WSR 09-08-105

EXPEDITED RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed March 31, 2009, 10:06 a.m. ]

Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards; chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work; chapter 296-800 WAC, Safety and health core rules; chapter 296-811 WAC, Fire brigades; chapter 296-817 WAC, Hearing loss prevention (noise); chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators; chapter 296-848 WAC, Arsenic; chapter 296-849 WAC, Benzene; chapter 296-855 WAC, Ethylene oxide; and chapter 296-856 WAC, Formaldehyde.

NOTICE

THIS RULE IS BEING PROPOSED UNDER AN EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS THAT WILL ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR THE AGENCY TO HOLD PUBLIC HEARINGS, PREPARE A SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT, OR PROVIDE RESPONSES TO THE CRITERIA FOR A SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATIVE RULE. IF YOU OBJECT TO THIS USE OF THE EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS, YOU MUST EXPRESS YOUR OBJECTIONS IN WRITING AND THEY MUST BE SENT TO Joshua Swanson, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44001, Olympia, WA 98504-4001 , AND RECEIVED BY June 1, 2009.


Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: The occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) has recently revised several of their rules to clarify the fact that personal protective equipment (PPE) for employees, along with training on PPE, is to be provided to each and every employee. The department is proposing to make the same changes to our rules, to remain as-effective-as OSHA as mandated by statute. These changes will make clear that the employer is to provide the necessary PPE and training to every employee.

Reasons Supporting Proposal: The department is required by statute to remain at-least-as-effective-as OSHA. Adopting these changes will keep the department in compliance with the law.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.050.

Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.

Rule is necessary because of federal law, 29 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 191-, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1926.

Name of Proponent: Department of labor and industries, governmental.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, Tumwater, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Stephen Cant, Tumwater, (360) 902-5495.

March 31, 2009

Judy Schurke

Director

OTS-2224.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)

WAC 296-62-07306   Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.   (1) A regulated area shall be established by an employer where listed carcinogens are manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored.

(2) All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(a) Isolated systems. Employees working with carcinogens within an isolated system such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(b) Closed system operation. Within regulated areas where carcinogens are stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system including piping systems with any sample ports or openings closed while carcinogens are contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(c) Open vessel system operations. Open vessel system operations as defined in WAC 296-62-07304(12) are prohibited.

(d) Transfer from a closed system. Charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system. In operations involving "laboratory-type hoods," or in locations where a carcinogen is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this section shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Each employee((s)) engaged in handling operations involving the following carcinogens must be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied-air respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type as required in chapter 296-842 WAC:


Methyl Chloromethyl Ether;
bis-Chloromethyl Ether;
Ethylenemine;
beta-Propiolactone;
4-Amino Diphenyl.

(v) Employees engaged in handling operations involving:


4-nitrobiphenyl;
alpha-naphthylamine;
4-4'methylene bis(2-chloroaniline);
3-3'dichlorobenzidine (and its salts);
beta-naphthylamine;
benzidine;
2-acetylamino fluroene;
4-dimethylaminobenzene;
n-nitrosodimethylamine
must be provided with, and required to wear and use, a half-face, filter-type respirator certified for solid or liquid particulates with minimum efficiency rating of 95% as required in chapter 296-842 WAC. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.

(vi) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(vii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(viii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(ix) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(e) Maintenance and decontamination activities. In clean up of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with carcinogens could result, each authorized employee entering the area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear, clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with WAC 296-800-160, and respiratory protective equipment required by this chapter 296-842 WAC;

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(f) Laboratory activities. The requirements of this subdivision shall apply to research and quality control activities involving the use of carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.

(i) Mechanical pipetting aids shall be used for all pipetting procedures.

(ii) Experiments, procedures and equipment which could produce aerosols shall be confined to laboratory-type hoods or glove boxes.

(iii) Surfaces on which carcinogens are handled shall be protected from contamination.

(iv) Contaminated wastes and animal carcasses shall be collected in impervious containers which are closed and decontaminated prior to removal from the work area. Such wastes and carcasses shall be incinerated in such a manner that no carcinogenic products are released.

(v) All other forms of listed carcinogens shall be inactivated prior to disposal.

(vi) Laboratory vacuum systems shall be protected with high efficiency scrubbers or with disposable absolute filters.

(vii) Employees engaged in animal support activities shall be:

(A) Provided with, and required to wear, a complete protective clothing change, clean each day, including coveralls or pants and shirt, foot covers, head covers, gloves, and appropriate respiratory protective equipment or devices; and

(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities; and

(D) Required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Employees, other than those engaged only in animal support activities, each day shall be:

(A) Provided with and required to wear a clean change of appropriate laboratory clothing, such as a solid front gown, surgical scrub suit, or fully buttoned laboratory coat.

(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(ix) Air pressure in laboratory areas and animal rooms where carcinogens are handled and bioassay studies are performed shall be negative in relation to the pressure in surrounding areas. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated.

(x) There shall be no connection between regulated areas and any other areas through the ventilation system.

(xi) A current inventory of the carcinogens shall be maintained.

(xii) Ventilated apparatus such as laboratory-type hoods, shall be tested at least semi-annually or immediately after ventilation modification or maintenance operations, by personnel fully qualified to certify correct containment and operation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, 296-62-07306, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07306, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07306, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-09-030, 296-62-07306, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-07306, filed 7/25/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-62-07306, filed 4/19/85. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-07306, filed 7/27/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), 296-62-07306, filed 11/13/80.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-18-090, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03)

WAC 296-62-07308   General regulated area requirements.   (1) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130 (1) and (5) and 296-62-07131), which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(2) Emergencies. In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this subsection shall be implemented.

(a) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(b) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(c) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within twenty-four hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with WAC 296-62-07312(2).

(d) Where an employee has a known contact with a listed carcinogen, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(e) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in WAC 296-62-07312(2).

(3) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(b) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(c) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided.

(i) One shower shall be provided for each ten employees of each sex, or numerical fraction thereof, who are required to shower during the same shift.

(ii) Body soap or other appropriate cleansing agents convenient to the showers shall be provided as specified in WAC 296-800-230, of the safety and health core rules.

(iii) Showers shall be provided with hot and cold water feeding a common discharge line.

(iv) Employees who use showers shall be provided with individual clean towels.

(d) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change rooms shall be provided and shall be equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for the protective clothing for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(e) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(4) Contamination control.

(a) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(b) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(c) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove carcinogens from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(d) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 03-18-090, 296-62-07308, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07308, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07308, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), 296-62-07308, filed 11/30/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), 296-62-07308, filed 11/13/80.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07329   Vinyl chloride.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section includes requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014.

(b) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of polyvinyl chloride.

(c) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the department of transportation may regulate the hazards covered by this section.

(2) Definitions.

(a) "Action level" means a concentration of vinyl chloride of 0.5 ppm averaged over an eight-hour work day.

(b) "Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require him/her to enter a regulated area or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring procedures.

(c) "Director" means the director of department of labor and industries or his/her designated representative.

(d) "Emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, result in massive release of vinyl chloride.

(e) "Fabricated product" means a product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing at temperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of the polyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.

(f) "Hazardous operation" means any operation, procedure, or activity where a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation, which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(g) "Polyvinyl chloride" means polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymer before such is converted to a fabricated product.

(h) "Vinyl chloride" means vinyl chloride monomer.

(3) Permissible exposure limit.

(a) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and

(b) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5 ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.

(c) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact with liquid vinyl chloride.

(4) Monitoring.

(a) A program of initial monitoring and measurement shall be undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(b) Where a determination conducted under subdivision (a) of this subsection shows any employee exposures without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each such employee shall be established. Such a program:

(i) Shall be repeated at least monthly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(ii) Shall be repeated not less than quarterly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least two consecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than five working days apart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.

(c) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change which may result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employer has any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess of the action level, a determination of employee exposure under subdivision (a) of this subsection shall be performed.

(d) The method of monitoring and measurement shall have an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus fifty percent from 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus thirty-five percent from over 0.5 ppm through 1.0 ppm, plus or minus twenty-five percent over 1.0 ppm, (methods meeting these accuracy requirements are available from the director).

(e) Employees or their designated representatives shall be afforded reasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required by this subsection.

(5) Regulated area.

(a) A regulated area shall be established where:

(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted, repackaged, stored, handled or used; and

(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(6) Methods of compliance. Employee exposures to vinyl chloride shall be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided in subsection (3) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows:

(a) Feasible engineering and work practice controls shall immediately be used to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.

(b) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest practicable level, and shall be supplemented by respiratory protection in accordance with subsection (7) of this section. A program shall be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon as feasible.

(c) Written plans for such a program shall be developed and furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director. Such plans shall be updated at least every six months.

(7) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator((s)) that ((comply)) complies with the requirements of this section.

(b) Respirator program. The employer must develop, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, ((except for)) which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator. Exception: The requirements in WAC 296-842-13005 that address change out of vapor or gas respirator cartridges or canisters.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide organic vapor cartridges that have a service life of at least one hour when employees use air-purifying respirators in vinyl chloride concentrations up to 10 parts per million (ppm).

(iii) Make sure the following respirators, when selected, are equipped with a canister with a service life of at least four hours when used in vinyl chloride concentrations up to 25 ppm:

(A) Helmet, hood, or full-facepiece PAPRs

OR

(B) Gas masks with a front- or back-mounted canister.

(d) Where air-purifying respirators are used:

(i) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges must be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are first used, whichever occurs first, and

(ii) A continuous monitoring and alarm system must be provided when concentrations of vinyl chloride could reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Such system shall be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use, and

(iii) Respirators specified for higher concentrations may be used for lower concentration.

(8) Hazardous operations.

(a) Employees engaged in hazardous operations, including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls, shall be provided and required to wear and use;

(i) Respiratory protection in accordance with subsections (3) and (7) of this section; and

(ii) Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride or with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls. The protective garments shall be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.

(b) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use.

(c) Emergency situations. A written operational plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each facility storing, handling, or otherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency. The plan shall specifically provide that:

(i) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations of existing hazardous releases shall be equipped as required in subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subsection;

(ii) Other employees not so equipped shall evacuate the area and not return until conditions are controlled by the methods required in subsection (6) of this section and the emergency is abated.

(9) Training. Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.

(a) The program shall include:

(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride including specifically the carcinogenic hazard;

(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to vinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective steps;

(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices;

(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary protective steps;

(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;

(vi) The purpose for and a description of, the medical surveillance program;

(vii) Emergency procedures:

(A) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and

(B) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and indoctrination program, and annually thereafter.

(b) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to the director.

(10) Medical surveillance. A program of medical surveillance shall be instituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level. The program shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(a) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medical surveillance;

(i) A general physical examination shall be performed with specific attention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, or dysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connective tissues and the pulmonary system (see Appendix A).

(ii) A medical history shall be taken, including the following topics:

(A) Alcohol intake,

(B) Past history of hepatitis,

(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents, including drugs and chemicals,

(D) Past history of blood transfusions, and

(E) Past history of hospitalizations.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and determinations made of:

(A) Total bilirubin,

(B) Alkaline phosphatase,

(C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT),

(D) Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and

(E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.

(b) Examinations provided in accordance with this subdivision shall be performed at least:

(i) Every six months for each employee who has been employed in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride manufacturing for ten years or longer; and

(ii) Annually for all other employees.

(c) Each employee exposed to an emergency shall be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.

(d) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure to vinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, shall be obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination. A copy of the physician's statement shall be provided each employee.

(e) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continued exposure, such employee shall be withdrawn from possible contact with vinyl chloride.

(f) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medical examinations shall be performed in laboratories licensed under 42 CFR Part 74.

(g) If the examining physician determines that alternative medical examinations to those required by subdivision (a) of this subsection will provide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent to the exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternative examinations as meeting the requirements of subdivision (a) of this subsection, if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician setting forth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution. This statement shall be available upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the director.

(11) Signs and labels.

(a) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AREA AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY


(b) Areas containing hazardous operations or where an emergency currently exists shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY


(c) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(d) Containers of polyvinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME) CONTAINS VINYL CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(e) Containers of vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled either:

VINYL CHLORIDE EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(or)
(f) In accordance with 49 CFR Part 173, Subpart H, with the additional legends:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


Applied near the label or placard.

(g) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(12) Records.

(a) All records maintained in accordance with this section shall include the name and Social Security number of each employee where relevant.

(b) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. These records shall be provided upon request to the director. Authorized personnel rosters shall also be provided upon request to the director.

(i) Monitoring and measuring records shall:

(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrations determined and identify the instruments and methods used;

(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individual employee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other than individual monitoring of employees; and

(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.

(ii) Medical records shall be maintained for the duration of the employment of each employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.

(c) In the event that the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor to receive and retain his/her records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted by registered mail to the director, and each employee individually notified in writing of this transfer. The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Employees or their designated representatives shall be provided access to examine and copy records of required monitoring and measuring.

(e) Former employees shall be provided access to examine and copy required monitoring and measuring records reflecting their own exposures.

(f) Upon written request of any employee, a copy of the medical record of that employee shall be furnished to any physician designated by the employee.

(13) Reports.

(a) Not later than 1 month after the establishment of a regulated area, the following information shall be reported to the director. Any changes to such information shall be reported within fifteen days.

(i) The address and location of each establishment which has one or more regulated areas; and

(ii) The number of employees in each regulated area during normal operations, including maintenance.

(b) Emergencies and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported within twenty-four hours to the director. Upon request of the director, the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of similar nature.

(c) Within ten working days following any monitoring and measuring which discloses that any employee has been exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit, each such employee shall be notified in writing of the results of the exposure measurement and the steps being taken to reduce the exposure to within the permissible exposure limit.

(14) Appendix A supplementary medical information.

When required tests under subsection (10)(a) of this section show abnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable, preferably within three to four weeks. If tests remain abnormal, consideration should be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinyl chloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made.

Additional tests which may be useful:

(A) For kidney dysfunction: Urine examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal cells.

(B) Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, and chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior, 14 x 17 inches).

(C) Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic acid dehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.

(D) For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests: Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07329, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07329, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07329, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-62-07329, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-62-07329, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07329, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-07329, filed 7/25/86; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-62-07329, filed 6/11/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-62-07329, filed 8/27/81; 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-07329, filed 7/27/81; Order 75-41, 296-62-07329, filed 12/19/75.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07336   Acrylonitrile.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to acrylonitrile (AN), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 000107131, except as provided in (b) and (c) of this subsection.

(b) This section does not apply to exposures which result solely from the processing, use, and handling of the following materials:

(i) ABS resins, SAN resins, nitrile barrier resins, solid nitrile elastomers, and acrylic and modacrylic fibers, when these listed materials are in the form of finished polymers, and products fabricated from such finished polymers;

(ii) Materials made from and/or containing AN for which objective data is reasonably relied upon to demonstrate that the material is not capable of releasing AN in airborne concentrations in excess of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average, under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and

(iii) Solid materials made from and/or containing AN which will not be heated above 170F during handling, use, or processing.

(c) An employer relying upon exemption under (1)(b)(ii) shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption, and of the basis of the employer's reliance on the data as provided in subsection (17) of this section.

(2) Definitions, as applicable to this section:

(a) "Acrylonitrile" or "AN" - acrylonitrile monomer, chemical formula CH2=CHCN.

(b) "Action level" - a concentration of AN of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(c) "Authorized person" - any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the opportunity to observe monitoring procedures under subsection (18) of this section.

(d) "Decontamination" means treatment of materials and surfaces by water washdown, ventilation, or other means, to assure that the materials will not expose employees to airborne concentrations of AN above 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(e) "Director" - the director of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.

(f) "Emergency" - any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which is likely to, or does, result in unexpected exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit.

(g) "Liquid AN" means AN monomer in liquid form, and liquid or semiliquid polymer intermediates, including slurries, suspensions, emulsions, and solutions, produced during the polymerization of AN.

(h) "Polyacrylonitrile" or "PAN" - polyacrylonitrile homopolymers or copolymers, except for materials as exempted under subsection (1)(b) of this section.

(3) Permissible exposure limits.

(a) Inhalation.

(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of two parts acrylonitrile per million parts of air (2 ppm), as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(ii) Ceiling limit. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of 10 ppm as averaged over any fifteen-minute period during the working day.

(b) Dermal and eye exposure. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin contact or eye contact with liquid AN or PAN.

(4) Notification of use and emergencies.

(a) Use. Within ten days of the effective date of this standard, or within fifteen days following the introduction of AN into the workplace, every employer shall report, unless he has done so pursuant to the emergency temporary standard, the following information to the director for each such workplace:

(i) The address and location of each workplace in which AN is present;

(ii) A brief description of each process of operation which may result in employee exposure to AN;

(iii) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to AN and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs; and

(iv) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to AN. Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by this subsection, the employer shall promptly amend such information previously provided to the director.

(b) Emergencies and remedial action. Emergencies, and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported within twenty-four hours of the initial occurrence to the director. Upon request of the director, the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of a similar nature.

(5) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to AN over an eight-hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(b) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a place of employment in which AN is present shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of AN to which employees may be exposed. Such monitoring may be done on a representative basis, provided that the employer can demonstrate that the determinations are representative of employee exposures.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee. The employer shall continue these quarterly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level, and thereafter the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee.

(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least quarterly.

(iii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly. The employer shall continue these monthly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limits, and thereafter the employer shall monitor at least quarterly.

(d) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to AN, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to AN, additional monitoring which complies with this subsection shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limits were exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.

(f) Accuracy of measurement. The method of measurement of employee exposures shall be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus twenty-five percent for concentrations of AN at or above the permissible exposure limits, and plus or minus thirty-five percent for concentrations of AN between the action level and the permissible exposure limits.

(g) Weekly survey of operations involving liquid AN. In addition to monitoring of employee exposures to AN as otherwise required by this subsection, the employer shall survey areas of operations involving liquid AN at least weekly to detect points where AN liquid or vapor are being released into the workplace. The survey shall employ an infra-red gas analyzer calibrated for AN, a multipoint gas chromatographic monitor, or comparable system for detection of AN. A listing of levels detected and areas of AN release, as determined from the survey, shall be posted prominently in the workplace, and shall remain posted until the next survey is completed.

(6) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish regulated areas where AN concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limits.

(b) Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace, in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to AN.

(c) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.

(d) The employer shall assure that in the regulated area, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, (except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under subsections (13)(a) - (13)(c) of this section.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering or work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to AN, to or below the permissible exposure limits, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by subsection (7)(a) of this section.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation or process resulting in employee exposure to AN above the permissible exposure limits;

(B) Engineering plans and other studies used to determine the controls for each process;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limits;

(D) A detailed schedule for the implementation of engineering or work practice controls; and

(E) Other relevant information.

(iii) The employer shall complete the steps set forth in the compliance program by the dates in the schedule.

(iv) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, or any affected employee or representative.

(v) The plans required by this subsection shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities or reactor cleaning, for which the employer establishes that engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;

(iv) In emergencies.

(b) Respirator program.

Employers must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators by following the requirements in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide to employees, for escape, any organic vapor, air-purifying respirator or any self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) that meets the selection requirements of WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(9) Emergency situations.

(a) Written plans.

(i) A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each workplace where AN is present. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.

(ii) The plan shall specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions shall be equipped as required in subsection (8) of this section until the emergency is abated.

(b) Alerting employees.

(i) Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm shall be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.

(ii) Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency shall be evacuated from the area and shall not be permitted to return until the emergency is abated.

(10) Protective clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use. Where eye or skin contact with liquid AN or PAN may occur, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that employees wear, appropriate protective clothing or other equipment in accordance with WAC 296-800-160 to protect any area of the body which may come in contact with liquid AN or PAN.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection, as needed to maintain their effectiveness. In addition, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.

(ii) The employer shall assure that impermeable protective clothing which contacts or is likely to have contacted liquid AN shall be decontaminated before being removed by the employee.

(iii) The employer shall assure that AN- or PAN-contaminated protective clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closable containers which prevent dispersion of the AN or PAN outside the container.

(iv) The employer shall assure that an employee whose nonimpermeable clothing becomes wetted with liquid AN shall immediately remove that clothing and proceed to shower. The clothing shall be decontaminated before it is removed from the regulated area.

(v) The employer shall assure that no employee removes AN- or PAN-contaminated protective equipment or clothing from the change room, except for those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(vi) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans AN- or PAN-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to AN.

(vii) The employer shall assure that containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment which are to be removed from the workplace for any reason are labeled in accordance with subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section, and that such labels remain affixed when such containers leave the employer's workplace.

(11) Housekeeping.

(a) All surfaces shall be maintained free of accumulations of liquid AN and of PAN.

(b) For operations involving liquid AN, the employer shall institute a program for detecting leaks and spills of liquid AN, including regular visual inspections.

(c) Where spills of liquid AN are detected, the employer shall assure that surfaces contacted by the liquid AN are decontaminated. Employees not engaged in decontamination activities shall leave the area of the spill, and shall not be permitted in the area until decontamination is completed.

(d) Liquids. Where AN is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing AN shall be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use, with adequate provision made to avoid any resulting potential explosion hazard.

(e) Surfaces.

(i) Dry sweeping and the use of compressed air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where AN and PAN are found is prohibited.

(ii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.

(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust shall be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that AN is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and

(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect AN may not be used for other cleaning purposes and shall be labeled as prescribed by subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.

(iii) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.

(12) Waste disposal. AN and PAN waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, shall be disposed of in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of AN outside the container, and labeled as prescribed in subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices. Where employees are exposed to airborne concentrations of AN above the permissible exposure limits, or where employees are required to wear protective clothing or equipment pursuant to subsection (11) of this section, or where otherwise found to be appropriate, the facilities required by WAC 296-800-230 shall be provided by the employer for the use of those employees, and the employer shall assure that the employees use the facilities provided. In addition, the following facilities or requirements are mandated.

(a) Change rooms. The employer shall provide clean change rooms in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(ii) In addition, the employer shall also assure that employees exposed to liquid AN and PAN shower at the end of the work shift.

(iii) The employer shall assure that, in the event of skin or eye exposure to liquid AN, the affected employee shall shower immediately to minimize the danger of skin absorption.

(c) Lunchrooms.

(i) Whenever food or beverages are consumed in the workplace, the employer shall provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits.

(ii) In addition, the employer shall also assure that employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) The employer shall institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed to AN above the action level. The employer shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(b) Initial examinations. At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the medical surveillance program, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:

(i) A work history and medical history with special attention to skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, and those nonspecific symptoms, such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, or other central nervous system dysfunctions that may be associated with acute or chronic exposure to AN.

(ii) A physical examination giving particular attention to central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, skin and thyroid.

(iii) A 14" x 17" posteroanterior chest X ray.

(iv) Further tests of the intestinal tract, including fecal occult blood screening, and proctosigmoidoscopy, for all workers forty years of age or older, and for any other affected employees for whom, in the opinion of the physician, such testing is appropriate.

(c) Periodic examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide examinations specified in this subsection at least annually for all employees specified in subsection (14)(a) of this section.

(ii) If an employee has not had the examinations prescribed in subsection (14)(b) of this section within six months of termination of employment, the employer shall make such examination available to the employee upon such termination.

(d) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to AN, the employer shall provide appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.

(e) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level;

(iv) The employee's anticipated or estimated exposure level (for preplacement examinations or in cases of exposure due to an emergency);

(v) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(vi) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee, which is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(f) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and test performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to AN;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to AN or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to AN.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) The employer shall ((institute a training program for all employees where there is occupational exposure to AN and shall assure their)) train each employee exposed to AN above the action level, each employee whose exposures are maintained below the action level by engineering and work practice controls, and each employee subject to potential skin or eye contact with liquid AN in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the training program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided at the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the training program, and at least annually thereafter, and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of AN and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to AN, as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section;

(E) The emergency procedures developed, as required by subsection (9) of this section; and

(F) The engineering and work practice controls, their function and the employee's relationship thereto; and

(G) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label, required by this subsection, which contradicts or detracts from such effects of the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs to clearly indicate all workplaces where AN concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limits. The signs shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

ACRYLONITRILE (AN)

CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED



(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(c) Labels.

(i) The employer shall assure that precautionary labels are affixed to all containers of AN, and to containers of PAN and products fabricated from PAN, except for those materials for which objective data is provided as to the conditions specified in subsection (1)(b) of this section. The employer shall assure that the labels remain affixed when the AN or PAN are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace.

(ii) The employer shall assure that the precautionary labels required by this subsection are readily visible and legible. The labels shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

CONTAINS ACRYLONITRILE (AN)

CANCER HAZARD



(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exempted operations.

(i) Where the processing, use, and handling of products fabricated from PAN are exempted pursuant to subsection (1)(b) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include the following information:

(A) The relevant condition in subsection (1)(b) upon which exemption is based;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of AN;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data supports the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, and processing covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (5) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The dates, number, duration, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and the data relied upon to establish that the methods used meet the accuracy and precision requirements of subsection (5)(f) of this section;

(C) Type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any; and

(D) Name, Social Security number and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 40 years or the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever is longer.

(c) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) A copy of the physicians' written opinions;

(B) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to AN;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (14)(f) of this section; and

(D) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.

(iii) The employer shall assure that this record be maintained for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer shall assure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Records required by subdivisions (a) through (c) of this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. Records required by subdivision (a) of this section shall be provided in the same manner as exposure monitoring records.

(iii) The employer shall assure that employee medical records required to be maintained by this section, be made available, upon request, for examination and copying, to the affected employee or former employee, or to a physician designated by the affected employee, former employee, or designated representative.

(e) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained pursuant to this section, the employer shall transmit these records to the director.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to AN conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to AN requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled:

(A) To receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) To observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of AN performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) To record the results obtained.

(19) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligation not otherwise imposed, or to detract from any obligation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07336, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07336, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07336, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04; 03-18-090, 296-62-07336, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07336, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07336, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), 296-62-07336, filed 5/11/88.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07342   1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

(b) This section does not apply to:

(i) Exposure to DBCP which results solely from the application and use of DBCP as a pesticide; or

(ii) The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of DBCP in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to prevent exposure to DBCP vapors or liquids, except for the requirements of subsections (11), (16) and (17) of this section.

(2) Definitions applicable to this section:

(a) "Authorized person" - any person specifically authorized by the employer and whose duties require the person to be present in areas where DBCP is present; and any person entering this area as a designated representative of employees exercising an opportunity to observe employee exposure monitoring.

(b) "DBCP" - 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 96-12-8, and includes all forms of DBCP.

(c) "Director" - the director of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.

(d) "Emergency" - any occurrence such as, but not limited to equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which may, or does, result in unexpected release of DBCP.

(3) Permissible exposure limits.

(a) Inhalation.

(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of one part DBCP per billion part of air (ppb) as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(ii) Ceiling limit. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of five parts DBCP per billion parts of air (ppb) as averaged over any fifteen minutes during the working day.

(b) Dermal and eye exposure. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to eye or skin contact with DBCP.

(4) Notification of use. Within ten days of the effective date of this section or within ten days following the introduction of DBCP into the workplace, every employer who has a workplace where DBCP is present shall report the following information to the director for each such workplace:

(a) The address and location of each workplace in which DBCP is present;

(b) A brief description of each process or operation which may result in employee exposure to DBCP;

(c) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to DBCP and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs;

(d) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to DBCP.

(5) Regulated areas. The employer shall establish, within each place of employment, regulated areas wherever DBCP concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(a) The employer shall limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.

(b) All employees entering or working in a regulated area shall wear respiratory protection in accordance with Table I.

(6) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General. Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to DBCP over an eight-hour period. (For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.)

(b) Initial. Each employer who has a place of employment in which DBCP is present shall monitor each workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of DBCP to which employees may be exposed.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposures to be below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations at least quarterly.

(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly. The employer shall continue these monthly determinations until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limit, thereafter the employer shall monitor at least quarterly.

(d) Additional. Whenever there has been a production process, control or personnel change which may result in any new or additional exposure to DBCP, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposure to DBCP, additional monitoring which complies with subsection (6) shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of results which represent the employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.

(f) Accuracy of measurement. The method of measurement shall be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus twenty-five percent for concentrations of DBCP at or above the permissible exposure limits.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Priority of compliance methods. The employer shall institute engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to DBCP at or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible. Where feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to within the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest level achievable by these controls, and shall supplement them by use of respiratory protection.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to DBCP to or below the permissible exposure limit solely by means of engineering and work practice controls as required by this section.

(ii) The written program shall include a detailed schedule for development and implementation of the engineering and work practice controls. These plans shall be revised at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(iii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, and any affected employee or designated representative of employees.

(iv) The employer shall institute and maintain at least the controls described in his most recent written compliance program.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who are required to use respirators under this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) Maintenance and repair activities for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit;

(iv) Emergencies.

(b) The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this chapter and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide employees with one of the following respirator options to use for entry into, or escape from, unknown DBCP concentrations:

(A) A combination respirator that includes a full-facepiece air-line respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) operated in a pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode;

OR

(B) A full-facepiece SCBA operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

(9) Reserved.

(10) Emergency situations.

(a) Written plans.

(i) A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each workplace in which DBCP is present.

(ii) Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.

(b) Employees engaged in correcting conditions shall be equipped as required in subsection (11) of this section until the emergency is abated.

(c) Evacuation. Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency shall be removed and restricted from the area and normal operations in the affected area shall not be resumed until the emergency is abated.

(d) Alerting employees. Where there is a possibility of employee exposure to DBCP due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm shall be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.

(e) Medical surveillance. For any employee exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer shall provide medical surveillance in accordance with subsection (14) of this section.

(f) Exposure monitoring.

(i) Following an emergency, the employer shall conduct monitoring which complies with subsection (6) of this section.

(ii) In workplaces not normally subject to periodic monitoring, the employer may terminate monitoring when two consecutive measurements indicate exposures below the permissible exposure limit.

(11) Protective clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use. Where eye or skin contact with liquid or solid DBCP may occur, employers shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that employees wear impermeable protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-800-160 to protect the area of the body which may come in contact with DBCP.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection to maintain their effectiveness. In addition, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least daily to each affected employee.

(ii) Removal and storage.

(A) The employer shall assure that employees remove DBCP contaminated work clothing only in change rooms provided in accordance with subsection (13) of this section.

(B) The employer shall assure that employees promptly remove any protective clothing and equipment which becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids and solids. This clothing shall not be reworn until the DBCP has been removed from the clothing or equipment.

(C) The employer shall assure that no employee takes DBCP contaminated protective devices and work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(iii) The employer shall assure that DBCP-contaminated protective work clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.

(iv) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans DBCP-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to DBCP.

(v) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment which are to be removed from the workplace for any reason are labeled in accordance with subsection (16)(c) of this section.

(vi) The employer shall prohibit the removal of DBCP from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.

(12) Housekeeping.

(a) Surfaces.

(i) All surfaces shall be maintained free of accumulations of DBCP.

(ii) Dry sweeping and the use of air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where DBCP dust or liquids are found is prohibited.

(iii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.

(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust shall be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that DBCP is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and

(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect DBCP may not be used for other cleaning purposes and shall be labeled as prescribed by subsection (16)(c) of this section.

(iv) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.

(b) Liquids. Where DBCP is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing DBCP shall be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use.

(c) Waste disposal. DBCP waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, shall be disposed in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) Change rooms. The employer shall provide clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment whenever employees are required to wear protective clothing and equipment in accordance with subsections (8), (9) and (11) of this section.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees whose skin becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids or solids immediately wash or shower to remove any DBCP from the skin.

(iii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(c) Lunchrooms. The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.

(d) Lavatories.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area remove protective clothing and wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(ii) The employer shall provide a sufficient number of lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-800-230.

(e) Prohibition of activities in regulated areas. The employer shall assure that, in regulated areas, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products and implements are not present or used, and cosmetics are not present or applied.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General. The employer shall institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to DBCP. The employer shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(b) Frequency and content. At the time of initial assignment, annually thereafter, and whenever exposure to DBCP occurs, the employer shall provide a medical examination for employees who work in regulated areas, which includes at least the following:

(i) A complete medical and occupational history with emphasis on reproductive history.

(ii) A complete physical examination with emphasis on the genito-urinary tract, testicle size, and body habitus including the following tests:

(A) Sperm count;

(B) Complete urinalysis (U/A);

(C) Complete blood count; and

(D) Thyroid profile.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and the following determinations made by radioimmunoassay techniques utilizing National Institutes of Health (NIH) specific antigen or one of equivalent sensitivity:

(A) Serum multiphasic analysis (SMA 12);

(B) Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH);

(C) Serum luteinizing hormone (LH); and

(D) Serum estrogen (females).

(iv) Any other tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician.

(c) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to DBCP, the employer shall provide the employee with a medical examination which shall include those elements considered appropriate by the examining physician.

(d) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The level of DBCP to which the employee is exposed; and

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used.

(e) Physician's written opinion.

(i) For each examination under this section, the employer shall obtain and provide the employee with a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of health from exposure to DBCP;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to DBCP or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee was informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination, and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to DBCP.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(f) Emergency situations. If the employee is exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer shall provide the employee with a sperm count test as soon as practicable, or, if the employee is unable to produce a semen specimen, the hormone tests contained in subsection (14)(b) of this section. The employer shall provide these same tests three months later.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) Within thirty days of the effective date of this standard, the employer shall institute a training program for all employees who may be exposed to DBCP and shall assure their participation in such training program.

(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of DBCP and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to DBCP as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements covering respiratory protection as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(D) The purpose and description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section; and

(E) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs to clearly indicate all work areas where DBCP may be present. These signs shall bear the legend:
DANGER
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
(Insert appropriate trade or common names)

CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY



(ii) Where airborne concentrations of DBCP exceed the permissible exposure limits, the signs shall bear the additional legend:

RESPIRATOR REQUIRED


(c) Labels.

(i) The employer shall assure that precautionary labels are affixed to all containers of DBCP and of products containing DBCP, and that the labels remain affixed when the DBCP or products containing DBCP are sold, distributed, or otherwise leave the employer's workplace. Where DBCP or products containing DBCP are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace bearing appropriate labels required by EPA under the regulations in 40 CFR Part 162, the labels required by this subsection need not be affixed.

(ii) The employer shall assure that the precautionary labels required by this subsection are readily visible and legible. The labels shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

CANCER HAZARD



(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (6) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The dates, number, duration and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used;

(C) Type of respiratory worn, if any; and

(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinion;

(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to DBCP;

(D) A copy of the information provided the physician as required by subsection (14)(c) of this section; and

(E) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(c) Availability.

(i) The employer shall assure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Employee exposure monitoring records and employee medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees' designated representatives and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Transfer of records.

(i) If the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period.

(ii) If the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, the employer shall transmit these records by mail to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained under this section, the employer shall transmit these records by mail to the director.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP conducted under subsection (6) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring or measurement, observers shall be entitled to:

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of DBCP performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained.

(19) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07342, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07342, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07342, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04; 03-18-090, 296-62-07342, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07342, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07342, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-09-030, 296-62-07342, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96; 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), 296-62-07342, filed 5/11/88.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07413   Respirator protection.   (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator((s)) that ((comply)) complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls when employee exposure levels exceed the PEL;

(b) Maintenance and repair activities, and brief or intermittent operations, where employee exposures exceed the PEL and engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible or are not required;

(c) Activities in regulated areas as specified in WAC 296-62-07409;

(d) Work operations for which the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work-practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL;

(e) Work operations for which an employee who is exposed to cadmium at or above the action level, and the employee requests a respirator;

(f) Work operations for which an employee is exposed above the PEL and engineering controls are not required by WAC 296-62-07411 (1)(b); and

(g) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(a) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(b) No employees must use a respirator if, based on their recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that they will be unable to continue to function normally while using a respirator. If the physician determines that the employee must be limited in, or removed from, their current job because of their inability to use a respirator, the limitation or removal must be in accordance with WAC 296-62-07423 (11) and (12).

(c) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by WAC 296-62-07423 (6)(b) to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.

(3) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(a) Select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

(i) Provide employees with full-facepiece respirators when they experience eye irritation.

(ii) Make sure high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or N-, R-, or P-100 series filters are provided for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

(b) Provide an employee with a powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator when an employee who is entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator and such a respirator provides adequate protection to the employee.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07413, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07413, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-62-07413, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-21-075 (Order 93-06), 296-62-07413, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), 296-62-07413, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07425   Communication of cadmium hazards to employees.   (1) General. In communications concerning cadmium hazards, employers shall comply with the requirements of WISHA's Chemical Hazard Communication Standard, WAC 296-800-170, including but not limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training. In addition, employers shall comply with the following requirements:

(2) Warning signs.

(a) Warning signs shall be provided and displayed in regulated areas. In addition, warning signs shall be posted at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.

(b) Warning signs required by (a) of this subsection shall bear the following information:

DANGER CADMIUM CANCER HAZARD CAN CAUSE LUNG

AND KIDNEY DISEASE AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA



(c) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated, cleaned, and maintained as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(3) Warning labels.

(a) Shipping and storage containers containing cadmium, cadmium compounds, or cadmium contaminated clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris shall bear appropriate warning labels, as specified in (b) of this subsection.

(b) The warning labels shall include at least the following information:

DANGER CONTAINS CADMIUM CANCER HAZARD AVOID

CREATING DUST CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE



(c) Where feasible, installed cadmium products shall have a visible label or other indication that cadmium is present.

(4) Employee information and training.

(a) The employer shall train each employee who is potentially exposed to cadmium in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. The employer shall institute a training program ((for all employees who are potentially exposed to cadmium, assure)), ensure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(b) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to cadmium and at least annually thereafter.

(c) The employer shall make the training program understandable to the employee and shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(i) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special attention to the information incorporated in WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A;

(ii) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in the workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure to cadmium, especially exposures above the PEL;

(iii) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(iv) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal hygiene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment;

(v) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of protective clothing;

(vi) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by WAC 296-62-07423;

(vii) The contents of this section and its appendices;

(viii) The employee's rights of access to records under WAC 296-800-170 and chapter 296-802 WAC; and

(ix) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(d) Additional access to information and training program and materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this section and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and shall provide a copy if requested.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the director, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-03-163, 296-62-07425, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07425, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07425, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-21-075 (Order 93-06), 296-62-07425, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), 296-62-07425, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07460   Butadiene.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 106-99-0, except as provided in (b) of this subsection.

(b)(i) Except for the recordkeeping provisions in subsection (13)(a) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, or handling of products containing BD or to other work operations and streams in which BD is present where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate the work operation or the product or the group of products or operations to which it belongs may not reasonably be foreseen to release BD in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or in excess of the STEL under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release or in any plausible accident.

(ii) This section also does not apply to work operations, products or streams where the only exposure to BD is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less of BD by volume or the vapors released from such liquids, unless objective data become available that show that airborne concentrations generated by such mixtures can exceed the action level or STEL under reasonably predictable conditions of processing, use or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.

(iii) Except for labeling requirements and requirements for emergency response, this section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or in transportation pipelines sealed in such a manner as to fully contain BD vapors or liquids.

(c) Where products or processes containing BD are exempted under (b) of this subsection, the employer shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in subsection (13)(a) of this section.

(2) Definitions: For the purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

"Action level" means a concentration of airborne BD of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average.

"Director" means the director of the department of labor and industries, or authorized representatives.

"Authorized person" means any person specifically designated by the employer, whose duties require entrance into a regulated area, or a person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees to exercise the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4)(h) of this section, or a person designated under the WISH Act or regulations issued under the WISH Act to enter a regulated area.

"1,3-Butadiene" means an organic compound with chemical formula CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2) that has a molecular weight of approximately 54.15 gm/mole.

"Business day" means any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays.

"Complete blood count (CBC)" means laboratory tests performed on whole blood specimens and includes the following: White blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), differential count of white blood cells, red blood cell morphology, red blood cell indices, and platelet count.

"Day" means any part of a calendar day.

"Emergency situation" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD.

"Employee exposure" means exposure of a worker to airborne concentrations of BD which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

"Objective data" means monitoring data, or mathematical modelling or calculations based on composition, chemical and physical properties of a material, stream or product.

"Permissible exposure limits (PELs)" means either the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA) exposure or the short-term exposure limit (STEL).

"Physician or other licensed health care professional" is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide one or more of the specific health care services required by (k) of this subsection.

"Regulated area" means any area where airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA) exposure of 1 ppm or the short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 5 ppm for 15 minutes.

"This section" means this 1,3-butadiene standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

(a) Time-weighted average (TWA) limit. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of one part BD per million parts of air (ppm) measured as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of five parts of BD per million parts of air (5 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.

(4) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 15-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Representative 15-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 15-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the STEL for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iv) Except for the initial monitoring required under (b) of this subsection, where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations on different work shifts, the employer need only determine representative employee exposure for that operation from the shift during which the highest exposure is expected.

(b) Initial monitoring.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section, shall perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of BD to which employees may be exposed, or shall rely on objective data pursuant to subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section to fulfill this requirement. The initial monitoring required under this subitem shall be completed within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) Where the employer has monitored within two years prior to the effective date of this section and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (b)(i) of this subsection, provided that the conditions under which the initial monitoring was conducted have not changed in a manner that may result in new or additional exposures.

(c) Periodic monitoring and its frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below both the 8-hour TWA limit and the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a) of this subsection every twelve months.

(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the 8-hour TWA limit, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(ii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(iii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iv) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every six months to annually for any required representative monitoring for which two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that employee exposure has decreased to or below the 8-hour TWA, but is at or above the action level.

(d) Termination of monitoring.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.

(ii) If the periodic monitoring required by (c) of this subsection reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees who are represented by such monitoring.

(e) Additional monitoring.

(i) The employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under subsection (4) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures to BD or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures.

(ii) Whenever spills, leaks, ruptures or other breakdowns occur that may lead to employee exposure above the 8-hour TWA limit or above the STEL, the employer shall monitor (using leak source, such as direct reading instruments, area or personal monitoring), after the cleanup of the spill or repair of the leak, rupture or other breakdown, to ensure that exposures have returned to the level that existed prior to the incident.

(f) Accuracy of monitoring.

Monitoring shall be accurate, at a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the 1 ppm TWA limit and to within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the action level of 0.5 ppm and below the 1 ppm TWA limit.

(g) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer shall, within 5 business days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify the affected employees of these results in writing either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall, within 15 business days after receipt of any monitoring performed under this section indicating the 8-hour TWA or STEL has been exceeded, provide the affected employees, in writing, with information on the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.

(h) Observation of monitoring.

(i) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to BD conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to BD requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer at no cost with protective clothing and equipment, and shall ensure that the observer uses this equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever occupational exposures to airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limits, either the 8-hour TWA or the STEL.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(c) Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of employees exposed to BD within the regulated area.

(d) An employer at a multiemployer worksite who establishes a regulated area shall communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to other employers with work operations at that worksite whose employees may have access to these areas.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering controls and work practices.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the PELs, except to the extent that the employer can establish that these controls are not feasible or where subsection (8)(a)(i) of this section applies.

(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance plan.

(i) Where any exposures are over the PELs, the employer shall establish and implement a written plan to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs primarily by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by (a) of this subsection, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section. No compliance plan is required if all exposures are under the PELs.

(ii) The written compliance plan shall include a schedule for the development and implementation of the engineering controls and work practice controls including periodic leak detection surveys.

(iii) Copies of the compliance plan required in (b) of this subsection shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives. Such plans shall be reviewed at least every 12 months, and shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(iv) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.

(7) Exposure goal program.

(a) For those operations and job classifications where employee exposures are greater than the action level, in addition to compliance with the PELs, the employer shall have an exposure goal program that is intended to limit employee exposures to below the action level during normal operations.

(b) Written plans for the exposure goal program shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(c) Such plans shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the exposure goal program.

(d) Respirator use is not required in the exposure goal program.

(e) The exposure goal program shall include the following items unless the employer can demonstrate that the item is not feasible, will have no significant effect in reducing employee exposures, or is not necessary to achieve exposures below the action level:

(i) A leak prevention, detection, and repair program.

(ii) A program for maintaining the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems.

(iii) The use of pump exposure control technology such as, but not limited to, mechanical double-sealed or seal-less pumps.

(iv) Gauging devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as magnetic gauges on rail cars.

(v) Unloading devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as a vapor return system.

(vi) A program to maintain BD concentration below the action level in control rooms by use of engineering controls.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) Nonroutine work operations that are performed infrequently and for which exposures are limited in duration;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering controls and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PELs;

(iv) Emergencies.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, except WAC 296-842-13005 and 296-842-14005, which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(ii) If air-purifying respirators are used, the employer must replace the air-purifying filter elements according to the replacement schedule set for the class of respirators listed in Table 1 of this section, and at the beginning of each work shift.

(iii) Instead of using the replacement schedule listed in Table 1 of this section, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of their expiration service life, provided the employer:

(A) Demonstrates that employees will be adequately protected by this procedure;

(B) Uses BD breakthrough data for this purpose that have been derived from tests conducted under worst-case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air-flow rate through the filter element, and the employer also describes the data supporting the cartridge- or canister-change schedule, as well as the basis for using the data in the employer's respirator program.

(iv) A label must be attached to each filter element to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator.

(v) If NIOSH approves an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until the ESLI shows no further useful service life or until the element is replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever occurs first.

(vi) Regardless of the air-purifying element used, if an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer must replace the air-purifying element immediately.

(c) Respirator selection.

(i) The employer must select appropriate respirators from Table 1 of this section.


Table 1. - Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne BD
Concentration of Airborne BD (ppm) or condition of use Minimum required respirator
Less than or equal to 5 ppm (5 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.
Less than or equal to 10 ppm (10 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.
Less than or equal to 25 ppm (25 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(b) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(c) Continuous flow supplied air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet.
Less than or equal to 50 ppm (50 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 1 hour.
(b) Powered air purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece and an approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 1 hour.
Less than or equal to 1,000 ppm (1,000 times PEL) (a) Supplied air respirator equipped with a half mask or full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Greater than 1,000 ppm (a) Self-contained breathing unknown concentration, or apparatus equipped with a fire fighting full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
(b) Any supplied air respirator equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Escape from IDLH Conditions (a) Any positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with an appropriate service life.
(b) Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with a front or back mounted BD or organic vapor canister.

Notes: Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations. Full facepiece is required when eye irritation is anticipated.
(ii) Air-purifying respirators must have filter elements certified by NIOSH for organic vapor or BD.

(iii) When an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative-pressure respirator, the employer must provide the employee with a respirator that has less breathing resistance than the negative-pressure respirator, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied-air respirator, when the employee is able to use it and if it provides the employee adequate protection.

(9) Protective clothing and equipment. Where appropriate to prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure to BD, the employer shall provide protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the employee and shall ensure its use. Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-800-160.

(10) Emergency situations. Written plan. A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed, or an existing plan shall be modified, to contain the applicable elements specified in WAC 296-24-567, Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans, and in WAC 296-62-3112, hazardous waste operations and emergency responses, for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency.

(11) Medical screening and surveillance.

(a) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical screening and surveillance program as specified in this subsection for:

(i) Each employee with exposure to BD at concentrations at or above the action level on 30 or more days or for employees who have or may have exposure to BD at or above the PELs on 10 or more days a year;

(ii) Employers (including successor owners) shall continue to provide medical screening and surveillance for employees, even after transfer to a non-BD exposed job and regardless of when the employee is transferred, whose work histories suggest exposure to BD:

(A) At or above the PELs on 30 or more days a year for 10 or more years;

(B) At or above the action level on 60 or more days a year for 10 or more years; or

(C) Above 10 ppm on 30 or more days in any past year; and

(iii) Each employee exposed to BD following an emergency situation.

(b) Program administration.

(i) The employer shall ensure that the health questionnaire, physical examination and medical procedures are provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

(ii) Physical examinations, health questionnaires, and medical procedures shall be performed or administered by a physician or other licensed health care professional.

(iii) Laboratory tests shall be conducted by an accredited laboratory.

(c) Frequency of medical screening activities. The employer shall make medical screening available on the following schedule:

(i) For each employee covered under (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, a health questionnaire and complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count every year, and a physical examination as specified below:

(A) An initial physical examination that meets the requirements of this rule, if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination conducted as part of a medical screening program for BD exposure;

(B) Before assumption of duties by the employee in a job with BD exposure;

(C) Every 3 years after the initial physical examination;

(D) At the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional reviewing the annual health questionnaire and CBC;

(E) At the time of employee reassignment to an area where exposure to BD is below the action level, if the employee's past exposure history does not meet the criteria of (a)(ii) of this subsection for continued coverage in the screening and surveillance program, and if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination; and

(F) At termination of employment if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination.

(ii) Following an emergency situation, medical screening shall be conducted as quickly as possible, but not later than 48 hours after the exposure.

(iii) For each employee who must wear a respirator, physical ability to perform the work and use the respirator must be determined as required by chapter 296-842 WAC.

(d) Content of medical screening.

(i) Medical screening for employees covered by (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall include:

(A) A baseline health questionnaire that includes a comprehensive occupational and health history and is updated annually. Particular emphasis shall be placed on the hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial systems, including exposure to chemicals, in addition to BD, that may have an adverse effect on these systems, the presence of signs and symptoms that might be related to disorders of these systems, and any other information determined by the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to be necessary to evaluate whether the employee is at increased risk of material impairment of health from BD exposure. Health questionnaires shall consist of the sample forms in Appendix C to this section, or be equivalent to those samples;

(B) A complete physical examination, with special emphasis on the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin;

(C) A CBC; and

(D) Any other test which the examining physician or other licensed health care professional deems necessary to evaluate whether the employee may be at increased risk from exposure to BD.

(ii) Medical screening for employees exposed to BD in an emergency situation shall focus on the acute effects of BD exposure and at a minimum include: A CBC within 48 hours of the exposure and then monthly for three months; and a physical examination if the employee reports irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin, blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache. Continued employee participation in the medical screening and surveillance program, beyond these minimum requirements, shall be at the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional.

(e) Additional medical evaluations and referrals.

(i) Where the results of medical screening indicate abnormalities of the hematopoietic or reticuloendothelial systems, for which a nonoccupational cause is not readily apparent, the examining physician or other licensed health care professional shall refer the employee to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and shall make available to the specialist the results of the medical screening.

(ii) The specialist to whom the employee is referred under this subsection shall determine the appropriate content for the medical evaluation, e.g., examinations, diagnostic tests and procedures, etc.

(f) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician or other licensed health care professional involved in the evaluation:

(i) A copy of this section including its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's BD exposure;

(iii) The employee's actual or representative BD exposure level during employment tenure, including exposure incurred in an emergency situation;

(iv) A description of pertinent personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information, when available, from previous employment-related medical evaluations of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional or the specialist.

(g) The written medical opinion.

(i) For each medical evaluation required by this section, the employer shall ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional produces a written opinion and provides a copy to the employer and the employee within 15 business days of the evaluation. The written opinion shall be limited to the following information:

(A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical evaluation;

(B) A medical opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to BD;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to BD; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed of the results of the medical evaluation and any medical conditions resulting from BD exposure that require further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The written medical opinion provided to the employer shall not reveal specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on the employee's ability to work with BD.

Note: This provision does not negate the ethical obligation of the physician or other licensed health care professional to transmit any other adverse findings directly to the employee.


(h) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall ensure that information obtained from the medical screening program activities is aggregated (with all personal identifiers removed) and periodically reviewed, to ascertain whether the health of the employee population of that employer is adversely affected by exposure to BD.

(ii) Information learned from medical surveillance activities must be disseminated to covered employees, as defined in (a) of this subsection, in a manner that ensures the confidentiality of individual medical information.

(12) Communication of BD hazards to employees.

(a) Hazard communication. The employer shall communicate the hazards associated with BD exposure in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170.

(b) Employee information and training.

(i) The employer shall ((provide all employees exposed to BD with information and training)) train each employee who is potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170.

(ii) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL, ensure employee participation in the program and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(iii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job potentially involving exposure to BD at or above the action level or STEL and at least annually thereafter.

(iv) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee exposed to BD over the action level or STEL is informed of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with BD exposure, and the purpose and a description of the medical screening and surveillance program required by this section;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of BD and the specific operations that could result in exposure to BD, especially exposures above the PEL or STEL;

(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment, and emergency procedures and personal protective equipment;

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to BD;

(E) The contents of this standard and its appendices; and

(F) The right of each employee exposed to BD at or above the action level or STEL to obtain:

(I) Medical examinations as required by subsection (10) of this section at no cost to the employee;

(II) The employee's medical records required to be maintained by subsection (13)(c) of this section; and

(III) All air monitoring results representing the employee's exposure to BD and required to be kept by subsection (13)(b) of this section.

(c) Access to information and training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and their designated representatives and shall provide a copy if requested.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the director, or the designated employee representatives, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

(13) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring.

(i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products or streams made from or containing BD are exempted from other requirements of this section under subsection (1)(b) of this section, or where objective data have been relied on in lieu of initial monitoring under subsection (4)(b)(ii) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain a record of the objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The product or activity qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and analysis of the material for the release of BD;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to BD as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to BD which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of protective devices worn, if any;

(F) Name, Social Security number and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented; and

(G) The written corrective action and the schedule for completion of this action required by subsection (4)(g)(ii) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 30 years in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) Medical screening and surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical screening and surveillance under this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) Physician's or other licensed health care professional's written opinions as described in subsection (11)(e) of this section;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional as required by subsection (11)(e) of this section.

(iii) Medical screening and surveillance records shall be maintained for each employee for the duration of employment plus 30 years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available for examination and copying to the director.

(ii) Access to records required to be maintained by (a) and (b) of this subsection shall be granted in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(e) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer records required by this section to the successor employer. The successor employer shall receive and maintain these records. If there is no successor employer, the employer shall notify the director, at least three months prior to disposal, and transmit them to the director if requested by the director within that period.

(ii) The employer shall transfer medical and exposure records as set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(14) Dates.

(a) Effective date. This section shall become effective (day, month), 1997.

(b) Start-up dates.

(i) The initial monitoring required under subsection (4)(b) of this section shall be completed immediately or within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) The requirements of subsections (3) through (13) of this section, including feasible work practice controls but not including engineering controls specified in subsection (6)(a) of this section, shall be complied with immediately.

(iii) Engineering controls specified by subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 1999, and the exposure goal program specified in subsection (7) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 2000.

(15) Appendices.

Appendices A, B, C, D, and F to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.


Appendix A. Substance Safety Data Sheet For 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Substance Identification.

(a) Substance: 1,3-Butadiene (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(b) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bi-vinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; CAS-106-99-0.

(c) BD can be found as a gas or liquid.

(d) BD is used in production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber for the tire industry. Other uses include copolymer latexes for carpet backing and paper coating, as well as resins and polymers for pipes and automobile and appliance parts. It is also used as an intermediate in the production of such chemicals as fungicides.

(e) Appearance and odor: BD is a colorless, noncorrosive, flammable gas with a mild aromatic odor at standard ambient temperature and pressure.

(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 1 part BD per million parts of air averaged over the 8-hour workday, nor may short-term exposure exceed 5 parts of BD per million parts of air averaged over any 15-minute period in the 8-hour workday.

(2) Health Hazard Data.

(a) BD can affect the body if the gas is inhaled or if the liquid form, which is very cold (cryogenic), comes in contact with the eyes or skin.

(b) Effects of overexposure: Breathing very high levels of BD for a short time can cause central nervous system effects, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased blood pressure and pulse rate, and unconsciousness. There are no recorded cases of accidental exposures at high levels that have caused death in humans, but this could occur. Breathing lower levels of BD may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Skin contact with liquefied BD can cause irritation and frostbite.

(c) Long-term (chronic) exposure: BD has been found to be a potent carcinogen in rodents, inducing neoplastic lesions at multiple target sites in mice and rats. A recent study of BD-exposed workers showed that exposed workers have an increased risk of developing leukemia. The risk of leukemia increases with increased exposure to BD. OSHA has concluded that there is strong evidence that workplace exposure to BD poses an increased risk of death from cancers of the lymphohematopoietic system.

(d) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your supervisor if you develop any of these signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to BD.

(3) Emergency First-Aid Procedures.

In the event of an emergency, follow the emergency plan and procedures designated for your work area. If you have been trained in first-aid procedures, provide the necessary first aid measures. If necessary, call for additional assistance from co-workers and emergency medical personnel.

(a) Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential that liquefied BD can come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used. If liquefied BD comes in contact with the eye, immediately flush the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and the upper lids. Flush repeatedly. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. In the event of skin contact, which can cause frostbite, remove any contaminated clothing and flush the affected area repeatedly with large amounts of tepid water.

(b) Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of BD, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you have been trained in this procedure. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately.

(c) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure. If the exposed person has been overcome, call for help and begin emergency rescue procedures. Use extreme caution so that you do not become a casualty. Understand the plant's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises.

(4) Respirators and Protective Clothing.

(a) Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering and work practice controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented or during brief, nonroutine, intermittent exposure. Respirators may also be used in situations involving nonroutine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration, and in emergency situations. In some instances cartridge respirator use is allowed, but only with strict time constraints. For example, at exposure below 5 ppm BD, a cartridge (or canister) respirator, either full or half face, may be used, but the cartridge must be replaced at least every 4 hours, and it must be replaced every 3 hours when the exposure is between 5 and 10 ppm.

If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program must be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, fit testing, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation of respirators. If you can smell BD while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air, and change cartridge (or canister) before reentering an area where there is BD exposure. If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your supervisor.

(b) Protective Clothing: Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen by contact with liquefied BD (or a vessel containing liquid BD).

Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquefied BD may contact the eyes.

(5) Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage.

(a) Fire and Explosion Hazards: BD is a flammable gas and can easily form explosive mixtures in air. It has a lower explosive limit of 2%, and an upper explosive limit of 11.5%. It has an autoignition temperature of 420 deg. C (788 deg. F). Its vapor is heavier than air (vapor density, 1.9) and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Usually it contains inhibitors to prevent self-polymerization (which is accompanied by evolution of heat) and to prevent formation of explosive peroxides. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place. If the polymerization takes place in a container, there is a possibility of violent rupture of the container.

(b) Hazard: Slightly toxic. Slight respiratory irritant. Direct contact of liquefied BD on skin may cause freeze burns and frostbite.

(c) Storage: Protect against physical damage to BD containers. Outside or detached storage of BD containers is preferred. Inside storage should be in a cool, dry, well-ventilated, noncombustible location, away from all possible sources of ignition. Store cylinders vertically and do not stack. Do not store with oxidizing material.

(d) Usual Shipping Containers: Liquefied BD is contained in steel pressure apparatus.

(e) Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations, as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be in accordance with Article 501 of the Code. If explosion-proof electrical equipment is necessary, it shall be suitable for use in Group B. Group D equipment may be used if such equipment is isolated in accordance with Section 501-5(a) by sealing all conduit 1/2-inch size or larger. See Venting of Deflagrations (NFPA No. 68, 1994), National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70, 1996), Static Electricity (NFPA No. 77, 1993), Lightning Protection Systems (NFPA No. 780, 1995), and Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids (NFPA No. 325, 1994).

(f) Fire Fighting: Stop flow of gas. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fire extinguishers and quick drenching facilities must be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.

(g) Spill and Leak: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until clean-up has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate area of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(h) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulation of any additional requirements as these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulation.

(i) You should not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials in areas where there is BD exposure, nor should you eat or drink in such areas.

(j) Ask your supervisor where BD is used in your work area and ask for any additional plant safety and health rules.

(6) Medical Requirements.

Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical screening and surveillance program if you are exposed to BD at concentrations exceeding the action level (0.5 ppm BD as an 8-hour TWA) on 30 days or more a year, or at or above the 8-hr TWA (1 ppm) or STEL (5 ppm for 15 minutes) on 10 days or more a year. Exposure for any part of a day counts. If you have had exposure to BD in the past, but have been transferred to another job, you may still be eligible to participate in the medical screening and surveillance program.

The WISHA rule specifies the past exposures that would qualify you for participation in the program. These past exposure are work histories that suggest the following:

(a) That you have been exposed at or above the PELs on 30 days a year for 10 or more years;

(b) That you have been exposed at or above the action level on 60 days a year for 10 or more years; or

(c) That you have been exposed above 10 ppm on 30 days in any past year.

Additionally, if you are exposed to BD in an emergency situation, you are eligible for a medical examination within 48 hours. The basic medical screening program includes a health questionnaire, physical examination, and blood test. These medical evaluations must be offered to you at a reasonable time and place, and without cost or loss of pay.

(7) Observation of Monitoring.

Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to BD and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, the protective clothing and equipment.

(8) Access to Information.

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this appendix. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using BD, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to BD. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits and of the schedule to implement these actions.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty years.

(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.


Appendix B. Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Physical and Chemical Data.

(a) Substance identification:

(i) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bivinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50620; CAS-106-99-0.

(ii) Formula: (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(iii) Molecular weight: 54.1.

(b) Physical data:

(i) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): -4.7 deg. C (23.5 deg. F).

(ii) Specific gravity (water = 1):0.62 at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F).

(iii) Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point of BD): 1.87.

(iv) Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 910 mm Hg.

(v) Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 0.05.

(vi) Appearance and odor: Colorless, flammable gas with a mildly aromatic odor. Liquefied BD is a colorless liquid with a mildly aromatic odor.

(2) Fire, Explosion, and Reactivity Hazard Data.

(a) Fire:

(i) Flash point: -76 deg. C (-105 deg. F) for take out; liquefied BD; Not applicable to BD gas.

(ii) Stability: A stabilizer is added to the monomer to inhibit formation of polymer during storage. Forms explosive peroxides in air in absence of inhibitor.

(iii) Flammable limits in air, percent by volume: Lower: 2.0; Upper: 11.5.

(iv) Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide for small fires, polymer or alcohol foams for large fires.

(v) Special fire fighting procedures: Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed cylinders cool.

(vi) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: BD vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

(vii) For purposes of compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-330, BD is classified as a flammable gas. For example, 7,500 ppm, approximately one-fourth of the lower flammable limit, would be considered to pose a potential fire and explosion hazard.

(viii) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-585, BD is classified as a Class B fire hazard.

(ix) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-956 and 296-800-280, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of BD shall be Class I.

(b) Reactivity:

(i) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat. Peroxides are formed when inhibitor concentration is not maintained at proper level. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place.

(ii) Incompatibilities: Contact with strong oxidizing agents may cause fires and explosions. The contacting of crude BD (not BD monomer) with copper and copper alloys may cause formations of explosive copper compounds.

(iii) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving BD.

(iv) Special precautions: BD will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. BD in storage should be checked for proper inhibitor content, for self-polymerization, and for formation of peroxides when in contact with air and iron. Piping carrying BD may become plugged by formation of rubbery polymer.

(c) Warning Properties:

(i) Odor Threshold: An odor threshold of 0.45 ppm has been reported in The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Report, Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards. (Ex. 32-28C).

(ii) Eye Irritation Level: Workers exposed to vapors of BD (concentration or purity unspecified) have complained of irritation of eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Dogs and rabbits exposed experimentally to as much as 6700 ppm for 7 1/2 hours a day for 8 months have developed no histologically demonstrable abnormality of the eyes.

(iii) Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since the mean odor threshold is about half of the 1 ppm PEL, and more than 10-fold below the 5 ppm STEL, most wearers of air purifying respirators should still be able to detect breakthrough before a significant overexposure to BD occurs.

(3) Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures.

(a) Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate areas of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(b) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulations for any additional requirements because these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulations.

(4) Monitoring and Measurement Procedures.

(a) Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit (8-hr TWA) or Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):

(i) 8-hr TWA exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this standard are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift. Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee).

(ii) STEL exposure evaluation: Measurements must represent 15 minute exposures associated with operations most likely to exceed the STEL in each job and on each shift.

(iii) Monitoring frequencies: Table 1 gives various exposure scenarios and their required monitoring frequencies, as required by the final standard for occupational exposure to butadiene.

Table 1. -- Five Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated
Monitoring Frequencies

Action Level 8-hr TWA STEL Required Monitoring Activity
__* __ __ No 8-hour TWA or STEL monitoring required.
+* __ __ No STEL monitoring required. Monitor 8-hr TWA annually.
+ __ __ No STEL monitoring required. Periodic monitoring 8-hour TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).**
+ + + Periodic monitoring 8-hour TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii)**. Periodic monitoring STEL in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).
+ __ + Periodic monitoring STEL, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii). Monitor 8-hour TWA annually.

Footnote (*) Exposure Scenario, Limit Exceeded: + = Yes, - = No.
Footnote (**) The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to annually when at least 2 consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart show exposures to be below the 8-hour TWA, but at or above the action level.
(iv) Monitoring techniques: Appendix D describes the validated method of sampling and analysis which has been tested by OSHA for use with BD. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95 percent confidence level, to plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of BD at or above 1 ppm, and to plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations below 1 ppm.

(5) Personal Protective Equipment.

(a) Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with liquid BD.

(b) Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid BD should be removed immediately and not reworn until the butadiene has evaporated.

(c) Employees should be provided with and required to use splash proof safety goggles where liquid BD may contact the eyes.

(6) Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities.

For purposes of complying with WAC 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, the following items should be emphasized:

(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition.

(b) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition.

(7) Additional Precautions.

(a) Store BD in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area and take all necessary precautions to avoid any explosion hazard.

(b) Nonsparking tools must be used to open and close metal containers. These containers must be effectively grounded.

(c) Do not incinerate BD cartridges, tanks or other containers.

(d) Employers must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to BD might occur.


Appendix C. Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene (Nonmandatory)

(1) Basis for Medical Screening and Surveillance Requirements.

(a) Route of Entry Inhalation.

(b) Toxicology.

Inhalation of BD has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, damage to the reproductive organs, and fetotoxicity. Butadiene can be converted via oxidation to epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, two genotoxic metabolites that may play a role in the expression of BD's toxic effects. BD has been tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Both species responded to BD exposure by developing cancer at multiple primary organ sites. Early deaths in mice were caused by malignant lymphomas, primarily lymphocytic type, originating in the thymus.

Mice exposed to BD have developed ovarian or testicular atrophy. Sperm head morphology tests also revealed abnormal sperm in mice exposed to BD; lethal mutations were found in a dominant lethal test. In light of these results in animals, the possibility that BD may adversely affect the reproductive systems of male and female workers must be considered.

Additionally, anemia has been observed in animals exposed to butadiene. In some cases, this anemia appeared to be a primary response to exposure; in other cases, it may have been secondary to a neoplastic response.

(c) Epidemiology.

Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that BD exposure poses an increased risk of leukemia. Mild alterations of hematologic parameters have also been observed in synthetic rubber workers exposed to BD.

(2) Potential Adverse Health Effects.

(a) Acute.

Skin contact with liquid BD causes characteristic burns or frostbite. BD in gaseous form can irritate the eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Blurred vision, coughing, and drowsiness may also occur. Effects are mild at 2,000 ppm and pronounced at 8,000 ppm for exposures occurring over the full workshift.

At very high concentrations in air, BD is an anesthetic, causing narcosis, respiratory paralysis, unconsciousness, and death. Such concentrations are unlikely, however, except in an extreme emergency because BD poses an explosion hazard at these levels.

(b) Chronic.

The principal adverse health effects of concern are BD-induced lymphoma, leukemia and potential reproductive toxicity. Anemia and other changes in the peripheral blood cells may be indicators of excessive exposure to BD.

(c) Reproductive.

Workers may be concerned about the possibility that their BD exposure may be affecting their ability to procreate a healthy child. For workers with high exposures to BD, especially those who have experienced difficulties in conceiving, miscarriages, or stillbirths, appropriate medical and laboratory evaluation of fertility may be necessary to determine if BD is having any adverse effect on the reproductive system or on the health of the fetus.

(3) Medical Screening Components At-A-Glance.

(a) Health Questionnaire.

The most important goal of the health questionnaire is to elicit information from the worker regarding potential signs or symptoms generally related to leukemia or other blood abnormalities. Therefore, physicians or other licensed health care professionals should be aware of the presenting symptoms and signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders and cancers, as well as the procedures necessary to confirm or exclude such diagnoses. Additionally, the health questionnaire will assist with the identification of workers at greatest risk of developing leukemia or adverse reproductive effects from their exposures to BD.

Workers with a history of reproductive difficulties or a personal or family history of immune deficiency syndromes, blood dyscrasias, lymphoma, or leukemia, and those who are or have been exposed to medicinal drugs or chemicals known to affect the hematopoietic or lymphatic systems may be at higher risk from their exposure to BD. After the initial administration, the health questionnaire must be updated annually.

(b) Complete Blood Count (CBC).

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an annual CBC, with differential and platelet count, to be provided for each employee with BD exposure. This test is to be performed on a blood sample obtained by phlebotomy of the venous system or, if technically feasible, from a fingerstick sample of capillary blood. The sample is to be analyzed by an accredited laboratory.

Abnormalities in a CBC may be due to a number of different etiologies. The concern for workers exposed to BD includes, but is not limited to, timely identification of lymphohematopoietic cancers, such as leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abnormalities of portions of the CBC are identified by comparing an individual's results to those of an established range of normal values for males and females. A substantial change in any individual employee's CBC may also be viewed as "abnormal" for that individual even if all measurements fall within the population-based range of normal values. It is suggested that a flowsheet for laboratory values be included in each employee's medical record so that comparisons and trends in annual CBCs can be easily made.

A determination of the clinical significance of an abnormal CBC shall be the responsibility of the examining physician, other licensed health care professional, or medical specialist to whom the employee is referred. Ideally, an abnormal CBC should be compared to previous CBC measurements for the same employee, when available. Clinical common sense may dictate that a CBC value that is very slightly outside the normal range does not warrant medical concern. A CBC abnormality may also be the result of a temporary physical stressor, such as a transient viral illness, blood donation, or menorrhagia, or laboratory error. In these cases, the CBC should be repeated in a timely fashion, i.e., within 6 weeks, to verify that return to the normal range has occurred. A clinically significant abnormal CBC should result in removal of the employee from further exposure to BD. Transfer of the employee to other work duties in a BD-free environment would be the preferred recommendation.

(c) Physical Examination.

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an initial physical examination for workers exposed to BD; this examination is repeated once every three years. The initial physical examination should assess each worker's baseline general health and rule out clinical signs of medical conditions that may be caused by or aggravated by occupational BD exposure. The physical examination should be directed at identification of signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders, including lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly.

Repeated physical examinations should update objective clinical findings that could be indicative of interim development of a lymphohematopoietic disorder, such as lymphoma, leukemia, or other blood abnormality. Physical examinations may also be provided on an as needed basis in order to follow up on a positive answer on the health questionnaire, or in response to an abnormal CBC. Physical examination of workers who will no longer be working in jobs with BD exposure are intended to rule out lymphohematopoietic disorders.

The need for physical examinations for workers concerned about adverse reproductive effects from their exposure to BD should be identified by the physician or other licensed health care professional and provided accordingly. For these workers, such consultations and examinations may relate to developmental toxicity and reproductive capacity.

Physical examination of workers acutely exposed to significant levels of BD should be especially directed at the respiratory system, eyes, sinuses, skin, nervous system, and any region associated with particular complaints. If the worker has received a severe acute exposure, hospitalization may be required to assure proper medical management. Since this type of exposure may place workers at greater risk of blood abnormalities, a CBC must be obtained within 48 hours and repeated at one, two, and three months.


Appendix D: Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene (Nonmandatory)

OSHA Method No.: 56.

Matrix: Air.

Target concentration: 1 ppm (2.21 mg/m(3)).

Procedure: Air samples are collected by drawing known volumes of air through sampling tubes containing charcoal adsorbent which has been coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. The samples are desorbed with carbon disulfide and then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector.

Recommended sampling rate and air volume: 0.05 L/min and 3 L.

Detection limit of the overall procedure: 90 ppb (200 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Reliable quantitation limit: 155 ppb (343 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Standard error of estimate at the target concentration: 6.5%.

Special requirements: The sampling tubes must be coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. Collected samples should be stored in a freezer.

Status of method: A sampling and analytical method has been subjected to the established evaluation procedures of the Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Analytical Laboratory, Salt Lake City, Utah 84165.

(1) Background.

This work was undertaken to develop a sampling and analytical procedure for BD at 1 ppm. The current method recommended by OSHA for collecting BD uses activated coconut shell charcoal as the sampling medium (Ref. 5.2). This method was found to be inadequate for use at low BD levels because of sample instability.

The stability of samples has been significantly improved through the use of a specially cleaned charcoal which is coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC). TBC is a polymerization inhibitor for BD (Ref. 5.3).

(a) Toxic effects.

Symptoms of human exposure to BD include irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. It can also cause coughing, drowsiness and fatigue. Dermatitis and frostbite can result from skin exposure to liquid BD. (Ref. 5.1)

NIOSH recommends that BD be handled in the workplace as a potential occupational carcinogen. This recommendation is based on two inhalation studies that resulted in cancers at multiple sites in rats and in mice. BD has also demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of a liver microsomal activating system. It has also been reported to have adverse reproductive effects. (Ref. 5.1)

(b) Potential workplace exposure.

About 90% of the annual production of BD is used to manufacture styrene-butadiene rubber and Polybutadiene rubber. Other uses include: Polychloroprene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene resins, nylon intermediates, styrene-butadiene latexes, butadiene polymers, thermoplastic elastomers, nitrile resins, methyl methacrylate-butadiene styrene resins and chemical intermediates. (Ref. 5.1)

(c) Physical properties (Ref. 5.1).

CAS No.: 106-99-0

Molecular weight: 54.1

Appearance: Colorless gas

Boiling point: -4.41 deg. C (760 mm Hg)

Freezing point: -108.9 deg. C

Vapor pressure: 2 atm (a) 15.3 deg. C; 5 atm (a) 47 deg. C

Explosive limits: 2 to 11.5% (by volume in air)

Odor threshold: 0.45 ppm

Structural formula: H(2)C:CHCH:CH(2)

Synonyms: BD; biethylene; bivinyl; butadiene; divinyl; buta-1,3-diene; alpha-gamma-butadiene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; pyrrolylene; vinylethylene.

(d) Limit defining parameters.

The analyte air concentrations listed throughout this method are based on an air volume of 3 L and a desorption volume of 1 mL. Air concentrations listed in ppm are referenced to 25 deg. C and 760 mm Hg.

(e) Detection limit of the analytical procedure.

The detection limit of the analytical procedure was 304 pg per injection. This was the amount of BD which gave a response relative to the interferences present in a standard.

(f) Detection limit of the overall procedure.

The detection limit of the overall procedure was 0.60 ug per sample (90 ppb or 200 ug/m(3)). This amount was determined graphically. It was the amount of analyte which, when spiked on the sampling device, would allow recovery approximately equal to the detection limit of the analytical procedure.

(g) Reliable quantitation limit.

The reliable quantitation limit was 1.03 ug per sample (155 ppb or 343 ug/m(3)). This was the smallest amount of analyte which could be quantitated within the limits of a recovery of at least 75% and a precision (+/- 1.96 SD) of +/-25% or better.

(h) Sensitivity.(1)


Footnote (1) The reliable quantitation limit and detection limits reported in the method are based upon optimization of the instrument for the smallest possible amount of analyte. When the target concentration of an analyte is exceptionally higher than these limits, they may not be attainable at the routine operation parameters.
The sensitivity of the analytical procedure over a concentration range representing 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration, based on the recommended air volume, was 387 area units per ug/mL. This value was determined from the slope of the calibration curve. The sensitivity may vary with the particular instrument used in the analysis.

(i) Recovery.

The recovery of BD from samples used in storage tests remained above 77% when the samples were stored at ambient temperature and above 94% when the samples were stored at refrigerated temperature. These values were determined from regression lines which were calculated from the storage data. The recovery of the analyte from the collection device must be at least 75% following storage.

(j) Precision (analytical method only).

The pooled coefficient of variation obtained from replicate determinations of analytical standards over the range of 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 0.011.

(k) Precision (overall procedure).

The precision at the 95% confidence level for the refrigerated temperature storage test was +/- 12.7%. This value includes an additional +/- 5% for sampling error. The overall procedure must provide results at the target concentrations that are +/- 25% at the 95% confidence level.

(l) Reproducibility.

Samples collected from a controlled test atmosphere and a draft copy of this procedure were given to a chemist unassociated with this evaluation. The average recovery was 97.2% and the standard deviation was 6.2%.

(2) Sampling procedure.

(a) Apparatus. Samples are collected by use of a personal sampling pump that can be calibrated to within +/- 5% of the recommended 0.05 L/min sampling rate with the sampling tube in line.

(b) Samples are collected with laboratory prepared sampling tubes. The sampling tube is constructed of silane-treated glass and is about 5-cm long. The ID is 4 mm and the OD is 6 mm. One end of the tube is tapered so that a glass wool end plug will hold the contents of the tube in place during sampling. The opening in the tapered end of the sampling tube is at least one-half the ID of the tube (2 mm). The other end of the sampling tube is open to its full 4-mm ID to facilitate packing of the tube. Both ends of the tube are fire-polished for safety. The tube is packed with 2 sections of pretreated charcoal which has been coated with TBC. The tube is packed with a 50-mg backup section, located nearest the tapered end, and with a 100-mg sampling section of charcoal. The two sections of coated adsorbent are separated and retained with small plugs of silanized glass wool. Following packing, the sampling tubes are sealed with two 7/32 inch OD plastic end caps. Instructions for the pretreatment and coating of the charcoal are presented in Section 4.1 of this method.

(c) Reagents.

None required.

(d) Technique.

(i) Properly label the sampling tube before sampling and then remove the plastic end caps.

(ii) Attach the sampling tube to the pump using a section of flexible plastic tubing such that the larger front section of the sampling tube is exposed directly to the atmosphere. Do not place any tubing ahead of the sampling tube. The sampling tube should be attached in the worker's breathing zone in a vertical manner such that it does not impede work performance.

(iii) After sampling for the appropriate time, remove the sampling tube from the pump and then seal the tube with plastic end caps. Wrap the tube lengthwise.

(iv) Include at least one blank for each sampling set. The blank should be handled in the same manner as the samples with the exception that air is not drawn through it.

(v) List any potential interferences on the sample data sheet.

(vi) The samples require no special shipping precautions under normal conditions. The samples should be refrigerated if they are to be exposed to higher than normal ambient temperatures. If the samples are to be stored before they are shipped to the laboratory, they should be kept in a freezer. The samples should be placed in a freezer upon receipt at the laboratory.

(e) Breakthrough.

(Breakthrough was defined as the relative amount of analyte found on the backup section of the tube in relation to the total amount of analyte collected on the sampling tube. Five-percent breakthrough occurred after sampling a test atmosphere containing 2.0 ppm BD for 90 min. at 0.05 L/min. At the end of this time 4.5 L of air had been sampled and 20.1 ug of the analyte was collected. The relative humidity of the sampled air was 80% at 23 deg. C.)

Breakthrough studies have shown that the recommended sampling procedure can be used at air concentrations higher than the target concentration. The sampling time, however, should be reduced to 45 min. if both the expected BD level and the relative humidity of the sampled air are high.

(f) Desorption efficiency.

The average desorption efficiency for BD from TBC coated charcoal over the range from 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 96.4%. The efficiency was essentially constant over the range studied.

(g) Recommended air volume and sampling rate.

(h) The recommended air volume is 3 L.

(i) The recommended sampling rate is 0.05 L/min. for 1 hour.

(j) Interferences.

There are no known interferences to the sampling method.

(k) Safety precautions.

(i) Attach the sampling equipment to the worker in such a manner that it will not interfere with work performance or safety.

(ii) Follow all safety practices that apply to the work area being sampled.

(3) Analytical procedure.

(a) Apparatus.

(i) A gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID).(2)


Footnote (2) A Hewlett-Packard Model 5840A GC was used for this evaluation. Injections were performed using a Hewlett-Packard Model 7671A automatic sampler.
(ii) A GC column capable of resolving the analytes from any interference.(3)


Footnote (3) A 20-ft x 1/8-inch OD stainless steel GC column containing 20% FFAP on 80/100 mesh Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS was used for this evaluation.
(iii) Vials, glass 2-mL with Teflon-lined caps.

(iv) Disposable Pasteur-type pipets, volumetric flasks, pipets and syringes for preparing samples and standards, making dilutions and performing injections.

(b) Reagents.

(i) Carbon disulfide.(4)


Footnote (4) Fisher Scientific Company A.C.S. Reagent Grade solvent was used in this evaluation.
The benzene contaminant that was present in the carbon disulfide was used as an internal standard (ISTD) in this evaluation.

(ii) Nitrogen, hydrogen and air, GC grade.

(iii) BD of known high purity.(5)


Footnote (5) Matheson Gas Products, CP Grade 1,3-butadiene was used in this study.
(c) Standard preparation.

(i) Prepare standards by diluting known volumes of BD gas with carbon disulfide. This can be accomplished by injecting the appropriate volume of BD into the headspace above the 1-mL of carbon disulfide contained in sealed 2-mL vial. Shake the vial after the needle is removed from the septum.(6)


Footnote (6) A standard containing 7.71 ug/mL (at ambient temperature and pressure) was prepared by diluting 4 uL of the gas with 1-mL of carbon disulfide.
(ii) The mass of BD gas used to prepare standards can be determined by use of the following equations:

MV = (760/BP)(273+t)/(273)(22.41)

Where:

MV = ambient molar volume

BP = ambient barometric pressure

T = ambient temperature

ug/uL = 54.09/MV

ug/standard = (ug/uL)(uL) BD used to prepare the standard

(d) Sample preparation.

(i) Transfer the 100-mg section of the sampling tube to a 2-mL vial. Place the 50-mg section in a separate vial. If the glass wool plugs contain a significant amount of charcoal, place them with the appropriate sampling tube section.

(ii) Add 1-mL of carbon disulfide to each vial.

(iii) Seal the vials with Teflon-lined caps and then allow them to desorb for one hour. Shake the vials by hand vigorously several times during the desorption period.

(iv) If it is not possible to analyze the samples within 4 hours, separate the carbon disulfide from the charcoal, using a disposable Pasteur-type pipet, following the one hour. This separation will improve the stability of desorbed samples.

(v) Save the used sampling tubes to be cleaned and repacked with fresh adsorbent.

(e) Analysis.

(i) GC Conditions.

Column temperature: 95 deg. C

Injector temperature: 180 deg. C

Detector temperature: 275 deg. C

Carrier gas flow rate: 30 mL/min.

Injection volume: 0.80 uL

GC column: 20-ft x 1/8-in OD stainless steel GC column containing 20%

FFAP on 80/100 Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS.

(ii) Chromatogram. See Section 4.2.

(iii) Use a suitable method, such as electronic or peak heights, to measure detector response.

(iv) Prepare a calibration curve using several standard solutions of different concentrations. Prepare the calibration curve daily. Program the integrator to report the results in ug/mL.

(v) Bracket sample concentrations with standards.

(f) Interferences (analytical).

(i) Any compound with the same general retention time as the analyte and which also gives a detector response is a potential interference. Possible interferences should be reported by the industrial hygienist to the laboratory with submitted samples.

(ii) GC parameters (temperature, column, etc.) may be changed to circumvent interferences.

(iii) A useful means of structure designation is GC/MS. It is recommended that this procedure be used to confirm samples whenever possible.

(g) Calculations.

(i) Results are obtained by use of calibration curves. Calibration curves are prepared by plotting detector response against concentration for each standard. The best line through the data points is determined by curve fitting.

(ii) The concentration, in ug/mL, for a particular sample is determined by comparing its detector response to the calibration curve. If any analyte is found on the backup section, this amount is added to the amount found on the front section. Blank corrections should be performed before adding the results together.

(iii) The BD air concentration can be expressed using the following equation:

mg/m(3) = (A)(B)/(C)(D)

Where:

A = ug/mL from Section 3.7.2

B = volume

C = L of air sampled

D = efficiency

(iv) The following equation can be used to convert results in mg/m(3) to ppm:

ppm = (mg/m(3))(24.46)/54.09

Where:

mg/m(3) = result from Section 3.7.3.

24.46 = molar volume of an ideal gas at 760 mm Hg and 25 deg. C.

(h) Safety precautions (analytical).

(i) Avoid skin contact and inhalation of all chemicals.

(ii) Restrict the use of all chemicals to a fume hood whenever possible.

(iii) Wear safety glasses and a lab coat in all laboratory areas.

(4) Additional Information.

(a) A procedure to prepare specially cleaned charcoal coated with TBC.

(i) Apparatus.

(A) Magnetic stirrer and stir bar.

(B) Tube furnace capable of maintaining a temperature of 700 deg. C and equipped with a quartz tube that can hold 30 g of charcoal.(8)


Footnote (8) A Lindberg Type 55035 Tube furnace was used in this evaluation.
(C) A means to purge nitrogen gas through the charcoal inside the quartz tube.

(D) Water bath capable of maintaining a temperature of 60 deg. C.

(E) Miscellaneous laboratory equipment: One-liter vacuum flask, 1-L Erlenmeyer flask, 350-M1 Buchner funnel with a coarse fitted disc, 4-oz brown bottle, rubber stopper, Teflon tape etc.

(ii) Reagents.

(A) Phosphoric acid, 10% by weight, in water.(9)


Footnote (9) Baker Analyzed Reagent grade was diluted with water for use in this evaluation.
(B) 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC).(10)


Footnote (10) The Aldrich Chemical Company 99% grade was used in this evaluation.
(C) Specially cleaned coconut shell charcoal, 20/40 mesh.(11)


Footnote (11) Specially cleaned charcoal was obtained from Supelco, Inc. for use in this evaluation. The cleaning process used by Supelco is proprietary.
(D) Nitrogen gas, GC grade.

(iii) Procedure.

Weigh 30g of charcoal into a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add about 250 mL of 10% phosphoric acid to the flask and then swirl the mixture. Stir the mixture for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer. Filter the mixture using a fitted Buchner funnel. Wash the charcoal several times with 250-mL portions of deionized water to remove all traces of the acid. Transfer the washed charcoal to the tube furnace quartz tube. Place the quartz tube in the furnace and then connect the nitrogen gas purge to the tube. Fire the charcoal to 700 deg. C. Maintain that temperature for at least 1 hour. After the charcoal has cooled to room temperature, transfer it to a tared beaker. Determine the weight of the charcoal and then add an amount of TBC which is 10% of the charcoal, by weight.

CAUTION-TBC is toxic and should only be handled in a fume hood while wearing gloves.

Carefully mix the contents of the beaker and then transfer the mixture to a 4-oz bottle. Stopper the bottle with a clean rubber stopper which has been wrapped with Teflon tape. Clamp the bottle in a water bath so that the water level is above the charcoal level. Gently heat the bath to 60 deg. C and then maintain that temperature for 1 hour. Cool the charcoal to room temperature and then transfer the coated charcoal to a suitable container.

The coated charcoal is now ready to be packed into sampling tubes. The sampling tubes should be stored in a sealed container to prevent contamination. Sampling tubes should be stored in the dark at room temperature. The sampling tubes should be segregated by coated adsorbent lot number.

(b) Chromatograms.

The chromatograms were obtained using the recommended analytical method. The chart speed was set at 1 cm/min. for the first three min. and then at 0.2 cm/min. for the time remaining in the analysis.

The peak which elutes just before BD is a reaction product between an impurity on the charcoal and TBC. This peak is always present, but it is easily resolved from the analyte. The peak which elutes immediately before benzene is an oxidation product of TBC.

(5) References.

(a) "Current Intelligence Bulletin 41, 1,3-Butadiene," U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH.

(b) "NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods," 2nd ed.; U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Cincinnati, OH. 1977, Vol. 2, Method No. S91 DHEW (NIOSH) Publ. (U.S.), No. 77-157-B.

(c) Hawley, G.C., Ed. "The Condensed Chemical Dictionary," 8th ed.; Van Nostrand Rienhold Company: New York, 1971; 139.5.4. Chem. Eng. News (June 10, 1985), (63), 22-66.


Appendix E: Reserved.


APPENDIX F, MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRES, (Non-mandatory)


1,3-Butadiene (BD) Initial Health Questionnaire


DIRECTIONS:


You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.


This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.


Date:
Name: SSN / /
Last First MI
Job Title:
Company's Name:
Supervisor's Name:
Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

Work History


1. Please list all jobs you have had in the past, starting with the job you have now and moving back in time to your first job. (For more space, write on the back of this page.)


Main Job Duty

Year

Company Name

City, State


Chemicals

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.


2. Please describe what you do during a typical work day. Be sure to tell about your work with BD.

3. Please check any of these chemicals that you work with now or have worked with in the past:


benzene
glues
toluene
inks, dyes
other solvents, grease cutters
insecticides (like DDT, lindane, etc.)
paints, varnishes, thinners, strippers
dusts
carbon tetrachloride ("carbon tet")
arsine
carbon disulfide
lead
cement
petroleum products
nitrites

4. Please check the protective clothing or equipment you use at the job you have now:


gloves
coveralls
respirator
dust mask
safety glasses, goggles

Please circle your answer.


5. Does your protective clothing or equipment fit you

properly? yes no


6. Have you ever made changes in your protective clothing or equipment to make it fit better? yes no


7. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no


8. Where do you eat, drink and/or smoke when you are at work? (Please check all that apply.)

Cafeteria/restaurant/snack bar
Break room/employee lounge
Smoking lounge
At my work station

Please circle your answer.


9. Have you been exposed to radiation (like x-rays or nuclear material) at the job you have now or at past

jobs? yes no


10. Do you have any hobbies that expose you to dusts or chemicals (including paints, glues, etc.)? yes no


11. Do you have any second or side jobs? yes no

If yes, what are your duties there?

12. Were you in the military? yes no


If yes, what did you do in the military?

Family Health History

1. In the FAMILY MEMBER column, across from the disease name, write which family member, if any, had the disease.


DISEASE FAMILY MEMBER

Cancer

Lymphoma

Sickle Cell Disease or Trait

Immune Disease

Leukemia

Anemia


2. Please fill in the following information about family health


Relative

Alive?

Age at Death?

Cause of Death?

Father

Mother

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister


Personal Health History


Birth Date / / Age Sex Height Weight


Please circle your answer.


1. Do you smoke any tobacco products? yes no


2. Have you ever had any kind of surgery or operation?

yes no


If yes, what type of surgery:


3. Have you ever been in the hospital for any other

reasons? yes no

If yes, please describe the reason

4. Do you have any on-going or current medical problems

or conditions? yes no


If yes, please describe:

5. Do you now have or have you ever had any of the following? Please check all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
anemia ("low blood")
HIV/AIDS
weakness
sickle cell
miscarriage
skin rash
bloody stools
leukemia/lymphoma
neck mass/swelling
wheezing
yellowing of skin
bruising easily
lupus
weight loss
kidney problems
enlarged lymph nodes
liver disease
cancer
infertility
drinking problems
thyroid problems
night sweats
chest pain
still birth
eye redness
lumps you can feel
child with birth defect
autoimmune disease
overly tired
lung problems
rheumatoid arthritis
mononucleosis ("mono")
nagging cough

Please circle your answer.


6. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:

7. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or

problems? yes no don't know


If yes, please describe:

8. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no


9. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no


10. Do you take any medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no


If yes, please list:

11. Are you allergic to any medication, food, or chemicals? yes no


If yes, please list:

12. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with

BD? yes no


If yes, please explain:

13. Did you understand all the questions? yes no

Signature



1,3-Butadiene (BD) Health Update Questionnaire


DIRECTIONS:


You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.


This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.

Date:
Name: SSN / /
Last First MI
Job Title:
Company's Name:
Supervisor's Name:
Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

1. Please describe any NEW duties that you have at your

job.


2. Please describe any additional job duties you have:
Please circle your answer.


3. Are you exposed to any other chemicals in your work

since the last time you were evaluated for exposure to

BD? yes no


If yes, please list what they are:

4. Does your personal protective equipment and clothing fit you properly? yes no


5. Have you made changes in this equipment or clothing to make if fit better? yes no


6. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no


7. Are you exposed to any NEW chemicals at home or while working on hobbies? yes no


If yes, please list what they are:

8. Since your last BD health evaluation, have you started working any new second or side jobs? yes no


If yes, what are your duties there?


Personal Health History


1. What is your current weight? pounds


2. Have you been diagnosed with any new medical

conditions or illness since your last evaluation?

yes no


If yes, please tell what they are:

3. Since your last evaluation, have you been in the hospital for any illnesses, injuries, or surgery? yes no


If yes, please describe:

4. Do you have any of the following? Please place a check for all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
anemia ("low blood")
HIV/AIDS
weakness
sickle cell
miscarriage
skin rash
bloody stools
leukemia/lymphoma
neck mass/swelling
wheezing
yellowing of skin
bruising easily
lupus
weight loss
kidney problems
enlarged lymph nodes
liver disease
cancer
infertility
drinking problems
thyroid problems
night sweats
chest pain
still birth
eye redness
lumps you can feel
child with birth defect
autoimmune disease
overly tired
lung problems
rheumatoid arthritis
mononucleosis ("mono")
nagging cough

Please circle your answer.


5. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:

6. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or

problems? yes no don't know

If yes, please describe:

7. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no


8. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no


9. Have you been taking any NEW medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no


If yes, please list:

10. Have you developed any new allergies to medications, foods, or chemicals? yes no


If yes, please list:

11. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this

questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with

BD? yes no

If yes, please explain:

12. Do you understand all the questions? yes no


Signature

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-03-163, 296-62-07460, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07460, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07460, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04; 03-18-090, 296-62-07460, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07460, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07460, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07460, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07470   Methylene chloride.   This occupational health standard establishes requirements for employers to control occupational exposure to methylene chloride (MC). Employees exposed to MC are at increased risk of developing cancer, adverse effects on the heart, central nervous system and liver, and skin or eye irritation. Exposure may occur through inhalation, by absorption through the skin, or through contact with the skin. MC is a solvent which is used in many different types of work activities, such as paint stripping, polyurethane foam manufacturing, and cleaning and degreasing. Under the requirements of subsection (4) of this section, each covered employer must make an initial determination of each employee's exposure to MC. If the employer determines that employees are exposed below the action level, the only other provisions of this section that apply are that a record must be made of the determination, the employees must receive information and training under subsection (12) of this section and, where appropriate, employees must be protected from contact with liquid MC under subsection (8) of this section.

The provisions of the MC standard are as follows:

(1) Scope and application. This section applies to all occupational exposures to methylene chloride (MC), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 75-09-2, in general industry, construction and shipyard employment.

(2) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

"Action level" means a concentration of airborne MC of 12.5 parts per million (ppm) calculated as an eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

"Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4) of this section, or any other person authorized by the WISH Act or regulations issued under the act.

"Director" means the director of the department of labor and industries, or designee.

"Emergency" means any occurrence, such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which results, or is likely to result in an uncontrolled release of MC. If an incidental release of MC can be controlled by employees such as maintenance personnel at the time of release and in accordance with the leak/spill provisions required by subsection (6) of this section, it is not considered an emergency as defined by this standard.

"Employee exposure" means exposure to airborne MC which occurs or would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection.

"Methylene chloride (MC)" means an organic compound with chemical formula, CH2Cl2. Its Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number is 75-09-2. Its molecular weight is 84.9 g/mole.

"Physician or other licensed health care professional" is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the health care services required by subsection (10) of this section.

"Regulated area" means an area, demarcated by the employer, where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed either the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL.

"Symptom" means central nervous system effects such as headaches, disorientation, dizziness, fatigue, and decreased attention span; skin effects such as chapping, erythema, cracked skin, or skin burns; and cardiac effects such as chest pain or shortness of breath.

"This section" means this methylene chloride standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

(a) Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) PEL. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MC in excess of twenty-five parts of MC per million parts of air (25 ppm) as an eight-hour TWA.

(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MC in excess of one hundred and twenty-five parts of MC per million parts of air (125 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.

(4) Exposure monitoring.

(a) Characterization of employee exposure.

(i) Where MC is present in the workplace, the employer shall determine each employee's exposure by either:

(A) Taking a personal breathing zone air sample of each employee's exposure; or

(B) Taking personal breathing zone air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure.

(ii) Representative samples. The employer may consider personal breathing zone air samples to be representative of employee exposures when they are taken as follows:

(A) Eight-hour TWA PEL. The employer has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples for at least one employee in each job classification in a work area during every work shift, and the employee sampled is expected to have the highest MC exposure.

(B) Short-term exposure limits. The employer has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples which indicate the highest likely fifteen-minute exposures during such operations for at least one employee in each job classification in the work area during every work shift, and the employee sampled is expected to have the highest MC exposure.

(C) Exception. Personal breathing zone air samples taken during one work shift may be used to represent employee exposures on other work shifts where the employer can document that the tasks performed and conditions in the workplace are similar across shifts.

(iii) Accuracy of monitoring. The employer shall ensure that the methods used to perform exposure monitoring produce results that are accurate to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, and are:

(A) Within plus or minus twenty-five percent for airborne concentrations of MC above the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL; or

(B) Within plus or minus thirty-five percent for airborne concentrations of MC at or above the action level but at or below the eight-hour TWA PEL.

(b) Initial determination. Each employer whose employees are exposed to MC shall perform initial exposure monitoring to determine each affected employee's exposure, except under the following conditions:

(i) Where objective data demonstrate that MC cannot be released in the workplace in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or above the STEL. The objective data shall represent the highest MC exposures likely to occur under reasonably foreseeable conditions of processing, use, or handling. The employer shall document the objective data exemption as specified in subsection (13) of this section;

(ii) Where the employer has performed exposure monitoring within 12 months prior to December 1, and that exposure monitoring meets all other requirements of this section, and was conducted under conditions substantially equivalent to existing conditions; or

(iii) Where employees are exposed to MC on fewer than thirty days per year (e.g., on a construction site), and the employer has measurements by direct reading instruments which give immediate results (such as a detector tube) and which provide sufficient information regarding employee exposures to determine what control measures are necessary to reduce exposures to acceptable levels.

(c) Periodic monitoring. Where the initial determination shows employee exposures at or above the action level or above the STEL, the employer shall establish an exposure monitoring program for periodic monitoring of employee exposure to MC in accordance with Table 1:

Table 1
Six Initial Determination Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated Monitoring Frequencies

Exposure scenario Required monitoring activity
Below the action level and at or below the STEL. No eight-hour TWA or STEL monitoring required.
Below the action level and above the STEL. No eight-hour TWA monitoring required; monitor STEL exposures every three months.
At or above the action level, at or below the TWA, and at or below the STEL. Monitor eight-hour TWA exposures every six months.
At or above the action level, at or below the TWA, and above the STEL. Monitor eight-hour TWA exposures every six months and monitor STEL exposures every three months.
Above the TWA and at or below the STEL. Monitor eight-hour TWA exposures every three months. In addition, without regard to the last sentence of the note to subsection (3) of this section, the following employers must monitor STEL exposures every three months until either the date by which they must achieve the eight-hour TWAs PEL under subsection (3) of this section or the date by which they in fact achieve the eight-hour TWA PEL, whichever comes first:
Employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing;
Foam fabrication;
Furniture refinishing;
General aviation aircraft stripping;
Product formulation;
Use of MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair;
Recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, or upholstery; and use of MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making, or floor refinishing and resurfacing.
Above the TWA and above the STEL. Monitor both eight-hour TWA exposures and STEL exposures every three months.

(Note to subsection (3)(c) of this section: The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to every six months when at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart show exposures to be at or below the eight-hour TWA PEL. The employer may discontinue the periodic eight-hour TWA monitoring for employees where at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart are below the action level. The employer may discontinue the periodic STEL monitoring for employees where at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart are at or below the STEL.)

(d) Additional monitoring.

(i) The employer shall perform exposure monitoring when a change in workplace conditions indicates that employee exposure may have increased. Examples of situations that may require additional monitoring include changes in production, process, control equipment, or work practices, or a leak, rupture, or other breakdown.

(ii) Where exposure monitoring is performed due to a spill, leak, rupture or equipment breakdown, the employer shall clean up the MC and perform the appropriate repairs before monitoring.

(e) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer shall, within fifteen working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results in writing, either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) Whenever monitoring results indicate that employee exposure is above the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL, the employer shall describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce employee exposure to or below the eight-hour TWA PEL or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.

(f) Observation of monitoring.

(i) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to MC conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to MC requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the observer(s), and the observer(s) shall be required to use such clothing and equipment and shall comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed either the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL.

(b) The employer shall limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.

(c) The employer shall supply a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (7)(c) of this section, to each person who enters a regulated area and shall require each affected employee to use that respirator whenever MC exposures are likely to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL or STEL.

(Note to subsection (5)(c) of this section: An employer who has implemented all feasible engineering, work practice and administrative controls (as required in subsection (6) of this section), and who has established a regulated area (as required by subsection (5)(a) of this section) where MC exposure can be reliably predicted to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL only on certain days (for example, because of work or process schedule) would need to have affected employees use respirators in that regulated area only on those days.)

(d) The employer shall ensure that, within a regulated area, employees do not engage in nonwork activities which may increase dermal or oral MC exposure.

(e) The employer shall ensure that while employees are wearing respirators, they do not engage in activities (such as taking medication or chewing gum or tobacco) which interfere with respirator seal or performance.

(f) The employer shall demarcate regulated areas from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees to the boundaries of the area and minimizes the number of authorized employees exposed to MC within the regulated area.

(g) An employer at a multiemployer worksite who establishes a regulated area shall communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to all other employers with work operations at that worksite.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls. The employer shall institute and maintain the effectiveness of engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.

(b) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-TWA PEL or STEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.

(c) Prohibition of rotation. The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.

(d) Leak and spill detection.

(i) The employer shall implement procedures to detect leaks of MC in the workplace. In work areas where spills may occur, the employer shall make provisions to contain any spills and to safely dispose of any MC-contaminated waste materials.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that all incidental leaks are repaired and that incidental spills are cleaned promptly by employees who use the appropriate personal protective equipment and are trained in proper methods of cleanup.

(Note to subsection (6)(d)(ii) of this section: See Appendix A of this section for examples of procedures that satisfy this requirement. Employers covered by this standard may also be subject to the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in WAC 296-62-3112.)

(7) Respiratory protection.

(a) General requirements. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods when an employee's exposure to MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL (for example, when an employee is using MC in a regulated area);

(ii) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(iii) In a few work operations, such as some maintenance operations and repair activities, for which the employer demonstrates that engineering and work practice controls are infeasible;

(iv) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PELs;

(v) Emergencies.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator, except for the requirements in Table 5 of WAC 296-842-13005 that address gas or vapor cartridge change schedules and end-of-service-life indicators (ESLIs).

(ii) Employers who provide employees with gas masks with organic-vapor canisters for the purpose of emergency escape must replace the canisters after any emergency use and before the gas masks are returned to service.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

(ii) Make sure half-facepiece respirators are not selected or used for protection against MC. This is necessary to prevent eye irritation or damage from MC exposure.

(iii) Provide to employees, for emergency escape, one of the following respirator options:

(A) A self-contained breathing apparatus operated in the continuous-flow or pressure demand mode

OR

(B) A gas mask equipped with an organic vapor canister.

(d) Medical evaluation. Before having an employee use a supplied-air respirator in the negative-pressure mode, or a gas mask with an organic-vapor canister for emergency escape, the employer must:

(i) Have a physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) evaluate the employee's ability to use such respiratory protection;

(ii) Ensure that the PLHCP provides their findings in a written opinion to the employee and the employer.


Note: See WAC 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156 for medical evaluation requirements for employees using respirators.


(8) Protective work clothing and equipment.

(a) Where needed to prevent MC-induced skin or eye irritation, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment which is resistant to MC, at no cost to the employee, and shall ensure that each affected employee uses it. Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-800-160, as applicable.

(b) The employer shall clean, launder, repair and replace all protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(c) The employer shall be responsible for the safe disposal of such clothing and equipment.

(Note to subsection (8)(c) of this section: See Appendix A for examples of disposal procedures that will satisfy this requirement.)

(9) Hygiene facilities.

(a) If it is reasonably foreseeable that employees' skin may contact solutions containing 0.1 percent or greater MC (for example, through splashes, spills or improper work practices), the employer shall provide conveniently located washing facilities capable of removing the MC, and shall ensure that affected employees use these facilities as needed.

(b) If it is reasonably foreseeable that an employee's eyes may contact solutions containing 0.1 percent or greater MC (for example through splashes, spills or improper work practices), the employer shall provide appropriate eyewash facilities within the immediate work area for emergency use, and shall ensure that affected employees use those facilities when necessary.

(10) Medical surveillance.

(a) Affected employees. The employer shall make medical surveillance available for employees who are or may be exposed to MC as follows:

(i) At or above the action level on thirty or more days per year, or above the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL on ten or more days per year;

(ii) Above the 8-TWA PEL or STEL for any time period where an employee has been identified by a physician or other licensed health care professional as being at risk from cardiac disease or from some other serious MC-related health condition and such employee requests inclusion in the medical surveillance program;

(iii) During an emergency.

(b) Costs. The employer shall provide all required medical surveillance at no cost to affected employees, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.

(c) Medical personnel. The employer shall ensure that all medical surveillance procedures are performed by a physician or other licensed health care professional, as defined in subsection (2) of this section.

(d) Frequency of medical surveillance. The employer shall make medical surveillance available to each affected employee as follows:

(i) Initial surveillance. The employer shall provide initial medical surveillance under the schedule provided by subsection (14)(b)(iii) of this section, or before the time of initial assignment of the employee, whichever is later. The employer need not provide the initial surveillance if medical records show that an affected employee has been provided with medical surveillance that complies with this section within twelve months before December 1.

(ii) Periodic medical surveillance. The employer shall update the medical and work history for each affected employee annually. The employer shall provide periodic physical examinations, including appropriate laboratory surveillance, as follows:

(A) For employees forty-five years of age or older, within twelve months of the initial surveillance or any subsequent medical surveillance; and

(B) For employees younger than forty-five years of age, within thirty-six months of the initial surveillance or any subsequent medical surveillance.

(iii) Termination of employment or reassignment. When an employee leaves the employer's workplace, or is reassigned to an area where exposure to MC is consistently at or below the action level and STEL, medical surveillance shall be made available if six months or more have elapsed since the last medical surveillance.

(iv) Additional surveillance. The employer shall provide additional medical surveillance at frequencies other than those listed above when recommended in the written medical opinion. (For example, the physician or other licensed health care professional may determine an examination is warranted in less than thirty-six months for employees younger than forty-five years of age based upon evaluation of the results of the annual medical and work history.)

(e) Content of medical surveillance.

(i) Medical and work history. The comprehensive medical and work history shall emphasize neurological symptoms, skin conditions, history of hematologic or liver disease, signs or symptoms suggestive of heart disease (angina, coronary artery disease), risk factors for cardiac disease, MC exposures, and work practices and personal protective equipment used during such exposures.

(Note to subsection (10)(e)(i) of this section: See Appendix B of this section for an example of a medical and work history format that would satisfy this requirement.)

(ii) Physical examination. Where physical examinations are provided as required above, the physician or other licensed health care professional shall accord particular attention to the lungs, cardiovascular system (including blood pressure and pulse), liver, nervous system, and skin. The physician or other licensed health care professional shall determine the extent and nature of the physical examination based on the health status of the employee and analysis of the medical and work history.

(iii) Laboratory surveillance. The physician or other licensed health care professional shall determine the extent of any required laboratory surveillance based on the employee's observed health status and the medical and work history.

(Note to subsection (10)(e)(iii) of this section: See Appendix B of this section for information regarding medical tests. Laboratory surveillance may include before-and after-shift carboxyhemoglobin determinations, resting ECG, hematocrit, liver function tests and cholesterol levels.)

(iv) Other information or reports. The medical surveillance shall also include any other information or reports the physician or other licensed health care professional determines are necessary to assess the employee's health in relation to MC exposure.

(f) Content of emergency medical surveillance. The employer shall ensure that medical surveillance made available when an employee has been exposed to MC in emergency situations includes, at a minimum:

(i) Appropriate emergency treatment and decontamination of the exposed employee;

(ii) Comprehensive physical examination with special emphasis on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, lungs, liver and skin, including blood pressure and pulse;

(iii) Updated medical and work history, as appropriate for the medical condition of the employee; and

(iv) Laboratory surveillance, as indicated by the employee's health status.

(Note to subsection (10)(f)(iv) of this section: See Appendix B for examples of tests which may be appropriate.)

(g) Additional examinations and referrals. Where the physician or other licensed health care professional determines it is necessary, the scope of the medical examination shall be expanded and the appropriate additional medical surveillance, such as referrals for consultation or examination, shall be provided.

(h) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer shall provide the following information to a physician or other licensed health care professional who is involved in the diagnosis of MC-induced health effects:

(i) A copy of this section including its applicable appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's past, current and anticipated future duties as they relate to the employee's MC exposure;

(iii) The employee's former or current exposure levels or, for employees not yet occupationally exposed to MC, the employee's anticipated exposure levels and the frequency and exposure levels anticipated to be associated with emergencies;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment, such as respirators, used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous employment-related medical surveillance of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional.

(i) Written medical opinions.

(i) For each physical examination required by this section, the employer shall ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional provides to the employer and to the affected employee a written opinion regarding the results of that examination within fifteen days of completion of the evaluation of medical and laboratory findings, but not more than thirty days after the examination. The written medical opinion shall be limited to the following information:

(A) The physician's or other licensed health care professional's opinion concerning whether exposure to MC may contribute to or aggravate the employee's existing cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke) or dermal disease or whether the employee has any other medical condition(s) that would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to MC;

(B) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to MC, removal from MC exposure, or upon the employee's use of protective clothing or equipment and respirators;

(C) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician or other licensed health care professional that MC is a potential occupational carcinogen, of risk factors for heart disease, and the potential for exacerbation of underlying heart disease by exposure to MC through its metabolism to carbon monoxide; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician or other licensed health care professional of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions resulting from MC exposure which require further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician or other licensed health care professional not to reveal to the employer, orally or in the written opinion, any specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on occupational exposure to MC.

(Note to subsection (10)(h)(ii) of this section: The written medical opinion may also include information and opinions generated to comply with other OSHA health standards.)

(j) Medical presumption. For purposes of this subsection (10), the physician or other licensed health care professional shall presume, unless medical evidence indicates to the contrary, that a medical condition is unlikely to require medical removal from MC exposure if the employee is not exposed to MC above the eight-hour TWA PEL. If the physician or other licensed health care professional recommends removal for an employee exposed below the eight-hour TWA PEL, the physician or other licensed health care professional shall cite specific medical evidence, sufficient to rebut the presumption that exposure below the eight-hour TWA PEL is unlikely to require removal, to support the recommendation. If such evidence is cited by the physician or other licensed health care professional, the employer must remove the employee. If such evidence is not cited by the physician or other licensed health care professional, the employer is not required to remove the employee.

(k) Medical removal protection (MRP).

(i) Temporary medical removal and return of an employee.

(A) Except as provided in (j) of this subsection, when a medical determination recommends removal because the employee's exposure to MC may contribute to or aggravate the employee's existing cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke), or skin disease, the employer must provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee and either:

(I) Transfer the employee to comparable work where methylene chloride exposure is below the action level; or

(II) Remove the employee from MC exposure.

(B) If comparable work is not available and the employer is able to demonstrate that removal and the costs of extending MRP benefits to an additional employee, considering feasibility in relation to the size of the employer's business and the other requirements of this standard, make further reliance on MRP an inappropriate remedy, the employer may retain the additional employee in the existing job until transfer or removal becomes appropriate, provided:

(I) The employer ensures that the employee receives additional medical surveillance, including a physical examination at least every sixty days until transfer or removal occurs; and

(II) The employer or PLHCP informs the employee of the risk to the employee's health from continued MC exposure.

(C) The employer shall maintain in effect any job-related protective measures or limitations, other than removal, for as long as a medical determination recommends them to be necessary.

(ii) End of MRP benefits and return of the employee to former job status.

(A) The employer may cease providing MRP benefits at the earliest of the following:

(I) Six months;

(II) Return of the employee to the employee's former job status following receipt of a medical determination concluding that the employee's exposure to MC no longer will aggravate any cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke), or dermal disease;

(III) Receipt of a medical determination concluding that the employee can never return to MC exposure.

(B) For the purposes of this subsection (10), the requirement that an employer return an employee to the employee's former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.

(l) Medical removal protection benefits.

(i) For purposes of this subsection (10), the term medical removal protection benefits means that, for each removal, an employer must maintain for up to six months the earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and benefits of the employee as though the employee had not been removed from MC exposure or transferred to a comparable job.

(ii) During the period of time that an employee is removed from exposure to MC, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.

(iii) If a removed employee files a workers' compensation claim for a MC-related disability, the employer shall continue the MRP benefits required by this section until either the claim is resolved or the six-month period for payment of MRP benefits has passed, whichever occurs first. To the extent the employee is entitled to indemnity payments for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee shall be reduced by the amount of such indemnity payments.

(iv) The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal from either a publicly or an employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.

(m) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to MC or otherwise places any limitation on an employee due to the effects of MC exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer shall provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to those required by (l) of this subsection.

(n) Multiple health care professional review mechanism.

(i) If the employer selects the initial physician or licensed health care professional (PLHCP) to conduct any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under (k) of this subsection, the employer shall notify the employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion each time the employer provides the employee with a copy of the written opinion of that PLHCP.

(ii) If the employee does not agree with the opinion of the employer-selected PLHCP, notifies the employer of that fact, and takes steps to make an appointment with a second PLHCP within fifteen days of receiving a copy of the written opinion of the initial PLHCP, the employer shall pay for the PLHCP chosen by the employee to perform at least the following:

(A) Review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial PLHCP; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the PLHCP deems necessary to facilitate this review.

(iii) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second PLHCP differ from those of the initial PLHCP, then the employer and the employee shall instruct the two health care professionals to resolve the disagreement.

(iv) If the two health care professionals are unable to resolve their disagreement within fifteen days, then those two health care professionals shall jointly designate a PLHCP who is a specialist in the field at issue. The employer shall pay for the specialist to perform at least the following:

(A) Review the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the first two PLHCPs; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests and discussions with the prior PLHCPs as the specialist deems necessary to resolve the disagreements of the prior health care professionals.

(v) The written opinion of the specialist shall be the definitive medical determination. The employer shall act consistent with the definitive medical determination, unless the employer and employee agree that the written opinion of one of the other two PLHCPs shall be the definitive medical determination.

(vi) The employer and the employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use of any expeditious alternate health care professional determination mechanism in lieu of the multiple health care professional review mechanism provided by this section so long as the alternate mechanism otherwise satisfies the requirements contained in this section.

(11) Hazard communication. The employer shall communicate the following hazards associated with MC on labels and in material safety data sheets in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170: Cancer, cardiac effects (including elevation of carboxyhemoglobin), central nervous system effects, liver effects, and skin and eye irritation.

(12) Employee information and training.

(a) The employer shall provide information and training for each affected employee prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to MC.

(b) The employer shall ensure that information and training is presented in a manner that is understandable to the employees.

(c) In addition to the information required under the chemical hazard communication standard at WAC 296-800-170:

(i) The employer shall inform each affected employee of the requirements of this section and information available in its appendices, as well as how to access or obtain a copy of it in the workplace;

(ii) Wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the action level, the employer shall inform each affected employee of the quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of MC and the specific operations in the workplace that could result in exposure to MC, particularly noting where exposures may be above the eight-hour TWA PEL or STEL;

(d) The employer shall train each affected employee as required under the chemical hazard communication standard at WAC 296-800-170, as appropriate.

(e) The employer shall retrain each affected employee as necessary to ensure that each employee exposed above the action level or the STEL maintains the requisite understanding of the principles of safe use and handling of MC in the workplace.

(f) Whenever there are workplace changes, such as modifications of tasks or procedures or the institution of new tasks or procedures, which increase employee exposure, and where those exposures exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the action level, the employer shall update the training as necessary to ensure that each affected employee has the requisite proficiency.

(g) An employer whose employees are exposed to MC at a multiemployer worksite shall notify the other employers with work operations at that site in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170, as appropriate.

(h) The employer shall provide to the director, upon request, all available materials relating to employee information and training.

(13) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data.

(i) Where an employer seeks to demonstrate that initial monitoring is unnecessary through reasonable reliance on objective data showing that any materials in the workplace containing MC will not release MC at levels which exceed the action level or the STEL under foreseeable conditions of exposure, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of the objective data relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The MC-containing material in question;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of MC;

(D) A description of the operation exempted under subsection (4)(b)(i) of this section and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to MC as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) Where the employer has twenty or more employees, this record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) The operation involving exposure to MC which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of personal protective equipment, such as respiratory protective devices, worn, if any; and

(F) Name, Social Security number, job classification and exposure of all of the employees represented by monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iii) Where the employer has fewer than twenty employees, the record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) Number, duration, and results of samples taken; and

(C) Name, Social Security number, job classification and exposure of all of the employees represented by monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iv) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance under subsection (10) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name, Social Security number and description of the duties of the employee;

(B) Written medical opinions; and

(C) Any employee medical conditions related to exposure to MC.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the director for examination and copying in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(Note to subsection (13)(d)(i) of this section: All records required to be maintained by this section may be kept in the most administratively convenient form (for example, electronic or computer records would satisfy this requirement).)

(ii) The employer, upon request, shall make any employee exposure and objective data records required by this section available for examination and copying by affected employees, former employees, and designated representatives in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(iii) The employer, upon request, shall make employee medical records required to be kept by this section available for examination and copying by the subject employee and by anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(e) Transfer of records. The employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(14) Dates.

(a) Engineering controls required under subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented according to the following schedule:

(i) For employers with fewer than twenty employees, no later than April 10, 2000.

(ii) For employers with fewer than one hundred fifty employees engaged in foam fabrication; for employers with fewer than fifty employees engaged in furniture refinishing, general aviation aircraft stripping, and product formulation; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair, recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, and upholstering; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making and/or floor refinishing and resurfacing, no later than April 10, 2000.

(iii) For employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing with twenty or more employees, no later than October 10, 1999.

(b) Use of respiratory protection whenever an employee's exposure to MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL, in accordance with subsection (3)(a), (5)(c), (6)(a) and (7)(a) of this section, shall be implemented according to the following schedule:

(i) For employers with fewer than one hundred fifty employees engaged in foam fabrication; for employers with fewer than fifty employees engaged in furniture refinishing, general aviation aircraft stripping, and product formulation; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair, recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, and upholstering; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making and/or floor refinishing and resurfacing, no later than April 10, 2000.

(ii) For employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing with twenty or more employees, no later than October 10, 1999.

(c) Notification of corrective action under subsection (4)(e)(ii) of this section, no later than ninety days before the compliance date applicable to such corrective action.

(d) Transitional dates. The exposure limits for MC specified in WAC 296-62-07515 Table 1, shall remain in effect until the start up dates for the exposure limits specified in subsection (14) of this section, or if the exposure limits in this section are stayed or vacated.

(e) Unless otherwise specified in this subsection (14), all other requirements of this section shall be complied with immediately.

(15) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices does not, by itself, create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or detract from any existing obligation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07470, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 04-10-026, 296-62-07470, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07470, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07470, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 97-18-062, 296-62-07470, filed 9/2/97, effective 12/1/97.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07521   Lead.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to lead, except as provided in subdivision (1)(b).

(b) This section does not apply to the construction industry or to agricultural operations covered by chapter 296-307 WAC.

(2) Definitions as applicable to this part.

(a) "Action level" - employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of thirty micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 g/m3) averaged over an eight-hour period.

(b) "Director" - the director of the department of labor and industries.

(c) "Lead" - metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.

(3) General requirements.

(a) Employers will assess the hazards of lead in the work place and provide information to the employees about the hazards of the lead exposures to which they may be exposed.

(b) Information provided shall include:

(i) Exposure monitoring (including employee notification);

(ii) Written compliance programs;

(iii) Respiratory protection programs;

(iv) Personnel protective equipment and housekeeping;

(v) Medical surveillance and examinations;

(vi) Training requirements;

(vii) Recordkeeping requirements.

(4) Permissible exposure limit (PEL).

(a) The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 g/m3) averaged over an eight-hour period.

(b) If an employee is exposed to lead for more than eight hours in any work day, the permissible exposure limit, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula:


Maximum permissible limit (in g/m3) = 400

hours worked in the day.


(c) When respirators are used to supplement engineering and work practice controls to comply with the PEL and all the requirements of subsection (7) have been met, employee exposure, for the purpose of determining whether the employer has complied with the PEL, may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.

(5) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) For the purposes of subsection (5), employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(ii) With the exception of monitoring under subdivision (5)(c), the employer shall collect full shift (for at least seven continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Full shift personal samples shall be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.

(b) Initial determination. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level.

(c) Basis of initial determination.

(i) The employer shall monitor employee exposures and shall base initial determinations on the employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations:

(A) Any information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead;

(B) Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and

(C) Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead.

(ii) Monitoring for the initial determination may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead in the workplace.

(iii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding twelve months may be used to satisfy the requirement to monitor under item (5)(c)(i) if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subdivision (5)(i) of this section.

(d) Positive initial determination and initial monitoring.

(i) Where a determination conducted under subdivision (5)(b) and (5)(c) of this section shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level, the employer shall conduct monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead.

(ii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding twelve months may be used to satisfy this requirement if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subdivision (5)(i) of this section.

(e) Negative initial determination. Where a determination, conducted under subdivisions (5)(b) and (5)(c) of this section is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level, the employer shall make a written record of such determination. The record shall include at least the information specified in subdivision (5)(c) of this section and shall also include the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name and Social Security number of each employee monitored.

(f) Frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.

(ii) If the initial determination or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring in accordance with this subsection at least every six months. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.

(iii) If the initial monitoring reveals that employee exposure is above the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring quarterly. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the PEL but at or above the action level at which time the employer shall repeat monitoring for that employee at the frequency specified in item (5)(f)(ii), except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.

(g) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to lead, additional monitoring in accordance with this subsection shall be conducted.

(h) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without regard to respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(i) Accuracy of measurement. The employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of ninety-five percent) of not less than plus or minus twenty percent for airborne concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30 g/m3.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls.

(i) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit for more than thirty days per year, the employer shall implement engineering and work practice controls (including administrative controls) to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead in accordance with the implementation schedule in Table I below, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible level and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.

(ii) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit, but for thirty days or less per year, the employer shall implement engineering controls to reduce exposures to 200 g/m3, but thereafter may implement any combination of engineering, work practice (including administrative controls), and respiratory controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below 50 g/m3.

TABLE 1

Industry Compliance dates:1

(50 g/m3)

Lead chemicals, secondary copper smelting.

Nonferrous foundries . . . . . . . . . . . .

July 19, 1996

July 19, 1996.2

Brass and bronze ingot manufacture. 6 years.3

1 Calculated by counting from the date the stay on implementation of subsection (6)(a) was lifted by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, the number of years specified in the 1978 lead standard and subsequent amendments for compliance with the PEL of 50 g/m3 for exposure to airborne concentrations of lead levels for the particular industry.
2 Large nonferrous foundries (20 or more employees) are required to achieve the PEL of 50 g/m3 by means of engineering and work practice controls. Small nonferrous foundries (fewer than 20 employees) are required to achieve an 8-hour TWA of 75 g/m3 by such controls.
3 Expressed as the number of years from the date on which the Court lifts the stay on the implementation of subsection (6)(a) for this industry for employers to achieve a lead in air concentration of 75 g/m3. Compliance with subsection (6) in this industry is determined by a compliance directive that incorporates elements from the settlement agreement between OSHA and representatives of the industry.

(b) Respiratory protection. Where engineering and work practice controls do not reduce employee exposure to or below the 50 g/m3 permissible exposure limit, the employer shall supplement these controls with respirators in accordance with subsection (7).

(c) Compliance program.

(i) Each employer shall establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, and interim levels if applicable, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls in accordance with the implementation schedule in subdivision (6)(a).

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation in which lead is emitted; e.g., machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance, including engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.;

(F) A work practice program which includes items required under subsections (8), (9) and (10) of this regulation;

(G) An administrative control schedule required by subdivision (6)(f), if applicable; and

(H) Other relevant information.

(iii) Written programs shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.

(iv) Written programs shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(d) Mechanical ventilation.

(i) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements which demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure shall be made at least every three months. Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure shall be made within five days of any change in production, process, or control which might result in a change in employee exposure to lead.

(ii) Recirculation of air. If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the employer shall assure that (A) the system has a high efficiency filter with reliable back-up filter; and (B) controls to monitor the concentration of lead in the return air and to bypass the recirculation system automatically if it fails are installed, operating, and maintained.

(e) Administrative controls. If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, the employer shall establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:

(i) Name or identification number of each affected employee;

(ii) Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located; and

(iii) Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.

(7) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator((s)) that ((comply)) complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Period necessary to install or implement engineering or work-practice controls;

(ii) Work operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit;

(iii) Periods when an employee requests a respirator.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(ii) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by subsection (11)(c)(ii)(C) of this section to determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duty.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide employees with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator selected when an employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.

(iii) Provide employees with full-facepiece respirators instead of half-facepiece respirators for protection against lead aerosols that cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentration.

(iv) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

(8) Protective work clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators or where the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and

(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with WAC 296-800-160.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in subdivision (8)(a) of this section in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to employees whose exposure levels without regard to a respirator are over 200 g/m3 of lead as an eight-hour TWA.

(ii) The employer shall provide for the cleaning, laundering, or disposal of protective clothing and equipment required by subdivision (8)(a) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall repair or replace required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms provided for that purpose as prescribed in subdivision (10)(b) of this section.

(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of lead outside the container.

(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead.

(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required by subdivision (8)(b)(v) are labeled as follows:


CAUTION: CLOTHING CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD.

DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING.

DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.


(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means which disperses lead into the air.

(9) Housekeeping.

(a) Surfaces. All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead.

(b) Cleaning floors.

(i) Floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.

(ii) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

(c) Vacuuming. Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.

(10) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) The employer shall assure that in areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators, food or beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except in change rooms, lunchrooms, and showers required under subdivision (10)(b) through (10)(d) of this section.

(b) Change rooms.

(i) The employer shall provide clean change rooms for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.

(ii) The employer shall assure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes which prevent cross-contamination.

(c) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators, shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(iii) The employer shall assure that employees who are required to shower pursuant to item (10)(c)(i) do not leave the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift.

(d) Lunchrooms.

(i) The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.

(ii) The employer shall assure that lunchroom facilities have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and are readily accessible to employees.

(iii) The employer shall assure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL without regard to the use of a respirator wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.

(iv) The employer shall assure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method.

(e) Lavatories. The employer shall provide an adequate number of lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-800-230.

(11) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed above the action level for more than thirty days per year.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician.

(iii) The employer shall provide the required medical surveillance including multiple physician review under item (11)(c)(iii) without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.

(b) Biological monitoring.

(i) Blood lead and ZPP level sampling and analysis. The employer shall make available biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section on the following schedule:

(A) At least every six months to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section;

(B) At least every two months for each employee whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 g/100 g of whole blood. This frequency shall continue until two consecutive blood samples and analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 g/100 g of whole blood; and

(C) At least monthly during the removal period of each employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level.

(ii) Follow-up blood sampling tests. Whenever the results of a blood lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal under item (12)(a)(i)(A), the employer shall provide a second (follow-up) blood sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test.

(iii) Accuracy of blood lead level sampling and analysis. Blood lead level sampling and analysis provided pursuant to this section shall have an accuracy (to a confidence level of ninety-five percent) within plus or minus fifteen percent or 6 g/100 ml, whichever is greater, and shall be conducted by a laboratory licensed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare or which has received a satisfactory grade in blood lead proficiency testing from CDC in the prior twelve months.

(iv) Employee notification. Within five working days after the receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall notify in writing each employee whose blood lead level exceeds 40 g/100 g: (A) of that employee's blood lead level and (B) that the standard requires temporary medical removal with medical removal protection benefits when an employee's blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal under item (12)(a)(i) of this section.

(c) Medical examinations and consultations.

(i) Frequency. The employer shall make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section on the following schedule:

(A) At least annually for each employee for whom a blood sampling test conducted at any time during the preceding twelve months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 g/100 g;

(B) Prior to assignment for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area in which airborne concentrations of lead are at or above the action level;

(C) As soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on the employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during use; and

(D) As medically appropriate for each employee either removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited pursuant to a final medical determination.

(ii) Content. Medical examinations made available pursuant to subitems (11)(c)(i)(A) through (B) of this section shall include the following elements:

(A) A detailed work history and a medical history, with particular attention to past lead exposure (occupational and nonoccupational), personal habits (smoking, hygiene), and past gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurological problems;

(B) A thorough physical examination, with particular attention to teeth, gums, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Pulmonary status should be evaluated if respiratory protection will be used;

(C) A blood pressure measurement;

(D) A blood sample and analysis which determines:

(I) Blood lead level;

(II) Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and examination of peripheral smear morphology;

(III) Zinc protoporphyrin;

(IV) Blood urea nitrogen; and

(V) Serum creatinine;

(E) A routine urinalysis with microscopic examination; and

(F) Any laboratory or other test which the examining physician deems necessary by sound medical practice.

The content of medical examinations made available pursuant to subitems (11)(c)(i)(C) through (D) of this section shall be determined by an examining physician and, if requested by an employee, shall include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility.

(iii) Multiple physician review mechanism.

(A) If the employer selects the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee may designate a second physician:

(I) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial physician; and

(II) To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.

(B) The employer shall promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee doing the following within fifteen days after receipt of the foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:

(I) The employee informing the employer that he or she intends to seek a second medical opinion, and

(II) The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.

(C) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee shall assure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.

(D) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their respective physicians shall designate a third physician:

(I) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the prior physicians; and

(II) To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.

(E) The employer shall act consistent with the findings, determinations and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement which is otherwise consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the three physicians.

(iv) Information provided to examining and consulting physicians.

(A) The employer shall provide an initial physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under this section with the following information:

(I) A copy of this regulation for lead including all appendices;

(II) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(III) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level to lead and to any other toxic substance (if applicable);

(IV) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used;

(V) Prior blood lead determinations; and

(VI) All prior written medical opinions concerning the employee in the employer's possession or control.

(B) The employer shall provide the foregoing information to a second or third physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under this section upon request either by the second or third physician, or by the employee.

(v) Written medical opinions.

(A) The employer shall obtain and furnish the employee with a copy of a written medical opinion from each examining or consulting physician which contains the following information:

(I) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to lead;

(II) Any recommended special protective measures to be provided to the employee, or limitations to be placed upon the employee's exposure to lead;

(III) Any recommended limitation upon the employee's use of respirators, including a determination of whether the employee can wear a powered air purifying respirator if a physician determines that the employee cannot wear a negative pressure respirator; and

(IV) The results of the blood lead determinations.

(B) The employer shall instruct each examining and consulting physician to:

(I) Not reveal either in the written opinion, or in any other means of communication with the employer, findings, including laboratory results, or diagnoses unrelated to an employee's occupational exposure to lead; and

(II) Advise the employee of any medical condition, occupational or nonoccupational, which dictates further medical examination or treatment.

(vi) Alternate physician determination mechanisms. The employer and an employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use of any expeditious alternate physician determination mechanism in lieu of the multiple physician review mechanism provided by this subsection so long as the alternate mechanism otherwise satisfies the requirements contained in this subsection.

(d) Chelation.

(i) The employer shall assure that any person whom he retains, employs, supervises or controls does not engage in prophylactic chelation of any employee at any time.

(ii) If therapeutic or diagnostic chelation is to be performed by any person in item (11)(d)(i), the employer shall assure that it be done under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring and that the employee is notified in writing prior to its occurrence.

(12) Medical removal protection.

(a) Temporary medical removal and return of an employee.

(i) Temporary removal due to elevated blood lead levels.

(A) The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a periodic and a follow-up blood sampling test conducted pursuant to this section indicate that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 60 g/100g of whole blood; and

(B) The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that the average of the last three blood sampling tests conducted pursuant to this section (or the average of all blood sampling tests conducted over the previous six months, whichever is longer) indicates that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 50 g/100g of whole blood; provided, however, that an employee need not be removed if the last blood sampling test indicates a blood lead level at or below 40 g/100g of whole blood.

(ii) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination.

(A) The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.

(B) For the purposes of this section, the phrase "final medical determination" shall mean the outcome of the multiple physician review mechanism or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section.

(C) Where a final medical determination results in any recommended special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, the employer shall implement and act consistent with the recommendation.

(iii) Return of the employee to former job status.

(A) The employer shall return an employee to his or her former job status:

(I) For an employee removed due to a blood lead level at or above 60 g/100g, or due to an average blood lead level at or above 50 g/100g, when two consecutive blood sampling tests indicate that the employee's blood lead level is at or below 40 g/100 g of whole blood;

(II) For an employee removed due to a final medical determination, when a subsequent final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.

(B) For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer return an employee to his or her former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.

(iv) Removal of other employee special protective measure or limitations. The employer shall remove any limitations placed on an employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final medical determination indicates that the limitations or special protective measures are no longer necessary.

(v) Employer options pending a final medical determination. Where the multiple physician review mechanism, or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section, has not yet resulted in a final medical determination with respect to an employee, the employer shall act as follows:

(A) Removal. The employer may remove the employee from exposure to lead, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status.

(B) Return. The employer may return the employee to his or her former job status, end any special protective measures provided to the employee, and remove any limitations placed upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with two exceptions. If:

(I) The initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; or

(II) The employee has been on removal status for the preceding eighteen months due to an elevated blood lead level, then the employer shall await a final medical determination.

(b) Medical removal protection benefits.

(i) Provision of medical removal protection benefits. The employer shall provide to an employee up to eighteen months of medical removal protection benefits on each occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to lead or otherwise limited pursuant to this section.

(ii) Definition of medical removal protection benefits. For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that the employer shall maintain the earnings, seniority and other employment rights and benefits of an employee as though the employee had not been removed from normal exposure to lead or otherwise limited.

(iii) Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee removal or limitation. During the period of time that an employee is removed from normal exposure to lead or otherwise limited, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.

(iv) Workers' compensation claims. If a removed employee files a claim for workers' compensation payments for a lead-related disability, then the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's medical removal protection obligation shall be reduced by such amount. The employer shall receive no credit for workers' compensation payments received by the employee for treatment related expenses.

(v) Other credits. The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.

(vi) Employees whose blood lead levels do not adequately decline within eighteen months of removal. The employer shall take the following measures with respect to any employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level whose blood lead level has not declined within the past eighteen months of removal so that the employee has been returned to his or her former job status:

(A) The employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section to obtain a final medical determination with respect to the employee;

(B) The employer shall assure that the final medical determination obtained indicates whether or not the employee may be returned to his or her former job status, and if not, what steps should be taken to protect the employee's health;

(C) Where the final medical determination has not yet been obtained, or once obtained indicates that the employee may not yet be returned to his or her former job status, the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee until either the employee is returned to former job status, or a final medical determination is made that the employee is incapable of ever safely returning to his or her former job status.

(D) Where the employer acts pursuant to a final medical determination which permits the return of the employee to his or her former job status despite what would otherwise be an unacceptable blood lead level, later questions concerning removing the employee again shall be decided by a final medical determination. The employer need not automatically remove such an employee pursuant to the blood lead level removal criteria provided by this section.

(vii) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to lead or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of lead exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer shall provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to that required by item (12)(b)(i) of this section.

(13) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace in which there is a potential exposure to airborne lead at any level shall inform employees of the content of Appendices A and B of this regulation.

(ii) The employer shall train each employee who is subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level or for whom the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program for and assure the participation of all employees ((who are subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level or for whom the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists)).

(iii) The employer shall provide initial training by one hundred eighty days from the effective date for those employees covered by item (13)(a)(ii) on the standard's effective date and prior to the time of initial job assignment for those employees subsequently covered by this subsection.

(iv) The training program shall be repeated at least annually for each employee.

(v) The employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The content of this standard and its appendices;

(B) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level;

(C) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females);

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(F) The contents of any compliance plan in effect; and

(G) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician.

(b) Access to information and training materials.

(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(iii) In addition to the information required by item (13)(a)(v), the employer shall include as part of the training program, and shall distribute to employees, any materials pertaining to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the regulations issued pursuant to the act, and this lead standard, which are made available to the employer by the director.

(14) Signs.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use signs required by other statutes, regulations or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post the following warning signs in each work area where the PEL is exceeded:

WARNING

LEAD WORK AREA

POISON

NO SMOKING OR EATING



(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(15) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required in subsection (5) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The date(s), number, duration, location and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;

(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and

(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of employee exposure.

(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (11) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name, Social Security number, and description of the duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;

(C) Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to lead.

(iii) The employer shall keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:

(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under subsection (11) of this section;

(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information; and

(C) A copy of the results of biological monitoring.

(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least forty years, or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(c) Medical removals.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee removed from current exposure to lead pursuant to subsection (12) of this section.

(ii) Each record shall include:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) The date on each occasion that the employee was removed from current exposure to lead as well as the corresponding date on which the employee was returned to his or her former job status;

(C) A brief explanation of how each removal was or is being accomplished; and

(D) A statement with respect to each removal indicating whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level.

(iii) The employer shall maintain each medical removal record for at least the duration of an employee's employment.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by subsection (15) of this section to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Environmental monitoring, medical removal, and medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. Medical removal records shall be provided in the same manner as environmental monitoring records.

(iii) Upon request, the employer shall make an employee's medical records required to be maintained by this section available to the affected employee or former employee or to a physician or other individual designated by such affected employee or former employees for examination and copying.

(e) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by subsection (15) of this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the director at least three months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the director if requested within the period.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(16) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to lead conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to lead requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing and such equipment, and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to:

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of lead performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.

(17) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices to this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.

(a) Appendix A. Substance Data Sheet for Occupational Exposure to Lead.

(i) Substance identification.

(A) Substance. Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy metal at room temperature and pressure and is a basic chemical element. It can combine with various other substances to form numerous lead compounds.

(B) Compounds covered by the standard. The word "lead" when used in this standard means elemental lead, all inorganic lead compounds (except those which are not biologically available due to either solubility or specific chemical interaction), and a class of organic lead compounds called lead soaps. This standard does not apply to other organic lead compounds.

(C) Uses. Exposure to lead occurs in at least one hundred twenty different occupations, including primary and secondary lead smelting, lead storage battery manufacturing, lead pigment manufacturing and use, solder manufacturing and use, shipbuilding and ship repairing, auto manufacturing, and printing.

(D) Permissible exposure. The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) set by the standard is 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 g/m3), averaged over an eight-hour work day.

(E) Action level. The standard establishes an action level of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 g/m3) time weighted average, based on an eight-hour work day. The action level initiates several requirements of the standard, such as exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, and training and education.

(ii) Health hazard data.

(A) Ways in which lead enters your body.

(I) When absorbed into your body in certain doses lead is a toxic substance. The object of the lead standard is to prevent absorption of harmful quantities of lead. The standard is intended to protect you not only from the immediate toxic effects of lead, but also from the serious toxic effects that may not become apparent until years of exposure have passed.

(II) Lead can be absorbed into your body by inhalation (breathing) and ingestion (eating). Lead (except for certain organic lead compounds not covered by the standard, such as tetraethyl lead) is not absorbed through your skin. When lead is scattered in the air as a dust, fume or mist, it can be inhaled and absorbed through your lungs and upper respiratory tract. Inhalation of airborne lead is generally the most important source of occupational lead absorption. You can also absorb lead through your digestive system if lead gets into your mouth and is swallowed. If you handle food, cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or make-up which have lead on them or handle them with hands contaminated with lead, this will contribute to ingestion.

(III) A significant portion of the lead that you inhale or ingest gets into your blood stream. Once in your blood stream lead is circulated throughout your body and stored in various organs and body tissues. Some of this lead is quickly filtered out of your body and excreted, but some remains in your blood and other tissue. As exposure to lead continues, the amount stored in your body will increase if you are absorbing more lead than your body is excreting. Even though you may not be aware of any immediate symptoms of disease, this lead stored in your tissues can be slowly causing irreversible damage, first to individual cells, then to your organs and whole body systems.

(B) Effects of overexposure to lead.

(I) Short-term (acute) overexposure. Lead is a potent, systemic poison that serves no known useful function once absorbed by your body. Taken in large enough doses, lead can kill you in a matter of days. A condition affecting the brain called acute encephalopathy may arise which develops quickly to seizures, coma, and death from cardiorespiratory arrest. A short-term dose of lead can lead to acute encephalopathy. Short-term occupational exposures of this magnitude are highly unusual, but not impossible. Similar forms of encephalopathy may, however arise from extended, chronic exposure to lower doses of lead. There is no sharp dividing line between rapidly developing acute effects of lead, and chronic effects which take longer to acquire. Lead adversely affects numerous body systems, and causes forms of health impairment and disease which arise after periods of exposure as short as days or as long as several years.

(II) Long-term (chronic) overexposure.

a) Chronic overexposure to lead may result in severe damage to your blood-forming, nervous, urinary and reproductive systems. Some common symptoms of chronic overexposure include loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic. In lead colic there may be severe abdominal pain.

b) Damage to the central nervous system in general and the brain (encephalopathy) in particular is one of the most severe forms of lead poisoning. The most severe, often fatal, form of encephalopathy may be preceded by vomiting, a feeling of dullness progressing to drowsiness and stupor, poor memory, restlessness, irritability, tremor, and convulsions. It may arise suddenly with the onset of seizures, followed by coma, and death. There is a tendency for muscular weakness to develop at the same time. This weakness may progress to paralysis often observed as a characteristic "wrist drop" or "foot drop" and is a manifestation of a disease to the nervous system called peripheral neuropathy.

c) Chronic overexposure to lead also results in kidney disease with few, if any, symptoms appearing until extensive and most likely permanent kidney damage has occurred. Routine laboratory tests reveal the presence of this kidney disease only after about two-thirds of kidney function is lost. When overt symptoms of urinary dysfunction arise, it is often too late to correct or prevent worsening conditions, and progression of kidney dialysis or death is possible.

d) Chronic overexposure to lead impairs the reproductive systems of both men and women. Overexposure to lead may result in decreased sex drive, impotence and sterility in men. Lead can alter the structure of sperm cells raising the risk of birth defects. There is evidence of miscarriage and stillbirth in women whose husbands were exposed to lead or who were exposed to lead themselves. Lead exposure also may result in decreased fertility, and abnormal menstrual cycles in women. The course of pregnancy may be adversely affected by exposure to lead since lead crosses the placental barrier and poses risks to developing fetuses. Children born of parents either one of whom were exposed to excess lead levels are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, behavioral disorders or die during the first year of childhood.

e) Overexposure to lead also disrupts the blood-forming system resulting in decreased hemoglobin (the substance in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells) and ultimately anemia. Anemia is characterized by weakness, pallor and fatigability as a result of decreased oxygen carrying capacity in the blood.

(III) Health protection goals of the standard.

a) Prevention of adverse health effects for most workers from exposure to lead throughout a working lifetime requires that worker blood lead (PbB) levels be maintained at or below forty micrograms per one hundred grams of whole blood (40 g/100g). The blood lead levels of workers (both male and female workers) who intend to have children should be maintained below 30 g/100g to minimize adverse reproductive health effects to the parents and to the developing fetus.

b) The measurement of your blood lead level is the most useful indicator of the amount of lead absorbed by your body. Blood lead levels (PbB) are most often reported in units of milligrams (mg) or micrograms (g) of lead (1 mg = 1000 g) per 100 grams (100g), 100 milliliters (100 ml) or deciliter (dl) of blood. These three units are essentially the same. Sometimes PbB's are expressed in the form of mg% or g%. This is a shorthand notation for 100g, 100ml, or dl.

c) PbB measurements show the amount of lead circulating in your blood stream, but do not give any information about the amount of lead stored in your various tissues. PbB measurements merely show current absorption of lead, not the effect that lead is having on your body or the effects that past lead exposure may have already caused. Past research into lead-related diseases, however, has focused heavily on associations between PbBs and various diseases. As a result, your PbB is an important indicator of the likelihood that you will gradually acquire a lead-related health impairment or disease.

d) Once your blood lead level climbs above 40 g/100g, your risk of disease increases. There is a wide variability of individual response to lead, thus it is difficult to say that a particular PbB in a given person will cause a particular effect. Studies have associated fatal encephalopathy with PbBs as low as 150 g/100g. Other studies have shown other forms of disease in some workers with PbBs well below 80 g/100g. Your PbB is a crucial indicator of the risks to your health, but one other factor is extremely important. This factor is the length of time you have had elevated PbBs. The longer you have an elevated PbB, the greater the risk that large quantities of lead are being gradually stored in your organs and tissues (body burden). The greater your overall body burden, the greater the chances of substantial permanent damage.

e) The best way to prevent all forms of lead-related impairments and diseases -- both short-term and long-term -- is to maintain your PbB below 40 g/100g. The provisions of the standard are designed with this end in mind. Your employer has prime responsibility to assure that the provisions of the standard are complied with both by the company and by individual workers. You as a worker, however, also have a responsibility to assist your employer in complying with the standard. You can play a key role in protecting your own health by learning about the lead hazards and their control, learning what the standard requires, following the standard where it governs your own action, and seeing that your employer complies with the provisions governing his actions.

(IV) Reporting signs and symptoms of health problems. You should immediately notify your employer if you develop signs or symptoms associated with lead poisoning or if you desire medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on your ability to have a healthy child. You should also notify your employer if you have difficulty breathing during a respirator fit test or while wearing a respirator. In each of these cases your employer must make available to you appropriate medical examinations or consultations. These must be provided at no cost to you and at a reasonable time and place.

(b) Appendix B. Employee Standard Summary. This appendix summarizes key provisions of the standard that you as a worker should become familiar with. The appendix discusses the entire standard.

(i) Permissible exposure limit (PEL). The standard sets a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of fifty micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 g/m3), averaged over and eight-hour workday. This is the highest level of lead in air to which you may be permissibly exposed over an eight-hour workday. Since it is an eight-hour average it permits short exposures above the PEL so long as for each eight-hour workday your average exposure does not exceed the PEL.

(ii) Exposure monitoring.

(A) If lead is present in the work place where you work in any quantity, your employer is required to make an initial determination of whether the action level is exceeded for any employee. The initial determination must include instrument monitoring of the air for the presence of lead and must cover the exposure of a representative number of employees who are reasonably believed to have the highest exposure levels. If your employer has conducted appropriate air sampling for lead in the past year he may use these results. If there have been any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead or if there is any other information or observations which would indicate employee exposure to lead, this must also be considered as part of the initial determination. If this initial determination shows that a reasonable possibility exists that any employee may be exposed, without regard to respirators, over the action level (30 g/m3) your employer must set up an air monitoring program to determine the exposure level of every employee exposed to lead at your work place.

(B) In carrying out this air monitoring program, your employer is not required to monitor the exposure of every employee, but he or she must monitor a representative number of employees and job types. Enough sampling must be done to enable each employee's exposure level to be reasonably represented by at least one full shift (at least seven hours) air sample. In addition, these air samples must be taken under conditions which represent each employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.

(C) If you are exposed to lead and air sampling is performed, your employer is required to quickly notify you in writing of air monitoring results which represent your exposure. If the results indicate your exposure exceeds the PEL (without regard to your use of respirators), then your employer must also notify you of this in writing, and provide you with a description of the corrective action that will be taken to reduce your exposure.

(D) Your exposure must be rechecked by monitoring every six months if your exposure is over the action level but below the PEL. Air monitoring must be repeated every three months if you are exposed over the PEL. Your employer may discontinue monitoring for you if two consecutive measurements, taken at least two weeks apart, are below the action level. However, whenever there is a production, process, control, or personnel change at your work place which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever there is any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, your employer must perform additional monitoring.

(iii) Methods of compliance. Your employer is required to assure that no employee is exposed to lead in excess of the PEL. The standard establishes a priority of methods to be used to meet the PEL.

(iv) Respiratory protection.

(A) Your employer is required to provide and assure your use of respirators when your exposure to lead is not controlled below the PEL by other means. The employer must pay the cost of the respirator. Whenever you request one, your employer is also required to provide you a respirator even if your air exposure level does not exceed the PEL. You might desire a respirator when, for example, you have received medical advice that your lead absorption should be decreased. Or, you may intend to have children in the near future, and want to reduce the level of lead in your body to minimize adverse reproductive effects. While respirators are the least satisfactory means of controlling your exposure, they are capable of providing significant protection if properly chosen, fitted, worn, cleaned, maintained, and replaced when they stop providing adequate protection.

(B) Your employer is required to select respirators from the seven types listed in Table II of the respiratory protection section of this standard (see subsection (7)(c) of this section). Any respirator chosen must be certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84. This respirator selection table will enable your employer to choose a type of respirator which will give you a proper amount of protection based on your airborne lead exposure. Your employer may select a type of respirator that provides greater protection than that required by the standard; that is, one recommended for a higher concentration of lead than is present in your work place. For example, a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) is much more protective than a typical negative-pressure respirator, and may also be more comfortable to wear. A PAPR has a filter, cartridge or canister to clean the air, and a power source which continuously blows filtered air into your breathing zone. Your employer might make a PAPR available to you to ease the burden of having to wear a respirator for long periods of time. The standard provides that you can obtain a PAPR upon request.

(C) Your employer must also start a respiratory protection program. This program must include written procedures for the proper selection, use, cleaning, storage, and maintenance of respirators.

(D) Your employer must assure that your respirator facepiece fits properly. Proper fit of a respirator facepiece is critical to your protection against air borne lead. Obtaining a proper fit on each employee may require your employer to make available several different types of respirator masks. To ensure that your respirator fits properly and that facepiece leakage is minimal, your employer must give you either a qualitative or quantitative fit test as required in chapter 296-842 WAC.

(E) You must also receive from your employer proper training in the use of respirators. Your employer is required to teach you how to wear a respirator, to know why it is needed, and to understand its limitations.

(F) The standard provides that if your respirator uses filter elements, you must be given an opportunity to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected. You also must be permitted to periodically leave your work area to wash your face and respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation. If you ever have difficulty breathing during a fit test or while using a respirator, your employer must make a medical examination available to you to determine whether you can safely wear a respirator. The result of this examination may be to give you a positive pressure respirator (which reduces breathing resistance) or to provide alternative means of protection.

(v) Protective work clothing and equipment. If you are exposed to lead above the PEL, or if you are exposed to lead compounds such as lead arsenate or lead azide which can cause skin and eye irritation, your employer must provide you with protective work clothing and equipment appropriate for the hazard. If work clothing is provided, it must be provided in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if your airborne exposure to lead is greater than 200 g/m3. Appropriate protective work clothing and equipment can include coveralls or similar full-body work clothing, gloves, hats, shoes or disposable shoe coverlets, and face shields or vented goggles. Your employer is required to provide all such equipment at no cost to you. He or she is responsible for providing repairs and replacement as necessary and also is responsible for the cleaning, laundering or disposal of protective clothing and equipment. Contaminated work clothing or equipment must be removed in change rooms and not worn home or you will extend your exposure and expose your family since lead from your clothing can accumulate in your house, car, etc. Contaminated clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered or disposed of must be placed in closed containers in the change room. At no time may lead be removed from protective clothing or equipment by any means which disperses lead into the work room air.

(vi) Housekeeping. Your employer must establish a housekeeping program sufficient to maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of lead dust. Vacuuming is the preferred method of meeting this requirement, and the use of compressed air to clean floors and other surfaces is absolutely prohibited. Dry or wet sweeping, shoveling, or brushing may not be used except where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and do not work. Vacuums must be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the work place.

(vii) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(A) The standard requires that change rooms, showers and filtered air lunchrooms be constructed and made available to workers exposed to lead above the PEL. When the PEL is exceeded, the employer must assure that food and beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except in these facilities. Change rooms, showers and lunchrooms, must be used by workers exposed in excess of the PEL. After showering, no clothing or equipment worn during the shift may be worn home and this includes shoes and underwear. Your own clothing worn during the shift should be carried home and cleaned carefully so that it does not contaminate your home. Lunchrooms may not be entered with protective clothing or equipment unless surface dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth or other cleaning methods. Finally, workers exposed above the PEL must wash both their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.

(B) All of the facilities and hygiene practices just discussed are essential to minimize additional sources of lead absorption from inhalation or ingestion of lead that may accumulate on you, your clothes or your possessions. Strict compliance with these provisions can virtually eliminate several sources of lead exposure which significantly contribute to excessive lead absorption.

(viii) Medical surveillance.

(A) The medical surveillance program is part of the standard's comprehensive approach to the prevention of lead-related disease. Its purpose is to supplement the main thrust of the standard which is aimed at minimizing airborne concentrations of lead and sources of ingestion. Only medical surveillance can determine if the other provisions of the standard have effectively protected you as an individual. Compliance with the standard's provision will protect most workers from the adverse effects of lead exposure, but may not be satisfactory to protect individual workers (I) who have high body burdens of lead acquired over past years, (II) who have additional uncontrolled sources of nonoccupational lead exposure, (III) who exhibit unusual variations in lead absorption rates, or (IV) who have specific nonwork related medical conditions which could be aggravated by lead exposure (e.g., renal disease, anemia). In addition, control systems may fail, or hygiene and respirator programs may be inadequate. Periodic medical surveillance of individual workers will help detect those failures. Medical surveillance will also be important to protect your reproductive ability - regardless of whether you are a man or a woman.

(B) All medical surveillance required by the standard must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician. The employer must provide required medical surveillance without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place. The standard's medical surveillance program has two parts - periodic biological monitoring, and medical examinations.

(C) Your employer's obligation to offer medical surveillance is triggered by the results of the air monitoring program. Medical surveillance must be made available to all employees who are exposed in excess of the action level for more than thirty days a year. The initial phase of the medical surveillance program, which included blood lead level tests and medical examinations, must be completed for all covered employees no later than one hundred eighty days from the effective date of this standard. Priority within this first round of medical surveillance must be given to employees whom the employer believes to be at greatest risk from continued exposure (for example, those with the longest prior exposure to lead, or those with the highest current exposure). Thereafter, the employer must periodically make medical surveillance - both biological monitoring and medical examinations - available to all covered employees.

(D) Biological monitoring under the standard consists of blood lead level (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin tests at least every six months after the initial PbB test. A zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) test is a very useful blood test which measures an effect of lead on your body. If a worker's PbB exceeds 40 g/100g, the monitoring frequency must be increased from every six months to at least every two months and not reduced until two consecutive PbBs indicate a blood lead level below 40 g/100g. Each time your PbB is determined to be over 40 g/100g, your employer must notify you of this in writing within five working days of the receipt of the test results. The employer must also inform you that the standard requires temporary medical removal with economic protection when your PbB exceeds certain criteria (see Discussion of Medical Removal Protection - subsection (12)). During the first year of the standard, this removal criterion is 80 g/100g. Anytime your PbB exceeds 80 g/100g your employer must make available to you a prompt follow-up PbB test to ascertain your PbB. If the two tests both exceed 80 g/100g and you are temporarily removed, then your employer must make successive PbB tests available to you on a monthly basis during the period of your removal.

(E) Medical examinations beyond the initial one must be made available on an annual basis if your blood lead levels exceeds 40 g/100g at any time during the preceding year. The initial examination will provide information to establish a baseline to which subsequent data can be compared. An initial medical examination must also be made available (prior to assignment) for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area where the airborne concentration of lead equals or exceeds the action level. In addition, a medical examination or consultation must be made available as soon as possible if you notify your employer that you are experiencing signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead poisoning or that you have difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator or during a respirator fit test. You must also be provided a medical examination or consultation if you notify your employer that you desire medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on your ability to procreate a healthy child.

(F) Finally, appropriate follow-up medical examinations or consultations may also be provided for employees who have been temporarily removed from exposure under the medical removal protection provisions of the standard (see item (ix) below).

(G) The standard specifies the minimum content of preassignment and annual medical examinations. The content of other types of medical examinations and consultations is left up to the sound discretion of the examining physician. Preassignment and annual medical examinations must include (I) a detailed work history and medical history, (II) a thorough physical examination, and (III) a series of laboratory tests designed to check your blood chemistry and your kidney function. In addition, at any time upon your request, a laboratory evaluation of male fertility will be made (microscopic examination of a sperm sample), or a pregnancy test will be given.

(H) The standard does not require that you participate in any of the medical procedures, tests, etc., which your employer is required to make available to you. Medical surveillance can, however, play a very important role in protecting your health. You are strongly encouraged, therefore, to participate in a meaningful fashion. Generally, your employer will choose the physician who conducts medical surveillance under the lead standard - unless you and your employer can agree on the choice of a physician or physicians. Some companies and unions have agreed in advance, for example, to use certain independent medical laboratories or panels of physicians. Any of these arrangements are acceptable so long as required medical surveillance is made available to workers.

(I) The standard requires your employer to provide certain information to a physician to aid in his or her examination of you. This information includes (I) the standard and its appendices, (II) a description of your duties as they relate to lead exposure, (III) your exposure level, (IV) a description of personal protective equipment you wear, (V) prior blood level results, and (VI) prior written medical opinions concerning you that the employer has. After a medical examination or consultation the physician must prepare a written report which must contain (I) the physician's opinion as to whether you have any medical conditions which places you at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead, (II) any recommended special protective measures to be provided to you, (III) any blood lead level determinations, and (IV) any recommended limitation on your use of respirators. This last element must include a determination of whether you can wear a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) if you are found unable to wear a negative pressure respirator.

(J) The medical surveillance program of the lead standard may at some point in time serve to notify certain workers that they have acquired a disease or other adverse medical condition as a result of occupational lead exposure. If this is true these workers might have legal rights to compensation from public agencies, their employers, firms that supply hazardous products to their employers, or other persons. Some states have laws, including worker compensation laws, that disallow a worker to learn of a job-related health impairment to sue, unless the worker sues within a short period of time after learning of the impairment. (This period of time may be a matter of months or years.) An attorney can be consulted about these possibilities. It should be stressed that WISHA is in no way trying to either encourage or discourage claims or lawsuits. However, since results of the standard's medical surveillance program can significantly affect the legal remedies of a worker who has acquired a job-related disease or impairment, it is proper for WISHA to make you aware of this.

(K) The medical surveillance section of the standard also contains provisions dealing with chelation. Chelation is the use of certain drugs (administered in pill form or injected into the body) to reduce the amount of lead absorbed in body tissues. Experience accumulated by the medical and scientific communities has largely confirmed the effectiveness of this type of therapy for the treatment of very severe lead poisoning. On the other hand it has also been established that there can be a long list of extremely harmful side effects associated with the use of chelating agents. The medical community has balanced the advantages and disadvantages resulting from the use of chelating agents in various circumstances and has established when the use of these agents is acceptable. The standard includes these accepted limitations due to a history of abuse of chelation therapy by some lead companies. The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium EDTA, (Ca Na2EDTA), Calcium Disodium Versenate (Versenate), and d-penicillamine (penicillamine or Cupramine).

(L) The standard prohibits "prophylactic chelation" of any employee by any person the employer retains, supervises or controls. "Prophylactic chelation" is the routine use of chelating or similarly acting drugs to prevent elevated blood levels in workers who are occupationally exposed to lead, or the use of these drugs to routinely lower blood lead levels to predesignated concentrations believed to be safe. It should be emphasized that where an employer takes a worker who has no symptoms of lead poisoning and has chelation carried out by a physician (either inside or outside of a hospital) solely to reduce the worker's blood lead level, that will generally be considered prophylactic chelation. The use of a hospital and a physician does not mean that prophylactic chelation is not being performed. Routine chelation to prevent increased or reduce current blood lead levels is unacceptable whatever the setting.

(M) The standard allows the use of "therapeutic" or "diagnostic" chelation if administered under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring. Therapeutic chelation responds to severe lead poisoning where there are marked symptoms. Diagnostic chelation, involves giving a patient a dose of the drug then collecting all urine excreted for some period of time as an aid to the diagnosis of lead poisoning.

(N) In cases where the examining physician determines that chelation is appropriate, you must be notified in writing of this fact before such treatment. This will inform you of a potentially harmful treatment, and allow you to obtain a second opinion.

(ix) Medical removal protection.

(A) Excessive lead absorption subjects you to increased risk of disease. Medical removal protection (MRP) is a means of protecting you when for whatever reasons, other methods, such as engineering controls, work practices, and respirators, have failed to provide the protection you need. MRP involves the temporary removal of a worker from his or her regular job to a place of significantly lower exposure without any loss of earnings, seniority, or other employment rights of benefits. The purpose of this program is to cease further lead absorption and allow your body to naturally excrete lead which has previously been absorbed. Temporary medical removal can result from an elevated blood lead level, or a medical opinion. Up to eighteen months of protection is provided as a result of either form of removal. The vast majority of removed workers, however, will return to their former jobs long before this eighteen month period expires. The standard contains special provisions to deal with the extraordinary but possible case where a long-term worker's blood lead level does not adequately decline during eighteen months of removal.

(B) During the first year of the standard, if your blood lead level is 80 g/100g or above you must be removed from any exposure where your air lead level without a respirator would be 100 g/m3 or above. If you are removed from your normal job you may not be returned until your blood lead level declines to at least 60 g/100g. These criteria for removal and return will change according to the following schedule:


TABLE 1

Effective

Date

Removal Blood Level (g/100g) Air Lead

(g/m3)

Return Blood Lead

(g/100g)

9/6/81 At or

above 70

50 or above At or

below 50

9/6/82 At or

above 60

30 or above At or

below 40

9/6/84 At or

above 50

averaged over

six months

30 or above At or

below 40

(C) You may also be removed from exposure even if your blood lead levels are below these criteria if a final medical determination indicates that you temporarily need reduced lead exposure for medical reasons. If the physician who is implementing your employer's medical program makes a final written opinion recommending your removal or other special protective measures, your employer must implement the physician's recommendation. If you are removed in this manner, you may only be returned when the physician indicates it is safe for you to do so.

(D) The standard does not give specific instructions dealing with what an employer must do with a removed worker. Your job assignment upon removal is a matter for you, your employer and your union (if any) to work out consistent with existing procedures for job assignments. Each removal must be accomplished in a manner consistent with existing collective bargaining relationships. Your employer is given broad discretion to implement temporary removals so long as no attempt is made to override existing agreements. Similarly, a removed worker is provided no right to veto an employer's choice which satisfies the standard.

(E) In most cases, employers will likely transfer removed employees to other jobs with sufficiently low lead exposure. Alternatively, a worker's hours may be reduced so that the time weighted average exposure is reduced, or he or she may be temporarily laid off if no other alternative is feasible.

(F) In all of these situations, MRP benefits must be provided during the period of removal - i.e., you continue to receive the same earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits you would have had if you had not been removed. Earnings include more that just your base wage; it includes overtime, shift differentials, incentives, and other compensation you would have earned if you had not been removed. During the period of removal you must also be provided with appropriate follow-up medical surveillance. If you were removed because your blood lead level was too high, you must be provided with a monthly blood test. If a medical opinion caused your removal, you must be provided medical tests or examinations that the physician believes to be appropriate. If you do not participate in this follow-up medical surveillance, you may lose your eligibility for MRP benefits.

(G) When you are medically eligible to return to your former job, your employer must return you to your "former job status." This means that you are entitled to the position, wages, benefits, etc., you would have had if you had not been removed. If you would still be in your old job if no removal had occurred, that is where you go back. If not, you are returned consistent with whatever job assignment discretion your employer would have had if no removal had occurred. MRP only seeks to maintain your rights, not expand them or diminish them.

(H) If you are removed under MRP and you are also eligible for worker compensation or other compensation for lost wages, your employer's MRP benefits obligation is reduced by the amount that you actually receive from these other sources. This is also true if you obtain other employment during the time you are laid off with MRP benefits.

(I) The standard also covers situations where an employer voluntarily removes a worker from exposure to lead due to the effects of lead on the employee's medical condition, even though the standard does not require removal. In these situations MRP benefits must still be provided as though the standard required removal. Finally, it is important to note that in all cases where removal is required, respirators cannot be used as a substitute. Respirators may be used before removal becomes necessary, but not as an alternative to a transfer to a low exposure job, or to a lay-off with MRP benefits.

(x) Employee information and training.

(A) Your employer is required to provide an information and training program for all employees exposed to lead above the action level or who may suffer skin or eye irritation from lead. This program must inform these employees of the specific hazards associated with their work environment, protective measures which can be taken, the danger of lead to their bodies (including their reproductive systems), and their rights under the standard. In addition, your employer must make readily available to all employees, including those exposed below the action level, a copy of the standard and its appendices and must distribute to all employees any materials provided to the employer under the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA).

(B) Your employer is required to complete this training for all employees by March 4, 1981. After this date, all new employees must be trained prior to initial assignment to areas where there is possibility of exposure over the action level. This training program must also be provided at least annually thereafter.

(xi) Signs. The standard requires that the following warning sign be posted in work areas where the exposure to lead exceeds the PEL:

WARNING

LEAD WORK AREA

NO SMOKING OR EATING



(xii) Recordkeeping.

(A) Your employer is required to keep all records of exposure monitoring for airborne lead. These records must include the name and job classification of employees measured, details of the sampling and analytic techniques, the results of this sampling and the type of respiratory protection being worn by the person sampled. Your employer is also required to keep all records of biological monitoring and medical examination results. These must include the names of the employees, the physician's written opinion and a copy of the results of the examination. All of the above kinds of records must be kept for forty years, or for at least twenty years after your termination of employment, whichever is longer.

(B) Recordkeeping is also required if you are temporarily removed from your job under the MRP program. This record must include your name and Social Security number, the date of your removal and return, how the removal was or is being accomplished, and whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level. Your employer is required to keep each medical removal record only for as long as the duration of an employee's employment.

(C) The standard requires that if you request to see or copy environmental monitoring, blood lead level monitoring, or medical removal records, they must be made available to you or to a representative that you authorize. Your union also has access to these records. Medical records other than PbBs must also be provided to you upon request, to your physician or to any other person whom you may specifically designate. Your union does not have access to your personal medical records unless you authorize their access.

(xiii) Observations of monitoring. When air monitoring for lead is performed at your work place as required by this standard, your employer must allow you or someone you designate to act as an observer of the monitoring. Observers are entitled to an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. Since results will not normally be available at the time of the monitoring, observers are entitled to record or receive the results of the monitoring when returned by the laboratory. Your employer is required to provide the observer with any personal protective devices required to be worn by employees working in the areas that is being monitored. The employer must require the observer to wear all such equipment and to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(xiv) Effective date. The standard's effective date is September 6, 1980, and the employer's obligation under the standard begin to come into effect as of that date. The standard was originally adopted as WAC 296-62-07349 and later recodified to WAC 296-62-07521.

(c) Appendix C. Medical Surveillance Guidelines.

(i) Introduction.

(A) The primary purpose of the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973 is to assure, so far as possible, safe and healthful working conditions for every working man and woman. The occupational health standard for inorganic lead* was promulgated to protect workers exposed to inorganic lead including metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds and organic lead soaps.

*The term inorganic lead used throughout the medical surveillance appendices is meant to be synonymous with the definition of lead set forth in the standard.

(B) Under this final standard in effect as of September 6, 1980, occupational exposure to inorganic lead is to be limited to 50 g/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter) based on an eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA). This level of exposure eventually must be achieved through a combination of engineering, work practice and other administrative controls. Periods of time ranging from one to ten years are provided for different industries to implement these controls which are based on individual industry considerations. Until these controls are in place, respirators must be used to meet the 50 g/m3 exposure limit.

(C) The standard also provides for a program of biological monitoring and medical surveillance for all employees exposed to levels of inorganic lead above the action level of 30 g/m3 for more than thirty days per year.

(D) The purpose of this document is to outline the medical surveillance provisions of the standard for inorganic lead, and to provide further information to the physician regarding the examination and evaluation of workers exposed to inorganic lead.

(E) Item (ii) provides a detailed description of the monitoring procedure including the required frequency of blood testing for exposed workers, provisions for medical removal protection (MRP), the recommended right of the employee to a second medical opinion, and notification and recordkeeping requirements of the employer. A discussion of the requirements for respirator use and respirator monitoring and WISHA's position on prophylactic chelation therapy are also included in this section.

(F) Item (iii) discusses the toxic effects and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning and effects of lead intoxication on enzymatic pathways in heme synthesis. The adverse effects on both male and female reproductive capacity and on the fetus are also discussed.

(G) Item (iv) outlines the recommended medical evaluation of the worker exposed to inorganic lead including details of the medical history, physical examination, and recommended laboratory tests, which are based on the toxic effects of lead as discussed in item (ii).

(H) Item (v) provides detailed information concerning the laboratory tests available for the monitoring of exposed workers. Included also is a discussion of the relative value of each test and the limitations and precautions which are necessary in the interpretation of the laboratory results.

(I) Airborne levels to be achieved without reliance or respirator protection through a combination of engineering and work practice or other administrative controls are illustrated in the following table:


Industry Permissible Lead Level/Compliance Date
200g/m3 100g/m3 50g/m3
Primary Lead Production 1973 06/29/84 06/29/91
Secondary Lead Production

1973

06/29/84

06/29/91

Lead Acid Battery Manufacturing

1973

06/29/83

06/29/91

Automobile Mfg./Solder, Grinding

1973

N/A

03/08/97

Electronics, Gray Iron Foundries, Ink Mfg., Paints and Coatings Mfg., Can Mfg., Wallpaper Mfg., and Printing.

1973

N/A

06/29/91

Lead Chemical Mfg., Nonferrous Foundries, Leaded Steel Mfg., Battery Breaking in the Collection and Processing of Scrap (when not a part of secondary lead smelter) Secondary Copper Smelter, Brass and Bronze Ingot Production. 1973 N/A N/A1*
All Other Industries 1973 N/A 09/08/92

* Feasibility of achieving the PEL by engineering and work practice controls for these industries has yet to be resolved in court, therefore no date has been scheduled.

(ii) Medical surveillance and monitoring requirements for workers exposed to inorganic lead.

(A) Under the occupational health standard for inorganic lead, a program of biological monitoring and medical surveillance is to be made available to all employees exposed to lead above the action level of 30 g/m3 TWA for more than thirty days each year. This program consists of periodic blood sampling and medical evaluation to be performed on a schedule which is defined by previous laboratory results, worker complaints or concerns, and the clinical assessment of the examining physician.

(B) Under this program, the blood lead level of all employees who are exposed to lead above the action level of 30 g/m3 is to be determined at least every six months. The frequency is increased to every two months for employees whose last blood lead level was between 40 g/100g whole blood and the level requiring employee medical removal to be discussed below. For employees who are removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead, a new blood lead level must be measured monthly. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is required on each occasion that a blood lead level measurement is made.

(C) An annual medical examination and consultation performed under the guidelines discussed in item (iv) is to be made available to each employee for whom a blood test conducted at any time during the preceding twelve months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 g/100g. Also, an examination is to be given to all employees prior to their assignment to an area in which airborne lead concentrations reach or exceed the action level. In addition, a medical examination must be provided as soon as possible after notification by an employee that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice regarding lead exposure and the ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during respirator use. An examination is also to be made available to each employee removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited or specially protected pursuant to medical recommendations.

(D) Results of biological monitoring or the recommendations of an examining physician may necessitate removal of an employee from further lead exposure pursuant to the standard's medical removal program (MRP). The object of the MRP program is to provide temporary medical removals to workers either with substantially elevated blood lead levels or otherwise at risk of sustaining material health impairment from continued substantial exposure to lead. The following guidelines which are summarized in Table 10 were created under the standard for the temporary removal of an exposed employee and his or her subsequent return to work in an exposure area.


TABLE 10

EFFECTIVE DATE
Sept. 6, 1980 Sept. 6, 1981 Sept. 6, 1982 Sept. 6, 1983 Sept. 6, 1984
A. Blood lead level requiring employee medical removal (level must be confirmed with second follow-up blood lead level within two weeks of first report).

>80 g/100g.

>70 g/100g.

>60 g/100g.

>60 g/100g.

>60 g/100g

or average of last three blood samples or all blood samples over previous 6 months (whichever is over a longer time period) is 50 g/100g. or greater unless last sample is 40 g/100g or less.

B. Frequency which employees exposed is action level of lead (30 g/m8 TWA) must have blood lead level checked. (ZPP is also required in each occasion that a blood test is obtained):
1. Last blood lead level less than 40 g/100g . . . . . . . . . . . . Every 6 months. Every 6 months. Every 6 months. Every 6 months. Every 6 months.
2. Last blood lead level between 40 g/100g and level requiring medical removal (see A above) . . . . . . . . . . . . Every 2 months. Every 2 months. Every 2 months. Every 2 months. Every 2 months.
3. Employees removed from exposure to lead because of an elevated blood lead level . . . . . . . . . . . . Every 1 month. Every 1 month. Every 1 month. Every 1 month. Every 1 month.
C. Permissible airborne exposure limit for workers removed from work due to an elevated blood lead level (without regard to respirator protection). 100 g/m3

8 hr TWA

50 g/m3

8 hr TWA

30 g/m3

8 hr TWA

30 g/m3

8 hr TWA

30 g/m3

8 hr TWA

D. Blood lead level confirmed with a second blood analysis, at which employee may return to work. Permissible exposure without regard to respirator protection is listed by industry in Table 1. 60 g/100g 50 g/100g 40 g/100g 40 g/100g 40 g/100g
Note: Where medical opinion indicates that an employee is at risk of material impairment from exposure to lead, the physician can remove an employee from exposure exceeding the action level (or less) or recommend special protective measures as deemed appropriate and necessary. Medical monitoring during the medical removal period can be more stringent than noted in the table above if the physician so specifies. Return to work or removal of limitations and special protections is permitted when the physician indicates that the worker is no longer at risk of material impairment.


(E) Under the standard's ultimate worker removal criteria, a worker is to be removed from any work having any eight-hour TWA exposure to lead of 30 g/m3 or more whenever either of the following circumstances apply. (I) a blood lead level of 60 g/100g or greater is obtained and confirmed by a second follow-up blood lead level performed within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sample test, or (II) the average of the previous three blood lead determinations or the average of all blood lead determinations conducted during the previous six months, whichever encompasses the longest time period, equals or exceeds 50 g/100g, unless the last blood sample indicates a blood lead level at or below 40 g/100g, in which case the employee need not be removed. Medical removal is to continue until two consecutive blood lead levels are 40 g/100g or less.

(F) During the first two years that the ultimate removal criteria are being phased in, the return criteria have been set to assure that a worker's blood lead level has substantially declined during the period of removal. From March 1, 1979, to March 1, 1980, the blood lead level requiring employee medical removal is 80 g/100g. Workers found to have a confirmed blood lead at this level or greater need only be removed from work having a daily eight hour TWA exposure to lead at or above 100 g/m3. Workers so removed are to be returned to work when their blood lead levels are at or below 60 g/100g of whole blood. From March 1, 1980, to March 1, 1981, the blood lead level requiring medical removal is 70 g/100g. During this period workers need only be removed from jobs having a daily eight hour TWA exposure to lead at or above 50 g/m3 and are to be returned to work when a level of 50 g/100g is achieved. Beginning March 1, 1981, return depends on the worker's blood lead level declining to 40 g/100g of whole blood.

(G) As part of the standard, the employer is required to notify in writing each employee whose whole blood lead level exceeds 40 g/100g. In addition, each such employee is to be informed that the standard requires medical removal with MRP benefits, discussed below, when an employee's blood lead level exceeds the above defined limits.

(H) In addition to the above blood lead level criteria, temporary worker removal may also take place as a result of medical determinations and recommendations. Written medical opinions must be prepared after each examination pursuant to the standard. If the examining physician includes medical finding, determination or opinion that the employee has a medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to lead, then the employee must be removed from exposure to lead at or above the action level. Alternatively, if the examining physician recommends special protective measures for an employee (e.g., use of a powered air purifying respirator) or recommends limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, then the employer must implement these recommendations. Recommendations may be more stringent than the specific provisions of the standard. The examining physician, therefore, is given broad flexibility to tailor special protective procedures to the needs of individual employees. This flexibility extends to the evaluation and management of pregnant workers and male and female workers who are planning to conceive children. Based on the history, physical examination, and laboratory studies, the physician might recommend special protective measures or medical removal for an employee who is pregnant or who is planning to conceive a child when, in the physician's judgment, continued exposure to lead at the current job would pose a significant risk. The return of the employee to his or her former job status, or the removal of special protections or limitations, depends upon the examining physician determining that the employee is no longer at increased risk of material impairment or that the special measures are no longer needed.

(I) During the period of any form of special protection or removal, the employer must maintain the worker's earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and benefits (as though the worker has not been removed) for a period of up to eighteen months. This economic protection will maximize meaningful worker participation in the medical surveillance program, and is appropriate as part of the employer's overall obligation to provide a safe and healthful work place. The provisions of MRP benefits during the employee's removal period may, however, be conditioned upon participation in medical surveillance.

(J) On rare occasions, an employee's blood lead level may not acceptably decline within eighteen months of removal. This situation will arise only in unusual circumstances, thus the standard relies on an individual medical examination to determine how to protect such an employee. This medical determination is to be based on both laboratory values, including lead levels, zinc protoporphyrin levels, blood counts, and other tests felt to be warranted, as well as the physician's judgment that any symptoms or findings on physical examination are a result of lead toxicity. The medical determination may be that the employee is incapable of ever safely returning to his or her former job status. The medical determination may provide additional removal time past eighteen months for some employees or specify special protective measures to be implemented.

(K) The lead standard provides for a multiple physician review in cases where the employee wishes a second opinion concerning potential lead poisoning or toxicity. If an employee wishes a second opinion, he or she can make an appointment with a physician of his or her choice. This second physician will review the findings, recommendations or determinations of the first physician and conduct any examinations, consultations or tests deemed necessary in an attempt to make a final medical determination. If the first and second physicians do not agree in their assessment they must try to resolve their differences. If they cannot reach an agreement then they must designate a third physician to resolve the dispute.

(L) The employer must provide examining and consulting physicians with the following specific information: A copy of the lead regulations and all appendices, a description of the employee's duties as related to exposure, the exposure level to lead and any other toxic substances (if applicable), a description of personal protective equipment used, blood lead levels, and all prior written medical opinions regarding the employee in the employer's possession or control. The employer must also obtain from the physician and provide the employee with a written medical opinion containing blood lead levels, the physician's opinion as to whether the employee is at risk of material impairment to health, any recommended protective measures for the employee if further exposure is permitted, as well as any recommended limitations upon an employee's use of respirators.

(M) Employers must instruct each physician not to reveal to the employer in writing or in any other way his or her findings, laboratory results, or diagnoses which are felt to be unrelated to occupational lead exposure. They must also instruct each physician to advise the employee of any occupationally or nonoccupationally related medical condition requiring further treatment or evaluation.

(N) The standard provides for the use of respirators when engineering and other primary controls have not been fully implemented. However, the use of respirator protection shall not be used in lieu of temporary medical removal due to elevated blood lead levels or findings that an employee is at risk of material health impairment. This is based on the numerous inadequacies of respirators including skin rash where the facepiece makes contact with the skin, unacceptable stress to breathing in some workers with underlying cardiopulmonary impairment, difficulty in providing adequate fit, the tendency for respirators to create additional hazards by interfering with vision, hearing, and mobility, and the difficulties of assuring the maximum effectiveness of a complicated work practice program involving respirators. Respirators do, however, serve a useful function where engineering and work practice are inadequate by providing interim or short-term protection, provided they are properly selected for the environment in which the employee will be working, properly fitted to the employee, maintained and cleaned periodically, and worn by the employee when required.

(O) In its final standard on occupational exposure to inorganic lead, WISHA has prohibited prophylactic chelation. Diagnostic and therapeutic chelation are permitted only under the supervision of a licensed physician with appropriate medical monitoring in an acceptable clinical setting. The decision to initiate chelation therapy must be made on an individual basis and take into account the severity of symptoms felt to be a result of lead toxicity along with blood lead levels, ZPP levels and other laboratory tests as appropriate. EDTA and penicillamine, which are the primary chelating agents used in the therapy of occupational lead poisoning, have significant potential side effects and their use must be justified on the basis of expected benefits to the worker.

(P) Unless frank and severe symptoms are present, therapeutic chelation is not recommended given the opportunity to remove a worker from exposure and allow the body to naturally excrete accumulated lead. As a diagnostic aid, the chelation mobilization test using CA-EDTA has limited applicability. According to some investigators, the tests can differentiate between lead-induced and other nephropathies. The test may also provide an estimation of the mobile fraction of the total body lead burden.

(Q) Employers are required to assure that accurate records are maintained on exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, and medical removal for each employee. Exposure monitoring and medical surveillance records must be kept for forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer, while medical removal records must be maintained for the duration of employment. All records required under the standard must be made available upon request to representatives of the director of the department of labor and industries. Employers must also make environmental and biological monitoring and medical removal records available to affected employees and to former employees or their authorized employee representatives. Employees or their specifically designated representatives have access to their entire medical surveillance records.

(R) In addition, the standard requires that the employer inform all workers exposed to lead at or above the action level of the provisions of the standard and all its appendices, the purpose and description of medical surveillance and provisions for medical removal protection if temporary removal is required. An understanding of the potential health effects of lead exposure by all exposed employees along with full understanding of their rights under the lead standard is essential for an effective monitoring program.

(iii) Adverse health effects of inorganic lead.

(A) Although the toxicity of lead has been known for 2,000 years, the knowledge of the complex relationship between lead exposure and human response is still being refined. Significant research into the toxic properties of lead continues throughout the world, and it should be anticipated that our understanding of thresholds of effects and margins of safety will be improved in future years. The provisions of the lead standard are founded on two prime medical judgments; first, the prevention of adverse health effects from exposure to lead throughout a working lifetime requires that worker blood lead levels be maintained at or below 40 g/100g, and second, the blood lead levels of workers, male or female, who intend to parent in the near future should be maintained below 30 g/100g to minimize adverse reproduction health effects to the parent and developing fetus. The adverse effects of lead on reproduction are being actively researched and WISHA encourages the physician to remain abreast of recent developments in the area to best advise pregnant workers or workers planning to conceive children.

(B) The spectrum of health effects caused by lead exposure can be subdivided into five developmental states; normal, physiological changes of uncertain significance, pathophysiological changes, overt symptoms (morbidity), and mortality. Within this process there are no sharp distinctions, but rather a continuum of effects. Boundaries between categories overlap due to the wide variation of individual responses and exposures in the working population. WISHA's development of the lead standard focused on pathophysiological changes as well as later stages of disease.

(I) Heme synthesis inhibition.

a) The earliest demonstrated effect of lead involves its ability to inhibit at least two enzymes of the heme synthesis pathway at very low blood levels. Inhibition of delta aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALA-D) which catalyzes the conversion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to protoporphyrin is observed at a blood lead level below 20g/100g whole blood. At a blood lead level of 40 g/100g, more than twenty percent of the population would have seventy percent inhibition of ALA-D. There is an exponential increase in ALA excretion at blood lead levels greater than 40 g/100g.

b) Another enzyme, ferrochelatase, is also inhibited at low blood lead levels. Inhibition of ferrochelatase leads to increased free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) in the blood which can then bind to zinc to yield zinc protoporphyrin. At a blood lead level of 50 g/100g or greater, nearly one hundred percent of the population will have an increase FEP. There is also an exponential relationship between blood lead levels greater than 40 g/100g and the associated ZPP level, which has led to the development of the ZPP screening test for lead exposure.

c) While the significance of these effects is subject to debate, it is WISHA's position that these enzyme disturbances are early stages of a disease process which may eventually result in the clinical symptoms of lead poisoning. Whether or not the effects do progress to the later stages of clinical disease, disruption of these enzyme processes over a working lifetime is considered to be a material impairment of health.

d) One of the eventual results of lead-induced inhibition of enzymes in the heme synthesis pathway is anemia which can be asymptomatic if mild but associated with a wide array of symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, and tachycardia when more severe. Studies have indicated that lead levels as low as 50 g/100g can be associated with a definite decreased hemoglobin, although most cases of lead-induced anemia, as well as shortened red-cell survival times, occur at lead levels exceeding 80 g/100g. Inhibited hemoglobin synthesis is more common in chronic cases whereas shortened erythrocyte life span is more common in acute cases.

e) In lead-induced anemias, there is usually a reticulocytosis along with the presence of basophilic stippling, and ringed sideroblasts, although none of the above are pathognomonic for lead-induced anemia.

(II) Neurological effects.

a) Inorganic lead had been found to have toxic effects on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The earliest stage of lead-induced central nervous system effects first manifest themselves in the form of behavioral disturbances and central nervous system symptoms including irritability, restlessness, insomnia and other sleep disturbances, fatigue, vertigo, headache, poor memory, tremor, depression, and apathy. With more severe exposure, symptoms can progress to drowsiness, stupor, hallucinations, delirium, convulsions and coma.

b) The most severe and acute form of lead poisoning which usually follows ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of lead is acute encephalopathy which may arise precipitously with the onset of intractable seizures, coma, cardiorespiratory arrest, and death within 48 hours.

c) While there is disagreement about what exposure levels are needed to produce the earliest symptoms, most experts agree that symptoms definitely can occur at blood lead levels of 60 g/100g whole blood and therefore recommend a 40 g/100g maximum. The central nervous system effects frequently are not reversible following discontinued exposure or chelation therapy and when improvement does occur, it is almost always only partial.

d) The peripheral neuropathy resulting from lead exposure characteristically involves only motor function with minimal sensory damage and has a marked predilection for the extensor muscles of the most active extremity. The peripheral neuropathy can occur with varying degrees of severity. The earliest and mildest form which can be detected in workers with blood lead levels as low as 50 g/100g is manifested by slowing or motor nerve conduction velocity often without clinical symptoms. With progression of the neuropathy there is development of painless extensor muscle weakness usually involving the extensor muscles of the fingers and hand in the most active upper extremity, followed in severe cases by wrist drop, much less commonly, foot drop.

e) In addition to slowing of nerve conduction, electromyographical studies in patients with blood lead levels greater than 50 g/100g have demonstrated a decrease in the number of acting motor unit potentials, an increase in the duration of motor unit potentials, and spontaneous pathological activity including fibrillations and fasciculation. Whether these effects occur at levels of 40 g/100g is undetermined.

f) While the peripheral neuropathies can occasionally be reversed with therapy, again such recovery is not assured particularly in the more severe neuropathies and often improvement is only partial. The lack of reversibility is felt to be due in part to segmental demyelination.

(III) Gastrointestinal. Lead may also effect the gastrointestinal system producing abdominal colic or diffuse abdominal pain, constipation, obstipation, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Lead colic rarely develops at blood lead levels below 80 g/100g.

(IV) Renal.

a) Renal toxicity represents one of the most serious health effects of lead poisoning. In the early stages of disease nuclear inclusion bodies can frequently be identified in proximal renal tubular cells. Renal functions remain normal and the changes in this stage are probably reversible. With more advanced disease there is progressive interstitial fibrosis and impaired renal function. Eventually extensive interstitial fibrosis ensues with sclerotic glomeruli and dilated and atrophied proximal tubules; all represent end stage kidney disease. Azotemia can be progressive, eventually resulting in frank uremia necessitating dialysis. There is occasionally associated hypertension and hyperuricemia with or without gout.

b) Early kidney disease is difficult to detect. The urinalysis is normal in early lead nephropathy and the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine increase only when two-thirds of kidney function is lost. Measurement of creatinine clearance can often detect earlier disease as can other methods of measurement of glomerular filtration rate. An abnormal Ca-EDTA mobilization test has been used to differentiate between lead-induced and other nephropathies, but this procedure is not widely accepted. A form of Fanconi syndrome with aminoaciduria, glycosuria, and hyperphosphaturia indicating severe injury to the proximal renal tubules is occasionally seen in children.

(V) Reproductive effects.

a) Exposure to lead can have serious effects on reproductive function in both males and females. In male workers exposed to lead there can be a decrease in sexual drive, impotence, decreased ability to produce healthy sperm, and sterility. Malformed sperm (teratospermia), decreased number of sperm (hypospermia), and sperm with decreased motility (asthenospermia) can occur. Teratospermia has been noted at mean blood lead levels of 53 g/100g and hypospermia and asthenospermia at 41 g/100g. Furthermore, there appears to be a dose-response relationship for teratospermia in lead exposed workers.

b) Women exposed to lead may experience menstrual disturbances including dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia and amenorrhea. Following exposure to lead, women have a higher frequency of sterility, premature births, spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths.

c) Germ cells can be affected by lead and cause genetic damage in the egg or sperm cells before conception and result in failure to implant, miscarriage, stillbirth, or birth defects.

d) Infants of mothers with lead poisoning have a higher mortality during the first year and suffer from lowered birth weights, slower growth, and nervous system disorders.

e) Lead can pass through the placental barrier and lead levels in the mother's blood are comparable to concentrations of lead in the umbilical cord at birth. Transplacental passage becomes detectable at twelve-fourteen weeks of gestation and increases until birth.

f) There is little direct data on damage to the fetus from exposure to lead but it is generally assumed that the fetus and newborn would be at least as susceptible to neurological damage as young children. Blood lead levels of 50-60 g/100g in children can cause significant neurobehavioral impairments, and there is evidence of hyperactivity at blood levels as low as 25 g/100g. Given the overall body of literature concerning the adverse health effects of lead in children, WISHA feels that the blood lead level in children should be maintained below 30 g/100g with a population mean of 15 g/100g. Blood lead levels in the fetus and newborn likewise should not exceed 30 g/100g.

g) Because of lead's ability to pass through the placental barrier and also because of the demonstrated adverse effects of lead on reproductive function in both males and females as well as the risk of genetic damage of lead on both the ovum and sperm, WISHA recommends a 30 g/100g maximum permissible blood lead level in both males and females who wish to bear children.

(VI) Other toxic effects.

a) Debate and research continue on the effects of lead on the human body. Hypertension has frequently been noted in occupationally exposed individuals although it is difficult to assess whether this is due to lead's adverse effects on the kidneys or if some other mechanism is involved.

b) Vascular and electrocardiographic changes have been detected but have not been well characterized. Lead is thought to impair thyroid function and interfere with the pituitary-adrenal axis, but again these effects have not been well defined.

(iv) Medical evaluation.

(A) The most important principle in evaluating a worker for any occupational disease including lead poisoning is a high index of suspicion on the part of the examining physician. As discussed in Section (ii), lead can affect numerous organ systems and produce a wide array of signs and symptoms, most of which are nonspecific and subtle in nature at least in the early stages of disease. Unless serious concern for lead toxicity is present, many of the early clues to diagnosis may easily be overlooked.

(B) The crucial initial step in the medical evaluation is recognizing that a worker's employment can result in exposure to lead. The worker will frequently be able to define exposures to lead and lead-containing materials but often will not volunteer this information unless specifically asked. In other situations the worker may not know of any exposures to lead but the suspicion might be raised on the part of the physician because of the industry or occupation of the worker. Potential occupational exposure to lead and its compounds occur in at least one twenty occupations, including lead smelting, the manufacture of lead storage batteries, the manufacture of lead pigments and products containing pigments, solder manufacture, shipbuilding and ship repair, auto manufacturing, construction, and painting.

(C) Once the possibility for lead exposure is raised, the focus can then be directed toward eliciting information from the medical history, physical exam, and finally from laboratory data to evaluate the worker for potential lead toxicity.

(D) A complete and detailed work history is important in the initial evaluation. A listing of all previous employment with information on work processes, exposure to fumes or dust, known exposures to lead or other toxic substances, respiratory protection used, and previous medical surveillance should all be included in the worker's record. Where exposure to lead is suspected, information concerning on-the-job personal hygiene, smoking or eating habits in work areas, laundry procedures, and use of any protective clothing or respiratory protection equipment should be noted. A complete work history is essential in the medical evaluation of a worker with suspected lead toxicity, especially when long-term effects such as neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are considered.

(E) The medical history is also of fundamental importance and should include a listing of all past and current medical conditions, current medications including proprietary drug intake, previous surgeries and hospitalizations, allergies, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and also nonoccupational lead exposures such as hobbies (hunting, riflery). Also known childhood exposures should be elicited. Any previous history of hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, psychological, gynecological, genetic, or reproductive problems should be specifically noted.

(F) A careful and complete review of systems must be performed to assess both recognized complaints and subtle or slowly acquired symptoms which the worker might not appreciate as being significant. The review of symptoms should include the following:


General - weight loss, fatigue, decreased appetite.
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat (HEENT) - headaches, visual disturbance or decreased visual acuity, hearing deficits or tinnitus, pigmentation of the oral mucosa, or metallic taste in mouth.
Cardiopulmonary - shortness of breath, cough, chest pains, palpitations, or orthopnea.
Gastrointestinal - nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea.
Neurologic - irritability, insomnia, weakness (fatigue), dizziness, loss of memory, confusion, hallucinations, incoordination, ataxia, decreased strength in hands or feet, disturbance in gait, difficulty in climbing stairs, or seizures.
Hematologic - pallor, easy fatigability, abnormal blood loss, melena.
Reproductive (male or female and spouse where relevant) - history of infertility, impotence, loss of libido, abnormal menstrual periods, history of miscarriages, stillbirths, or children with birth defects.
Musculoskeletal - muscle and joint pains.

(G) The physical examination should emphasize the neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems. The worker's weight and blood pressure should be recorded and the oral mucosa checked for pigmentation characteristic of a possible Burtonian or lead line on the gingiva. It should be noted, however, that the lead line may not be present even in severe lead poisoning if good oral hygiene is practiced.

(H) The presence of pallor on skin examination may indicate an anemia, which if severe might also be associated with a tachycardia. If an anemia is suspected, an active search for blood loss should be undertaken including potential blood loss through the gastrointestinal tract.

(I) A complete neurological examination should include an adequate mental status evaluation including a search for behavioral and psychological disturbances, memory testing, evaluation for irritability, insomnia, hallucinations, and mental clouding. Gait and coordination should be examined along with close observation for tremor. A detailed evaluation of peripheral nerve function including careful sensory and motor function testing is warranted. Strength testing particularly of extensor muscle groups of all extremities is of fundamental importance.

(J) Cranial nerve evaluation should also be included in the routine examination.

(K) The abdominal examination should include auscultation for bowel sounds and abnormal bruits and palpation for organomegaly, masses, and diffuse abdominal tenderness.

(L) Cardiovascular examination should evaluate possible early signs of congestive heart failure. Pulmonary status should be addressed particularly if respirator protection is contemplated.

(M) As part of the medical evaluation, the lead standard requires the following laboratory studies.

(I) Blood lead level.

(II) Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and examination of the peripheral blood smear to evaluate red blood cell morphology.

(III) Blood urea nitrogen.

(IV) Serum creatinine.

(V) Routine urinalysis with microscopic examination.

(VI) A zinc protoporphyrin level.

(N) In addition to the above, the physician is authorized to order any further laboratory or other tests which he or she deems necessary in accordance with sound medical practice. The evaluation must also include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility if requested by the employee.

(O) Additional tests which are probably not warranted on a routine basis but may be appropriate when blood lead and ZPP levels are equivocal include delta aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrin concentrations in the urine, and dark-field illumination for detection of basophilic stippling in red blood cells.

(P) If an anemia is detected further studies including a careful examination of the peripheral smear, reticulocyte count, stool for occult blood, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, bilirubin, and, if appropriate vitamin B12 and folate may be of value in attempting to identify the cause of the anemia.

(Q) If a peripheral neuropathy is suspected, nerve conduction studies are warranted both for diagnosis and as a basis to monitor any therapy.

(R) If renal disease is questioned, a twenty-four-hour urine collection for creatinine clearance, protein, and electrolytes may be indicated. Elevated uric acid levels may result from lead-induced renal disease and a serum uric acid level might be performed.

(S) An electrocardiogram and chest X ray may be obtained as deemed appropriate.

(T) Sophisticated and highly specialized testing should not be done routinely and where indicated should be under the direction of a specialist.

(v) Laboratory evaluation.

(A) The blood level at present remains the single most important test to monitor lead exposure and is the test used in the medical surveillance program under the lead standard to guide employee medical removal. The ZPP has several advantages over the blood lead level. Because of its relatively recent development and the lack of extensive data concerning its interpretation, the ZPP currently remains an ancillary test.

(B) This section will discuss the blood lead level and ZPP in detail and will outline their relative advantages and disadvantages. Other blood tests currently available to evaluate lead exposure will also be reviewed.

(C) The blood lead level is a good index of current or recent lead absorption when there is no anemia present and when the worker has not taken any chelating agents. However, blood lead levels along with urinary lead levels do not necessarily indicate the total body burden of lead and are not adequate measures of past exposure. One reason for this is that lead has a high affinity for bone and up to ninety percent of the body's total lead is deposited there. A very important component of the total lead body burden is lead in soft tissue (liver, kidneys, and brain). This fraction of the lead body burden, the biologically active lead, is not entirely reflected by blood lead levels since it is a function of the dynamics of lead absorption, distribution, deposition in bone and excretion. Following discontinuation of exposure to lead, the excess body burden is only slowly mobilized from bone and other relatively stable stores and excreted. Consequently, a high blood lead level may only represent recent heavy exposure to lead without a significant total body excess and likewise a low blood lead level does not exclude an elevated total body burden of lead.

(D) Also due to its correlation with recent exposures, the blood lead level may vary considerably over short time intervals.

(E) To minimize laboratory error and erroneous results due to contamination, blood specimens must be carefully collected after thorough cleaning of the skin with appropriate methods using lead-free containers and analyzed by a reliable laboratory. Under the standard, samples must be analyzed in laboratories which are approved by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) or which have received satisfactory grades in proficiency testing by the CDC in the previous year. Analysis is to be made using atomic absorption spectrophotometry anodic stripping; voltammetry or any method which meets the accuracy requirements set forth by the standard.

(F) The determination of lead in urine is generally considered a less reliable monitoring technique than analysis of whole blood primarily due to individual variability in urinary excretion capacity as well as the technical difficulty of obtaining accurate twenty-four hour urine collections. In addition, workers with renal insufficiency, whether due to lead or some other cause, may have decreased lead clearance and consequently urine lead levels may underestimate the true lead burden. Therefore, urine lead levels should not be used as a routine test.

(G) The zinc protoporphyrin test, unlike the blood lead determination, measures an adverse metabolic effect of lead and as such is a better indicator of lead toxicity than the level of blood lead itself. The level of ZPP reflects lead absorption over the preceding three to four months, and therefore is a better indicator of lead body burden. The ZPP requires more time than the blood lead to read significantly elevated levels; the return to normal after discontinuing lead exposure is also slower. Furthermore, the ZPP test is simpler, faster, and less expensive to perform and no contamination is possible. Many investigators believe it is the most reliable means of monitoring chronic lead absorption.

(H) Zinc protoporphyrin results from the inhibition of the enzyme ferrochelatase which catalyzes the insertion of an iron molecule into the protoporphyrin molecule, which then becomes heme. If iron is not inserted into the molecule then zinc, having a greater affinity for protoporphyrin, takes place in the iron, forming ZPP.

(I) An elevation in the level of circulating ZPP may occur at blood lead levels as low as 20-30 g/100g in some workers. Once the blood lead level has reached 40 g/100g there is more marked rise in the ZPP value from its normal range of less than 100 g/100ml. Increases in blood lead levels beyond 40 g/100g are associated with exponential increases in ZPP.

(J) Whereas blood lead levels fluctuate over short time spans, ZPP levels remain relatively stable. ZPP is measured directly in red blood cells and is present for the cell's entire one hundred twenty day lifespan. Therefore, the ZPP level in blood reflects the average ZPP production over the previous three to four months and consequently the average lead exposure during that time interval.

(K) It is recommended that a hematocrit be determined whenever a confirmed ZPP of 50 g/100ml whole blood is obtained to rule out a significant underlying anemia. If the ZPP is in excess of 100 g/100ml and not associated with abnormal elevations in blood lead levels, the laboratory should be checked to be sure the blood leads were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, anodic stripping voltammetry or any method which meets the accuracy requirements set forth by the standard, by a CDC approved laboratory which is experienced in lead level determinations. Repeat periodic blood lead studies should be obtained in all individuals with elevated ZPP levels to be certain that an associated elevated blood lead level has not been missed due to transient fluctuations in blood leads.

(L) ZPP has characteristic fluorescence spectrum with a peak at 594nm which is detectable with a hematofluorimeter. The hematofluorimeter is accurate and portable and can provide on-site, instantaneous results for workers who can be frequently tested via a finger prick.

(M) However, careful attention must be given to calibration and quality control procedures. Limited data on blood lead -ZPP correlations and the ZPP levels which are associated with the adverse health effects discussed in item (ii) are the major limitations of the test. Also it is difficult to correlate ZPP levels with environmental exposure and there is some variation of response with age and sex. Nevertheless, the ZPP promises to be an important diagnostic test for the early detection of lead toxicity and its value will increase as more data is collected regarding its relationship to other manifestations of lead poisoning.

(N) Levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the urine are also used as a measure of lead exposure. Increasing concentrations of ALA are believed to result from the inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALA-D). Although the test is relatively easy to perform, inexpensive, and rapid, the disadvantages include variability in results, the necessity to collect a complete twenty-four hour urine sample which has a specific gravity greater than 1.010, and also the fact that ALA decomposes in the presence of light.

(O) The pattern of porphyrin excretion in the urine can also be helpful in identifying lead intoxication. With lead poisoning, the urine concentrations of coproporphyrins I and II, porphobilinogen and uroporphyrin I rise. The most important increase, however, is that of coproporphyrin III; levels may exceed 5,000 g/1 in the urine in lead poisoned individuals, but its correlation with blood lead levels and ZPP are not as good as those of ALA. Increases in urinary porphyrins are not diagnostic of lead toxicity and may be seen in porphyria, some liver diseases, and in patients with high reticulocyte counts.

(vi) Summary.

(A) The WISHA standard for inorganic lead places significant emphasis on the medical surveillance of all workers exposed to levels of inorganic lead above the action level of 30 g/m3 TWA. The physician has a fundamental role in this surveillance program, and in the operation of the medical removal protection program.

(B) Even with adequate worker education on the adverse health effects of lead and appropriate training in work practices, personal hygiene and other control measures, the physician has a primary responsibility for evaluating potential lead toxicity in the worker. It is only through a careful and detailed medical and work history, a complete physical examination and appropriate laboratory testing that an accurate assessment can be made. Many of the adverse health effects of lead toxicity are either irreversible or only partially reversible and therefore early detection of disease is very important.

(C) This document outlines the medical monitoring program as defined by the occupational safety and health standard for inorganic lead. It reviews the adverse health effects of lead poisoning and describes the important elements of the history and physical examinations as they relate to these adverse effects.

(D) It is hoped that this review and discussion will give the physician a better understanding of the WISHA standard with the ultimate goal of protecting the health and well-being of the worker exposed to lead under his or her care.

(d) Appendix D. Recommendations to employers concerning high-risk tasks (nonmandatory).

The department advises employers that the following tasks have a high risk for lead overexposure (this list is not complete; other tasks also can result in lead over-exposure):


Any open flame operation involving lead-containing solder in a manner producing molten solder, including the manufacture or repair of motor vehicle radiators;
Sanding, cutting or grinding of lead-containing solder;
Breaking, recycling or manufacture of lead-containing batteries;
Casting objects using lead, brass, or lead-containing alloys;
Where lead-containing coatings or paints are present:
abrasive blasting
welding
cutting
torch burning
manual demolition of structures
manual scraping
manual sanding
heat gun applications
power tool cleaning
rivet busting
clean-up activities where dry expendable abrasives are used
abrasive blasting enclosure movement and removal;
Spray-painting with lead-containing paint;
Using lead-containing mortar;
Lead burning;
Operation or cleaning of shooting facilities where lead bullets are used;
Formulation or processing of lead-containing pigments or paints;
Cutting, burning, or melting of lead-containing materials.

The department recommends that annual blood lead testing be offered to all employees potentially overexposed to lead, including those performing the tasks listed above, regardless of air lead levels. Research has shown that air lead levels often do not accurately predict workers' lead overexposure. The blood lead testing will provide the most information if performed during a period of peak lead exposure.

Employers should be aware that the United States Public Health Service has set a goal of eliminating occupational exposures which result in whole blood lead levels of 25 g/dl or greater. This goal should guide whether employees' blood lead levels indicate lead overexposure.

If blood lead levels are elevated in an employee performing a task associated with lead overexposure, employers should assess the maintenance and effectiveness of exposure controls, hygiene facilities, respiratory protection program, the employee's work practices and personal hygiene, and the employee's respirator use, if any. If a deficiency exists in any of these areas, the employer should correct the problem.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07521, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07521, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07521, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04; 03-18-090, 296-62-07521, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07521, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07521, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-09-030, 296-62-07521, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96; 95-04-078, 296-62-07521, filed 1/30/95, effective 3/2/95; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-62-07521, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), 296-62-07521, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-62-07521, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), 296-62-07521, filed 7/6/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), 296-62-07521, filed 11/30/83; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-62-07521, filed 6/11/82. Formerly WAC 296-62-07349.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07615   Respiratory protection.   (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(b) Work operations for which the employer establishes that engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(c) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the PEL;

(d) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(3) Respirator selection.

(a) The employer must select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(b) Any employee who cannot use a negative-pressure respirator must be given the option of using a positive-pressure respirator, or a supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous-flow or pressure-demand mode.

(c) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

(d) Provide to employees, for escape, one of the following respirator options:

(i) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full-facepiece or hood, operated in the positive-pressure or continuous-flow mode

OR

(ii) A full-facepiece air-purifying respirator.

(e) Provide a combination HEPA filter (or N-, R-, or P-100 filter) and organic vapor canister or cartridge with air-purifying respirators when MDA is in liquid form or used as part of a process requiring heat.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07615, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07615, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-62-07615, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), 296-62-07615, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-07715   Respiratory protection.   (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by WAC 296-62-077 through 296-62-07747, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator((s)) that ((comply)) complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:

(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(b) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(c) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;

(d) Emergencies;

(e) Work operations in all regulated areas, except for construction activities which follow requirements set forth in WAC 296-62-07715 (1)(g);

(f) Work operations whenever employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limits;

(g) The following construction activities:

(i) Class I asbestos work;

(ii) Class II work where the ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state;

(iii) Class II and Class III work which is not performed using wet methods, except for removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative-exposure assessment has been made and the ACM is removed in an intact state;

(iv) Class II and Class III asbestos work for which a negative-exposure assessment has not been conducted;

(v) Class III work when TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed;

(vi) Class IV work performed within regulated areas where employees who are performing other work are required to wear respirators.

(2) Respirator program.

(a) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(b) Employers must provide an employee with a tight-fitting, powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator selected when an employee chooses to use a PAPR and the respirator provides the required protection to the employee.

(c) The employer must inform any employee required to wear a respirator under this section that the employee may require the employer to provide a tight-fitting, powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator.

(d) No employee must be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position, the duties of which they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, the position must be with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay the employee had just prior to such transfer.

(3) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(a) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section, and in WAC 296-842-13005, in the respirator rule.

Make sure filtering facepiece respirators are not selected or used for protection against asbestos fibers.

(b) Provide employees with an air-purifying, half-facepiece respirator, other than a filtering-facepiece respirator, that is equipped with a HEPA filter or an N-, R-, or P-100 series filter whenever the employee performs:

(i) Class II and III asbestos work for which no negative-exposure assessment is available;

(ii) Class III asbestos work involving disturbances of TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM.

(c) Equip any powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) or negative pressure air-purifying respirator with HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 series filters.

(4) Special respiratory protection requirements.

(a) Unless specifically identified in this subsection, respirator selection for asbestos removal, demolition, and renovation operations shall be in accordance with the selection specifications of this section and the general selection requirements in WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule. The employer must provide and require to be worn, at no cost to the employee, a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with either an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a HEPA filter egress cartridge, to employees engaged in the following asbestos operations:

(i) Inside negative pressure enclosures used for removal, demolition, and renovation of friable asbestos from walls, ceilings, vessels, ventilation ducts, elevator shafts, and other structural members, but does not include pipes or piping systems; or

(ii) Any dry removal of asbestos.

(b) For all Class I work excluded or not specified in (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, when a negative-exposure assessment is not available, and the exposure assessment indicates the exposure level will be at or below 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time weighted average, employers must provide employees with one of the following respirators:

(i) A tight-fitting, powered, air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters;

(ii) A full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode equipped with either HEPA egress cartridges; or

(iii) An auxiliary positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus.

(c) Whenever the employees are in a regulated area performing Class I asbestos work for which a negative exposure assessment is not available, and an exposure assessment indicates that the exposure level will be above 1 f/cc as an 8-hour TWA, employers must provide a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.


Exception: In lieu of the supplied-air respirator required by subsection (4) of this section, an employer may provide and require to be worn, at no cost to the employee, a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous flow mode equipped with either an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a back-up HEPA filter egress cartridge where daily and historical personal monitoring data indicates the concentration of asbestos fibers is not reasonably expected to exceed 10 f/cc. The continuous flow respirator shall be operated at a minimum air flow rate of six cubic feet per minute at the facepiece using respirable air supplied as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.


(5) Respirator fit testing.

(a) For each employee wearing negative pressure respirators, employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn.

(b) Any supplied-air respirator facepiece equipped with a back-up HEPA filter egress cartridge shall be quantitatively fit tested (see WAC 296-62-07160 through 296-62-07162 and 296-62-07201 through 296-62-07248).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-07715, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-62-07715, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07715, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97; 97-01-079, 296-62-07715, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07715, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07715, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07715, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07715, filed 4/27/87.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-16-106, filed 8/1/06, effective 9/1/06)

WAC 296-62-08015   Respiratory protection.   (1) General. ((The employer shall provide respiratory protection for employees during:)) Where respiratory protection is required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this chapter. Respiratory protection is required during:

(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(b) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(c) Work operations for which an employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL;

(d) Work operations where employees are exposed above the PEL for fewer than thirty days per year, and the employer has elected not to implement engineering and work practice controls to achieve the PEL; or

(e) Emergencies.

(2) Respiratory protection program. Where respirator use is required by this section, the employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required to use a respirator.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 06-16-106, 296-62-08015, filed 8/1/06, effective 9/1/06.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-14533   Cotton dust.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section, in its entirety, applies to the control of employee exposure to cotton dust in all workplaces where employees engage in yarn manufacturing, engage in slashing and weaving operations, or work in waste houses for textile operations.

(b) This section does not apply to the handling or processing of woven or knitted materials; to maritime operations covered by chapters 296-56 and 296-304 WAC; to harvesting or ginning of cotton; or to the construction industry.

(c) Only subsection (8) Medical surveillance, subsection (11)(b) Medical surveillance, subsection (11)(c) Availability, subsection (11)(d) Transfer of records, and Appendices B, C, and D of this section apply in all work places where employees exposed to cotton dust engage in cottonseed processing or waste processing operations.

(d) This section applies to yarn manufacturing and slashing and weaving operations exclusively using washed cotton (as defined by subsection (14) of this section) only to the extent specified by subsection (14) of this section.

(e) This section, in its entirety, applies to the control of all employees exposure to the cotton dust generated in the preparation of washed cotton from opening until the cotton is thoroughly wetted.

(f) This section does not apply to knitting, classing or warehousing operations except that employers with these operations, if requested by WISHA, shall grant WISHA access to their employees and workplaces for exposure monitoring and medical examinations for purposes of a health study to be performed by WISHA on a sampling basis.

(2) Definitions applicable to this section:

(a) "Blow down" - the cleaning of equipment and surfaces with compressed air.

(b) "Blow off" - the use of compressed air for cleaning of short duration and usually for a specific machine or any portion of a machine.

(c) "Cotton dust" - dust present in the air during the handling or processing of cotton, which may contain a mixture of many substances including ground-up plant matter, fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton plant matter and other contaminants which may have accumulated with the cotton during the growing, harvesting and subsequent processing or storage periods. Any dust present during the handling and processing of cotton through the weaving or knitting of fabrics, and dust present in other operations or manufacturing processes using raw or waste cotton fibers or cotton fiber by-products from textile mills are considered cotton dust within this definition. Lubricating oil mist associated with weaving operations is not considered cotton dust.

(d) "Director" - the director of labor and industries or his authorized representative.

(e) "Equivalent instrument" - a cotton dust sampling device that meets the vertical elutriator equivalency requirements as described in subsection (4)(a)(iii) of this section.

(f) "Lint-free respirable cotton dust" - particles of cotton dust of approximately 15 microns or less aerodynamic equivalent diameter.

(g) "Vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler" or "vertical elutriator" - a dust sampler which has a particle size cut-off at approximately 15 microns aerodynamic equivalent diameter when operating at the flow rate of 7.4 0.2 liters per minute.

(h) "Waste processing" - waste recycling (sorting, blending, cleaning and willowing) and garnetting.

(i) "Yarn manufacturing" - all textile mill operations from opening to, but not including, slashing and weaving.

(3) Permissible exposure limits and action levels.

(a) Permissible exposure limits (PEL).

(i) The employer shall assure that no employee who is exposed to cotton dust in yarn manufacturing and cotton washing operations is exposed to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust greater than 200 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(ii) The employer shall assure than no employee who is exposed to cotton dust in textile mill waste house operations or is exposed in yarn manufacturing to dust from "lower grade washed cotton" as defined in subsection (14)(e) of this section is exposed to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust greater than 500 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(iii) The employer shall assure that no employee who is exposed to cotton dust in the textile processes known as slashing and weaving is exposed to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust greater than 750 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(b) Action levels.

(i) The action level for yarn manufacturing and cotton washing operations is an airborne concentration of lint-free respirable cotton dust of 100 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(ii) The action level for waste houses for textile operations is an airborne concentration of lint-free respirable cotton dust of 250 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(iii) The action level for the textile processes known as slashing and weaving is an airborne concentration of lint-free respirable cotton dust of 375 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(4) Exposure monitoring and measurement.

(a) General.

(i) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(ii) The sampling device to be used shall be either the vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler or an equivalent instrument.

(iii) If an alternative to the vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler is used, the employer shall establish equivalency by demonstrating that the alternative sampling devices:

(A) It collects respirable particulates in the same range as the vertical elutriator (approximately 15 microns);

(B) Replicate exposure data used to establish equivalency are collected in side-by-side field and laboratory comparisons; and

(C) A minimum of 100 samples over the range of 0.5 to 2 times the permissible exposure limit are collected, and ninety percent of these samples have an accuracy range of plus or minus twenty-five percent of the vertical elutriator reading with a ninety-five percent confidence level as demonstrated by a statistically valid protocol. (An acceptable protocol for demonstrating equivalency is described in Appendix E of this section.)

(iv) WISHA will issue a written opinion stating that an instrument is equivalent to a vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler if:

(A) A manufacturer or employer requests an opinion in writing and supplies the following information:

(I) Sufficient test data to demonstrate that the instrument meets the requirements specified in this paragraph and the protocol specified in Appendix E of this section;

(II) Any other relevant information about the instrument and its testing requested by WISHA; and

(III) A certification by the manufacturer or employer that the information supplied is accurate, and

(B) If WISHA finds, based on information submitted about the instrument, that the instrument meets the requirements for equivalency specified by this subsection.

(b) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a place of employment within the scope of subsections (1)(a), (d) or (e) of this section shall conduct monitoring by obtaining measurements which are representative of the exposure of all employees to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust over an eight-hour period. The sampling program shall include at least one determination during each shift for each work area.

(c) Periodic monitoring.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (4)(b) of this section or any subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be at or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall repeat the monitoring for those employees at least annually.

(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (4)(b) of this section or any subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the PEL, the employer shall repeat the monitoring for those employees at least every six months.

(iii) Whenever there has been a production, process, or control change which may result in new or additional exposure to cotton dust, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect an increase in employee exposure, the employer shall repeat the monitoring and measurements for those employees affected by the change or increase.

(d) Employee notification.

(i) Within fifteen working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the exposure measurements which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the employee's exposure exceeds the applicable permissible exposure limit specified in subsection (3) of this section, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure below the permissible exposure limit.

(5) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls. The employer shall institute engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to cotton dust at or below the permissible exposure limit specified in subsection (3) of this section, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible.

(b) Whenever feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless institute these controls to immediately reduce exposure to the lowest feasible level, and shall supplement these controls with the use of respirators which shall comply with the provisions of subsection (6) of this section.

(c) Compliance program.

(i) Where the most recent exposure monitoring data indicates that any employee is exposed to cotton dust levels greater than the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall establish and implement a written program sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit solely by means of engineering controls and work practices as required by (a) of this subsection.

(ii) The written program shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation or process resulting in employee exposure to cotton dust;

(B) Engineering plans and other studies used to determine the controls for each process;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Monitoring data obtained in accordance with subsection (4) of this section;

(E) A detailed schedule for development and implementation of engineering and work practice controls, including exposure levels projected to be achieved by such controls;

(F) Work practice program; and

(G) Other relevant information.

(iii) The employer's schedule as set forth in the compliance program, shall project completion of the implementation of the compliance program no later than March 27, 1984 or as soon as possible if monitoring after March 27, 1984 reveals exposures over the PEL, except as provided in (13)(b)(ii)(B) of this section.

(iv) The employer shall complete the steps set forth in his program by the dates in the schedule.

(v) Written programs shall be submitted, upon request, to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, and any affected employee or their designated representatives.

(vi) The written programs required under subsection (5)(c) of this section shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program and current exposure levels.

(d) Mechanical ventilation. When mechanical ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements which demonstrate the effectiveness of the system to control exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure shall be made at reasonable intervals.

(6) Use of respirators.

(a) General. For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering controls and work-practice controls;

(ii) Maintenance and repair activities for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;

(iv) Work operations specified under subsection (7)(a) of this section;

(v) Periods for which an employee requests a respirator.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(ii) Whenever a physician determines that an employee who works in an area in which the cotton-dust concentration exceeds the PEL is unable to use a respirator, including a powered air-purifying respirator, the employee must be given the opportunity to transfer to an available position, or to a position that becomes available later, that has a cotton-dust concentration at or below the PEL. The employer must ensure that such employees retain their current wage rate or other benefits as a result of the transfer.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees the appropriate respirators by following requirements in this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide employees with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) when the employee chooses to use a PAPR instead of a negative-pressure air-purifying respirator, and the PAPR will provide adequate protection.

(iii) Limit the use of filtering facepiece respirators for protection against cotton dust to concentrations less than or equal to five times (5x) the PEL.

(iv) Provide high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or N-, R-, or P-100 series filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators when used in cotton dust concentrations greater than ten times (10x) the PEL.

(7) Work practices. Each employer shall, regardless of the level of employee exposure, immediately establish and implement a written program of work practices which shall minimize cotton dust exposure. The following shall be included where applicable:

(a) Compressed air "blow down" cleaning shall be prohibited, where alternative means are feasible. Where compressed air is used for cleaning, the employees performing the "blow down" or "blow off" shall wear suitable respirators. Employees whose presence is not required to perform "blow down" or "blow off" shall be required to leave the area affected by the "blow down" or "blow off" during this cleaning operation.

(b) Cleaning of clothing or floors with compressed air shall be prohibited.

(c) Floor sweeping shall be performed with a vacuum or with methods designed to minimize dispersal of dust.

(d) In areas where employees are exposed to concentrations of cotton dust greater than the permissible exposure limit, cotton and cotton waste shall be stacked, sorted, baled, dumped, removed or otherwise handled by mechanical means, except where the employer can show that it is infeasible to do so. Where infeasible, the method used for handling cotton and cotton waste shall be the method which reduces exposure to the lowest level feasible.

(8) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) Each employer covered by the standard shall institute a program of medical surveillance for all employees exposed to cotton dust.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician and are provided without cost to the employee.

(iii) Persons other than licensed physicians, who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section shall have completed a NIOSH approved training course in spirometry.

(b) Initial examinations. The employer shall provide medical surveillance to each employee who is or may be exposed to cotton dust. For new employees' this examination shall be provided prior to initial assignment. The medical surveillance shall include at least the following:

(i) A medical history;

(ii) The standardized questionnaire contained in WAC 296-62-14537; and

(iii) A pulmonary function measurement, including a determination of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and the percentage that the measured values of FEV1 and FVC differ from the predicted values, using the standard tables in WAC 296-62-14539. These determinations shall be made for each employee before the employee enters the workplace on the first day of the work week, preceded by at least thirty-five hours of no exposure to cotton dust. The tests shall be repeated during the shift, no less than four hours and no more than ten hours after the beginning of the work shift; and, in any event, no more than one hour after cessation of exposure. Such exposure shall be typical of the employee's usual workplace exposure. The predicted FEV1 and FVC for blacks shall be multiplied by 0.85 to adjust for ethnic differences.

(iv) Based upon the questionnaire results, each employee shall be graded according to Schilling's byssinosis classification system.

(c) Periodic examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide at least annual medical surveillance for all employees exposed to cotton dust above the action level in yarn manufacturing, slashing and weaving, cotton washing and waste house operations. The employer shall provide medical surveillance at least every two years for all employees exposed to cotton dust at or below the action level, for all employees exposed to cotton dust from washed cotton (except from washed cotton defined in subsection (9)(c) of this section), and for all employees exposed to cotton dust in cottonseed processing and waste processing operations. Periodic medical surveillance shall include at least an update of the medical history, standardized questionnaire (Appendix B-111), Schilling byssinosis grade, and the pulmonary function measurements in (b)(iii) of this subsection.

(ii) Medical surveillance as required in (c)(i) of this subsection shall be provided every six months for all employees in the following categories:

(A) An FEV1 of greater than eighty percent of the predicted value, but with an FEV1 decrement of five percent or 200 ml. on a first working day;

(B) An FEV1 of less than eighty percent of the predicted value; or

(C) Where, in the opinion of the physician, any significant change in questionnaire findings, pulmonary function results, or other diagnostic tests have occurred.

(iii) An employee whose FEV1 is less than sixty percent of the predicted value shall be referred to a physician for a detailed pulmonary examination.

(iv) A comparison shall be made between the current examination results and those of previous examinations and a determination made by the physician as to whether there has been a significant change.

(d) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this regulation and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(e) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain and furnish the employee with a copy of a written opinion from the examining physician containing the following:

(A) The results of the medical examination and tests including the FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ratio;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to cotton dust;

(C) The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to cotton dust or upon the employee's use of respirators including a determination of whether an employee can wear a negative pressure respirator, and where the employee cannot, a determination of the employee's ability to wear a powered air purifying respirator; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(9) Employee education and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) The employer shall ((provide a training program for all)) train each employee((s)) exposed to cotton dust in accordance with the requirements of this section and shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The acute and long term health hazards associated with exposure to cotton dust;

(B) The names and descriptions of jobs and processes which could result in exposure to cotton dust at or above the PEL.

(C) The measures, including work practices required by subsection (7) of this section, necessary to protect the employee from exposures in excess of the permissible exposure limit;

(D) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required by subsection (6) of this section and chapter 296-842 WAC (see WAC 296-842-11005, 296-842-16005 and 296-842-19005);

(E) The purpose for and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (8) of this section and other information which will aid exposed employees in understanding the hazards of cotton dust exposure; and

(F) The contents of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The training program shall be provided prior to initial assignment and shall be repeated annually for each employee exposed to cotton dust, when job assignments or work processes change and when employee performance indicates a need for retraining.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) Each employer shall post a copy of this section with its appendices in a public location at the workplace, and shall, upon request, make copies available to employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide all materials relating to the employee training and information program to the director upon request.

(10) Signs. The employer shall post the following warning sign in each work area where the permissible exposure limit for cotton dust is exceeded:


WARNING

COTTON DUST WORK AREA

MAY CAUSE ACUTE OR DELAYED LUNG INJURY

(BYSSINOSIS)

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA



(11) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements required by subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include:

(A) A log containing the items listed in WAC 296-62-14535 (4)(a), and the dates, number, duration, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the procedure used to determine representative employee exposures;

(B) The type of protective devices worn, if any, and length of time worn; and

(C) The names, Social Security number, job classifications, and exposure levels of employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least twenty years.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate medical record for each employee subject to medical surveillance required by subsection (8) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include:

(A) The name and Social Security number and description of the duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the medical examination results including the medical history, questionnaire response, results of all tests, and the physician's recommendation;

(C) A copy of the physician's written opinion;

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to cotton dust;

(E) A copy of this standard and its appendices, except that the employer may keep one copy of the standard and the appendices for all employees, provided that he references the standard and appendices in the medical surveillance record of each employee; and

(F) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (8)(d) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least twenty years.

(c) Availability.

(i) The employer shall make all records required to be maintained by subsection (11) of this section available to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Employee exposure measurement records and employee medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by subsection (11) of this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the director at least three months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the director if he requests them within that period.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(12) Observation of monitoring.

(a) The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to cotton dust conducted pursuant to subsection (4) of this section.

(b) Whenever observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to cotton dust requires entry into an area where the use of personal protective equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such equipment and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(c) Without interfering with the measurement, observers shall be entitled to:

(i) An explanation of the measurement procedures;

(ii) An opportunity to observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of cotton dust performed at the place of exposure; and

(iii) An opportunity to record the results obtained.

(13) Washed cotton.

(a) Exemptions. Cotton, after it has been washed by the processes described in this section is exempt from all or parts of this section as specified if the requirements of this section are met.

(b) Initial requirements.

(i) In order for an employer to qualify as exempt or partially exempt from this standard for operations using washed cotton, the employer must demonstrate that the cotton was washed in a facility which is open to inspection by the director and the employer must provide sufficient accurate documentary evidence to demonstrate that the washing methods utilized meet the requirements of this section.

(ii) An employer who handles or processes cotton which has been washed in a facility not under the employer's control and claims an exemption or partial exemption under this paragraph, must obtain from the cotton washer and make available at the worksite, to the director, or his designated representative, to any affected employee, or to their designated representative the following:

(A) A certification by the washer of the cotton of the grade of cotton, the type of washing process, and that the batch meets the requirements of this section:

(B) Sufficient accurate documentation by the washer of the cotton grades and washing process; and

(C) An authorization by the washer that the director may inspect the washer's washing facilities and documentation of the process.

(c) Medical and dyed cotton. Medical grade (USP) cotton, cotton that has been scoured, bleached and dyed, and mercerized yarn shall be exempt from all provisions of this standard.

(d) Higher grade washed cotton. The handling or processing of cotton classed as "low middling light spotted or better" (color grade 52 or better and leaf grade code 5 or better according to the 1993 USDA classification system) shall be exempt from all provisions of the standard except requirements of subsection (8) of this section, medical surveillance; subsection (11)(b) through (d) of this section, recordkeeping-medical records, and Appendices B, C, and D of this section, if they have been washed on one of the following systems:

(i) On a continuous batt system or a rayon rinse system including the following conditions:

(A) With water;

(B) At a temperature of no less than 60C;

(C) With a water-to-fiber ratio of no less than 40:1; and

(D) With the bacterial levels in the wash water controlled to limit bacterial contamination of the cotton.

(ii) On a batch kier washing system including the following conditions:

(A) With water;

(B) With cotton fiber mechanically opened and thoroughly prewetted before forming the cake;

(C) For low-temperature processing, at a temperature of no less than 60C with a water-to-fiber ratio of no less than 40:1; or, for high-temperature processing, at a temperature of no less than 93C with a water-to-fiber ratio of no less than 15:1;

(D) With a minimum of one wash cycle followed by two rinse cycles for each batch, using fresh water in each cycle; and

(E) With bacterial levels in the wash water controlled to limit bacterial contamination of the cotton.

(e) Lower grade washed cotton. The handling and processing of cotton of grades lower than "low middling light spotted," that has been washed as specified in (d) of this subsection and has also been bleached, shall be exempt from all provisions of the standard except the requirements of subsection (3)(a) Permissible exposure limits, subsection (4) Exposure monitoring and measurement, subsection (8) Medical surveillance, subsection (11) Recordkeeping, and Appendices B, C and D of this section.

(f) Mixed grades of washed cotton. If more than one grade of washed cotton is being handled or processed together, the requirements of the grade with the most stringent exposure limit, medical and monitoring requirements shall be followed.

(14) Appendices.

(a) Appendix B (B-I, B-II and B-III), WAC 296-62-14537, Appendix C, WAC 296-62-14539 and Appendix D, WAC 296-62-14541 are incorporated as part of this chapter and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.

(b) Appendix A of this chapter, WAC 296-62-14535 contains information which is not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

(c) Appendix E of this chapter is a protocol which may be followed in the validation of alternative measuring devices as equivalent to the vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler. Other protocols may be used if it is demonstrated that they are statistically valid, meet the requirements in subsection (4)(a)(iii) of this section, and are appropriate for demonstrating equivalency.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-14533, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-14533, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-14533, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-19-065, 296-62-14533, filed 9/18/01, effective 11/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-14533, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-14533, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-14533, filed 7/25/86; 82-03-023 (Order 82-1), 296-62-14533, filed 1/15/82. Statutory Authority: 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-14533, filed 7/27/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), 296-62-14533, filed 11/13/80.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-62-20011   Respiratory protection.   (1) General.

For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee with an appropriate respirator((s)) that ((comply)) complies with the requirements of this section. Compliance with the permissible exposure limit may not be achieved by the use of respirators except during:

(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(b) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activity, for which engineering and work-practice controls are technologically not feasible;

(c) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit;

(d) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required to use a respirator.

(3) Respirator selection. The employer must select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

Although filtering facepiece respirators may be used for protection from coke oven particulate emissions, these respirators are not appropriate for use against gas or vapor contaminants that present an exposure hazard.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-62-20011, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-20011, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-62-20011, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-20011, filed 7/25/86. Statutory Authority: 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-20011, filed 7/27/81; Order 77-14, 296-62-20011, filed 7/25/77.]

OTS-2225.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-155-17317   Respiratory protection.   (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:

(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls.

(b) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities and spray application processes, for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible.

(c) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs.

(d) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(3) Respirator selection.

(a) The employer must select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(b) An employee who cannot use a negative-pressure respirator must be given the option of using a positive-pressure respirator, or a supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous-flow or pressure-demand mode.

(c) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

(d) Provide to employees, for escape, one of the following respirator options:

(i) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece or hood, operated in the positive-pressure or continuous-flow mode

OR

(ii) A full facepiece air-purifying respirator.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-155-17317, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-155-17317, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-155-17317, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), 296-155-17317, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-155-174   Cadmium.   (1) Scope. This standard applies to all occupational exposures to cadmium and cadmium compounds, in all forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium. Construction work is defined as work involving construction, alteration, and/or repair, including but not limited to the following:

(a) Wrecking, demolition, or salvage of structures where cadmium or materials containing cadmium are present;

(b) Use of cadmium containing-paints and cutting, brazing, burning, grinding, or welding on surfaces that were painted with cadmium-containing paints;

(c) Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain cadmium, or materials containing cadmium;

(d) Cadmium welding; cutting and welding cadmium-plated steel; brazing or welding with cadmium alloys;

(e) Installation of products containing cadmium;

(f) Electrical grounding with cadmium-welding, or electrical work using cadmium-coated conduit;

(g) Maintaining or retrofitting cadmium-coated equipment;

(h) Cadmium contamination/emergency cleanup; and

(i) Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.

(2) Definitions.

(a) Action level (AL) is defined as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 g/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

(b) Authorized person means any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas or any person authorized by WISHA or regulations issued under it to be in regulated areas.

(c) Competent person, in accordance with WAC 296-155-012(4), means a person designated by the employer to act on the employer's behalf who is capable of identifying existing and potential cadmium hazards in the workplace and the proper methods to control them in order to protect workers, and has the authority necessary to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or control such hazards. The duties of a competent person include at least the following: Determining prior to the performance of work whether cadmium is present in the workplace; establishing, where necessary, regulated areas and assuring that access to and from those areas is limited to authorized employees; assuring the adequacy of any employee exposure monitoring required by this standard; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal protective equipment and are trained in the use of appropriate methods of exposure control; assuring that proper hygiene facilities are provided and that workers are trained to use those facilities; and assuring that the engineering controls required by this standard are implemented, maintained in proper operating condition, and functioning properly.

(d) Director means the director of the department of labor and industries or authorized representative.

(e) Employee exposure and similar language referring to the air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

(f) Final medical determination is the written medical opinion of the employee's health status by the examining physician under subsection (12)(c) through (l) of this section or, if multiple physician review under subsection (12)(m) of this section or the alternative physician determination under subsection (12)(n) of this section is invoked, it is the final, written medical finding, recommendation or determination that emerges from that process.

(g) High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

(h) Regulated area means an area demarcated by the employer where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL).

(i) This section means this cadmium standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limit (PEL). The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of cadmium in excess of five micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 g/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average exposure (TWA).

(4) Exposure monitoring

(a) General.

(i) Prior to the performance of any construction work where employees may be potentially exposed to cadmium, the employer shall establish the applicability of this standard by determining whether cadmium is present in the workplace and whether there is the possibility that employee exposures will be at or above the action level. The employer shall designate a competent person who shall make this determination. Investigation and material testing techniques shall be used, as appropriate, in the determination. Investigation shall include a review of relevant plans, past reports, material safety data sheets, and other available records, and consultations with the property owner and discussions with appropriate individuals and agencies.

(ii) Where cadmium has been determined to be present in the workplace, and it has been determined that there is a possibility the employee's exposure will be at or above the action level, the competent person shall identify employees potentially exposed to cadmium at or above the action level.

(iii) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing-zone air samples that reflect the monitored employee's regular, daily 8-hour TWA exposure to cadmium.

(iv) Eight-hour TWA exposures shall be determined for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing-zone air samples reflecting full shift exposure on each shift, for each job classification, in each work area. Where several employees perform the same job tasks, in the same job classification, on the same shift, in the same work area, and the length, duration, and level of cadmium exposures are similar, an employer may sample a representative fraction of the employees instead of all employees in order to meet this requirement. In representative sampling, the employer shall sample the employee(s) expected to have the highest cadmium exposures.

(b) Specific.

(i) Initial monitoring. Except as provided for in (b)(iii) of this subsection, where a determination conducted under (a)(i) of this subsection shows the possibility of employee exposure to cadmium at or above the action level, the employer shall conduct exposure monitoring as soon as practicable that is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is or may be exposed to cadmium at or above the action level.

(ii) In addition, if the employee periodically performs tasks that may expose the employee to a higher concentration of airborne cadmium, the employee shall be monitored while performing those tasks.

(iii) Where the employer has objective data, as defined in subsection (14)(b) of this section, demonstrating that employee exposure to cadmium will not exceed airborne concentrations at or above the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling, the employer may rely upon such data instead of implementing initial monitoring.

(iv) Where a determination conducted under (a) or (b) of this subsection is made that a potentially exposed employee is not exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level, the employer shall make a written record of such determination. The record shall include at least the monitoring data developed under (b)(i) through (iii) of this subsection, where applicable, and shall also include the date of determination, and the name and Social Security number of each employee.

(c) Monitoring frequency (periodic monitoring).

(i) If the initial monitoring or periodic monitoring reveals employee exposures to be at or above the action level, the employer shall monitor at a frequency and pattern needed to assure that the monitoring results reflect with reasonable accuracy the employee's typical exposure levels, given the variability in the tasks performed, work practices, and environmental conditions on the job site, and to assure the adequacy of respiratory selection and the effectiveness of engineering and work practice controls.

(ii) If the initial monitoring or the periodic monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level and that result is confirmed by the results of another monitoring taken at least seven days later, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

(d) Additional monitoring. The employer also shall institute the exposure monitoring required under (b)(i) and (c) of this subsection whenever there has been a change in the raw materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or finished products that may result in additional employees being exposed to cadmium at or above the action level or in employees already exposed to cadmium at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, or whenever the employer or competent person has any reason to suspect that any other change might result in such further exposure.

(e) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) No later than five working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, the employer shall notify each affected employee individually in writing of the results. In addition, within the same time period, the employer shall post the results of the exposure monitoring in an appropriate location that is accessible to all affected employees.

(ii) Wherever monitoring results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the PEL, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the PEL has been exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL.

(f) Accuracy of measurement. The employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis that has an accuracy of not less than plus or minus 25 percent ( 25%), with a confidence level of 95 percent, for airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level and the permissible exposure limit.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) Establishment. The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium is, or can reasonably be expected to be in excess of the permissible exposure limit (PEL).

(b) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees of the boundaries of the regulated area, including employees who are or may be incidentally in the regulated areas, and that protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium in excess of the PEL.

(c) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(d) Provision of respirators. Each person entering a regulated area shall be supplied with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (7)(b) of this section.

(e) Prohibited activities. The employer shall assure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas, or carry the products associated with any of these activities into regulated areas or store such products in those areas.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Compliance hierarchy.

(i) Except as specified in (a)(ii) of this subsection, the employer shall implement engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to cadmium at or below the PEL, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) The requirement to implement engineering controls to achieve the PEL does not apply where the employer demonstrates the following:

(A) The employee is only intermittently exposed; and

(B) The employee is not exposed above the PEL on thirty or more days per year (twelve consecutive months).

(iii) Wherever engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer nonetheless shall implement such controls to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable. The employer shall supplement such controls with respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section and the PEL.

(iv) The employer shall not use employee rotation as a method of compliance.

(b) Specific operations.

(i) Abrasive blasting. Abrasive blasting on cadmium or cadmium-containing materials shall be conducted in a manner that will provide adequate protection.

(ii) Heating cadmium and cadmium-containing materials. Welding, cutting, and other forms of heating of cadmium or cadmium-containing materials shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-155-415 and 296-155-420, where applicable.

(c) Prohibitions.

(i) High speed abrasive disc saws and similar abrasive power equipment shall not be used for work on cadmium or cadmium-containing materials unless they are equipped with appropriate engineering controls to minimize emissions, if the exposure levels are above the PEL.

(ii) Materials containing cadmium shall not be applied by spray methods, if exposures are above the PEL, unless employees are protected with supplied-air respirators with full facepiece, hood, helmet, suit, operated in positive pressure mode and measures are instituted to limit overspray and prevent contamination of adjacent areas.

(d) Mechanical ventilation.

(i) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure shall be made as necessary to maintain its effectiveness.

(ii) Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure shall be made as necessary within five working days of any change in production, process, or control that might result in a significant increase in employee exposure to cadmium.

(iii) Recirculation of air. If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the system shall have a high efficiency filter and be monitored to assure effectiveness.

(iv) Procedures shall be developed and implemented to minimize employee exposure to cadmium when maintenance of ventilation systems and changing of filters is being conducted.

(e) Compliance program.

(i) Where employee exposure to cadmium exceeds the PEL and the employer is required under (a) of this subsection to implement controls to comply with the PEL, prior to the commencement of the job the employer shall establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL. To the extent that engineering and work practice controls cannot reduce exposures to or below the PEL, the employer shall include in the written compliance program the use of appropriate respiratory protection to achieve compliance with the PEL.

(ii) Written compliance programs shall be reviewed and updated as often and as promptly as necessary to reflect significant changes in the employer's compliance status or significant changes in the lowest air cadmium level that is technologically feasible.

(iii) A competent person shall review the comprehensive compliance program initially and after each change.

(iv) Written compliance programs shall be provided upon request for examination and copying to the director, or authorized representatives, affected employees, and designated employee representatives.

(7) Respirator protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls when employee exposures exceed the PEL.

(ii) Maintenance and repair activities, and brief or intermittent operations, for which employee exposures exceed the PEL and engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible or are not required.

(iii) Work operations in regulated areas specified in subsection (5) of this section.

(iv) Work operations for which the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work-practice controls, and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL.

(v) Emergencies.

(vi) Work operations for which an employee, who is exposed to cadmium at or above the action level, requests a respirator.

(vii) Work operations for which engineering controls are not required under (a)(ii) of this subsection to reduce employee exposures that exceed the PEL.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must develop, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, except WAC 296-842-14005, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(ii) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by subsection (12)(f)(ii) of this section to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.

(iii) No employees must use a respirator when, based on their recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to continue to function normally while using a respirator. If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from, their current job because of the employee's inability to use a respirator, the job limitation or removal must be conducted as required by (k) and (l) of this subsection.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

Provide employees with full facepiece respirators when they experience eye irritation.

Make sure high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or N-, R-, or P-100 series filters are provided for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

(ii) The employer shall provide a powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator when an employee entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator and such a respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

(8) Emergency situations. The employer shall develop and implement a written plan for dealing with emergency situations involving substantial releases of airborne cadmium. The plan shall include provisions for the use of appropriate respirators and personal protective equipment. In addition, employees not essential to correcting the emergency situation shall be restricted from the area and normal operations halted in that area until the emergency is abated.

(9) Protective work clothing and equipment

(a) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to airborne cadmium above the PEL or where skin or eye irritation is associated with cadmium exposure at any level, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that the employee uses, appropriate protective work clothing and equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's garments. Protective work clothing and equipment includes, but is not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, head coverings, and boots or foot coverings; and

(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment that complies with WAC 296-155-215.

(b) Removal and storage.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees remove all protective clothing and equipment contaminated with cadmium at the completion of the work shift and do so only in change rooms provided in accordance with subsection (10)(a) of this section.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no employee takes cadmium-contaminated protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for employees authorized to do so for purposes of laundering, cleaning, maintaining, or disposing of cadmium-contaminated protective clothing and equipment at an appropriate location or facility away from the workplace.

(iii) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing and equipment, when removed for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, is placed and stored in sealed, impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers that are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium dust.

(iv) The employer shall assure that containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment that are to be taken out of the change rooms or the workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance or disposal shall bear labels in accordance with subsection (13)(c) of this section.

(c) Cleaning, replacement, and disposal.

(i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing and equipment required by (a) of this subsection in a clean and dry condition as often as necessary to maintain its effectiveness, but in any event at least weekly. The employer is responsible for cleaning and laundering the protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection to maintain its effectiveness and is also responsible for disposing of such clothing and equipment.

(ii) The employer also is responsible for repairing or replacing required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain its effectiveness. When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working they shall be immediately mended, or the worksuit shall be immediately replaced.

(iii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of cadmium from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses cadmium into the air.

(iv) The employer shall assure that any laundering of contaminated clothing or cleaning of contaminated equipment in the workplace is done in a manner that prevents the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the permissible exposure limit prescribed in subsection (3) of this section.

(v) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with cadmium of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to cadmium, and that the clothing and equipment should be laundered or cleaned in a manner to effectively prevent the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the PEL.

(10) Hygiene areas and practices.

(a) General. For employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL, the employer shall provide clean change rooms, handwashing facilities, showers, and lunchroom facilities that comply with WAC 296-155-140.

(b) Change rooms. The employer shall assure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for street clothes and for protective clothing and equipment, which are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium and contamination of the employee's street clothes.

(c) Showers and handwashing facilities.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL shower during the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees who are exposed to cadmium above the PEL wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, or applying cosmetics.

(d) Lunchroom facilities.

(i) The employer shall assure that the lunchroom facilities are readily accessible to employees, that tables for eating are maintained free of cadmium, and that no employee in a lunchroom facility is exposed at any time to cadmium at or above a concentration of 2.5 g/m3.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface cadmium has been removed from the clothing and equipment by HEPA vacuuming or some other method that removes cadmium dust without dispersing it.

(11) Housekeeping.

(a) All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of cadmium.

(b) All spills and sudden releases of material containing cadmium shall be cleaned up as soon as possible.

(c) Surfaces contaminated with cadmium shall, wherever possible, be cleaned by vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne.

(d) HEPA-filtered vacuuming equipment or equally effective filtration methods shall be used for vacuuming. The equipment shall be used and emptied in a manner that minimizes the reentry of cadmium into the workplace.

(e) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne have been tried and found not to be effective.

(f) Compressed air shall not be used to remove cadmium from any surface unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.

(g) Waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, personal protective equipment, and clothing contaminated with cadmium and consigned for disposal shall be collected and disposed of in sealed impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers. These bags and containers shall be labeled in accordance with subsection (13)(b) of this section.

(12) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) Scope.

(A) Currently exposed -- The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed at or above the action level and all employees who perform the following tasks, operations, or jobs: Electrical grounding with cadmium-welding; cutting, brazing, burning, grinding, or welding on surfaces that were painted with cadmium-containing paints; electrical work using cadmium-coated conduit; use of cadmium containing paints; cutting and welding cadmium-plated steel; brazing or welding with cadmium alloys; fusing of reinforced steel by cadmium welding; maintaining or retrofitting cadmium-coated equipment; and, wrecking and demolition where cadmium is present. A medical surveillance program will not be required if the employer demonstrates that the employee:

(I) Is not currently exposed by the employer to airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level on thirty or more days per year (twelve consecutive months); and

(II) Is not currently exposed by the employer in those tasks on thirty or more days per year (twelve consecutive months).

(B) Previously exposed -- The employer shall also institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who might previously have been exposed to cadmium by the employer prior to the effective date of this section in tasks specified under (a)(i)(A) of this subsection, unless the employer demonstrates that the employee did not in the years prior to the effective date of this section work in those tasks for the employer with exposure to cadmium for an aggregated total of more than twelve months.

(ii) To determine an employee's fitness for using a respirator, the employer shall provide the limited medical examination specified in (f) of this subsection.

(iii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this section are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, who has read and is familiar with the health effects WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A, the regulatory text of this section, the protocol for sample handling and lab selection in WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F, and the questionnaire of WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D.

(iv) The employer shall provide the medical surveillance required by this section, including multiple physician review under (m) of this subsection without cost to employees, and at a time and place that is reasonable and convenient to employees.

(v) The employer shall assure that the collecting and handling of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (B2-M) taken from employees under this section is done in a manner that assures their reliability and that analysis of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (B2-M) taken from employees under this section is performed in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency to perform the particular analysis. (See WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F.)

(b) Initial examination.

(i) For employees covered by medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection, the employer shall provide an initial medical examination. The examination shall be provided to those employees within thirty days after initial assignment to a job with exposure to cadmium or no later than ninety days after the effective date of this section, whichever date is later.

(ii) The initial medical examination shall include:

(A) A detailed medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, reproductive, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; current usage of medication with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; and smoking history and current status; and

(B) Biological monitoring that includes the following tests:

(I) Cadmium in urine (CdU), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr);

(II) Beta-2 microglobulin in urine (B2-M), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr), with pH specified, as described in WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F; and

(III) Cadmium in blood (CdB), standardized to liters of whole blood (lwb).

(iii) Recent examination: An initial examination is not required to be provided if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of (b)(ii) of this subsection within the past twelve months. In that case, such records shall be maintained as part of the employee's medical record and the prior exam shall be treated as if it were an initial examination for the purposes of (c) and (d) of this subsection.

(c) Actions triggered by initial biological monitoring.

(i) If the results of the biological monitoring tests in the initial examination show the employee's CdU level to be at or below 3 g/g Cr, B2-M level to be at or below 300 g/g Cr and CdB level to be at or below 5 g/lwb, then:

(A) For employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i)(A) of this subsection because of current or anticipated exposure to cadmium, the employer shall provide the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance in accordance with the requirements in (d)(i) of this subsection; and

(B) For employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i)(B) of this subsection because of prior but not current exposure, the employer shall provide biological monitoring for CdU, B2-M, and CdB one year after the initial biological monitoring and then the employer shall comply with the requirements of (d)(vi) of this subsection.

(ii) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to exceed 3 g/g Cr, the level of B2-M to be in excess of 300 g/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 5 g/lwb, the employer shall:

(A) Within two weeks after receipt of biological monitoring results, reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium as follows:

(I) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene;

(II) Reevaluate the employee's respirator use, if any, and the respirator program;

(III) Review the hygiene facilities;

(IV) Reevaluate the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls;

(V) Assess the employee's smoking history and status;

(B) Within thirty days after the exposure reassessment, specified in (c)(ii)(A) of this subsection, take reasonable steps to correct any deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium; and

(C) Within ninety days after receipt of biological monitoring results, provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. If the physician determines that medical removal is not necessary, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 g/g Cr, B2-M level falls to or below 300 g/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 g/lwb, the employer shall:

(I) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection on a semiannual basis; and

(II) Provide annual medical examinations in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection.

(iii) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to be in excess of 15 g/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 15 g/lwb, or the level of B2-M to be in excess of 1,500 g/g Cr, the employer shall comply with the requirements of (c)(ii)(A) and (B) of this subsection. Within ninety days after receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 15 g/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 15 g/lwb; or B2-M exceeds 1500 /g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 g/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 g/liter of whole blood, then the physician shall medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 g/g Cr, B2-M level falls to or below 300 g/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 g/lwb, the employer shall:

(A) Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;

(B) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection on a quarterly basis; and

(C) Provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection.

(iv) For all employees to whom medical surveillance is provided, beginning on January 1, 1999, and in lieu of (c)(iii) of this subsection, whenever the results of initial biological monitoring tests show the employee's CdU level to be in excess of 7 g/g Cr, or B2-M level to be in excess of 750 g/g Cr, or CdB level to be in excess of 10 g/lwb, the employer shall comply with the requirements of (c)(ii)(A) and (B) of this subsection. Within ninety days after receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician shall determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 7 g/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 10 g/lwb; or B2-M exceeds 750 g/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 g/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 g/liter of whole blood, then the physician shall medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 g/g Cr, B2-M level falls to or below 300 g/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 g/lwb, the employer shall:

(A) Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;

(B) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection on a quarterly basis; and

(C) Provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection.

(d) Periodic medical surveillance.

(i) For each employee who is covered by medical surveillance under (a)(i)(A) of this subsection because of current or anticipated exposure to cadmium, the employer shall provide at least the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance, which consists of periodic medical examinations and periodic biological monitoring. A periodic medical examination shall be provided within one year after the initial examination required by (b) of this subsection and thereafter at least biennially. Biological sampling shall be provided at least annually either as part of a periodic medical examination or separately as periodic biological monitoring.

(ii) The periodic medical examination shall include:

(A) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; reproductive history; current use of medications with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; and as part of the medical and work history, for employees who wear respirators, questions 3 through 11 and 25 through 32 in WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D;

(B) A complete physical examination with emphasis on: Blood pressure, the respiratory system, and the urinary system;

(C) A 14 inch by 17 inch, or a reasonably standard sized posterior-anterior chest X ray (after the initial X ray, the frequency of chest X rays is to be determined by the examining physician);

(D) Pulmonary function tests, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1);

(E) Biological monitoring, as required in (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection;

(F) Blood analysis, in addition to the analysis required under (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection, including blood urea nitrogen, complete blood count, and serum creatinine;

(G) Urinalysis, in addition to the analysis required under (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection, including the determination of albumin, glucose, and total and low molecular weight proteins;

(H) For males over forty years old, prostate palpation, or other at least as effective diagnostic test(s); and

(I) Any additional tests or procedures deemed appropriate by the examining physician.

(iii) Periodic biological monitoring shall be provided in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection.

(iv) If the results of periodic biological monitoring or the results of biological monitoring performed as part of the periodic medical examination show the level of the employee's CdU, B2-M, or CdB to be in excess of the levels specified in (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection; or, beginning on January 1, 1999, in excess of the levels specified in (c)(ii) or (iv) of this subsection, the employer shall take the appropriate actions specified in (c)(ii) through (iv) of this subsection, respectively.

(v) For previously exposed employees under (a)(i)(B) of this subsection:

(A) If the employee's levels of CdU did not exceed 3 g/g Cr, CdB did not exceed 5 g/lwb, and B2-M did not exceed 300 g/g Cr in the initial biological monitoring tests, and if the results of the follow-up biological monitoring required by (c)(i)(B) of this subsection one year after the initial examination confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.

(B) If the initial biological monitoring results for CdU, CdB, or B2-M were in excess of the levels specified in (c)(i) of this subsection, but subsequent biological monitoring results required by (c)(ii) through (iv) of this subsection show that the employee's CdU levels no longer exceed 3 g/g Cr, CdB levels no longer exceed 5 g/lwb, and B2-M levels no longer exceed 300 g/g Cr, the employer shall provide biological monitoring for CdU, CdB, and B2-M one year after these most recent biological monitoring results. If the results of the follow-up biological monitoring specified in this section, confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.

(C) However, if the results of the follow-up tests specified in (d)(v)(A) or (B) of this subsection indicate that the level of the employee's CdU, B2-M, or CdB exceeds these same levels, the employer is required to provide annual medical examinations in accordance with the provisions of (d)(ii) of this subsection until the results of biological monitoring are consistently below these levels or the examining physician determines in a written medical opinion that further medical surveillance is not required to protect the employee's health.

(vi) A routine, biennial medical examination is not required to be provided in accordance with (c)(i) and (d) of this subsection if adequate medical records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection within the past twelve months. In that case, such records shall be maintained by the employer as part of the employee's medical record, and the next routine, periodic medical examination shall be made available to the employee within two years of the previous examination.

(e) Actions triggered by medical examinations. If the results of a medical examination carried out in accordance with this section indicate any laboratory or clinical finding consistent with cadmium toxicity that does not require employer action under (b), (c), or (d) of this subsection, the employer shall take the following steps and continue to take them until the physician determines that they are no longer necessary.

(i) Periodically reassess: The employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's smoking history and status; the respiratory protection program; the hygiene facilities; the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls; and take all reasonable steps to correct the deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium.

(ii) Provide semiannual medical reexaminations to evaluate the abnormal clinical sign(s) of cadmium toxicity until the results are normal or the employee is medically removed; and

(iii) Where the results of tests for total proteins in urine are abnormal, provide a more detailed medical evaluation of the toxic effects of cadmium on the employee's renal system.

(f) Examination for respirator use.

(i) To determine an employee's fitness for respirator use, the employer shall provide a medical examination that includes the elements specified in (f)(i)(A) through (D) of this subsection. This examination shall be provided prior to the employee's being assigned to a job that requires the use of a respirator or no later than ninety days after this section goes into effect, whichever date is later, to any employee without a medical examination within the preceding twelve months that satisfies the requirements of this section.

(A) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: Past exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; a description of the job for which the respirator is required; and questions 3 through 11 and 25 through 32 in WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D;

(B) A blood pressure test;

(C) Biological monitoring of the employee's levels of CdU, CdB and B2-M in accordance with the requirements of (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection, unless such results already have been obtained within the twelve months; and

(D) Any other test or procedure that the examining physician deems appropriate.

(ii) After reviewing all the information obtained from the medical examination required in (f)(i) of this subsection, the physician shall determine whether the employee is fit to wear a respirator.

(iii) Whenever an employee has exhibited difficulty in breathing during a respirator fit test or during use of a respirator, the employer, as soon as possible, shall provide the employee with a periodic medical examination in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection to determine the employee's fitness to wear a respirator.

(iv) Where the results of the examination required under (f)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this subsection are abnormal, medical limitation or prohibition of respirator use shall be considered. If the employee is allowed to wear a respirator, the employee's ability to continue to do so shall be periodically evaluated by a physician.

(g) Emergency examinations.

(i) In addition to the medical surveillance required in (b) through (f) of this subsection, the employer shall provide a medical examination as soon as possible to any employee who may have been acutely exposed to cadmium because of an emergency.

(ii) The examination shall include the requirements of (d)(ii), of this subsection, with emphasis on the respiratory system, other organ systems considered appropriate by the examining physician, and symptoms of acute overexposure, as identified in Appendix A, WAC 296-62-07441 (2)(b)(i) and (ii) and (4).

(h) Termination of employment examination.

(i) At termination of employment, the employer shall provide a medical examination in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection, including a chest X ray where necessary, to any employee to whom at any prior time the employer was required to provide medical surveillance under (a)(i) or (g) of this subsection. However, if the last examination satisfied the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection and was less than six months prior to the date of termination, no further examination is required unless otherwise specified in (c) or (e) of this subsection;

(ii) In addition, if the employer has discontinued all periodic medical surveillance under (d)(v) of this subsection, no termination of employment medical examination is required.

(i) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;

(iii) The employee's former, current, and anticipated future levels of occupational exposure to cadmium;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment, including respirators, used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used that equipment; and

(v) Relevant results of previous biological monitoring and medical examinations.

(j) Physician's written medical opinion.

(i) The employer shall promptly obtain a written, signed, medical opinion from the examining physician for each medical examination performed on each employee. This written opinion shall contain:

(A) The physician's diagnosis for the employee;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from further exposure to cadmium, including any indications of potential cadmium toxicity;

(C) The results of any biological or other testing or related evaluations that directly assess the employee's absorption of cadmium;

(D) Any recommended removal from, or limitation on the activities or duties of the employee or on the employee's use of personal protective equipment, such as respirators;

(E) A statement that the physician has clearly and carefully explained to the employee the results of the medical examination, including all biological monitoring results and any medical conditions related to cadmium exposure that require further evaluation or treatment, and any limitation on the employee's diet or use of medications.

(ii) The employer shall promptly obtain a copy of the results of any biological monitoring provided by an employer to an employee independently of a medical examination under (b) and (d) of this subsection, and, in lieu of a written medical opinion, an explanation sheet explaining those results.

(iii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal orally or in the written medical opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to cadmium.

(k) Medical removal protection (MRP).

(i) General.

(A) The employer shall temporarily remove an employee from work where there is excess exposure to cadmium on each occasion that medical removal is required under (c), (d), or (f) of this subsection and on each occasion that a physician determines in a written medical opinion that the employee should be removed from such exposure. The physician's determination may be based on biological monitoring results, inability to wear a respirator, evidence of illness, other signs or symptoms of cadmium-related dysfunction or disease, or any other reason deemed medically sufficient by the physician.

(B) The employer shall medically remove an employee in accordance with (k) of this subsection regardless of whether at the time of removal a job is available into which the removed employee may be transferred.

(C) Whenever an employee is medically removed under (k) of this subsection, the employer shall transfer the removed employee to a job where the exposure to cadmium is within the permissible levels specified in subsection (12) of this section as soon as one becomes available.

(D) For any employee who is medically removed under the provisions of (k)(i) of this subsection, the employer shall provide follow-up medical examinations semiannually until, in a written medical opinion, the examining physician determines that either the employee may be returned to his/her former job status or the employee must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure.

(E) The employer may not return an employee who has been medically removed for any reason to his/her former job status until a physician determines in a written medical opinion that continued medical removal is no longer necessary to protect the employee's health.

(ii) Where an employee is found unfit to wear a respirator under (f)(ii) of this subsection, the employer shall remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is above the PEL.

(iii) Where removal is based upon any reason other than the employee's inability to wear a respirator, the employer shall remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is at or above the action level.

(iv) Except as specified in (k)(v) of this subsection, no employee who was removed because his/her level of CdU, CdB and/or B2-M exceeded the trigger levels in (c) or (d) of this subsection may be returned to work with exposure to cadmium at or above the action level until the employee's levels of CdU fall to or below 3 g/g Cr, CdB fall to or below 5 g/lwb, and B2-M fall to or below 300 g/g Cr.

(v) However, when in the examining physician's opinion continued exposure to cadmium will not pose an increased risk to the employee's health and there are special circumstances that make continued medical removal an inappropriate remedy, the physician shall fully discuss these matters with the employee, and then in a written determination may return a worker to his/her former job status despite what would otherwise be unacceptably high biological monitoring results. Thereafter and until such time as the employee's biological monitoring results have decreased to levels where he/she could have been returned to his/her former job status, the returned employee shall continue medical surveillance as if he/she were still on medical removal. Until such time, the employee is no longer subject to mandatory medical removal. Subsequent questions regarding the employee's medical removal shall be decided solely by a final medical determination.

(vi) Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to cadmium or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of cadmium exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer shall provide the same medical removal protection benefits to that employee under (l) of this subsection as would have been provided had the removal been required under (k) of this subsection.

(l) Medical removal protection benefits.

(i) The employer shall provide medical removal protection benefits to an employee for up to a maximum of eighteen months each time, and while the employee is temporarily medically removed under (k) of this subsection.

(ii) For purposes of this section, the requirement that the employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that the employer shall maintain the total normal earnings, seniority, and all other employee rights and benefits of the removed employee, including the employee's right to his/her former job status, as if the employee had not been removed from the employee's job or otherwise medically limited.

(iii) Where, after eighteen months on medical removal because of elevated biological monitoring results, the employee's monitoring results have not declined to a low enough level to permit the employee to be returned to his/her former job status:

(A) The employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section in order to obtain a final medical determination as to whether the employee may be returned to his/her former job status or must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure; and

(B) The employer shall assure that the final medical determination indicates whether the employee may be returned to his/her former job status and what steps, if any, should be taken to protect the employee's health.

(iv) The employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in medical surveillance provided in accordance with this section.

(m) Multiple physician review.

(i) If the employer selects the initial physician to conduct any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee may designate a second physician to:

(A) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.

(ii) The employer shall promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician provided by the employer conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, multiple physician review upon the employee doing the following within fifteen days after receipt of this notice, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:

(A) Informing the employer that he or she intends to seek a medical opinion; and

(B) Initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.

(iii) If the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee shall assure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.

(iv) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee, through their respective physicians, shall designate a third physician to:

(A) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the other two physicians; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests, and discussions with the other two physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement among them.

(v) The employer shall act consistently with the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement that is consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the other two physicians.

(n) Alternate physician determination. The employer and an employee or designated employee representative may agree upon the use of any alternate form of physician determination in lieu of the multiple physician review provided by (m) of this subsection, so long as the alternative is expeditious and at least as protective of the employee.

(o) Information the employer must provide the employee.

(i) The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written medical opinion to the examined employee within five working days after receipt thereof.

(ii) The employer shall provide the employee with a copy of the employee's biological monitoring results and an explanation sheet explaining the results within five working days after receipt thereof.

(iii) Within thirty days after a request by an employee, the employer shall provide the employee with the information the employer is required to provide the examining physician under (i) of this subsection.

(p) Reporting. In addition to other medical events that are required to be reported on the OSHA Form No. 200, the employer shall report any abnormal condition or disorder caused by occupational exposure to cadmium associated with employment as specified in Chapter (V)(E) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Recordkeeping Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

(13) Communication of cadmium hazards to employees

(a) General. In communications concerning cadmium hazards, employers shall comply with the requirements of WISHA's Hazard Communication Standard, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part C, including but not limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training. In addition, employers shall comply with the following requirements:

(b) Warning signs.

(i) Warning signs shall be provided and displayed in regulated areas. In addition, warning signs shall be posted at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.

(ii) Warning signs required by (b)(i) of this subsection shall bear the following information:

Danger, Cadmium, Cancer Hazard,

Can Cause Lung and Kidney Disease,

Authorized Personnel Only,

Respirators Required in This Area



(iii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this section are illuminated, cleaned, and maintained as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(c) Warning labels.

(i) Shipping and storage containers containing cadmium, cadmium compounds, or cadmium contaminated clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris shall bear appropriate warning labels, as specified in (c)(ii) of this subsection.

(ii) The warning labels shall include at least the following information:

Danger, Contains Cadmium, Cancer Hazard,

Avoid Creating Dust,

Can Cause Lung and Kidney Disease



(iii) Where feasible, installed cadmium products shall have a visible label or other indication that cadmium is present.

(d) Employee information and training.

(i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to cadmium, assure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to cadmium and at least annually thereafter.

(iii) The employer shall make the training program understandable to the employee and shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special attention to the information incorporated in WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in the workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure to cadmium, especially exposures above the PEL;

(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal hygiene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment;

(E) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;

(F) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (12) of this section;

(G) The contents of this section and its appendices; and

(H) The employee's rights of access to records under chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B.

(iv) Additional access to information and training program and materials.

(A) The employer shall make a copy of this section and its appendices readily available to all affected employees and shall provide a copy without cost if requested.

(B) Upon request, the employer shall provide to the director or authorized representative, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

(e) Multiemployer workplace. In a multiemployer workplace, an employer who produces, uses, or stores cadmium in a manner that may expose employees of other employers to cadmium shall notify those employers of the potential hazard in accordance with WAC 296-800-170 of the chemical hazard communication program standard.

(14) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and keep an accurate record of all air monitoring for cadmium in the workplace.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The monitoring date, shift, duration, air volume, and results in terms of an eight-hour TWA of each sample taken, and if cadmium is not detected, the detection level;

(B) The name, Social Security number, and job classification of all employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposures the monitoring result is intended to represent, including, where applicable, a description of how it was determined that the employee's monitoring result could be taken to represent other employee's exposures;

(C) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) The type of respiratory protective device, if any, worn by the monitored employee and by any other employee whose exposure the monitoring result is intended to represent;

(E) A notation of any other conditions that might have affected the monitoring results;

(F) Any exposure monitoring or objective data that were used and the levels.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(iv) The employer shall also provide a copy of the results of an employee's air monitoring prescribed in subsection (4) of this section to an industry trade association and to the employee's union, if any, or, if either of such associations or unions do not exist, to another comparable organization that is competent to maintain such records and is reasonably accessible to employers and employees in the industry.

(b) Objective data for exemption from requirement for initial monitoring.

(i) For purposes of this section, objective data are information demonstrating that a particular product or material containing cadmium or a specific process, operation, or activity involving cadmium cannot release dust or fumes in concentrations at or above the action level even under the worst-case release conditions. Objective data can be obtained from an industry-wide study or from laboratory product test results from manufacturers of cadmium-containing products or materials. The data the employer uses from an industry-wide survey must be obtained under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

(ii) The employer shall maintain the record for at least 30 years of the objective data relied upon.

(c) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information about the employee:

(A) Name, Social Security number, and description of duties;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions and of the explanation sheets for biological monitoring results;

(C) A copy of the medical history, and the results of any physical examination and all test results that are required to be provided by this section, including biological tests, X rays, pulmonary function tests, etc., or that have been obtained to further evaluate any condition that might be related to cadmium exposure;

(D) The employee's medical symptoms that might be related to exposure to cadmium; and

(E) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (12)(i) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall assure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(iv) At the employee's request, the employer shall promptly provide a copy of the employee's medical record, or update as appropriate, to a medical doctor or a union specified by the employee.

(d) Training. The employer shall certify that employees have been trained by preparing a certification record which includes the identity of the person trained, the signature of the employer or the person who conducted the training, and the date the training was completed. The certification records shall be prepared at the completion of training and shall be maintained on file for one year beyond the date of training of that employee.

(e) Availability.

(i) Except as otherwise provided for in this section, access to all records required to be maintained by (a) through (d) of this subsection shall be in accordance with the provisions of chapter 296-802 WAC.

(ii) Within fifteen days after a request, the employer shall make an employee's medical records required to be kept by (c) of this subsection available for examination and copying to the subject employee, to designated representatives, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and after the employee's death or incapacitation, to the employee's family members.

(f) Transfer of records. Whenever an employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer or designated organization to receive and retain records for the prescribed period, the employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(15) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to cadmium.

(b) Observation procedures. When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with that clothing and equipment and shall assure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(16) Appendices.

(a) Compliance with the fit testing requirements in WAC 296-842-15005 are mandatory.

(b) Except where portions of WAC 296-62-07441, 296-62-07443, 296-62-07447, 296-62-07449, and 296-62-07451, Appendices A, B, D, E, and F, respectively, to this section are expressly incorporated in requirements of this section, these appendices are purely informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-155-174, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-155-174, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-155-174, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-155-174, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-155-174, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-155-174, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 93-21-075 (Order 93-06), 296-155-174, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), 296-155-174, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-155-17613   Respiratory protection.   (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by WAC 296-155-176, the employer must provide ((respirators that comply)) each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:

(a) Periods when an employee's exposure to lead exceeds the PEL.

(b) Work operations for which engineering controls and work-practices are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL.

(c) Periods when an employee requests a respirator.

(d) Periods when respirators are required to provide interim protection of employees while they perform the operations as specified in WAC 296-155-17609(2).

(2) Respirator program.

(a) The employer must develop, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(b) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by WAC 296-155-17621 (3)(a)(ii) to determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duty.

(3) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(a) Select and provide for employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(b) Provide employees with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) when an employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.

(c) Provide employees with full facepiece respirators instead of half facepiece respirators for protection against lead aerosols that may cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentration.

(d) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-155-17613, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-155-17613, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-155-17613, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), 296-155-17613, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-20-055, filed 10/3/05, effective 12/1/05)

WAC 296-155-17625   Employee information and training.   (1) General.

(a) The employer shall communicate information concerning lead hazards according to the requirements of WISHA's Hazard Communication Standard for the construction industry, chapter 296-800 WAC, including but not limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training. In addition, employers shall comply with the following requirements:

(b) ((For all employees who are)) The employer shall train each employee who is subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level on any day or who ((are)) is subject to exposure to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. The employer shall ((provide)) institute a training program in accordance with subsection (2) of this section and ((assure)) ensure employee participation.

(c) The employer shall provide the training program as initial training prior to the time of job assignment or prior to the start up date for this requirement, whichever comes last.

(d) The employer shall also provide the training program at least annually for each employee who is subject to lead exposure at or above the action level on any day.

(2) Training program. The employer shall assure that each employee is trained in the following:

(a) The content of this standard and its appendices;

(b) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level;

(c) The training requirements for respiratory protection as required by WAC 296-842-110, 296-842-19005, and 296-842-16005;

(d) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females and hazards to the fetus and additional precautions for employees who are pregnant);

(e) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment including training of employees to follow relevant good work practices described in Appendix B, WAC 296-155-17652;

(f) The contents of any compliance plan in effect;

(g) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician; and

(h) The employee's right of access to records under Part B, chapter 296-62 WAC and chapter 296-800 WAC.

(3) Access to information and training materials.

(a) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(b) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to affected employees and their designated representatives, and the director.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-20-055, 296-155-17625, filed 10/3/05, effective 12/1/05; 05-03-093, 296-155-17625, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-155-17625, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-155-17625, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), 296-155-17625, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-13-115, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02)

WAC 296-155-717   Training.   (1) Training personnel. Training required by this section must be provided by a qualified person(s).

(2) Fall hazard training. The employer ((must provide)) shall train each employee exposed to a fall hazard in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. The employer shall institute a training program ((for all employees exposed to fall hazards)) as required by chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, and ensure employee participation in the program.

(3) Special training programs. In addition to the training required in subsection (2) of this section, the employer must provide special training to employees engaged in the following activities:

(a) Multiple lift rigging procedure. The employer must ensure that each employee who performs multiple lift rigging has been provided training in the following areas:

(i) The nature of the hazards associated with multiple lifts; and

(ii) The proper procedures and equipment to perform multiple lifts required by WAC 296-155-704(5).

(b) Connector procedures. The employer must ensure that each connector has been provided training in the following areas:

(i) The nature of the hazards associated with connecting (see Appendix D for nonmandatory training guidelines); and

(ii) The establishment, access, proper connecting techniques, double connections, and work practices, required by WAC 296-155-708(3) and Part C-1, chapter 296-155 WAC.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 02-13-115, 296-155-717, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02.]

OTS-2226.1


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-800-16002   Compliance duties owed to each employee.   (1) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee may be considered a separate violation.

(2) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive training or that the employer train employees, provide training to employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee may be considered a separate violation.

[]

OTS-2227.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-01-073, filed 12/20/05, effective 3/1/06)

WAC 296-811-40015   Self-contained breathing apparatus' (SCBAs).  

((You must:))

Provide SCBAs, other than escape self-contained breathing apparatus' (ESCBAs), and make sure they are used by each fire brigade member((s)) who ((do)) does interior structural fire fighting.

Make sure SCBAs do the following:

Meet the requirements found in ((another chapter, Respirators,)) chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.

Are positive-pressure or pressure-demand type.

Use only compressed-air cylinders that:

▪ Meet department of transportation (DOT) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) requirements.

Have a service life of at least thirty minutes, as required by 42 CFR, Part 84.

Have an automatic alarm that can be heard when seventy-five to eighty percent of its service life has been used up.

Note: An SCBA can have a quick-disconnect valve or "buddy breathing" accessory only if the valve or accessory does not do any of the following:
Damage the SCBA.
Restrict the SCBA's air flow.
Interfere with the SCBA's normal operation.
The "buddy breathing" accessory or quick-disconnect valve need not be certified by NIOSH.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 06-01-073, 296-811-40015, filed 12/20/05, effective 3/1/06.]

OTS-2228.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-11-060, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03)

WAC 296-817-20020   Make sure exposed employees receive training about noise and hearing protection.  

You must:

Train ((all)) each employee((s)) whose noise exposure equals or exceeds 85 dBA TWA8

Provide training when an employee is first assigned to a position involving noise exposure that equals or exceeds 85 dBA TWA8 and at least annually after that

Update information provided in the training program to be consistent with changes in controls, hearing protectors and work processes

Make sure your noise and hearing protection training includes:

The effects of noise on hearing (including both occupational and nonoccupational exposures)

Noise controls used in your workplace

The purpose of hearing protectors: The advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of various types

Instructions about selecting, fitting, using, and caring for hearing protection

The purpose and procedures for program evaluation including audiometric testing and hearing protection auditing when you choose to rely upon auditing (see WAC 296-817-500)

The employees' right to access records kept by the employer.

Maintain a written program describing initial and refresher training.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 03-11-060, 296-817-20020, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03.]

OTS-2229.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-842-12005   Develop and maintain a written program.  


Exemption: This section does NOT apply to respirator use that is voluntary. See WAC 296-842-11005 for voluntary use program requirements.

(1) Develop a complete worksite-specific written respiratory protection program that includes the applicable elements listed in Table 3. The program shall cover each employee required by this section to use a respirator.


Note: Pay for respirators, medical evaluations, fit testing, training, maintenance, travel costs, and wages.

(2) Keep your program current and effective by evaluating it and making corrections. Do ALL of the following:

(a) Make sure procedures and program specifications are followed and appropriate.

(b) Make sure selected respirators continue to be effective in protecting employees. For example, if changes in work area conditions, level of employee exposure, or employee physical stress have occurred, you need to reevaluate your respirator selection.

(c) Have supervisors periodically monitor employee respirator use to make sure employees are using them properly.

(d) Regularly ask employees required to use respirators about their views concerning program effectiveness and whether they have problems with:

Respirator fit during use

Any effects of respirator use on work performance

Respirators being appropriate for the hazards encountered

Proper use under current worksite conditions

Proper maintenance.

(e) When developing your written program include applicable elements listed in Table 3.

Table 3

Required Elements for Required-Use Respirator Programs
Selection:
Procedures for respirator selection
A list specifying the appropriate respirator for each respiratory hazard in your workplace
Procedures for issuing the proper type of respirator, if appropriate
Medical evaluation provisions
Fit-test provisions and procedures, if tight-fitting respirators are selected
Training provisions that address:
Respiratory hazards encountered during:
▪ Routine activities
▪ Infrequent activities, for example, bimonthly cleaning of equipment
▪ Reasonably foreseeable emergencies, for example, rescue, spill response, or escape situations
Proper use of respirators, for example, how to put on or remove respirators, and use limitations.
Note: You do NOT need to repeat training on respiratory hazards if employees have been trained on this in compliance with other rules such as WAC 296-800-170, employer chemical hazard communication in the ((WISHA)) DOSH safety and health core rules.
Respirator use procedures for:
Routine activities
Infrequent activities
Reasonably foreseeable emergencies
Maintenance:
Procedures and schedules for respirator maintenance covering:
▪ Cleaning and disinfecting
▪ Storage
▪ Inspection and repair
▪ When to discard respirators
A cartridge or canister change schedule IF air-purifying respirators are selected for use against gas or vapor contaminants AND an end-of-service-life-indicator (ESLI) is not available. In addition, provide:
▪ The data and other information you relied on to calculate change schedule values (for example, highest contaminant concentration estimates, duration of employee respirator use, expected maximum humidity levels, user breathing rates, and safety factors)
Procedures to ensure a safe air quantity and quality IF atmosphere-supplying respirators (air-line or SCBA) are selected
Procedures for evaluating program effectiveness on a regular basis

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-842-12005, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 03-20-114, 296-842-12005, filed 10/1/03, effective 1/1/04.]

OTS-2230.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-848-40045   Respirators.  

IMPORTANT:

The requirements in this section are in addition to the requirements found in other chapters:

Airborne contaminants, chapter 296-841 WAC.

Respirators, chapter 296-842 WAC.

You must:

Provide ((respirators)) each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section, and require that employees use them in circumstances where exposure is above the permissible exposure limit (PEL), including any of the following circumstances:

Employees are in an exposure control area.

Feasible exposure controls are being put in place.

Where you determine that exposure controls are not feasible.

Feasible exposure controls do not reduce exposures to, or below, the PEL.

Emergencies.

Provide high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

Provide a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) to employees required to use respirators when:

The employee chooses to use this type of respirator or a licensed health care professional (LHCP) recommends this type of respirator in their written opinion.

AND

It will provide proper protection.

Follow these additional specifications for inorganic arsenic compounds with significant vapor pressure such as arsenic trichloride and arsenic phosphide:

Select front- or back-mounted gas masks equipped with HEPA filters and acid gas canisters or any full facepiece supplied-air respirator, when concentrations are at or below 500 mg/m3.

Select for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators equipped with HEPA (or equivalent) filters and acid gas cartridges when concentrations are at or below 100.

Prohibit the use of half-facepiece respirators for protection against arsenic trichloride. This is because arsenic trichloride is corrosive and rapidly absorbed through the skin.

Note: When selecting air-purifying respirators for protection against inorganic arsenic, you'll need to consider whether other contaminants could be present at levels above permissible exposure limits and determine if a combination filter/gas-sorbent cartridge or canister is appropriate.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-848-40045, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-01-173, 296-848-40045, filed 12/21/04, effective 5/1/05.]

OTS-2231.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-849-13045   Respirators.  

IMPORTANT:

These requirements are in addition to the requirements found in other chapters:

Airborne contaminants, chapter 296-841 WAC;

Respirators, chapter 296-842 WAC.

You must:

Provide ((respirators)) each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section, and require that employees use them in circumstances where exposure is above either permissible exposure limit (PEL) for benzene, including any of the following circumstances:

Employees are in an exposure control area;

Feasible exposure controls are being put in place;

Where you determine that exposure controls are not feasible;

Feasible exposure controls do not reduce exposures to, or below, a PEL;

Emergencies.

Provide employees, for escape, either:

Any full-facepiece organic vapor gas mask;

OR

Any full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA);

OR

A hood-style SCBA that operates in positive-pressure mode.

Use organic vapor cartridges or canisters on powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

Use only chin-style canisters on full-facepiece gas masks.

Note: When other contaminants present a hazard, then you will need to use a filter or other combination sorbent cartridge that removes the additional contaminants.

You must:

Make sure respirator cartridges or canisters are replaced at the beginning of each work shift, or sooner if their service life has expired.

Make sure canisters on air-purifying respirators have a minimum service life of four hours when tested under these conditions:

A benzene concentration of 150 ppm;

A temperature of 25C;

A relative humidity of 85%;

A flow rate of one of the following:

▪ 64 liters per minute (lpm) for nonpowered air-purifying respirators;

▪ 115 lpm for tight-fitting PAPRs;

▪ 170 lpm for loose-fitting PAPRs.

Provide an employee a respirator with low breathing resistance, such as a PAPR or an air-line respirator when the:

Employee cannot use a negative-pressure respirator;

OR

A licensed health care professional's (LHCP's) written opinion allows this type of respirator.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-849-13045, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-13-152, 296-849-13045, filed 6/21/05, effective 8/1/05; 05-01-172, 296-849-13045, filed 12/21/04, effective 3/1/05.]

OTS-2232.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-855-40040   Respirators.  

IMPORTANT:

The requirements in this section are in addition to the requirements found in another chapter, Respirators, chapter 296-842 WAC.

Medical evaluations meeting all requirements of WAC 296-855-30030, will fulfill the medical evaluation requirement found in another chapter, Respirators, chapter 296-842 WAC.

You must:

Provide ((respirators)) each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section, and require that employees use them in circumstances where exposure is above either PEL, such as when:

▪ Feasible exposure controls are being put in place.

▪ Employees conduct work operations such as maintenance and repair activities or vessel cleaning for which exposure controls are not feasible.

▪ Feasible exposure controls do not reduce exposures to or below the PELs.

▪ Employees are responding to emergencies.

Ensure all respirator use is accompanied by eye protection either through the use of full-facepiece respirators, hoods, or chemical goggles.

Develop, implement, and maintain a respirator program that meets the requirements of another chapter, Respirators, chapter 296-842 WAC, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

Limit selection and use of respirators, including escape respirators, to those with a full-facepiece or another type of respirator providing eye protection. This is necessary to prevent eye irritation or injury from EtO exposure.

Equip full-facepiece air-purifying respirators, including escape respirators, with a front- or back-mounted canister certified for protection against ethylene oxide.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-855-40040, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-17-168, 296-855-40040, filed 8/23/05, effective 1/1/06.]

OTS-2233.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-05-072, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07)

WAC 296-856-40030   Respirators.  

IMPORTANT:

The requirements in this section are in addition to the requirements found in the following separate chapters:

Respiratory hazards, chapter 296-841 WAC.

Respirators, chapter 296-842 WAC.

Medical evaluations meeting all requirements of Medical and emergency evaluations, WAC 296-856-30020, will fulfill the medical evaluations requirements found in Respirators, chapter 296-842 WAC, a separate chapter.

You must:

Develop, implement, and maintain a respirator program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

Require that employees use respirators in any of the following circumstances:

▪ Employees are in an exposure control area.

▪ Feasible exposure controls are being put in place.

▪ Where you determine that exposure controls are not feasible.

▪ Feasible exposure controls do not reduce exposures to, or below, the PEL.

▪ Employees are performing tasks presumed to have exposures above the PEL.

▪ Emergencies.

Select, and provide to ((employees)) each employee who uses a respirator required by this chapter, an appropriate respirator((s)) as specified in this section and in WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

Equip full-facepiece air-purifying respirators with cartridges or canisters approved for protection against formaldehyde.

Provide to employees, for escape, one of the following respirator options:

A self-contained breathing apparatus operated in demand or pressure-demand mode;

OR

A full-facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with a chin-style, or front- or back-mounted industrial size canister or cartridge.

Make sure all air-purifying respirator use is accompanied by eye protection either through the use of full-facepiece models or effective, gas-proof chemical goggles.

Provide employees with powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) when:

The employee has difficulty using a negative pressure respirator or a LHCP recommends this type of respirator;

AND

The employee chooses to use this type of respirator.

Replace the chemical cartridges or canisters on air-purifying respirators;

When indicated by NIOSH-approved, end-of-service-life indicators if these are used;

OR

When NIOSH-approved ESLIs aren't used:

▪ At times specified by your cartridge change schedule;

OR

▪ At the end of the work shift, when this occurs before the time indicated by your cartridge change schedule.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-05-072, 296-856-40030, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 06-08-087, 296-856-40030, filed 4/4/06, effective 9/1/06.]

Washington State Code Reviser's Office