WSR 08-21-099

PROPOSED RULES

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH


[ Filed October 16, 2008, 10:54 a.m. ]

Original Notice.

Exempt from preproposal statement of inquiry under RCW 34.05.310(4).

Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Chapters 246-220, 246-221, 246-232, 246-233, 246-235, and 246-240 WAC, radiation protection.

Hearing Location(s): Department of Health, Town Center 2, Room 530, 111 Israel Road S.E., Olympia, WA 98504, on December 2, 2008, at 2:00 p.m.

Date of Intended Adoption: December 2, 2008.

Submit Written Comments to: C. DeMaris, P.O. Box 47827, Olympia, WA 98504-7827, web site http://www3.doh.wa.gov/policyreview/, fax (360) 236-2255, by November 25, 2008.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Joy Redman by November 25, 2008, TTY (800) 833-6388 or 711.

Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: The purpose of this proposal is to protect public health by better regulating sources of ionizing radiation, address two new federal rules, and correct minor grammatical errors in previously adopted rules. The proposed rules incorporate the nuclear regulatory commission's expanded definition of by-product material and National Source Tracking System (NSTS) requirements. The rules affect radium 226, accelerator-produced materials, and discrete sources of naturally occurring radioactive material. The NSTS adds a measure of security by fostering licensee awareness and concern for sources in their inventory.

Reasons Supporting Proposal: This rule is required for compliance with a formal agreement signed in 1966 between the state of Washington and the Atomic Energy Commission under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended (42 U.S.C. Section 2021), the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and RCW 70.98.050.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080.

Statute Being Implemented: RCW 70.98.050.

Rule is necessary because of federal law, 69 F.R. 3,698 (2004); 71 F.R. 65,686 (2006); 72 F.R. 45,147 (2007); 72 F.R. 55,864 (2007); 72 F.R. 59,162 (2007).

Name of Proponent: Department of health, governmental.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Anine Grumbles, 101 Israel Road S.E., Tumwater, WA, (360) 236-3222; Implementation and Enforcement: Arden Scroggs, 101 Israel Road S.E., Tumwater, WA, (360) 236-3221.

No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. A small business economic impact statement (SBEIS) was not prepared. Under RCW 19.85.025 and 34.05.310 (4)(c), an SBEIS is not required for proposed rules that adopt or incorporate by reference - without material change - federal statutes or regulations, the rules of other Washington state agencies, or national consensus codes that generally establish industry standards.

A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. The agency did not complete a cost-benefit analysis under RCW 34.05.328. RCW 34.05.328 (5)(b)(iii) exempts rules that adopt or incorporate by reference without material change federal statutes or regulations, the rules of other Washington state agencies, or national consensus codes that generally establish industry standards.

October 15, 2008

Mary C. Selecky

Secretary

OTS-1820.2


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-05-019, filed 2/6/06, effective 3/9/06)

WAC 246-220-010   Definitions.   As used in ((these regulations)) chapters 246-220 through 246-254 WAC, these terms have the definitions set forth below. Additional definitions used only in a certain ((part)) chapter will be found in that ((part)) chapter.

(((1))) "Absorbed dose" means the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. The units of absorbed dose are the gray (Gy) and the rad.

(((2))) "Accelerator produced material" means any material made radioactive by exposing it in a particle accelerator.

(((3))) "Act" means Nuclear energy and radiation, chapter 70.98 RCW.

(((4))) "Activity" means the rate of disintegration or transformation or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the becquerel (Bq) and the curie (Ci).

(((5))) "Adult" means an individual eighteen or more years of age.

(((6))) "Agreement state" means any state with which the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has entered into an effective agreement under section 274 b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (73 Stat. 689).

(((7))) "Airborne radioactive material" means any radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of particulates, dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases.

(((8))) "Airborne radioactivity area" means a room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive material exists in concentrations (a) in excess of the derived air concentration (DAC) specified in WAC 246-221-290, Appendix A, or (b) to the degree that an individual present in the area without respiratory protective equipment could exceed, during the hours an individual is present in a week, an intake of 0.6 percent of the annual limit on intake (ALI) or twelve DAC-hours.

(((9))) "Air purifying respirator" means a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.

(((10))) "Alert" means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a release of radioactive material but that the release is not expected to require a response by offsite response organizations to protect persons offsite.

(((11))) "Annual limit on intake" (ALI) means the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem) or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to any individual organ or tissue. ALI values for intake by ingestion and by inhalation of selected radionuclides are given in WAC 246-221-290.

(((12))) "Assigned protection factor" (APF) means the expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator or a class of respirators to properly fitted and trained users. Operationally, the inhaled concentration can be estimated by dividing the ambient airborne concentration by the APF.

(((13))) "Atmosphere-supplying respirator" means a respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

(((14))) "Background radiation" means radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon, except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material, and including global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation and are not under the control of the licensee. "Background radiation" does not include sources of radiation from radioactive materials regulated by the department.

(((15))) "Becquerel" (Bq) means the SI unit of activity. One becquerel is equal to 1 disintegration or transformation per second (s-1).

(((16))) "Bioassay" means the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement, in vivo counting, or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body. For purposes of these regulations, "radiobioassay" is an equivalent term.

(((17))) "Byproduct material" means: (a) Any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material((, and)); (b) the tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium or thorium solution extraction processes. Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute "byproduct material" within this definition; (c) any material that has been made radioactive by use of a particle accelerator; (d) any discrete source of radium 226 that is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction for commercial, medical or research use; and (e) any discrete source of naturally occurring radioactive materials which pose a threat similar to the threat posed by a discrete source of radium 226 to the health and safety or the common defense and security, that is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction for use for commercial, medical or research activities.

(((18))) "Calendar quarter" means at least twelve but no more than fourteen consecutive weeks. The first calendar quarter of each year begins in January and subsequent calendar quarters shall be arranged so that no day is included in more than one calendar quarter and no day in any one year is omitted from inclusion within a calendar quarter. A licensee or registrant may not change the method of determining calendar quarters for purposes of these regulations.

(((19))) "Calibration" means the determination of (a) the response or reading of an instrument relative to a series of known radiation values over the range of the instrument, or (b) the strength of a source of radiation relative to a standard.

(((20))) "CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations.

(((21))) "Class" means a classification scheme for inhaled material according to its rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung. Materials are classified as D, W, or Y, which applies to a range of clearance half-times: For Class D, Days, of less than ten days, for Class W, Weeks, from ten to one hundred days, and for Class Y, Years, of greater than one hundred days. For purposes of these regulations, "lung class" and "inhalation class" are equivalent terms. For "class of waste" see WAC 246-249-040.

(((22))) "Collective dose" means the sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.

(((23))) "Committed dose equivalent" (HT,50) means the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the fifty-year period following the intake.

(((24))) "Committed effective dose equivalent" (HE,50) is the sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to each of these organs or tissues (HE,50 = Sgr; wT,HT,50).

"Consortium" means an association of medical use licensees and a PET radionuclide production facility in the same geographical area that jointly own or share in the operation and maintenance cost of the PET radionuclide production facility that produces PET radionuclides for use in producing radioactive drugs within the consortium for noncommercial distributions among its associated members for medical use. The PET radionuclide production facility within the consortium must be located at an educational institution or a federal facility or a medical facility.

(((25))) "Constraint" or dose constraint means a value above which specified licensee actions are required.

(((26))) "Controlled area." See "Restricted area."

(((27))) "Curie" means a unit of quantity of radioactivity. One curie (Ci) is that quantity of radioactive material which decays at the rate of 3.7 x 1010 transformations per second (tps).

(((28))) "Declared pregnant woman" means a woman who has voluntarily informed the licensee or registrant, in writing, of her pregnancy, and the estimated date of conception. The declaration remains in effect until the declared pregnant woman withdraws the declaration in writing or is no longer pregnant.

(((29))) "Deep dose equivalent" (Hd), which applies to external whole body exposure, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 1 centimeter (1000 mg/cm2).

(((30))) "Demand respirator" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.

(((31))) "Department" means the Washington state department of health, ((office of radiation protection,)) which has been designated as the state radiation control agency under chapter 70.98 RCW.

(((32))) "Depleted uranium" means the source material uranium in which the isotope Uranium-235 is less than 0.711 percent by weight of the total uranium present. Depleted uranium does not include special nuclear material.

(((33))) "Derived air concentration" (DAC) means the concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed by the reference man for a working year of two thousand hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of one ALI. For purposes of these regulations, the condition of light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2 cubic meters of air per hour for two thousand hours in a year. DAC values are given in WAC 246-221-290.

(((34))) "Derived air concentration-hour" (DAC-hour) means the product of the concentration of radioactive material in air, expressed as a fraction or multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide, and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. A licensee or registrant may take two thousand DAC-hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem).

(((35))) "Discrete source" means a radionuclide that has been processed so that its concentration within a material has been purposely increased for use for commercial, medical or research activities.

"Disposable respirator" means a respirator for which maintenance is not intended and that is designed to be discarded after excessive breathing resistance, sorbent exhaustion, physical damage, or end-of-service-life renders it unsuitable for use. Examples of this type of respirator are a disposable half-mask respirator or a disposable escape-only self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

(((36))) "Dose" is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, total organ dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent. For purposes of these rules, "radiation dose" is an equivalent term.

(((37))) "Dose commitment" means the total radiation dose to a part of the body that will result from retention in the body of radioactive material. For purposes of estimating the dose commitment, it is assumed that from the time of intake the period of exposure to retained material will not exceed fifty years.

(((38))) "Dose equivalent" (HT) means the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest. The units of dose equivalent are the sievert (Sv) and rem.

(((39))) "Dose limits" means the permissible upper bounds of radiation doses established in accordance with these regulations. For purposes of these regulations, "limits" is an equivalent term.

(((40))) "Dosimetry processor" means a person that processes and evaluates individual monitoring devices in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the monitoring devices.

(((41))) "dpm" means disintegrations per minute. See also "curie."

(((42))) "Effective dose equivalent" (HE) means the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to each organ or tissue (HT) and the weighting factor (wT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated (HE = Sgr; wTHT).

(((43))) "Embryo/fetus" means the developing human organism from conception until the time of birth.

(((44))) "Entrance or access point" means any opening through which an individual or extremity of an individual could gain access to radiation areas or to licensed radioactive materials. This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, without respect to their intended use.

(((45))) "Exposure" means (a) being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material, or (b) the quotient of &Dgr;Q by &Dgr;m where "&Dgr;Q" is the absolute value of the total charge of the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons (negatrons and positrons) liberated by photons in a volume element of air having mass "&Dgr;m" are completely stopped in air. The special unit of exposure is the roentgen (R) and the SI equivalent is the coulomb per kilogram. One roentgen is equal to 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb per kilogram of air.

(((46))) "Exposure rate" means the exposure per unit of time, such as roentgen per minute and milliroentgen per hour.

(((47))) "External dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from any source of radiation outside the body.

(((48))) "Extremity" means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee, and leg below the knee.

(((49))) "Filtering facepiece" (dust mask) means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium, not equipped with elastomeric sealing surfaces and adjustable straps.

(((50))) "Fit factor" means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.

(((51))) "Fit test" means the use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.

(((52))) "Former United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) or United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed facilities" means nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment plants, or critical mass experimental facilities where AEC or NRC licenses have been terminated.

(((53))) "Generally applicable environmental radiation standards" means standards issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, that impose limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.

(((54))) "Gray" (Gy) means the SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 joule/kilogram (100 rad).

(((55))) "Healing arts" means the disciplines of medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, and veterinary medicine.

(((56))) "Helmet" means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.

(((57))) "High radiation area" means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from any source of radiation or 30 centimeters from any surface that the radiation penetrates. For purposes of these regulations, rooms or areas in which diagnostic X-ray systems are used for healing arts purposes are not considered high radiation areas.

(((58))) "Hood" means a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.

(((59))) "Human use" means the intentional internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

(((60))) "Immediate" or "immediately" means as soon as possible but no later than four hours after the initiating condition.

(((61))) "IND" means investigatory new drug for which an exemption has been claimed under the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (Title 21 CFR).

(((62))) "Individual" means any human being.

(((63))) "Individual monitoring" means the assessment of:

(a) Dose equivalent (i) by the use of individual monitoring devices or (ii) by the use of survey data; or

(b) Committed effective dose equivalent (i) by bioassay or (ii) by determination of the time-weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed, that is, DAC-hours.

(((64))) "Individual monitoring devices" (individual monitoring equipment) means devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent e.g., as film badges, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), pocket ionization chambers, and personal ("lapel") air sampling devices.

(((65))) "Inspection" means an official examination or observation by the department including but not limited to, tests, surveys, and monitoring to determine compliance with rules, orders, requirements and conditions of the department.

(((66))) "Interlock" means a device arranged or connected so that the occurrence of an event or condition is required before a second event or condition can occur or continue to occur.

(((67))) "Internal dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.

(((68))) "Irretrievable source" means any sealed source containing licensed material which is pulled off or not connected to the wireline downhole and for which all reasonable effort at recovery, as determined by the department, has been expended.

(((69))) "Lens dose equivalent" (LDE) applies to the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeters (300 mg/cm2).

(((70))) "License" means a license issued by the department.

(((71))) "Licensed material" means radioactive material received, possessed, used, transferred, or disposed under a general or specific license issued by the department.

(((72))) "Licensee" means any person who is licensed by the department under these rules and the act.

(((73))) "Licensing state" means any state with regulations equivalent to the suggested state regulations for control of radiation relating to, and an effective program for, the regulatory control of NARM and which has been granted final designation by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc.

(((74))) "Loose-fitting facepiece" means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.

(((75))) "Lost or missing licensed material" means licensed material whose location is unknown. This definition includes licensed material that has been shipped but has not reached its planned destination and whose location cannot be readily traced in the transportation system.

(((76))) "Member of the public" means an individual except when the individual is receiving an occupational dose.

(((77))) "Minor" means an individual less than eighteen years of age.

(((78))) "Monitoring" means the measurement of radiation, radioactive material concentrations, surface area activities or quantities of radioactive material and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses. For purposes of these regulations, radiation monitoring and radiation protection monitoring are equivalent terms.

(((79))) "NARM" means any naturally occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material. It does not include by-product, source, or special nuclear material. For the purpose of meeting the definition of a licensing state by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD), NARM refers only to discrete sources of NARM. Diffuse sources of NARM are excluded from consideration by the CRCPD for Licensing State designation purposes.

(((80))) "Nationally tracked source" means a sealed source containing a quantity equal to or greater than Category 1 or Category 2 levels of any radioactive material listed in WAC 246-221-236. In this context a sealed source is defined as radioactive material that is sealed in a capsule or closely bonded, in a solid form and which is not exempt from regulatory control. It does not mean material encapsulated solely for disposal, or nuclear material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet. Category 1 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 1 threshold. Category 2 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 2 threshold but less than the Category 1 threshold.

"Natural radioactivity" means radioactivity of naturally occurring nuclides.

(((81))) "NDA" means a new drug application which has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration.

(((82))) "Negative pressure respirator" (tight-fitting) means a respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

(((83))) "Nonstochastic effect" means a health effect, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect. For purposes of these rules, a "deterministic effect" is an equivalent term.

(((84))) "Nuclear Regulatory Commission" (NRC) means the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its duly authorized representatives.

(((85))) "Occupational dose" means the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties involve exposure to radiation or to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the licensee, registrant, or other person. Occupational dose does not include dose received: From background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under chapter 246-240 WAC, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, or as a member of the public.

(((86))) "Ore refineries" means all processors of a radioactive material ore.

(((87))) "Particle accelerator" means any machine capable of accelerating electrons, protons, deuterons, or other charged particles in a vacuum and of discharging the resultant particulate or other radiation into a medium at energies usually in excess of 1 MeV. For purposes of this definition, "accelerator" is an equivalent term.

(((88))) "Permittee" means a person who has applied for, and received, a valid site use permit for use of the low-level waste disposal facility at Hanford, Washington.

(((89))) "Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, agency, political subdivision of this state, any other state or political subdivision or agency thereof, and any legal successor, representative, agent or agency of the foregoing, but shall not include federal government agencies.

(((90))) "Personal supervision" means supervision where the supervisor is physically present at the facility and in sufficient proximity that contact can be maintained and immediate assistance given as required.

(((91))) "Personnel monitoring equipment." See individual monitoring devices.

"PET" means positron emission tomography.

(((92))) "Pharmacist" means an individual licensed by this state to compound and dispense drugs, and poisons.

(((93))) "Physician" means a medical doctor or doctor of osteopathy licensed by this state to prescribe and dispense drugs in the practice of medicine.

(((94))) "Planned special exposure" means an infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual occupational dose limits.

(((95))) "Positive pressure respirator" means a respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

(((96))) "Powered air-purifying respirator" (PAPR) means an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

(((97))) "Practitioner" means an individual licensed by the state in the practice of a healing art (i.e., physician, dentist, podiatrist, chiropractor, etc.).

(((98))) "Pressure demand respirator" means a positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.

(((99))) "Public dose" means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to sources of radiation under the licensee's or registrant's control or to radiation or radioactive material released by the licensee. Public dose does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under chapter 246-240 WAC, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

(((100))) "Qualified expert" means an individual who has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department he/she has the knowledge, training, and experience to measure ionizing radiation, to evaluate safety techniques, and to advise regarding radiation protection needs. The department reserves the right to recognize the qualifications of an individual in specific areas of radiation protection.

(((101))) "Qualitative fit test" (QLFT) means a pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent.

(((102))) "Quality factor" (Q) means the modifying factor, listed in Tables I and II, that is used to derive dose equivalent from absorbed dose.


TABLE I
QUALITY FACTORS AND ABSORBED DOSE EQUIVALENCIES

TYPE OF RADIATION

Quality Factor

(Q)

Absorbed Dose Equal to

A Unit Dose Equivalenta

X, gamma, or beta radiation

and high-speed electrons

1 1
Alpha particles, multiple-

charged particles, fission

fragments and heavy particles of unknown charge

20 0.05
Neutrons of unknown energy 10 0.1
High-energy protons 10 0.1

a Absorbed dose in rad equal to 1 rem or the absorbed dose in gray equal to 1 Sv.

If it is more convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate rather than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in sievert per hour or rem per hour as required for Table I, then 0.01 Sv (1 rem) of neutron radiation of unknown energies may, for purposes of these regulations, be assumed to result from a total fluence of 25 million neutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body. If sufficient information exists to estimate the approximate energy distribution of the neutrons, the licensee or registrant may use the fluence rate per unit dose equivalent or the appropriate Q value from Table II to convert a measured tissue dose in gray or rad to dose equivalent in sievert or rem.

TABLE II
MEAN QUALITY FACTORS, Q, AND FLUENCE PER UNIT DOSE

EQUIVALENT FOR MONOENERGETIC NEUTRONS

Neutron

Energy

(MeV)

Quality Factora

(Q)

Fluence per Unit

Dose Equivalentb

(neutrons

cm-2 rem-1)

Fluence per Unit

Dose Equivalentb

(neutrons

cm-2 Sv-1)

(thermal) 2.5 x 10-8 2 980 x 106 980 x 108
1 x 10-7 2 980 x 106 980 x 108
1 x 10-6 2 810 x 106 810 x 108
1 x 10-5 2 810 x 106 810 x 108
1 x 10-4 2 840 x 106 840 x 108
1 x 10-3 2 980 x 106 980 x 108
1 x 10-2 2.5 1010 x 106 1010 x 108
1 x 10-1 7.5 170 x 106 170 x 108
5 x 10-1 11 39 x 106 39 x 108
1 11 27 x 106 27 x 108
2.5 9 29 x 106 29 x 108
5 8 23 x 106 23 x 108
7 7 24 x 106 24 x 108
10 6.5 24 x 106 24 x 108
14 7.5 17 x 106 17 x 108
20 8 16 x 106 16 x 108
40 7 14 x 106 14 x 108
60 5.5 16 x 106 16 x 108
1 x 102 4 20 x 106 20 x 108
2 x 102 3.5 19 x 106 19 x 108
3 x 102 3.5 16 x 106 16 x 108
4 x 102 3.5 14 x 106 14 x 108

a Value of quality factor (Q) at the point where the dose equivalent is maximum in a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.

b Monoenergetic neutrons incident normally on a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.

(((103))) "Quantitative fit test" (QNFT) means an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

(((104))) "Quarter" means a period of time equal to one-fourth of the year observed by the licensee, approximately thirteen consecutive weeks, providing that the beginning of the first quarter in a year coincides with the starting date of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive quarters.

(((105))) "Rad" means the special unit of absorbed dose. One rad equals one-hundredth of a joule per kilogram of material; for example, if tissue is the material of interest, then 1 rad equals 100 ergs per gram of tissue. One rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg/gram or 0.01 joule/kilogram (0.01 gray).

(((106))) "Radiation" means alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other particles capable of producing ions. For purposes of these regulations, ionizing radiation is an equivalent term. Radiation, as used in these regulations, does not include magnetic fields or nonionizing radiation, like radiowaves or microwaves, visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light.

(((107))) "Radiation area" means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.05 mSv (0.005 rem) in one hour at thirty centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

(((108))) "Radiation machine" means any device capable of producing ionizing radiation except those devices with radioactive materials as the only source of radiation.

(((109))) "Radiation safety officer" means an individual who has the knowledge and responsibility to apply appropriate radiation protection regulations and has been assigned that responsibility by the licensee or registrant.

(((110))) "Radiation source." See "Source of radiation."

(((111))) "Radioactive material" means any material (solid, liquid, or gas) which emits radiation spontaneously.

(((112))) "Radioactive waste" means any radioactive material which is no longer of use and intended for disposal or treatment for the purposes of disposal.

(((113))) "Radioactivity" means the transformation of unstable atomic nuclei by the emission of radiation.

(((114))) "Reference man" means a hypothetical aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics determined by international consensus. These characteristics may be used by researchers and public health workers to standardize results of experiments and to relate biological insult to a common base.

(((115))) "Registrable item" means any radiation machine except those exempted by RCW 70.98.180 or exempted by the department under the authority of RCW 70.98.080.

(((116))) "Registrant" means any person who is registered by the department or is legally obligated to register with the department in accordance with these rules and the act.

(((117))) "Registration" means registration with the department in accordance with the regulations adopted by the department.

(((118))) "Regulations of the United States Department of Transportation" means the regulations in 49 CFR Parts 170-189, 14 CFR Part 103, and 46 CFR Part 146.

(((119))) "Rem" means the special unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in rem is equal to the absorbed dose in rad multiplied by the quality factor (1 rem = 0.01 Sv).

(((120))) "Research and development" means: (a) Theoretical analysis, exploration, or experimentation; or (b) the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes. Research and development does not include the internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

(((121))) "Respiratory protective equipment" means an apparatus, such as a respirator, used to reduce an individual's intake of airborne radioactive materials.

(((122))) "Restricted area" means any area to which access is limited by the licensee or registrant for purposes of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to radiation and radioactive material. "Restricted area" does not include any areas used for residential quarters, although a separate room or rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area.

(((123))) "Roentgen" (R) means the special unit of exposure. One roentgen equals 2.58 x 10-4 coulombs/kilogram of air.

(((124))) "Sanitary sewerage" means a system of public sewers for carrying off waste water and refuse, but excluding sewage treatment facilities, septic tanks, and leach fields owned or operated by the licensee or registrant.

(((125))) "Sealed source" means any radioactive material that is encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or the escape of the radioactive material.

(((126))) "Self-contained breathing apparatus" (SCBA) means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.

(((127))) "Shallow dose equivalent" (Hs), which applies to the external exposure of the skin of the whole body or the skin of an extremity, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.007 centimeter (7 mg/cm2).

(((128))) "SI" means an abbreviation of the International System of Units.

(((129))) "Sievert" means the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in sievert is equal to the absorbed dose in gray multiplied by the quality factor (1 Sv = 100 rem).

(((130))) "Site area emergency" means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a significant release of radioactive material and that could require a response by offsite response organizations to protect persons offsite.

(((131))) "Site boundary" means that line beyond which the land or property is not owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the licensee or registrant.

(((132))) "Source container" means a device in which radioactive material is transported or stored.

(((133))) "Source material" means: (a) Uranium or thorium, or any combination thereof, in any physical or chemical form, or (b) ores which contain by weight one-twentieth of one percent (0.05 percent) or more of (i) uranium, (ii) thorium, or (iii) any combination thereof. Source material does not include special nuclear material.

(((134))) "Source material milling" means the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processing primarily for its source material content.

(((135))) "Source of radiation" means any radioactive material, or any device or equipment emitting or capable of producing ionizing radiation.

(((136))) "Special nuclear material" means:

(a) Plutonium, uranium-233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, under the provisions of section 51 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or

(b) Any material artificially enriched in any of the foregoing, but does not include source material.

(((137))) "Special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass" means uranium enriched in the isotope U-235 in quantities not exceeding three hundred fifty grams of contained U-235; uranium-233 in quantities not exceeding two hundred grams; plutonium in quantities not exceeding two hundred grams; or any combination of them in accordance with the following formula: For each kind of special nuclear material, determine the ratio between the quantity of that special nuclear material and the quantity specified above for the same kind of special nuclear material. The sum of the ratios for all of the kinds of special nuclear material in combination shall not exceed "1" (i.e., unity). For example, the following quantities in combination would not exceed the limitation and are within the formula:

175 (grams contained U-235)


350

+
50 (grams U-233)


200

+
50 (grams Pu)


200

< 1

(((138))) "Stochastic effect" means a health effect that occurs randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold. Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects. For purposes of these regulations, probabilistic effect is an equivalent term.

(((139))) "Supplied-air respirator" (SAR) or "airline respirator" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.

(((140))) "Survey" means an evaluation of the radiological conditions and potential hazards incident to the production, use, release, disposal, or presence of sources of radiation. When appropriate, the evaluation includes, but is not limited to, tests, physical examinations, calculations and measurements of levels of radiation or concentration of radioactive material present.

(((141))) "Test" means (a) the process of verifying compliance with an applicable regulation, or (b) a method for determining the characteristics or condition of sources of radiation or components thereof.

(((142))) "These rules" mean all parts of the rules for radiation protection of the state of Washington.

(((143))) "Tight-fitting facepiece" means a respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.

(((144))) "Total effective dose equivalent" (TEDE) means the sum of the deep dose equivalent for external exposures and the committed effective dose equivalent for internal exposures.

(((145))) "Total organ dose equivalent" (TODE) means the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to the organ or tissue receiving the highest dose.

(((146))) "United States Department of Energy" means the Department of Energy established by Public Law 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565, 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq., to the extent that the department exercises functions formerly vested in the United States Atomic Energy Commission, its chairman, members, officers and components and transferred to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration and to the administrator thereof under sections 104 (b), (c) and (d) of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-438, October 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233 at 1237, 42 U.S.C. 5814 effective January 19, 1975) and retransferred to the Secretary of Energy under section 301(a) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565 at 577-578, 42 U.S.C. 7151, effective October 1, 1977).

(((147))) "Unrefined and unprocessed ore" means ore in its natural form prior to any processing, such as grinding, roasting, beneficiating, or refining.

(((148))) "Unrestricted area" (uncontrolled area) means any area which is not a restricted area. Areas where the external dose exceeds 2 mrem in any one hour or where the public dose, taking into account occupancy factors, will exceed 100 mrem total effective dose equivalent in any one year must be restricted.

(((149))) "User seal check" (fit check) means an action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face. Examples include negative pressure check, positive pressure check, irritant smoke check, or isoamyl acetate check.

(((150))) "Very high radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving an absorbed dose in excess of 5 Gy (500 rad) in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation or one meter from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

(((151))) "Waste" means those low-level radioactive wastes containing source, special nuclear or byproduct material that are acceptable for disposal in a land disposal facility. For purposes of this definition, low-level radioactive waste means radioactive waste not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material as defined in this section.

"Waste handling licensees" mean persons licensed to receive and store radioactive wastes prior to disposal and/or persons licensed to dispose of radioactive waste.

(((152))) "Week" means seven consecutive days starting on Sunday.

(((153))) "Weighting factor" wT for an organ or tissue (T) means the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. For calculating the effective dose equivalent, the values of wT are:


ORGAN DOSE WEIGHTING FACTORS
Organ or

Tissue

wT

Gonads 0.25
Breast 0.15
Red bone marrow 0.12
Lung 0.12
Thyroid 0.03
Bone surfaces 0.03
Remainder 0.30a
Whole Body 1.00b

a 0.30 results form 0.06 for each of 5 "remainder” organs, excluding the skin and the lens of the eye, that receive the highest doses.

b For the purpose of weighting the external whole body dose, for adding it to the internal dose, a single weighting factor, wT =1.0, has been specified. The use of other weighting factors for external exposure will be approved on a case-by-case basis until such time as specific guidance is issued.

(((154))) "Whole body" means, for purposes of external exposure, head, trunk including male gonads, arms above the elbow, or legs above the knee.

(((155))) "Worker" means an individual engaged in activities under a license or registration issued by the department and controlled by a licensee or registrant but does not include the licensee or registrant. Where the licensee or registrant is an individual rather than one of the other legal entities defined under "person," the radiation exposure limits for the worker also apply to the individual who is the licensee or registrant. If students of age eighteen years or older are subjected routinely to work involving radiation, then the students are considered to be workers. Individuals of less than eighteen years of age shall meet the requirements of WAC 246-221-050.

(((156))) "Working level" (WL) means any combination of short-lived radon daughters in 1 liter of air that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3 x 105 MeV of potential alpha particle energy. The short-lived radon daughters are -- for radon-222: Polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214, and polonium-214; and for radon-220: Polonium-216, lead-212, bismuth-212, and polonium-212.

(((157))) "Working level month" (WLM) means an exposure to one working level for one hundred seventy hours -- two thousand working hours per year divided by twelve months per year is approximately equal to one hundred seventy hours per month.

(((158))) "Year" means the period of time beginning in January used to determine compliance with the provisions of these regulations. The licensee or registrant may change the starting date of the year used to determine compliance by the licensee or registrant provided that the change is made at the beginning of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive years.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. 06-05-019, 246-220-010, filed 2/6/06, effective 3/9/06; 04-23-093, 246-220-010, filed 11/17/04, effective 12/18/04; 01-05-110, 246-220-010, filed 2/21/01, effective 3/24/01; 00-08-013, 246-220-010, filed 3/24/00, effective 4/24/00; 99-15-105, 246-220-010, filed 7/21/99, effective 8/21/99; 98-13-037, 246-220-010, filed 6/8/98, effective 7/9/98; 95-01-108, 246-220-010, filed 12/21/94, effective 1/21/95; 94-01-073, 246-220-010, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.080. 91-15-112 (Order 184), 246-220-010, filed 7/24/91, effective 8/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.70.040. 91-02-049 (Order 121), recodified as 246-220-010, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.080. 87-01-031 (Order 2450), 402-12-050, filed 12/11/86; 83-19-050 (Order 2026), 402-12-050, filed 9/16/83. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.121 RCW. 81-16-031 (Order 1683), 402-12-050, filed 7/28/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.98.050. 81-01-011 (Order 1570), 402-12-050, filed 12/8/80; Order 1095, 402-12-050, filed 2/6/76; Order 708, 402-12-050, filed 8/24/72; Order 1, 402-12-050, filed 7/2/71; Order 1, 402-12-050, filed 1/8/69; Rules (part), filed 10/26/66.]

OTS-1821.2


NEW SECTION
WAC 246-221-235   Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.   Each licensee who manufactures, transfers, receives, disassembles, or disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report as specified in subsections (1) through (5) of this section for each type of transaction.

(1) Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:

(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;

(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;

(c) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source;

(d) The radioactive material in the source;

(e) The initial source strength in becquerels (curies) at the time of manufacture; and

(f) The manufacture date of the source.

(2) Each licensee that transfers a nationally tracked source to another person shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:

(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;

(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;

(c) The name and license number of the recipient facility and the shipping address;

(d) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;

(e) The radioactive material in the source;

(f) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);

(g) The date for which the source strength is reported;

(h) The shipping date;

(i) The estimated arrival date; and

(j) For nationally tracked sources transferred as waste under a Uniform Low-Level Radioactive Waste Manifest, the waste manifest number and the container identification of the container with the nationally tracked source.

(3) Each licensee that receives a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:

(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;

(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;

(c) The name, address, and license number of the person that provided the source;

(d) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;

(e) The radioactive material in the source;

(f) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);

(g) The date for which the source strength is reported;

(h) The date of receipt; and

(i) For material received under a Uniform Low-Level Radioactive Waste Manifest, the waste manifest number and the container identification with the nationally tracked source.

(4) Each licensee that disassembles a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:

(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;

(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;

(c) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;

(d) The radioactive material in the source;

(e) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);

(f) The date for which the source strength is reported;

(g) The disassemble date of the source.

(5) Each licensee who disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report. The report must include the following information:

(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;

(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;

(c) The waste manifest number;

(d) The container identification with the nationally tracked source;

(e) The date of disposal; and

(f) The method of disposal.

(6) The reports discussed in subsections (1) through (5) of this section must be submitted by the close of the next business day after the transaction. A single report may be submitted for multiple sources and transactions. The reports must be submitted to the National Source Tracking System by using:

(a) The on-line National Source Tracking System;

(b) Electronically using a computer-readable format;

(c) By facsimile;

(d) By mail to the address on the National Source Tracking Transaction Report Form (NRC Form 748); or

(e) By telephone with follow-up by facsimile or mail.

(7) Each licensee shall correct any error in previously filed reports or file a new report for any missed transaction within five business days of the discovery of the error or missed transaction. Such errors may be detected by a variety of methods such as administrative reviews or by physical inventories required by regulation. In addition, each licensee shall reconcile the inventory of nationally tracked sources possessed by the licensee against that licensee's data in the National Source Tracking System. The reconciliation must be conducted during the month of January in each year. The reconciliation process must include resolving any discrepancies between the National Source Tracking System and the actual inventory by filing the reports identified by subsections (1) through (5) of this section. By January 31, of each year, each licensee must submit to the National Source Tracking System confirmation that the data in the National Source Tracking System is correct.

(8) Each licensee that possesses Category 1 or 2 nationally tracked sources shall report its initial inventory of Category 1 or 2 nationally tracked sources to the National Source Tracking System by January 31, 2009. The information may be submitted by using any of the methods identified in subsection (6)(a) through (d) of this section. The initial inventory report shall include the following information:

(a) The name, address, and license number of the reporting licensee;

(b) The name of the individual preparing the report;

(c) The manufacturer, model, and serial number of each nationally tracked source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;

(d) The radioactive material in the sealed source;

(e) The initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies); and

(f) The date for which the source strength is reported.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 246-221-236   Nationally tracked source thresholds.   The Terabecquerel (TBq) values are the regulatory standard. The curie (Ci) values specified are obtained by converting from the TBq value. The curie values are provided for practical usefulness only and are rounded after conversion.


Radioactive Material Category 1

(TBq)

Category 1

(Ci)

Category 2

(TBq)

Category 2

(Ci)

Actinium-227 20 540 0.2 5.4
Americium-241 60 1,600 0.6 16
Americium-241/Be 60 1,600 0.6 16
Californium-252 20 540 0.2 5.4
Cobalt-60 30 810 0.3 8.1
Curium-244 100 2,700 1 27
Gadolinium-153 1,000 27,000 10 270
Iridium-192 80 2,200 0.8 22
Plutonium-328 60 1,600 0.6 16
Plutonium-239/Be 60 1,600 0.6 16
Polonium-210 60 1,600 0.6 16
Promethium-147 40,000 1,100,000 400 11,000
Radium-226 40 1,100 0.4 11
Selenium-75 200 5,400 2 54
Strontium-90 1,000 27,000 10 270
Thorium-228 20 540 0.2 5.4
Thorium-229 20 540 0.2 5.4
Thulium-170 20,000 540,000 200 5,400
Ytterbium-169 300 8,100 3 81

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 94-01-073, filed 12/9/93, effective 1/9/94)

WAC 246-221-290   Appendix A -- Annual limits on intake (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) of radionuclides for occupational exposure; effluent concentrations; concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage.   For each radionuclide, Table I indicates the chemical form which is to be used for selecting the appropriate ALI or DAC value. The ALIs and DACs for inhalation are given for an aerosol with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 m (micron) and for three classes (D,W,Y) of radioactive material, which refer to their retention (approximately days, weeks or years) in the pulmonary region of the lung. This classification applies to a range of clearance half-times for D if less than ten days, for W from ten to one hundred days, and for Y greater than one hundred days. Table II provides concentration limits for airborne and liquid effluents released to the general environment. Table III provides concentration limits for discharges to sanitary sewerage.


Note: The values in Tables I, II, and III are presented in the computer "E" notation. In this notation a value of 6E-02 represents a value of 6 x 10-2 or 0.06, 6E+2 represents 6 x ((1O)) 102 or 600, and 6E+0 represents 6 x 100 or 6.

Table I "Occupational Values"


Note that the columns in Table I of this appendix captioned "Oral Ingestion ALI," "Inhalation ALI," and "DAC," are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material.


The ALIs in this appendix are the annual intakes of given radionuclide by "Reference Man" which would result in either: A committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem), stochastic ALI; or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to an organ or tissue, nonstochastic ALI. The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 0.05 Sv (5 rem). The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, wT. This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under the definition of weighting factor in WAC 246-221-005. The nonstochastic ALIs were derived to avoid nonstochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function.


A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the "remainder" category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following portions of the GI tract -- stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and lower large intestine -- are to be treated as four separate organs.


Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, elbows, arms below the elbows, feet and lower legs, knees, and legs below the knees, skin, and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately.


When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone is given. When an ALI is determined by the non-stochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. Abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used:


LLI wall = lower large intestine wall;
St. wall = stomach wall;
Blad wall = bladder wall; and
Bone surf = bone surface.

The use of the ALIs listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and nonstochastic ALIs, will ensure that nonstochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the nonstochastic ALI is limiting, use of that nonstochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 0.5 Sv (50 rem) dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose equivalent to that organ, not the effective dose. For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the nonstochastic ALIs (ALIns) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed unity, that is, ∑ (intake (in Ci) of each radionuclide/ALIns) ≤ 1.0. If there is an external deep dose equivalent contribution of Hd, then this sum must be less than 1 - (Hd/50), instead of ≤ 1.0.


The derived air concentration (DAC) values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by:


DAC = ALI (in Ci)/(2000 hours per working year x 60 minutes/hour x 2 x 104 ml per minute) = [ALI/2.4 x 109] Ci/ml,
where 2 x 104 ml per minute is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by Reference Man under working conditions of light work.


The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: Either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. DACs based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately.


The ALI and DAC values include contributions to exposure by the single radionuclide named and any in-growth of daughter radionuclides produced in the body by decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides should be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures.


The values of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external irradiation. See WAC 246-221-015. When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications of the same radionuclide, such as, Class D, Class W, or Class Y, the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides.


It should be noted that the classification of a compound as Class D, W, or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological half-life of different radionuclides. For this reason, values are given for Class D, W, and Y compounds, even for very short-lived radionuclides.


Table II "Effluent Concentrations"


The columns in Table II of this appendix captioned "Effluents," "Air" and "Water" are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of WAC 246-221-070. The concentration values given in Columns 1 and 2 of Table II are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.50 mSv (0.05 rem).


Consideration of nonstochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because nonstochastic effects are presumed not to occur at or below the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the nonstochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in Table II. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional as was the case in the previous Appendix A of this chapter.


The air concentration values listed in Table II, Column 1 were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4 x 109, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC, as explained above, and then divided by a factor of three hundred. The factor of three hundred includes the following components: A factor of fifty to relate the 0.05 Sv (5 rem) annual occupational dose limit to the 1 mSv (0.1 rem) limit for members of the public, a factor of three to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of two to adjust the occupational values, derived for adults, so that they are applicable to other age groups.


For those radionuclides for which submersion, that is external dose, is limiting, the occupational DAC in Table I, Column 3 was divided by two hundred nineteen. The factor of two hundred nineteen is composed of a factor of fifty, as described above, and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for two thousand hours per year to full-time exposure (eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours per year). Note that an additional factor of two for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case.


The water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x 107. The factor of 7.3 x 107 (ml) includes the following components: The factors of fifty and two described above and a factor of 7.3 x 105 (ml) which is the annual water intake of Reference Man.


Note 2 of this appendix provides groupings of radionuclides which are applicable to unknown mixtures of radionuclides. These groupings, including occupational inhalation ALIs and DACs, air and water effluent concentrations and releases to sewer, require demonstrating that the most limiting radionuclides in successive classes are absent. The limit for the unknown mixture is defined when the presence of one of the listed radionuclides cannot be definitely excluded as being present either from knowledge of the radionuclide composition of the source or from actual measurements.


Table III "Releases to Sewers"


The monthly average concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage are applicable to the provisions in WAC 246-221-190. The concentration values were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x ((1O)) 106 (ml). The factor of 7.3 x ((1O)) 106 (ml) is composed of a factor of 7.3 x ((1O)) 105 (ml), the annual water intake by Reference Man, and a factor of ten, such that the concentrations, if the sewage released by the licensee were the only source of water ingested by a Reference Man during a year, would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv (0.5 rem).

LIST OF ELEMENTS
Name Symbol Atomic

Number

Name Symbol Atomic

Number

Actinium Ac 89 ((Mercury)) Molbdenum ((Hg)) Mo ((80)) 42
Aluminum Al 13 ((Molybdenum)) Neodymium ((Mo)) Nd ((42)) 60
Americium Am 95 ((Neodymium)) Neptunium ((Nd)) Np ((60)) 93
Antimony Sb 51 ((Neptunium)) Nickel ((Np)) Ni ((93)) 28
Argon Ar 18 ((Nickel)) Nitrogen ((Ni)) N ((28)) 7
Arsenic As 33 Niobium Nb 41
Astatine At 85 Osmium Os 76
Barium Ba 56 ((Palladium)) Oxygen ((Pd)) O ((46)) 8
Berkelium Bk 97 ((Phosphorus)) Palladium ((P)) Pd ((15)) 46
Beryllium Be 4 ((Platinum)) Phosphorus ((Pt)) P ((78)) 15
Bismuth Bi 83 ((Plutonium)) Platinum ((Pu)) Pt ((94)) 78
Bromine Br 35 ((Polonium)) Plutonium ((Po)) Pu ((84)) 94
Cadmium Cd 48 ((Potassium)) Polonium ((K)) Po ((19)) 84
Calcium Ca 20 ((Praseodymium)) Potassium ((Pr)) K ((59)) 19
Californium Cf 98 ((Promethium)) Praseodymium ((Pm)) Pr ((61)) 59
Carbon C 6 ((Protactinium)) Promethium ((Pa)) Pm ((91)) 61
Cerium Ce 58 ((Radium)) Protactinium ((Ra)) Pa ((88)) 91
Cesium Cs 55 ((Radon)) Radium ((Rn)) Ra ((86)) 88
Chlorine Cl 17 ((Rhenium)) Radon ((Re)) Rn ((75)) 86
Chromium Cr 24 ((Rhodium)) Rhenium ((Rh)) Re ((45)) 75
Cobalt Co 27 ((Rubidium)) Rhodium ((Rb)) Rh ((37)) 45
Copper Cu 29 ((Ruthenium)) Rubidium ((Ru)) Rb ((44)) 37
Curium Cm 96 ((Samarium)) Ruthenium ((Sm)) Ru ((62)) 44
Dysprosium Dy 66 ((Scandium)) Samarium ((Sc)) Sm ((21)) 62
Einsteinium Es 99 ((Selenium)) Scandium ((Se)) Sc ((34)) 21
Erbium Er 68 ((Silicon)) Selenium ((Si)) Se ((14)) 34
Europium Eu 63 ((Silver)) Silicon ((Ag)) Si ((47)) 14
Fermium Fm 100 ((Sodium)) Silver ((Na)) Ag ((11)) 47
Fluorine F 9 ((Strontium)) Sodium ((Sr)) Na ((38)) 11
Francium Fr 87 ((Sulfur)) Strontium ((S)) Sr ((16)) 38
Gadolinium Gd 64 ((Tantalum)) Sulfur ((Ta)) S ((73)) 16
Gallium Ga 31 ((Technetium)) Tantalum ((Tc)) Ta ((43)) 73
Germanium Ge 32 ((Tellurium)) Technetium ((Te)) Tc ((52)) 43
Gold Au 79 ((Terbium)) Tellurium ((Tb)) Te ((65)) 52
Hafnium Hf 72 ((Thallium)) Terbium ((Tl)) Tb ((81)) 65
Holmium Ho 67 ((Thorium)) Thallium ((Th)) Tl ((90)) 81
Hydrogen H 1 ((Thulium)) Thorium ((Tm)) Th ((69)) 90
Indium In 49 ((Tin)) Thulium ((Sn)) Tm ((50)) 69
Iodine I 53 ((Titanium)) Tin ((Ti)) Sn ((22)) 50
Iridium Ir 77 ((Tungsten)) Titanium ((W)) Ti ((74)) 22
Iron Fe 26 ((Uranium)) Tungsten ((U)) W ((92)) 74
Krypton Kr 36 ((Vanadium)) Uraninium ((V)) U ((23)) 92
Lanthanum La 57 ((Xenon)) Vanadium ((Xe)) V ((54)) 23
Lead Pb 82 ((Ytterbium)) Xenon ((Yb)) Xe ((70)) 54
Lutetium Lu 71 ((Yttrium)) Ytterbium ((Y)) Yb ((39)) 70
Magnesium Mg 12 ((Zinc)) Yttrium ((Zn)) Y ((30)) 39
Manganese Mn 25 ((Zirconium)) Zinc ((Zr)) Zn ((40)) 30
Mendelevium Md 101 Zirconuim Zr 40
Mercury Hg 80


Table 1

Occupational Values


Table II

Effluent

Concentration


Table III

Releases to

Sewers


Col. 1

Oral

Ingestion


Col. 2 Col. 3

Inhalation


Col. 1

Col. 2

Monthly

Average

Concen-

tration

Atomic No. Radionuclide Class ALI

Ci

ALI

Ci

DAC

Ci/ml

Air

Ci/ml

Water

Ci/ml

Ci/ml

1 Hydrogen-3 Water, DAC includes

skin absorption

8E+4

8E+4

2E-5

1E-7

1E-3

1E-2

Gas (HT or T2) Submersion1: Use above values as HT and T2 oxidize in air and in the body to HTO.
4 Beryllium-7 W, all compounds except

those given for Y

4E+4 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 6E-4 6E-3
Y, oxides, halides, and nitrates - 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 - -
4 Beryllium-10 W, see 7Be 1E+3 2E+2 6E-8 2E-10 - -
LLI wall (1E+3) - - - 2E-5 2E-4
Y, see 7Be - 1E+1 6E-9 2E-11 - -
6 Carbon-112 Monoxide - 1E+6 5E-4 2E-6 - -
Dioxide - 6E+5 3E-4 9E-7 - -
Compounds 4E+5 4E+5 2E-4 6E-7 6E-3 6E-2
6 Carbon-14 Monoxide - 2E+6 7E-4 2E-6 - -
Dioxide - 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
Compounds 2E+3 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 3E-5 3E-4
7 Nitrogen-132 Submersion1 - - 4E-6 2E-8 - -
8 Oxygen-152 Submersion1 - - 4E-6 2E-8 - -
9 Fluorine-182 D, fluorides of H, Li,

Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr

5E+4 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(5E+4)

- - - 7E-4 7E-3
W, fluorides of Be, Mg,

Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga,

In, Tl, As, Sb, Bi, Fe,

Ru, Os, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt,

Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg,

Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, V, Nb,

Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re

Y, lanthanum fluoride

-

-

9E+4

8E+4

4E-5

3E-5

1E-7

1E-7

-

-

-

-

11 Sodium-22 D, all compounds 4E+2 6E+2 3E-7 9E-10 6E-6 6E-5
11 Sodium-24 D, all compounds 4E+3 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 5E-5 5E-4
12 Magnesium-28 D, all compounds except

those given for W

7E+2 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 9E-6 9E-5
W, oxides, hydroxides,

carbides, halides, and nitrates

- 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
13 Aluminum-26 D, all compounds except

those given for W

4E+2 6E+1 3E-8 9E-11 6E-6 6E-5
W, oxides, hydroxides,

carbides, halides, and nitrates

- 9E+1 4E-8 1E-10 - -
14 Silicon-31 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

9E+3 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, oxides, hydroxides,

carbides, and nitrates

Y, aluminosilicate glass

-

-

3E+4

3E+4

1E-5

1E-5

5E-8

4E-8

-

-

-

-

14 Silicon-32 D, see 31Si 2E+3 2E+2 1E-7 3E-10 - -
LLI wall (3E+3) - - - 4E-5 4E-4
W, see 31Si - 1E+2 5E-8 2E-10 - -
Y, see 31Si - 5E+0 2E-9 7E-12 - -
15 Phosphorus-32 D, all compounds except

phosphates given for W

6E+2 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 9E-6 9E-5
W, phosphates of Zn2+,

S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+,

and lanthanides

- 4E+2 2E-7 5E-10 - -
15 Phosphorus-33 D, see 32P 6E+3 8E+3 4E-6 1E-8 8E-5 8E-4
W, see 32P - 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
16 Sulfur-35 Vapor - 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
D, sulfides and sulfates

except those given for W

1E+4 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 - -
LLI wall (8E+3) - - - 1E-4 1E-3
W, elemental sulfur,

sulfides of Sr, Ba, Ge,

Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Cu,

Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, W, and

Mo. Sulfates of Ca, Sr,

Ba, Ra, As, Sb, and Bi

6E+3

-

2E+3

9E-7

3E-9

-

-

17 Chlorine-36 D, chlorides of H, Li,

Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr

2E+3 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, chlorides of lantha-

nides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr,

Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl,

Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi,

Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir,

Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au,

Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti,

Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr,

Mo, W, Mn, Tc, and Re

- 2E+2 1E-7 3E-10 - -
17 Chlorine-382 D, see 36Cl 2E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 36Cl - 5E+4 2E-5 6E-8 - -
17 Chlorine-392 D, see 36Cl 2E+4 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 - -
St wall

(4E+4)

- - - 5E-4 5E-3
W, see 36Cl - 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
18 Argon-37 Submersion1 - - 1E+0 6E-3 - -
18 Argon-39 Submersion1 - - 2E-4 8E-7 - -
18 Argon-41 Submersion1 - - 3E-6 1E-8 - -
19 Potassium-40 D, all compounds 3E+2 4E+2 2E-7 6E-10 4E-6 4E-5
19 Potassium-42 D, all compounds 5E+3 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 6E-5 6E-4
19 Potassium-43 D, all compounds 6E+3 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 9E-5 9E-4
19 Potassium-442 D, all compounds 2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
St wall

(4E+4)

- - - 5E-4 5E-3
19 Potassium-452 D, all compounds 3E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(5E+4)

- - - 7E-4 7E-3
20 Calcium-41 W, all compounds 3E+3 4E+3 2E-6 - - -
Bone surf (4E+3) Bone surf (4E+3) - 5E-9 6E-5 6E-4
20 Calcium-45 W, all compounds 2E+3 8E+2 4E-7 1E-9 2E-5 2E-4
20 Calcium-47 W, all compounds 8E+2 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 1E-5 1E-4
21 Scandium-43 Y, all compounds 7E+3 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3
21 Scandium-44m Y, all compounds 5E+2 7E+2 3E-7 1E-9 7E-6 7E-5
21 Scandium-44 Y, all compounds 4E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 5E-5 5E-4
21 Scandium-46 Y, all compounds 9E+2 2E+2 1E-7 3E-10 1E-5 1E-4
21 Scandium-47 Y, all compounds 2E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
LLI wall (3E+3) - - - 4E-5 4E-4
21 Scandium-48 Y, all compounds 8E+2 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4
21 Scandium-492 Y, all compounds 2E+4 5E+4 2E-5 8E-8 3E-4 3E-3
22 Titanium-44 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

3E+2 1E+1 5E-9 2E-11 4E-6 4E-5
W, oxides, hydroxides,

carbides, halides, and nitrates

- 3E+1 1E-8 4E-11 - -
Y, SrTi0 - 6E+0 2E-9 8E-12 - -
22 Titanium-45 D, see 44Ti 9E+3 3E+4 1E-5 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 44Ti - 4E+4 1E-5 5E-8 - -
Y, see 44Ti - 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 - -
23 Vanadium-472 D, all compounds except

those given for W

3E+4 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 4E-4 4E-3
W, oxides, hydroxides,

carbides, and halides

- 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 - -
23 Vanadium-48 D, see 47V 6E+2 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 9E-6 9E-5
W, see 47V - 6E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
23 Vanadium-49 D, see 47V 7E+4 3E+4 1E-5 - - -
LLI wall (9E+4) Bone surf (3E+4) - 5E-8 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 47V - 2E+4 8E-6 2E-8 - -
24 Chromium-48 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

6E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 8E-5 8E-4
W, halides and nitrates - 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 - -
Y, oxides and hydroxides - 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 - -
24 Chromium-492 D, see 48Cr 3E+4 8E+4 4E-5 1E-7 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 48Cr - 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 - -
Y, see 48Cr - 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
24 Chromium-51 D, see 48Cr 4E+4 5E+4 2E-5 6E-8 5E-4 5E-3
W, see 48Cr - 2E+4 1E-5 3E-8 - -
Y, see 48Cr - 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 - -
25 Manganese-512 D, all compounds except

those given for W

2E+4 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, oxides, hydroxides,

halides, and nitrates

- 6E+4 3E-5 8E-8 - -
25 Manganese-52m2 D, see 51Mn 3E+4 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(4E+4)

- - - 5E-4 5E-3
W, see 51Mn - 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 - -
25 Manganese-52 D, see 51Mn 7E+2 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 51Mn - 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
25 Manganese-53 D, see 51Mn 5E+4 1E+4 5E-6 - 7E-4 7E-3
- Bone surf (2E+4) - 3E-8 - -
W, see 51Mn - 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
25 Manganese-54 D, see 51Mn 2E+3 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 51Mn - 8E+2 3E-7 1E-9 - -
25 Manganese-56 D, see 51Mn 5E+3 2E+4 6E-6 2E-8 7E-5 7E-4
W, see 51Mn - 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 - -
26 Iron-52 D, all compounds except

those given for W

9E+2 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 1E-5 1E-4
W, oxides, hydroxides,

and halides

- 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
26 Iron-55 D, see 52Fe 9E+3 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 52Fe - 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 - -
26 Iron-59 D, see 52Fe 8E+2 3E+2 1E-7 5E-10 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 52Fe - 5E+2 2E-7 7E-10 - -
26 Iron-60 D, see 52Fe 3E+1 6E+0 3E-9 9E-12 4E-7 4E-6
W, see 52Fe - 2E+1 8E-9 3E-11 - -
27 Cobalt-55 W, all compounds except

those given for Y

1E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 2E-5 2E-4
Y, oxides, hydroxides,

halides, and nitrates

- 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
27 Cobalt-56 W, see 55Co 5E+2 3E+2 1E-7 4E-10 6E-6 6E-5
Y, see 55Co 4E+2 2E+2 8E-8 3E-10 - -
27 Cobalt-57 W, see 55Co 8E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 6E-5 6E-4
Y, see 55Co 4E+3 7E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
27 Cobalt-58m W, see 55Co 6E+4 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 8E-4 8E-3
Y, see 55Co - 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
27 Cobalt-58 W, see 55Co 2E+3 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 2E-5 2E-4
Y, see 55Co 1E+3 7E+2 3E-7 1E-9 - -
27 Cobalt-60m2 W, see 55Co 1E+6 4E+6 2E-3 6E-6 - -
St wall

(1E+6)

- - - 2E-2 2E-1
Y, see 55Co - 3E+6 1E-3 4E-6 - -
27 Cobalt-60 W, see 55Co 5E+2 2E+2 7E-8 2E-10 3E-6 3E-5
Y, see 55Co 2E+2 3E+1 1E-8 5E-11 - -
27 Cobalt-612 W, see 55Co 2E+4 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 3E-4 3E-3
Y, see 55Co 2E+4 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
27 Cobalt-62m2 W, see 55Co 4E+4 2E+5 7E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(5E+4)

- - - 7E-4 7E-3
Y, see 55Co - 2E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
28 Nickel-56 D, all compounds except

those given for W

1E+3 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, oxides, hydroxides,

and carbides

- 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
Vapor - 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
28 Nickel-57 D, see 56Ni 2E+3 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, see 56Ni - 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
Vapor - 6E+3 3E-6 9E-9 - -
28 Nickel-59 D, see 56Ni 2E+4 4E+3 2E-6 5E-9 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 56Ni - 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 - -
Vapor - 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 - -
28 Nickel-63 D, see 56Ni 9E+3 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 56Ni - 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
Vapor - 8E+2 3E-7 1E-9 - -
28 Nickel-65 D, see 56Ni 8E+3 2E+4 1E-5 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 56Ni - 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 - -
Vapor - 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 - -
28 Nickel-66 D, see 56Ni 4E+2 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 - -
LLI wall (5E+2) - - - 6E-6 6E-5
W, see 56Ni - 6E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
Vapor - 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
29 Copper-602 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

3E+4 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 4E-4 4E-3
W, sulfides, halides,

and nitrates

-

1E+5

5E-5

2E-7

-

-

Y, oxides and hydroxides - 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 - -
29 Copper-61 D, see 60Cu 1E+4 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 60Cu - 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 - -
Y, see 60Cu - 4E+4 1E-5 5E-8 - -
29 Copper-64 D, see 60Cu 1E+4 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 60Cu - 2E+4 1E-5 3E-8 - -
Y, see 60Cu - 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 - -
29 Copper-67 D, see 60Cu 5E+3 8E+3 3E-6 1E-8 6E-5 6E-4
W, see 60Cu - 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 - -
Y, see 60Cu - 5E+3 2E-6 6E-9 - -
30 Zinc-62 Y, all compounds 1E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 2E-5 2E-4
30 Zinc-632 Y, all compounds 2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 3E-4 3E-3
30 Zinc-65 Y, all compounds 4E+2 3E+2 1E-7 4E-10 5E-6 5E-5
30 Zinc-69m Y, all compounds 4E+3 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 6E-5 6E-4
30 Zinc-692 Y, all compounds 6E+4 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 8E-4 8E-3
30 Zinc-71m Y, all compounds 6E+3 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 8E-5 8E-4
30 Zinc-72 Y, all compounds 1E+3 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4
31 Gallium-652 D, all compounds except

those given for W

5E+4 2E+5 7E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(6E+4)

- - - 9E-4 9E-3
W, oxides, hydroxides,

carbides, halides, and nitrates

- 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
31 Gallium-66 D, see 65Ga 1E+3 4E+3 1E-6 5E-9 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 65Ga - 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
31 Gallium-67 D, see 65Ga 7E+3 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 65Ga - 1E+4 4E-6 1E-8 - -
31 Gallium-682 D, see 65Ga 2E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 65Ga - 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 - -
31 Gallium-702 D, see 65Ga 5E+4 2E+5 7E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(7E+4)

- - - 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 65Ga - 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
31 Gallium-72 D, see 65Ga 1E+3 4E+3 1E-6 5E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, see 65Ga - 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
31 Gallium-73 D, see 65Ga 5E+3 2E+4 6E-6 2E-8 7E-5 7E-4
W, see 65Ga - 2E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
32 Germanium-66 D, all compounds except

those given for W

2E+4 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, oxides, sulfides, and halides - 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 - -
32 Germanium-672 D, see 66Ge 3E+4 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(4E+4)

- - - 6E-4 6E-3
W, see 66Ge - 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 - -
32 Germanium-68 D, see 66Ge 5E+3 4E+3 2E-6 5E-9 6E-5 6E-4
W, see 66Ge - 1E+2 4E-8 1E-10 - -
32 Germanium-69 D, see 66Ge 1E+4 2E+4 6E-6 2E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 66Ge - 8E+3 3E-6 1E-8 - -
32 Germanium-71 D, see 66Ge 5E+5 4E+5 2E-4 6E-7 7E-3 7E-2
W, see 66Ge - 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 - -
32 Germanium-752 D, see 66Ge 4E+4 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(7E+4)

- - - 9E-4 9E-3
W, see 66Ge - 8E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
32 Germanium-77 D, see 66Ge 9E+3 1E+4 4E-6 1E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 66Ge - 6E+3 2E-6 8E-9 - -
32 Germanium-782 D, see 66Ge 2E+4 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 - -
St wall

(2E+4)

- - - 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 66Ge - 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 - -
33 Arsenic-692 W, all compounds 3E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(4E+4)

- - - 6E-4 6E-3
33 Arsenic-702 W, all compounds 1E+4 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 2E-4 2E-3
33 Arsenic-71 W, all compounds 4E+3 5E+3 2E-6 6E-9 5E-5 5E-4
33 Arsenic-72 W, all compounds 9E+2 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4
33 Arsenic-73 W, all compounds 8E+3 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 1E-4 1E-3
33 Arsenic-74 W, all compounds 1E+3 8E+2 3E-7 1E-9 2E-5 2E-4
33 Arsenic-76 W, all compounds 1E+3 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4
33 Arsenic-77 W, all compounds 4E+3 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 - -
LLI wall (5E+3) - - - 6E-5 6E-4
33 Arsenic-782 W, all compounds 8E+3 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3
34 Selenium-702 D, all compounds except

those given for W

2E+4 4E+4 2E-5 5E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, oxides, hydroxides,

carbides, and elemental Se

1E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 - -
34 Selenium-73m2 D, see 70Se 6E+4 2E+5 6E-5 2E-7 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 70Se 3E+4 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
34 Selenium-73 D, see 70Se 3E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 4E-5 4E-4
W, see 70Se - 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 - -
34 Selenium-75 D, see 70Se 5E+2 7E+2 3E-7 1E-9 7E-6 7E-5
W, see 70Se - 6E+2 3E-7 8E-10 - -
34 Selenium-79 D, see 70Se 6E+2 8E+2 3E-7 1E-9 8E-6 8E-5
W, see 70Se - 6E+2 2E-7 8E-10 - -
34 Selenium-81m2 D, see 70Se 4E+4 7E+4 3E-5 9E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 70Se 2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
34 Selenium-812 D, see 70Se 6E+4 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
St wall

(8E+4)

- - - 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 70Se - 2E+5 1E-4 3E-7 - -
34 Selenium-832 D, see 70Se 4E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 70Se 3E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
35 Bromine-74m2 D, bromides of H, Li,

Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr

1E+4 4E+4 2E-5 5E-8 - -
St wall

(2E+4)

- - - 3E-4 3E-3
W, bromides of lantha-

nides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr,

Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl,

Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi,

Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir,

Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au,

Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti,

Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mn,

Tc, and Re

- 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 - -
35 Bromine-742 D, see 74mBr 2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(4E+4)

- - - 5E-45E-3 -
W, see 74mBr - 8E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
35 Bromine-752 D, see 74mBr 3E+4 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 - -
St wall

(4E+4)

- - - 5E-4 5E-3
W, see 74mBr - 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 - -
35 Bromine-76 D, see 74mBr 4E+3 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 5E-5 5E-4
W, see 74mBr - 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 - -
35 Bromine-77 D, see 74mBr 2E+4 2E+4 1E-5 3E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 74mBr - 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 - -
35 Bromine-80m D, see 74mBr 2E+4 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 74mBr - 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
35 Bromine-802 D, see 74mBr 5E+4 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
St wall

(9E+4)

- - - 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 74mBr - 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
35 Bromine-82 D, see 74mBr 3E+3 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 4E-5 4E-4
W, see 74mBr - 4E+3 2E-6 5E-9 - -
35 Bromine-83 D, see 74mBr 5E+4 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
St wall

(7E+4)

- - - 9E-4 9E-3
W, see 74mBr - 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
35 Bromine-842 D, see 74mBr 2E+4 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 74mBr - 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
36 Krypton-742 Submersion1 - - 3E-6 1E-8 - -
36 Krypton-76 Submersion1 - - 9E-6 4E-8 - -
36 Krypton-772 Submersion1 - - 4E-6 2E-8 - -
36 Krypton-79 Submersion1 - - 2E-5 7E-8 - -
36 Krypton-81 Submersion1 - - 7E-4 3E-6 - -
36 Krypton-83m2 Submersion1 - - 1E-2 5E-5 - -
36 Krypton-85m Submersion1 - - 2E-5 1E-7 - -
36 Krypton-85 Submersion1 - - 1E-4 7E-7 - -
36 Krypton-872 Submersion1 - - 5E-6 2E-8 - -
36 Krypton-88 Submersion1 - - 2E-6 9E-9 - -
37 Rubidium-792 D, all compounds 4E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(6E+4)

- - - 8E-4 8E-3
37 Rubidium-81m2 D, all compounds 2E+5 3E+5 1E-4 5E-7 - -
St wall

(3E+5)

- - - 4E-3 4E-2
37 Rubidium-81 D, all compounds 4E+4 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 5E-4 5E-3
37 Rubidium-82m D, all compounds 1E+4 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 2E-4 2E-3
37 Rubidium-83 D, all compounds 6E+2 1E+3 4E-7 1E-9 9E-6 9E-5
37 Rubidium-84 D, all compounds 5E+2 8E+2 3E-7 1E-9 7E-6 7E-5
37 Rubidium-86 D, all compounds 5E+2 8E+2 3E-7 1E-9 7E-6 7E-5
37 Rubidium-87 D, all compounds 1E+3 2E+3 6E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4
37 Rubidium-882 D, all compounds 2E+4 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 4E-4 4E-3
37 Rubidium-892 D, all compounds 4E+4 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(6E+4)

- - - 9E-4 9E-3
38 Strontium-802 D, all soluble compounds

except SrTiO

4E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 6E-5 6E-4
Y, all insoluble com-

pounds and SrTi0

- 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
38 Strontium-812 D, see 80Sr 3E+4 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 3E-4 3E-3
Y, see 80Sr 2E+4 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
38 Strontium-82 D, see 80Sr 3E+2 4E+2 2E-7 6E-10 - -
LLI wall (2E+2) - - - 3E-6 3E-5
Y, see 80Sr 2E+2 9E+1 4E-8 1E-10 - -
38 Strontium-83 D, see 80Sr 3E+3 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 3E-5 3E-4
Y, see 80Sr 2E+3 4E+3 1E-6 5E-9 - -
38 Strontium-85m2 D, see 80Sr 2E+5 6E+5 3E-4 9E-7 3E-3 3E-2
Y, see 80Sr - 8E+5 4E-4 1E-6 - -
38 Strontium-85 D, see 80Sr 3E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 4E-5 4E-4
Y, see 80Sr - 2E+3 6E-7 2E-9 - -
38 Strontium-87m D, see 80Sr 5E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 6E-4 6E-3
Y, see 80Sr 4E+4 2E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
38 Strontium-89 D, see 80Sr 6E+2 8E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
LLI wall (6E+2) - - - 8E-6 8E-5
Y, see 80Sr 5E+2 1E+2 6E-8 2E-10 - -
38 Strontium-90 D, see 80Sr 3E+1 2E+1 8E-9 - - -
Bone surf (4E+1) Bone surf (2E+1) - 3E-11 5E-7 5E-6
Y, see 80Sr - 4E+0 2E-9 6E-12 - -
38 Strontium-91 D, see 80Sr 2E+3 6E+3 2E-6 8E-9 2E-5 2E-4
Y, see 80Sr - 4E+3 1E-6 5E-9 - -
38 Strontium-92 D, see 80Sr 3E+3 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 4E-5 4E-4
Y, see 80Sr - 7E+3 3E-6 9E-9 - -
39 Yttrium-86m2 W, all compounds except

those given for Y

2E+4 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 3E-4 3E-3
Y, oxides and hydroxides - 5E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
39 Yttrium-86 W, see 86mY 1E+3 3E+3 1E-6 5E-9 2E-5 2E-4
Y, see 86mY - 3E+3 1E-6 5E-9 - -
39 Yttrium-87 W, see 86mY 2E+3 3E+3 1E-6 5E-9 3E-5 3E-4
Y, see 86mY - 3E+3 1E-6 5E-9 - -
39 Yttrium-88 W, see 86mY 1E+3 3E+2 1E-7 3E-10 1E-5 1E-4
Y, see 86mY - 2E+2 1E-7 3E-10 - -
39 Yttrium-90m W, see 86mY 8E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 1E-4 1E-3
Y, see 86mY - 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
39 Yttrium-90 W, see 86mY 4E+2 7E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
LLI wall (5E+2) - - - 7E-6 7E-5
Y, see 86mY - 6E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
39 Yttrium-91m2 W, see 86mY 1E+5 2E+5 1E-4 3E-7 2E-3 2E-2
Y, see 86mY - 2E+5 7E-5 2E-7 - -
39 Yttrium-91 W, see 86mY 5E+2 2E+2 7E-8 2E-10 - -
LLI wall (6E+2) - - - 8E-6 8E-5
Y, see 86mY - 1E+2 5E-8 2E-10 - -
39 Yttrium-92 W, see 86mY 3E+3 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 4E-5 4E-4
Y, see 86mY - 8E+3 3E-6 1E-8 - -
39 Yttrium-93 W, see 86mY 1E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 2E-5 2E-4
Y, see 86mY - 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
39 Yttrium-942 W, see 86mY 2E+4 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 4E-4 4E-3
Y, see 86mY - 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
39 Yttrium-952 W, see 86mY 4E+4 2E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(5E+4)

- - - 7E-4 7E-3
Y, see 86mY - 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
40 Zirconium-86 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

1E+3 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, oxides, hydroxides,

halides, and nitrates

- 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
Y, carbide - 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
40 Zirconium-88 D, see 86Zr 4E+3 2E+2 9E-8 3E-10 5E-5 5E-4
W, see 86Zr - 5E+2 2E-7 7E-10 - -
Y, see 86Zr - 3E+2 1E-7 4E-10 - -
40 Zirconium-89 D, see 86Zr 2E+3 4E+3 1E-6 5E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, see 86Zr - 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
Y, see 86Zr - 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
40 Zirconium-93 D, see 86Zr 1E+3 6E+0 3E-9 - - -
Bone surf (3E+3) Bone surf (2E+1) - 2E-11 4E-5 4E-4
W, see 86Zr - 2E+1 1E-8 - - -
- Bone surf (6E+1) - 9E-11 - -
Y, see 86Zr - 6E+1 2E-8 - - -
- Bone surf (7E+1) - 9E-11 - -
40 Zirconium-95 D, see 86Zr 1E+3 1E+2 5E-8 - 2E-5 2E-4
- Bone surf (3E+2) - 4E-10 - -
W, see 86Zr - 4E+2 2E-7 5E-10 - -
Y, see 86Zr - 3E+2 1E-7 4E-10 - -
40 Zirconium-97 D, see 86Zr 6E+2 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 9E-6 9E-5
W, see 86Zr - 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 - -
Y, see 86Zr - 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
41 Niobium-882 W, all compounds except

those given for Y

5E+4 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
St wall

(7E+4)

- - - 1E-3 1E-2
Y, oxides and hydroxides - 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
41 Niobium-892

(66 min)

W, see 88Nb 1E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 1E-4 1E-3
Y, see 88Nb - 4E+4 2E-5 5E-8 - -
41 Niobium-89

(122 min)

W, see 88Nb 5E+3 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 7E-5 7E-4
Y, see 88Nb - 2E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
41 Niobium-90 W, see 88Nb 1E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 1E-5 1E-4
Y, see 88Nb - 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
41 Niobium-93m W, see 88Nb 9E+3 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 - -
LLI wall (1E+4) - - - 2E-4 2E-3
Y, see 88Nb - 2E+2 7E-8 2E-10 - -
41 Niobium-94 W, see 88Nb 9E+2 2E+2 8E-8 3E-10 1E-5 1E-4
Y, see 88Nb - 2E+1 6E-9 2E-11 - -
41 Niobium-95m W, see 88Nb 2E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
LLI wall (2E+3) - - - 3E-5 3E-4
Y, see 88Nb - 2E+3 9E-7 3E-9 - -
41 Niobium-95 W, see 88Nb 2E+3 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 3E-5 3E-4
Y, see 88Nb - 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
41 Niobium-96 W, see 88Nb 1E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 2E-5 2E-4
Y, see 88Nb - 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
41 Niobium-972 W, see 88Nb 2E+4 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 3E-4 3E-3
Y, see 88Nb - 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
41 Niobium-982 W, see 88Nb 1E+4 5E+4 2E-5 8E-8 2E-4 2E-3
Y, see 88Nb - 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 - -
42 Molybdenum-90 D, all compounds except

those given for Y

4E+3 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 3E-5 3E-4
Y, oxides, hydroxides,

and MoS

2E+3

5E+3

2E-6

6E-9

-

-

42 Molybdenum-93m D, see 90Mo 9E+3 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 6E-5 6E-4
Y, see 90Mo 4E+3 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
42 Molybdenum-93 D, see 90Mo 4E+3 5E+3 2E-6 8E-9 5E-5 5E-4
Y, see 90Mo 2E+4 2E+2 8E-8 2E-10 - -
42 Molybdenum-99 D, see 90Mo 2E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 - -
LLI wall (1E+3) - - - 2E-5 2E-4
Y, see 90Mo 1E+3 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 - -
42 Molybdenum-1012 D, see 90Mo 4E+4 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(5E+4)

- - - 7E-4 7E-3
Y, see 90Mo - 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
43 Technetium-93m2 D, all compounds except

those given for W

7E+4 2E+5 6E-5 2E-7 1E-3 1E-2
W, oxides, hydroxides,

halides, and nitrates

- 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 - -
43 Technetium-93 D, see 93mTc 3E+4 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 93mTc - 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 - -
43 Technetium-94m2 D, see 93mTc 2E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 93mTc - 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
43 Technetium-94 D, see 93mTc 9E+3 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 93mTc - 2E+4 1E-5 3E-8 - -
43 Technetium-95m D, see 93mTc 4E+3 5E+3 2E-6 8E-9 5E-5 5E-4
W, see 93mTc - 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 - -
43 Technetium-95 D, see 93mTc 1E+4 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 93mTc - 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 - -
43 Technetium-96m2 D, see 93mTc 2E+5 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 2E-3 2E-2
W, see 93mTc - 2E+5 1E-4 3E-7 - -
43 Technetium-96 D, see 93mTc 2E+3 3E+3 1E-6 5E-9 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 93mTc - 2E+3 9E-7 3E-9 - -
43 Technetium-97m D, see 93mTc 5E+3 7E+3 3E-6 - 6E-5 6E-4
- St wall

(7E+3)

- 1E-8 - -
W, see 93mTc - 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
43 Technetium-97 D, see 93mTc 4E+4 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 5E-4 5E-3
W, see 93mTc - 6E+3 2E-6 8E-9 - -
43 Technetium-98 D, see 93mTc 1E+3 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 93mTc - 3E+2 1E-7 4E-10 - -
43 Technetium-99m D, see 93mTc 8E+4 2E+5 6E-5 2E-7 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 93mTc - 2E+5 1E-4 3E-7 - -
43 Technetium-99 D, see 93mTc 4E+3 5E+3 2E-6 - 6E-5 6E-4
- St wall

(6E+3)

- 8E-9 - -
W, see 93mTc - 7E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
43 Technetium-1012 D, see 93mTc 9E+4 3E+5 1E-4 5E-7 - -
St wall

(1E+5)

- - - 2E-3 2E-2
W, see 93mTc - 4E+5 2E-4 5E-7 - -
43 Technetium-1042 D, see 93mTc 2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 93mTc - 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
44 Ruthenium-942 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

2E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, halides - 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
Y, oxides and hydroxides - 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
44 Ruthenium-97 D, see 94Ru 8E+3 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 94Ru - 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
Y, see 94Ru - 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
44 Ruthenium-103 D, see 94Ru 2E+3 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 94Ru - 1E+3 4E-7 1E-9 - -
Y, see 94Ru - 6E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
44 Ruthenium-105 D, see 94Ru 5E+3 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 7E-5 7E-4
W, see 94Ru - 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
Y, see 94Ru - 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
44 Ruthenium-106 D, see 94Ru 2E+2 9E+1 4E-8 1E-10 - -
LLI wall (2E+2) - - - 3E-6 3E-5
W, see 94Ru - 5E+1 2E-8 8E-11 - -
Y, see 94Ru - 1E+1 5E-9 2E-11 - -
45 Rhodium-99m D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

2E+4

6E+4

2E-5

8E-8

2E-4

2E-3

W, halides - 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
Y, oxides and hydroxides - 7E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
45 Rhodium-99 D, see 99mRh 2E+3 3E+3 1E-6 4E-9 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 99mRh - 2E+3 9E-7 3E-9 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 2E+3 8E-7 3E-9 - -
45 Rhodium-100 D, see 99mRh 2E+3 5E+3 2E-6 7E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, see 99mRh - 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 4E+3 2E-6 5E-9 - -
45 Rhodium-101m D, see 99mRh 6E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 8E-5 8E-4
W, see 99mRh - 8E+3 4E-6 1E-8 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 8E+3 3E-6 1E-8 - -
45 Rhodium-101 D, see 99mRh 2E+3 5E+2 2E-7 7E-10 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 99mRh - 8E+2 3E-7 1E-9 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 2E+2 6E-8 2E-10 - -
45 Rhodium-102m D, see 99mRh 1E+3 5E+2 2E-7 7E-10 - -
LLI wall (1E+3) - - - 2E-5 2E-4
W, see 99mRh - 4E+2 2E-7 5E-10 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 1E+2 5E-8 2E-10 - -
45 Rhodium-102 D, see 99mRh 6E+2 9E+1 4E-8 1E-10 8E-6 8E-5
W, see 99mRh - 2E+2 7E-8 2E-10 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 6E+1 2E-8 8E-11 - -
45 Rhodium-103m2 D, see 99mRh 4E+5 1E+6 5E-4 2E-6 6E-3 6E-2
W, see 99mRh - 1E+6 5E-4 2E-6 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 1E+6 5E-4 2E-6 - -
45 Rhodium-105 D, see 99mRh 4E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
LLI wall (4E+3) - - - 5E-5 5E-4
W, see 99mRh - 6E+3 3E-6 9E-9 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 6E+3 2E-6 8E-9 - -
45 Rhodium-106m D, see 99mRh 8E+3 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 99mRh - 4E+4 2E-5 5E-8 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 4E+4 1E-5 5E-8 - -
45 Rhodium-1072 D, see 99mRh 7E+4 2E+5 1E-4 3E-7 - -
St wall

(9E+4)

- - - 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 99mRh - 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 - -
Y, see 99mRh - 3E+5 1E-4 3E-7 - -
46 Palladium-100 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

1E+3 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, nitrates - 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
Y, oxides and hydroxides - 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 - -
46 Palladium-101 D, see 100Pd 1E+4 3E+4 1E-5 5E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 100Pd - 3E+4 1E-5 5E-8 - -
Y, see 100Pd - 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 - -
46 Palladium-103 D, see 100Pd 6E+3 6E+3 3E-6 9E-9 - -
LLI wall (7E+3) - - - 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 100Pd - 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 - -
Y, see 100Pd - 4E+3 1E-6 5E-9 - -
46 Palladium-107 D, see 100Pd 3E+4 2E+4 9E-6 - - -
LLI wall (4E+4) Kidneys (2E+4) - 3E-8 5E-4 5E-3
W, see 100Pd - 7E+3 3E-6 1E-8 - -
Y, see 100Pd - 4E+2 2E-7 6E-10 - -
46 Palladium-109 D, see 100Pd 2E+3 6E+3 3E-6 9E-9 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 100Pd - 5E+3 2E-6 8E-9 - -
Y, see 100Pd - 5E+3 2E-6 6E-9 - -
47 Silver-1022 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

5E+4 2E+5 8E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(6E+4)

- - - 9E-4 9E-3
W, nitrates and sulfides - 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
Y, oxides and hydroxides - 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
47 Silver-1032 D, see 102Ag 4E+4 1E+5 4E-5 1E-7 5E-4 5E-3
W, see 102Ag - 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
47 Silver-104m2 D, see 102Ag 3E+4 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 102Ag - 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
47 Silver-1042 D, see 102Ag 2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 102Ag - 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
47 Silver-105 D, see 102Ag 3E+3 1E+3 4E-7 1E-9 4E-5 4E-4
W, see 102Ag - 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 2E+3 7E-7 2E-9 - -
47 Silver-106m D, see 102Ag 8E+2 7E+2 3E-7 1E-9 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 102Ag - 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
47 Silver-1062 D, see 102Ag 6E+4 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
St. wall

(6E+4)

- - - 9E-4 9E-3
W, see 102Ag - 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
47 Silver-108m D, see 102Ag 6E+2 2E+2 8E-8 3E-10 9E-6 9E-5
W, see 102Ag - 3E+2 1E-7 4E-10 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 2E+1 1E-8 3E-11 - -
47 Silver-110m D, see 102Ag 5E+2 1E+2 5E-8 2E-10 6E-6 6E-5
W, see 102Ag - 2E+2 8E-8 3E-10 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 9E+1 4E-8 1E-10 - -
47 Silver-111 D, see 102Ag 9E+2 2E+3 6E-7 - - -
LLI wall (1E+3) Liver

(2E+3)

- 2E-9 2E-5 2E-4
W, see 102Ag - 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
47 Silver-112 D, see 102Ag 3E+3 8E+3 3E-6 1E-8 4E-5 4E-4
W, see 102Ag - 1E+4 4E-6 1E-8 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 - -
47 Silver-1152 D, see 102Ag 3E+4 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
St wall

(3E+4)

- - - 4E-4 4E-3
W, see 102Ag - 9E+4 4E-5 1E-7 - -
Y, see 102Ag - 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
48 Cadmium-1042 D, all compounds except

those given for W and Y

2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 9E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, sulfides, halides,

and nitrates

-

1E+5

5E-5

2E-7

-

-

Y, oxides and hydroxides - 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
48 Cadmium-107 D, see 104Cd 2E+4 5E+4 2E-5 8E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 104Cd - 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 - -
48 Cadmium-109 D, see 104Cd 3E+2 4E+1 1E-8 - - -
Kidneys (4E+2) Kidneys (5E+1) - 7E-11 6E-6 6E-5
W, see 104Cd - 1E+2 5E-8 - - -
- Kidneys (1E+2) - 2E-10 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 1E+2 5E-8 2E-10 - -
48 Cadmium-113m D, see 104Cd 2E+1 2E+0 1E-9 - - -
Kidneys (4E+1) Kidneys (4E+0) - 5E-12 5E-7 5E-6
W, see 104Cd - 8E+0 4E-9 - - -
- Kidneys (1E+1) - 2E-11 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 1E+1 5E-9 2E-11 - -
48 Cadmium-113 D, see 104Cd 2E+1 2E+0 9E-10 - - -
Kidneys (3E+1) Kidneys (3E+0) - 5E-12 4E-7 4E-6
W, see 104Cd - 8E+0 3E-9 - - -
- Kidneys (1E+1) - 2E-11 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 1E+1 6E-9 2E-11 - -
48 Cadmium-115m D, see 104Cd 3E+2 5E+1 2E-8 - 4E-6 4E-5

-

Kidneys (8E+1)

-

1E-10

-

-

W, see 104Cd - 1E+2 5E-8 2E-10 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 1E+2 6E-8 2E-10 - -
48 Cadmium-115 D, see 104Cd 9E+2 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 - -
LLI wall (1E+3) - - - 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 104Cd - 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 - -
48 Cadmium-117m D, see 104Cd 5E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 6E-5 6E-4
W, see 104Cd - 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
48 Cadmium-117 D, see 104Cd 5E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 6E-5 6E-4
W, see 104Cd - 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 - -
Y, see 104Cd - 1E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
49 Indium-109 D, all compounds except

those given for W

2E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, oxides, hydroxides,

halides, and nitrates

- 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 - -
49 Indium-1102 D, see 109In 2E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 2E-4 2E-3
(69.1 min) W, see 109In - 6E+4 2E-5 8E-8 - -
49 Indium-110 D, see 109In 5E+3 2E+4 7E-6 2E-8 7E-5 7E-4
(4.9 h) W, see 109In - 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 - -
49 Indium-111 D, see 109In 4E+3 6E+3 3E-6 9E-9 6E-5 6E-4
W, see 109In - 6E+3 3E-6 9E-9 - -
49 Indium-1122 D, see 109In 2E+5 6E+5 3E-4 9E-7 2E-3 2E-2
W, see 109In - 7E+5 3E-4 1E-6 - -
49 Indium-113m2 D, see 109In 5E+4 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 7E-4 7E-3
W, see 109In - 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
49 Indium-114m D, see 109In 3E+2 6E+1 3E-8 9E-11 - -
LLI wall (4E+2) - - - 5E-6 5E-5
W, see 109In - 1E+2 4E-8 1E-10 - -
49 Indium-115m D, see 109In 1E+4 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 109In - 5E+4 2E-5 7E-8 - -
49 Indium-115 D, see 109In 4E+1 1E+0 6E-10 2E-12 5E-7 5E-6
W, see 109In - 5E+0 2E-9 8E-12 - -
49 Indium-116m2 D, see 109In 2E+4 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 109In - 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
49 Indium-117m2 D, see 109In 1E+4 3E+4 1E-5 5E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 109In - 4E+4 2E-5 6E-8 - -
49 Indium-1172 D, see 109In 6E+4 2E+5 7E-5 2E-7 8E-4 8E-3
W, see 109In - 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 - -
49 Indium-119m2 D, see 109In 4E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 - -
St wall

(5E+4)

- - - 7E-4 7E-3
W, see 109In - 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
50 Tin-110 D, all compounds except

those given for W

4E+3 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 5E-5 5E-4
W, sulfides, oxides,

hydroxides, halides,

nitrates, and stannic

phosphate

- 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
50 Tin-1112 D, see 110Sn 7E+4 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 110Sn - 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 - -
50 Tin-113 D, see 110Sn 2E+3 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
LLI wall (2E+3) - - - 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 110Sn - 5E+2 2E-7 8E-10 - -
50 Tin-117m D, see 110Sn 2E+3 1E+3 5E-7 - - -
LLI wall (2E+3) Bone surf (2E+3) - 3E-9 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 110Sn - 1E+3 6E-7 2E-9 - -
50 Tin-119m D, see 110Sn 3E+3 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
LLI wall (4E+3) - - - 6E-5 6E-4
W, see 110Sn - 1E+3 4E-7 1E-9 - -
50 Tin-121m D, see 110Sn 3E+3 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
LLI wall (4E+3) - - - 5E-5 5E-4
W, see 110Sn - 5E+2 2E-7 8E-10 - -
50 Tin-121 D, see 110Sn 6E+3 2E+4 6E-6 2E-8 - -
LLI wall (6E+3) - - - 8E-5 8E-4
W, see 110Sn - 1E+4 5E-6 2E-8 - -
50 Tin-123m2 D, see 110Sn 5E+4 1E+5 5E-5 2E-7 7E-4 7E-3
W, see 110Sn - 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
50 Tin-123 D, see 110Sn 5E+2 6E+2 3E-7 9E-10 - -
LLI wall (6E+2) - - - 9E-6 9E-5
W, see 110Sn - 2E+2 7E-8 2E-10 - -
50 Tin-125 D, see 110Sn 4E+2 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
LLI wall (5E+2) - - - 6E-6 6E-5
W, see 110Sn - 4E+2 1E-7 5E-10 - -
50 Tin-126 D, see 110Sn 3E+2 6E+1 2E-8 8E-11 4E-6 4E-5
W, see 110Sn - 7E+1 3E-8 9E-11 - -
50 Tin-127 D, see 110Sn 7E+3 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 9E-5 9E-4
W, see 110Sn - 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 - -
50 Tin-1282 D, see 110Sn 9E+3 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 1E-4 1E-3
W, see 110Sn - 4E+4 1E-5 5E-8 - -
51 Antimony-1152 D, all compounds except

those given for W

8E+4

2E+5

1E-4

3E-7

1E-3

1E-2

W, oxides, hydroxides,

halides, sulfides,

sulfates, and nitrates

-

3E+5

1E-4

4E-7

-

-

51 Antimony-116m2 D, see 115Sb 2E+4 7E+4 3E-5 1E-7 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 115Sb - 1E+5 6E-5 2E-7 - -
51 Antimony-1162 D, see 115Sb 7E+4 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 - -
St wall

(9E+4)

- - - 1E-3 1E-2
W, see 115Sb - 3E+5 1E-4 5E-7 - -
51 Antimony-117 D, see 115Sb 7E+4 2E+5 9E-5 3E-7 9E-4 9E-3
W, see 115Sb - 3E+5 1E-4 4E-7 - -
51 Antimony-118m D, see 115Sb 6E+3 2E+4 8E-6 3E-8 7E-5 7E-4
W, see 115Sb 5E+3 2E+4 9E-6 3E-8 - -
51 Antimony-119 D, see 115Sb 2E+4 5E+4 2E-5 6E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 115Sb 2E+4 3E+4 1E-5 4E-8 - -
51 Antimony-1202 D, see 115Sb 1E+5 4E+5 2E-4 6E-7 - -
(16 min) St wall (2E+5) - - - 2E-3 2E-2
W, see 115Sb - 5E+5 2E-4 7E-7 - -
51 Antimony-120

(5.76 d)

D, see 115Sb 1E+3 2E+3 9E-7 3E-9 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 115Sb 9E+2 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 - -
51 Antimony-122 D, see 115Sb 8E+2 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 - -
LLI wall (8E+2) - - - 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 115Sb 7E+2 1E+3 4E-7 2E-9 - -
51 Antimony-124m2 D, see 115Sb 3E+5 8E+5 4E-4 1E-6 3E-3 3E-2
W, see 115Sb 2E+5 6E+5 2E-4 8E-7 - -
51 Antimony-124 D, see 115Sb 6E+2 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 7E-6 7E-5
W, see 115Sb 5E+2 2E+2 1E-7 3E-10 - -
51 Antimony-125 D, see 115Sb 2E+3 2E+3 1E-6 3E-9 3E-5 3E-4
W, see 115Sb - 5E+2 2E-7 7E-10 - -
51 Antimony-126m2 D, see 115Sb 5E+4 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
St wall

(7E+4)

- - - 9E-4 9E-3
W, see 115Sb - 2E+5 8E-5 3E-7 - -
51 Antimony-126 D, see 115Sb 6E+2 1E+3 5E-7 2E-9 7E-6 7E-5
W, see 115Sb 5E+2 5E+2 2E-7 7E-10 - -
51 Antimony-127 D, see 115Sb 8E+2 2E+3 9E-7 3E-9 - -
LLI wall (8E+2) - - - 1E-5 1E-4
W, see 115Sb 7E+2 9E+2 4E-7 1E-9 - -
51 Antimony-1282 D, see 115Sb 8E+4 4E+5 2E-4 5E-7 - -
(10.4 min) St wall

(1E+5)

-

-

-

1E-3

1E-2

W, see 115Sb - 4E+5 2E-4 6E-7 - -
51 Antimony-128 D, see 115Sb 1E+3 4E+3 2E-6 6E-9 2E-5 2E-4
(9.01 h) W, see 115Sb - 3E+3 1E-6 5E-9 - -
51 Antimony-129 D, see 115Sb 3E+3 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 4E-5 4E-4
W, see 115Sb - 9E+3 4E-6 1E-8 - -
51 Antimony-1302 D, see 115Sb 2E+4 6E+4 3E-5 9E-8 3E-4 3E-3
W, see 115Sb - 8E+4 3E-5 1E-7 - -
51 Antimony-1312 D, see 115Sb 1E+4 2E+4 1E-5 - - -
Thyroid (2E+4) Thyroid (4E+4) - 6E-8 2E-4 2E-3
W, see 115Sb - 2E+4 1E-5 - -
- Thyroid (4E+4) - 6E-8 - -
52 Tellurium-116 D, all compounds except

those given for W