

300 tons and above

1000 Hours

Under 300 tons

500 Hours

Under 300 tons

500 Hours

(c) Large Telescopic Boom Cranes (Swing Cab) (TLL) Over 130 tons

750 Hours

Over 130 tons

750 Hours

Over 40 tons to 130 tons

250 Hours

Over 40 tons to 130 tons

250 Hours

40 tons and under

40 Hours

40 tons and under

40 Hours

(d) Small Telescopic Boom Cranes (Fixed Cab) (TSS) 15 tons and above

40 Hours

15 tons and above

40 Hours

Under 15 tons

20 Hours

Under 15 tons

20 Hours

(e) Articulating Boom Cranes 20 Hours 20 Hours
(2) Tower Cranes
(a) Hammerhead 500 Hours 500 Hours
(b) Luffer 500 Hours 500 Hours
(c) Self-Erecting 50 Hours 50 Hours
(3) Overhead Cranes
(a) Cab Operated 40 Hours 40 Hours
(b) Pendant/Remote 40 Hours 40 Hours
(4) Derricks 20 Hours 500 Hours
Hours of actual crane operating experience. For all cranes: Time while the operator is at the controls of the crane; and/or has direct control of that crane; and/or a combination of operating hours within the same crane type. For mobile cranes: It also includes time while installing/removing boom sections, luffing boom, jib, extending and retracting outriggers/stabilizers, leveling crane, and replacing hoisting rope. For tower cranes: It includes time while jumping (increasing the height of the tower/mast).
Note: Additional actual crane operator experience may account for crane related experience.
Hours of crane related experience: Time as a signalman/bellman, oiler, crane mechanic, crane inspector, formal classroom training, crane simulator operation, and a combination of operating hours on other categories of cranes.

Note: Cranes and other lifting machines that are exempt can be found in WAC 296-155-52900(2).

     (2) Prequalification/certification training period. An employee who is not a qualified crane operator as outlined in subsection (1) of this section is permitted to operate the crane as part of his/her training providing the following requirements are met:

     (a) The employee ("trainee/apprentice") must be provided with sufficient training prior to operating the crane to enable the trainee to operate the crane safely under limitations established by this section (including continuous supervision) and any additional limitations established by the employer.

     (b) The tasks performed by the trainee/apprentice while operating the crane must be within the trainee's ability, as determined by the supervising qualified crane operator.

     (c) Qualified crane operator. While operating the equipment, the trainee/apprentice must be continuously supervised by a qualified crane operator who meets the following requirements:

     (i) The qualified crane operator is an employee or agent of the trainee's/apprentice's employer.

     (ii) The qualified crane operator under this section is familiar with the proper use of the equipment's controls.

     (iii) While supervising the trainee/apprentice, the qualified crane operator performs no tasks that detract from the qualified crane operator's ability to supervise the trainee/apprentice.

     (iv) For cranes other than tower cranes: The qualified crane operator and the trainee/apprentice must be in direct line of sight of each other. In addition, they must communicate verbally or by hand signal.

     (v) For tower cranes: The qualified crane operator and the trainee/apprentice must be in direct communication with each other.

     (d) The trainee/apprentice must not operate the crane in any of the following circumstances:

     (i) If any part of the crane, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), if operated up to the crane's maximum working radius in the work zone, could get within twenty feet of a power line that is up to three hundred fifty kV, or within fifty feet of a power line that is over three hundred fifty kV;

     (ii) If the crane is used to hoist personnel;

     (iii) In a multiple-crane lift situation; or

     (iv) Multiple-lift rigging, as defined in WAC 296-155-52902, can only be accomplished by the trainee/apprentice when the qualified crane operator determines that the trainee's/apprentice's skills are sufficient for this high-skill work.

     (v) Critical lifts, excluding tower cranes, and as defined in WAC 296-155-52902, can only be accomplished by the trainee/apprentice when the qualified crane operator determines that the trainee's/apprentice's skills are sufficient for this high-skill work.

     (3) The employer must obtain documentation showing hours of crane operator experience and crane related experience separated out by crane type and capacity.

     (4) The department may recognize crane operator certification from another state or territory of the United States as equivalent to qualified crane operator requirements if the department determines that the other jurisdiction's credentialing standards are substantially similar to the qualified crane operator requirements.

     (5) For experience obtained prior to January 1, 2010, the employer may accept a declaration from the crane operator attesting to actual hours of crane operator experience and crane related experience separated out by crane type and capacity. Hours documented prior to 2010 will count towards the hour requirements of actual crane operating experience and crane related experience.

     (6) Beginning January 1, 2010, crane operator experience and crane related experience must be documented and separated out by crane type and capacity. If the employer is documenting crane operating and/or related crane experience hours, the employer must provide a copy of the hours to the operator as soon as practical, if requested.

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