WSR 11-09-090

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY


[ Order 10-10 -- Filed April 20, 2011, 12:00 p.m. , effective May 21, 2011 ]


Effective Date of Rule: Thirty-one days after filing.

Purpose: Portions of the surface water quality standards (chapter 173-201A WAC) adopted in 2003 and 2006 contain typographic errors and narrative text or tables that need more clarity. This rule-making process is limited to correcting those minor, nonsubstantive changes. These changes will make the rule more accurate and easier to understand, and will clarify certain sections of the rule which have caused confusion for some stakeholders.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 173-201A-010, 173-201A-020, 173-201A-200, 173-201A-210, 173-201A-240, 173-201A-260, 173-201A-420, 173-201A-600, and 173-201A-602.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 90.48.035.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 11-03-066 on January 18, 2011.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: The proposed rule language, filed on January 18, 2011, included a record in WAC 173-201A-602 of a stream in WRIA 10 called Swam Creek. Two individuals submitted comments stating that Swam Creek was the incorrect stream name, and that it should be changed to Swan Creek. Based on these comments, and verified on other map sources, ecology agreed that the stream name should be Swan Creek and corrected the rule language.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) region 10 felt the proposed language in WAC 173-201A-600(2) did not accurately mirror the jurisdiction language used by USEPA and the federal regulations. Ecology acknowledged that the USEPA's second proposed language option met the needs of describing the necessary correction to WAC 173-201A-600(2). The WAC 173-201A-600(2) rule language was changed to: "The water quality standards for surface waters for the state of Washington do not apply to segments of waters that are on Indian reservations, except for surface waters overlying fee lands on the Puyallup reservation consistent with the Puyallup Tribe Land Claims Settlement of 1989."

A final cost-benefit analysis is available by contacting Susan Braley, P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600, phone (360) 407-6414, fax (360) 407-6426, e-mail swqs@ecy.wa.gov.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 9, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 9, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Date Adopted: April 20, 2011.

Ted Sturdevant

Director

OTS-3532.3


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 02-14, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03)

WAC 173-201A-010   Purpose.   (1) The purpose of this chapter is to establish water quality standards for surface waters of the state of Washington consistent with public health and public enjoyment of the waters and the propagation and protection of fish, shellfish, and wildlife, pursuant to the provisions of chapter 90.48 RCW. All actions must comply with this chapter. As part of this chapter:

(a) All surface waters are protected by numeric and narrative criteria, designated uses, and an antidegradation policy.

(b) Based on the use designations, numeric and narrative criteria are assigned to a water body to protect the existing and designated uses.

(c) Where multiple criteria for the same water quality parameter are assigned to a water body to protect different uses, the most stringent criteria for each parameter is to be applied.

(2) Surface waters of the state include lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, inland waters, saltwaters, wetlands, and all other surface waters and water courses within the jurisdiction of the state of Washington.

(3) This chapter will be reviewed periodically by the department and appropriate revisions will be undertaken.

(4) WAC 173-201A-200 through 173-201A-260 and 173-201A-600 through 173-201A-612 describe the designated water uses and criteria for the state of Washington. These criteria were established based on existing and potential water uses of the surface waters of the state. Consideration was also given to both the natural water quality potential and its limitations. Compliance with the surface water quality standards of the state of Washington requires compliance with chapter 173-201A WAC, Water quality standards for surface waters of the state of Washington, chapter 173-204 WAC, Sediment management standards, and applicable federal rules.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-010, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW. 92-24-037 (Order 92-29), 173-201A-010, filed 11/25/92, effective 12/26/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 02-14, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03)

WAC 173-201A-020   Definitions.   The following definitions are intended to facilitate the use of chapter 173-201A WAC:

"1-DMax" or "1-day maximum temperature" is the highest water temperature reached on any given day. This measure can be obtained using calibrated maximum/minimum thermometers or continuous monitoring probes having sampling intervals of thirty minutes or less.

"7-DADMax" or "7-day average of the daily maximum temperatures" is the arithmetic average of seven consecutive measures of daily maximum temperatures. The 7-DADMax for any individual day is calculated by averaging that day's daily maximum temperature with the daily maximum temperatures of the three days prior and the three days after that date.

"Action value" means a total phosphorus (TP) value established at the upper limit of the trophic states in each ecoregion (see Table 230(1)). Exceedance of an action value indicates that a problem is suspected. A lake-specific study may be needed to confirm if a nutrient problem ((exits)) exists.

"Actions" refers broadly to any human projects or activities.

"Acute conditions" are changes in the physical, chemical, or biologic environment which are expected or demonstrated to result in injury or death to an organism as a result of short-term exposure to the substance or detrimental environmental condition.

"AKART" is an acronym for "all known, available, and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment." AKART shall represent the most current methodology that can be reasonably required for preventing, controlling, or abating the pollutants associated with a discharge. The concept of AKART applies to both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. The term "best management practices," typically applied to nonpoint source pollution controls is considered a subset of the AKART requirement.

"Background" means the biological, chemical, and physical conditions of a water body, outside the area of influence of the discharge under consideration. Background sampling locations in an enforcement action would be up-gradient or outside the area of influence of the discharge. If several discharges to any water body exist, and enforcement action is being taken for possible violations to the standards, background sampling would be undertaken immediately up-gradient from each discharge.

"Best management practices (BMP)" means physical, structural, and/or managerial practices approved by the department that, when used singularly or in combination, prevent or reduce pollutant discharges.

"Biological assessment" is an evaluation of the biological condition of a water body using surveys of aquatic community structure and function and other direct measurements of resident biota in surface waters.

"Bog" means those wetlands that are acidic, peat forming, and whose primary water source is precipitation, with little, if any, outflow.

"Carcinogen" means any substance or agent that produces or tends to produce cancer in humans. For implementation of this chapter, the term carcinogen will apply to substances on the United States Environmental Protection Agency lists of A (known human) and B (probable human) carcinogens, and any substance which causes a significant increased incidence of benign or malignant tumors in a single, well conducted animal bioassay, consistent with the weight of evidence approach specified in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment as set forth in 51 FR 33992 et seq. as presently published or as subsequently amended or republished.

"Chronic conditions" are changes in the physical, chemical, or biologic environment which are expected or demonstrated to result in injury or death to an organism as a result of repeated or constant exposure over an extended period of time to a substance or detrimental environmental condition.

"Created wetlands" means those wetlands intentionally created from nonwetland sites to produce or replace natural wetland habitat.

"Critical condition" is when the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the receiving water environment interact with the effluent to produce the greatest potential adverse impact on aquatic biota and existing or designated water uses. For steady-state discharges to riverine systems the critical condition may be assumed to be equal to the 7Q10 flow event unless determined otherwise by the department.

"Damage to the ecosystem" means any demonstrated or predicted stress to aquatic or terrestrial organisms or communities of organisms which the department reasonably concludes may interfere in the health or survival success or natural structure of such populations. This stress may be due to, but is not limited to, alteration in habitat or changes in water temperature, chemistry, or turbidity, and shall consider the potential build up of discharge constituents or temporal increases in habitat alteration which may create such stress in the long term.

"Department" means the state of Washington department of ecology.

"Designated uses" are those uses specified in this chapter for each water body or segment, regardless of whether or not the uses are currently attained.

"Director" means the director of the state of Washington department of ecology.

"Drainage ditch" means that portion of a designed and constructed conveyance system that serves the purpose of transporting surplus water; this may include natural water courses or channels incorporated in the system design, but does not include the area adjacent to the water course or channel.

"Ecoregions" are defined using EPAs Ecoregions of the Pacific Northwest Document No. 600/3-86/033 July 1986 by Omernik and Gallant.

"Enterococci" refers to a subgroup of ((the)) fecal streptococci that includes S. faecalis, S. faecium, S. gallinarum, and S. avium. The enterococci are differentiated from other streptococci by their ability to grow in 6.5% sodium chloride, at pH 9.6, and at 10C and 45C.

"E. coli" or "Escherichia coli" is an aerobic and facultative gram negative nonspore forming rod shaped bacterium that can grow at 44.5 degrees Celsius that is ortho-nitrophenyl-B-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) positive and Methylumbelliferyl glucuronide (MUG) positive.

"Existing uses" means those uses actually attained in fresh or marine waters on or after November 28, 1975, whether or not they are designated uses. Introduced species that are not native to Washington, and put-and-take fisheries comprised of nonself-replicating introduced native species, do not need to receive full support as an existing use.

"Extraordinary primary contact" means waters providing extraordinary protection against waterborne disease or that serve as tributaries to extraordinary quality shellfish harvesting areas.

"Fecal coliform" means that portion of the coliform group which is present in the intestinal tracts and feces of warm-blooded animals as detected by the product of acid or gas from lactose in a suitable culture medium within twenty-four hours at 44.5 plus or minus 0.2 degrees Celsius.

"Geometric mean" means either the nth root of a product of n factors, or the antilogarithm of the arithmetic mean of the logarithms of the individual sample values.

"Ground water exchange" means the discharge and recharge of ground water to a surface water. Discharge is inflow from an aquifer, seeps or springs that increases the available supply of surface water. Recharge is outflow downgradient to an aquifer or downstream to surface water for base flow maintenance. Exchange may include ground water discharge in one season followed by recharge later in the year.

"Hardness" means a measure of the calcium and magnesium salts present in water. For purposes of this chapter, hardness is measured in milligrams per liter and expressed as calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

"Irrigation ditch" means that portion of a designed and constructed conveyance system that serves the purpose of transporting irrigation water from its supply source to its place of use; this may include natural water courses or channels incorporated in the system design, but does not include the area adjacent to the water course or channel.

"Lakes" shall be distinguished from riverine systems as being water bodies, including reservoirs, with a mean detention time of greater than fifteen days.

"Lake-specific study" means a study intended to quantify existing nutrient concentrations, determine existing characteristic uses for lake class waters, and potential lake uses. The study determines how to protect these uses and if any uses are lost or impaired because of nutrients, algae, or aquatic plants. An appropriate study must recommend a criterion for total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) in g/l, or other nutrient that impairs characteristic uses by causing excessive algae blooms or aquatic plant growth.

"Mean detention time" means the time obtained by dividing a reservoir's mean annual minimum total storage by the thirty-day ten-year low-flow from the reservoir.

"Migration or translocation" means any natural movement of an organism or community of organisms from one locality to another locality.

"Mixing zone" means that portion of a water body adjacent to an effluent outfall where mixing results in the dilution of the effluent with the receiving water. Water quality criteria may be exceeded in a mixing zone as conditioned and provided for in WAC 173-201A-400.

"Natural conditions" or "natural background levels" means surface water quality that was present before any human-caused pollution. When estimating natural conditions in the headwaters of a disturbed watershed it may be necessary to use the less disturbed conditions of a neighboring or similar watershed as a reference condition. (See also WAC 173-201A-260(1).)

"New or expanded actions" mean human actions that occur or are regulated for the first time, or human actions expanded such that they result in an increase in pollution, after July 1, 2003, for the purpose of applying this chapter only.

"Nonpoint source" means pollution that enters any waters of the state from any dispersed land-based or water-based activities((,)) including, but not limited to, atmospheric deposition((,)); surface water runoff from agricultural lands, urban areas, or forest lands((,)); subsurface or underground sources((,)); or discharges from boats or marine vessels not otherwise regulated under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program.

"Permit" means a document issued pursuant to chapter 90.48 RCW specifying the waste treatment and control requirements and waste discharge conditions.

"pH" means the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

"Pollution" means such contamination, or other alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties, of any waters of the state, including change in temperature, taste, color, turbidity, or odor of the waters, or such discharge of any liquid, gaseous, solid, radioactive, or other substance into any waters of the state as will or is likely to create a nuisance or render such waters harmful, detrimental, or injurious to the public health, safety, or welfare, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other legitimate beneficial uses, or to livestock, wild animals, birds, fish, or other aquatic life.

"Primary contact recreation" means activities where a person would have direct contact with water to the point of complete submergence including, but not limited to, skin diving, swimming, and water skiing.

"Secondary contact recreation" means activities where a person's water contact would be limited (e.g., wading or fishing) to the extent that bacterial infections of eyes, ears, respiratory or digestive systems, or urogenital areas would normally be avoided.

"Shoreline stabilization" means the anchoring of soil at the water's edge, or in shallow water, by fibrous plant root complexes; this may include long-term accretion of sediment or peat, along with shoreline progradation in such areas.

"Storm water" means that portion of precipitation that does not naturally percolate into the ground or evaporate, but flows via overland flow, interflow, pipes, and other features of a storm water drainage system into a defined surface water body, or a constructed infiltration facility.

"Storm water attenuation" means the process by which peak flows from precipitation are reduced and runoff velocities are slowed as a result of passing through a surface water body.

"Surface waters of the state" includes lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, inland waters, saltwaters, wetlands and all other surface waters and water courses within the jurisdiction of the state of Washington.

"Temperature" means water temperature expressed in degrees Celsius (C).

"Treatment wetlands" means those wetlands intentionally constructed on nonwetland sites and managed for the primary purpose of wastewater or storm water treatment. Treatment wetlands are considered part of a collection and treatment system, and generally are not subject to the criteria of this chapter.

"Trophic state" means a classification of the productivity of a lake ecosystem. Lake productivity depends on the amount of biologically available nutrients in water and sediments and may be based on total phosphorus (TP). Secchi depth and chlorophyll-a measurements may be used to improve the trophic state classification of a lake. Trophic states used in this rule include, from least to most nutrient rich, ultra-oligotrophic, oligotrophic, lower mesotrophic, upper mesotrophic, and eutrophic.

"Turbidity" means the clarity of water expressed as nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) and measured with a calibrated turbidimeter.

"Upwelling" means the natural process along Washington's Pacific Coast where the summer prevailing northerly winds produce a seaward transport of surface water. Cold, deeper more saline waters rich in nutrients and low in dissolved oxygen, rise to replace the surface water. The cold oxygen deficient water enters Puget Sound and other coastal estuaries at depth where it displaces the existing deep water and eventually rises to replace the surface water. Such surface water replacement results in an overall increase in salinity and nutrients accompanied by a depression in dissolved oxygen. Localized upwelling of the deeper water of Puget Sound can occur year-round under influence of tidal currents, winds, and geomorphic features.

"USEPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Wetlands" means areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas. Wetlands do not include those artificial wetlands intentionally created from nonwetland sites, including, but not limited to, irrigation and drainage ditches, grass-lined swales, canals, detention facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, farm ponds, and landscape amenities, or those wetlands created after July 1, 1990, that were unintentionally created as a result of the construction of a road, street, or highway. Wetlands may include those artificial wetlands intentionally created from nonwetland areas to mitigate the conversion of wetlands. (Water bodies not included in the definition of wetlands as well as those mentioned in the definition are still waters of the state.)

"Wildlife habitat" means waters of the state used by, or that directly or indirectly provide food support to, fish, other aquatic life, and wildlife for any life history stage or activity.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-020, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW and 40 CFR 131. 97-23-064 (Order 94-19), 173-201A-020, filed 11/18/97, effective 12/19/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW. 92-24-037 (Order 92-29), 173-201A-020, filed 11/25/92, effective 12/26/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 06-04, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06)

WAC 173-201A-200   Fresh water designated uses and criteria.   The following uses are designated for protection in fresh surface waters of the state. Use designations for water bodies are listed in WAC 173-201A-600 and 173-201A-602.

(1) Aquatic life uses. Aquatic life uses are designated based on the presence of, or the intent to provide protection for, the key uses identified in (a) of this subsection. It is required that all indigenous fish and nonfish aquatic species be protected in waters of the state in addition to the key species described below.

(a) The categories for aquatic life uses are:

(i) Char spawning and rearing. The key identifying characteristics of this use are spawning or early juvenile rearing by native char (bull trout and Dolly Varden), or use by other aquatic species similarly dependent on such cold water. Other common characteristic aquatic life uses for waters in this category include summer foraging and migration of native char; and spawning, rearing, and migration by other salmonid species.

(ii) Core summer salmonid habitat. The key identifying characteristics of this use are summer (June 15 - September 15) salmonid spawning or emergence, or adult holding; use as important summer rearing habitat by one or more salmonids; or foraging by adult and subadult native char. Other common characteristic aquatic life uses for waters in this category include spawning outside of the summer season, rearing, and migration by salmonids.

(iii) Salmonid spawning, rearing, and migration. The key identifying characteristic of this use is salmon or trout spawning and emergence that only occurs outside of the summer season (September 16 - June 14). Other common characteristic aquatic life uses for waters in this category include rearing and migration by salmonids.

(iv) Salmonid rearing and migration only. The key identifying characteristic of this use is use only for rearing or migration by salmonids (not used for spawning).

(v) Non-anadromous interior redband trout. For the protection of waters where the only trout species is a non-anadromous form of self-reproducing interior redband trout (O. mykis), and other associated aquatic life.

(vi) Indigenous warm water species. For the protection of waters where the dominant species under natural conditions would be temperature tolerant indigenous nonsalmonid species. Examples include dace, redside shiner, chiselmouth, sucker, and northern pikeminnow.

(b) General criteria. General criteria that apply to all aquatic life fresh water uses are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(i) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(ii) Aesthetic values.

(c) Aquatic life temperature criteria. Except where noted, water temperature is measured by the 7-day average of the daily maximum temperatures (7-DADMax). Table 200 (1)(c) lists the temperature criteria for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 200 (1)(c)
Aquatic Life Temperature Criteria in Fresh Water


Category Highest 7-DADMax
((Char Spawning 9C (48.2F)))
Char Spawning and Rearing* 12C (53.6F)
((Salmon and Trout Spawning 13C (55.4F)))
Core Summer Salmonid Habitat* 16C (60.8F)
Salmonid Spawning, Rearing, and Migration* 17.5C (63.5F)
Salmonid Rearing and Migration Only 17.5C (63.5F)
Non-anadromous Interior Redband Trout 18C (64.4F)
Indigenous Warm Water Species 20C (68F)

*Note: Some streams have a more stringent temperature criterion that is applied seasonally to further protect salmonid spawning and egg incubation. See (c)(B)(iv) of this subsection.

(i) When a water body's temperature is warmer than the criteria in Table 200 (1)(c) (or within 0.3C (0.54F) of the criteria) and that condition is due to natural conditions, then human actions considered cumulatively may not cause the 7-DADMax temperature of that water body to increase more than 0.3C (0.54F).

(ii) When the background condition of the water is cooler than the criteria in Table 200 (1)(c), the allowable rate of warming up to, but not exceeding, the numeric criteria from human actions is restricted as follows:

(A) Incremental temperature increases resulting from individual point source activities must not, at any time, exceed 28/(T+7) as measured at the edge of a mixing zone boundary (where "T" represents the background temperature as measured at a point or points unaffected by the discharge and representative of the highest ambient water temperature in the vicinity of the discharge); and

(B) Incremental temperature increases resulting from the combined effect of all nonpoint source activities in the water body must not, at any time, exceed 2.8C (5.04F).

(iii) Temperatures are not to exceed the criteria at a probability frequency of more than once every ten years on average.

(iv) Spawning and incubation protection. The department has identified waterbodies, or portions thereof, which require special protection for spawning and incubation in ecology publication 06-10-038 (also available on ecology's web site at www.ecy.wa.gov). This publication indicates where and when the following criteria are to be applied to protect the reproduction of native char, salmon, and trout:

Maximum 7-DADMax temperatures of 9C (48.2F) at the initiation of spawning and at fry emergence for char; and

Maximum 7-DADMax temperatures of 13C (55.4F) at the initiation of spawning for salmon and at fry emergence for salmon and trout.

The two criteria above are protective of incubation as long as human actions do not significantly disrupt the normal patterns of fall cooling and spring warming that provide significantly colder temperatures over the majority of the incubation period.

(v) For lakes, human actions considered cumulatively may not increase the 7-DADMax temperature more than 0.3C (0.54F) above natural conditions.

(vi) Temperature measurements should be taken to represent the dominant aquatic habitat of the monitoring site. This typically means samples should:

(A) Be taken from well mixed portions of rivers and streams; and

(B) Not be taken from shallow stagnant backwater areas, within isolated thermal refuges, at the surface, or at the water's edge.

(vii) The department will incorporate the following guidelines on preventing acute lethality and barriers to migration of salmonids into determinations of compliance with the narrative requirements for use protection established in this chapter (e.g., WAC 173-201A-310(1), 173-201A-400(4), and 173-201A-410 (1)(c)). The following site-level considerations do not, however, override the temperature criteria established for waters in subsection (1)(c) of this section or WAC 173-201A-600 through 173-201A-602:

(A) Moderately acclimated (16-20C, or 60.8-68F) adult and juvenile salmonids will generally be protected from acute lethality by discrete human actions maintaining the 7-DADMax temperature at or below 22C (71.6F) and the 1-day maximum (1-DMax) temperature at or below 23C (73.4F).

(B) Lethality to developing fish embryos can be expected to occur at a 1-DMax temperature greater than 17.5C (63.5F).

(C) To protect aquatic organisms, discharge plume temperatures must be maintained such that fish could not be entrained (based on plume time of travel) for more than two seconds at temperatures above 33C (91.4F) to avoid creating areas that will cause near instantaneous lethality.

(D) Barriers to adult salmonid migration are assumed to exist any time the 1-DMax temperature is greater than 22C (71.6F) and the adjacent downstream water temperatures are 3C (5.4F) or more cooler.

(viii) Nothing in this chapter shall be interpreted to prohibit the establishment of effluent limitations for the control of the thermal component of any discharge in accordance with 33 U.S.C. 1326 (commonly known as section 316 of the Clean Water Act).

(d) Aquatic life dissolved oxygen (D.O.) criteria. The D.O. criteria are measured in milligrams per liter (mg/L). Table 200 (1)(d) lists the 1-day minimum D.O. for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 200 (1)(d)
Aquatic Life Dissolved Oxygen Criteria in Fresh Water


Category Lowest 1-Day Minimum
Char Spawning and Rearing 9.5 mg/L
Core Summer Salmonid Habitat 9.5 mg/L
Salmonid Spawning, Rearing, and Migration 8.0 mg/L
Salmonid Rearing and Migration Only 6.5 mg/L
Non-anadromous Interior Redband Trout 8.0 mg/L
Indigenous Warm Water Species 6.5 mg/L

(i) When a water body's D.O. is lower than the criteria in Table 200 (1)(d) (or within 0.2 mg/L of the criteria) and that condition is due to natural conditions, then human actions considered cumulatively may not cause the D.O. of that water body to decrease more than 0.2 mg/L.

(ii) For lakes, human actions considered cumulatively may not decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration more than 0.2 mg/L below natural conditions.

(iii) Concentrations of D.O. are not to fall below the criteria in the table at a probability frequency of more than once every ten years on average.

(iv) D.O. measurements should be taken to represent the dominant aquatic habitat of the monitoring site. This typically means samples should:

(A) Be taken from well mixed portions of rivers and streams; and

(B) Not be taken from shallow stagnant backwater areas, within isolated thermal refuges, at the surface, or at the water's edge.

(e) Aquatic life turbidity criteria. Turbidity is measured in "nephelometric turbidity units" or "NTUs." Table 200 (1)(e) lists the maximum turbidity criteria for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 200 (1)(e)
Aquatic Life Turbidity Criteria in Fresh Water


Category NTUs
Char Spawning and Rearing Turbidity shall not exceed:
5 NTU over background when the background is 50 NTU or less; or
A 10 percent increase in turbidity when the background turbidity is more than 50 NTU.
Core Summer Salmonid Habitat Same as above.
Salmonid Spawning, Rearing, and Migration Same as above.
Salmonid Rearing and Migration Only Turbidity shall not exceed:


10 NTU over background when the background is 50 NTU or less; or

A 20 percent increase in turbidity when the background turbidity is more than 50 NTU.
Non-anadromous Interior Redband Trout Turbidity shall not exceed:


5 NTU over background when the background is 50 NTU or less; or

A 10 percent increase in turbidity when the background turbidity is more than 50 NTU.
Indigenous Warm Water Species Turbidity shall not exceed:


10 NTU over background when the background is 50 NTU or less; or

A 20 percent increase in turbidity when the background turbidity is more than 50 NTU.

(i) The turbidity criteria established under WAC 173-201A-200 (1)(e) shall be modified, without specific written authorization from the department, to allow a temporary area of mixing during and immediately after necessary in-water construction activities that result in the disturbance of in-place sediments. This temporary area of mixing is subject to the constraints of WAC 173-201A-400 (4) and (6) and can occur only after the activity has received all other necessary local and state permits and approvals, and after the implementation of appropriate best management practices to avoid or minimize disturbance of in-place sediments and exceedances of the turbidity criteria. A temporary area of mixing shall be as follows:

(A) For waters up to 10 cfs flow at the time of construction, the point of compliance shall be one hundred feet downstream from the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(B) For waters above 10 cfs up to 100 cfs flow at the time of construction, the point of compliance shall be two hundred feet downstream of the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(C) For waters above 100 cfs flow at the time of construction, the point of compliance shall be three hundred feet downstream of the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(D) For projects working within or along lakes, ponds, wetlands, ((estuaries, marine waters)) or other nonflowing waters, the point of compliance shall be at a radius of one hundred fifty feet from the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(f) Aquatic life total dissolved gas (TDG) criteria. TDG is measured in percent saturation. Table 200 (1)(f) lists the maximum TDG criteria for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 200 (1)(f)
Aquatic Life Total Dissolved Gas Criteria in Fresh Water


Category Percent Saturation
Char Spawning and Rearing Total dissolved gas shall not exceed 110 percent of saturation at any point of sample collection.
Core Summer Salmonid Habitat Same as above.
Salmonid Spawning, Rearing, and Migration Same as above.
Salmonid Rearing and Migration Only Same as above.
Non-anadromous Interior Redband Trout Same as above.
Indigenous Warm Water Species Same as above.

(i) The water quality criteria established in this chapter for TDG shall not apply when the stream flow exceeds the seven-day, ten-year frequency flood.

(ii) The TDG criteria may be adjusted to aid fish passage over hydroelectric dams when consistent with a department approved gas abatement plan. This plan must be accompanied by fisheries management and physical and biological monitoring plans. The elevated TDG levels are intended to allow increased fish passage without causing more harm to fish populations than caused by turbine fish passage. The following special fish passage exemptions for the Snake and Columbia rivers apply when spilling water at dams is necessary to aid fish passage:

TDG must not exceed an average of one hundred fifteen percent as measured in the forebays of the next downstream dams and must not exceed an average of one hundred twenty percent as measured in the tailraces of each dam (these averages are measured as an average of the twelve highest consecutive hourly readings in any one day, relative to atmospheric pressure); and

A maximum TDG one hour average of one hundred twenty-five percent must not be exceeded during spillage for fish passage.

(g) Aquatic life pH criteria. Measurement of pH is expressed as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. Table 200 (1)(g) lists the pH levels for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 200 (1) (g)
Aquatic Life pH Criteria in Fresh Water


Use Category pH Units
Char Spawning and Rearing pH shall be within the range of 6.5 to 8.5, with a human-caused variation within the above range of less than 0.2 units.
Core Summer Salmonid Habitat Same as above.
Salmonid Spawning, Rearing, and Migration pH shall be within the range of 6.5 to 8.5 with a human-caused variation within the above range of less than 0.5 units.
Salmonid Rearing and Migration Only Same as above.
Non-anadromous Interior Redband Trout Same as above.
Indigenous Warm Water Species Same as above.

(2) Recreational uses. The recreational uses are extraordinary primary contact recreation, primary contact recreation, and secondary contact recreation.

(a) General criteria. General criteria that apply to fresh water recreational uses are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(i) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(ii) Aesthetic values.

(b) Water contact recreation bacteria criteria. Table 200 (2)(b) lists the bacteria criteria to protect water contact recreation in fresh waters.

Table 200 (2)(b)
Water Contact Recreation Bacteria Criteria in Fresh Water


Category Bacteria Indicator
Extraordinary Primary Contact Recreation Fecal coliform organism levels must not exceed a geometric mean value of 50 colonies/100 mL, with not more than 10 percent of all samples (or any single sample when less than ten sample points exist) obtained for calculating the geometric mean value exceeding 100 colonies/100 mL.
Primary Contact Recreation Fecal coliform organism levels must not exceed a geometric mean value of 100 colonies /100 mL, with not more than 10 percent of all samples (or any single sample when less than ten sample points exist) obtained for calculating the geometric mean value exceeding 200 colonies /100 mL.
Secondary Contact Recreation Fecal coliform organism levels must not exceed a geometric mean value of 200 colonies/100 mL, with not more than 10 percent of all samples (or any single sample when less than ten sample points exist) obtained for calculating the geometric mean value exceeding 400 colonies /100 mL.

(i) When averaging bacteria sample data for comparison to the geometric mean criteria, it is preferable to average by season and include five or more data collection events within each period. Averaging of data collected beyond a thirty-day period, or beyond a specific discharge event under investigation, is not permitted when such averaging would skew the data set so as to mask noncompliance periods. The period of averaging should not exceed twelve months, and should have sample collection dates well distributed throughout the reporting period.

(ii) When determining compliance with the bacteria criteria in or around small sensitive areas, such as swimming beaches, it is recommended that multiple samples are taken throughout the area during each visit. Such multiple samples should be arithmetically averaged together (to reduce concerns with low bias when the data is later used in calculating a geometric mean) to reduce sample variability and to create a single representative data point.

(iii) As determined necessary by the department, more stringent bacteria criteria may be established for rivers and streams that cause, or significantly contribute to, the decertification or conditional certification of commercial or recreational shellfish harvest areas, even when the preassigned bacteria criteria for the river or stream are being met.

(iv) Where information suggests that sample results are due primarily to sources other than warm-blooded animals (e.g., wood waste), alternative indicator criteria may be established on a site-specific basis by the department.

(3) Water supply uses. The water supply uses are domestic, agricultural, industrial, and stock watering.

General criteria. General criteria that apply to the water supply uses are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(a) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(b) Aesthetic values.

(4) Miscellaneous uses. The miscellaneous fresh water uses are wildlife habitat, harvesting, commerce and navigation, boating, and aesthetics.

General criteria. General criteria that apply to miscellaneous fresh water uses are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(a) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(b) Aesthetic values.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.035. 06-23-117 (Order 06-04), 173-201A-200, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06. Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-200, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 06-04, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06)

WAC 173-201A-210   Marine water designated uses and criteria.   The following uses are designated for protection in marine surface waters of the state of Washington. Use designations for specific water bodies are listed in WAC 173-201A-612.

(1) Aquatic life uses. Aquatic life uses are designated using the following general categories. It is required that all indigenous fish and nonfish aquatic species be protected in waters of the state.

(a) The categories for aquatic life uses are:

(i) Extraordinary quality salmonid and other fish migration, rearing, and spawning; clam, oyster, and mussel rearing and spawning; crustaceans and other shellfish (crabs, shrimp, crayfish, scallops, etc.) rearing and spawning.

(ii) Excellent quality salmonid and other fish migration, rearing, and spawning; clam, oyster, and mussel rearing and spawning; crustaceans and other shellfish (crabs, shrimp, crayfish, scallops, etc.) rearing and spawning.

(iii) Good quality salmonid migration and rearing; other fish migration, rearing, and spawning; clam, oyster, and mussel rearing and spawning; crustaceans and other shellfish (crabs, shrimp, crayfish, scallops, etc.) rearing and spawning.

(iv) Fair quality salmonid and other fish migration.

(b) General criteria. General criteria that apply to aquatic life marine water uses are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(i) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(ii) Aesthetic values.

(c) Aquatic life temperature criteria. Except where noted, temperature is measured as a 1-day maximum temperature (1-DMax). Table 210 (1)(c) lists the temperature criteria for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 210 (1)(c)
Aquatic Life Temperature Criteria in Marine Water


Category Highest 1-DMax
Extraordinary quality 13C (55.4F)
Excellent quality 16C (60.8F)
Good quality 19C (66.2F)
Fair quality 22C (71.6F)

(i) When a water body's temperature is warmer than the criteria in Table 210 (1)(c) (or within 0.3C (0.54F) of the criteria) and that condition is due to natural conditions, then human actions considered cumulatively may not cause the 7-DADMax temperature of that water body to increase more than 0.3C (0.54F).

(ii) When the natural condition of the water is cooler than the criteria in Table 210 (1)(c), the allowable rate of warming up to, but not exceeding, the numeric criteria from human actions is restricted as follows:

(A) Incremental temperature increases resulting from individual point source activities must not, at any time, exceed 12/(T-2) as measured at the edge of a mixing zone boundary (where "T" represents the background temperature as measured at a point or points unaffected by the discharge and representative of the highest ambient water temperature in the vicinity of the discharge); and

(B) Incremental temperature increases resulting from the combined effect of all nonpoint source activities in the water body must not, at any time, exceed 2.8C (5.04F).

(iii) Temperatures are not to exceed the criteria at a probability frequency of more than once every ten years on average.

(iv) Temperature measurements should be taken to represent the dominant aquatic habitat of the monitoring site. This typically means samples should not be taken from shallow stagnant backwater areas, within isolated thermal refuges, at the surface, or at the water's edge.

(v) The department will incorporate the following guidelines on preventing acute lethality and barriers to migration of salmonids into determinations of compliance with the narrative requirements for use protection established in this chapter (e.g., WAC 173-201A-310(1), 173-201A-400(4), and 173-201A-410 (1)(c)). The following site-level considerations do not, however, override the temperature criteria established for waters in subsection (1)(c) of this subsection or WAC 173-201A-612:

(A) Moderately acclimated (16-20C, or 60.8-68F) adult and juvenile salmonids will generally be protected from acute lethality by discrete human actions maintaining the 7-DADMax temperature at or below 22C (71.6F) and the 1-DMax temperature at or below 23C (73.4F).

(B) Lethality to developing fish embryos can be expected to occur at a 1-DMax temperature greater than 17.5C (63.5F).

(C) To protect aquatic organisms, discharge plume temperatures must be maintained such that fish could not be entrained (based on plume time of travel) for more than two seconds at temperatures above 33C (91.4F) to avoid creating areas that will cause near instantaneous lethality.

(D) Barriers to adult salmonid migration are assumed to exist any time the 1-DMax temperature is greater than 22C (71.6F) and the adjacent downstream water temperatures are 3C (5.4F) or more cooler.

(vi) Nothing in this chapter shall be interpreted to prohibit the establishment of effluent limitations for the control of the thermal component of any discharge in accordance with 33 U.S.C. 1326 (commonly known as section 316 of the Clean Water Act).

(d) Aquatic life dissolved oxygen (D.O.) criteria. Except where noted, D.O. concentrations are measured as a 1-day minimum in milligrams per liter. Table 210 (1)(d) lists the D.O. criteria for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 210 (1)(d)
Aquatic Life Dissolved Oxygen Criteria in Marine Water

Category Lowest 1-Day Minimum
Extraordinary quality 7.0 mg/L
Excellent quality 6.0 mg/L
Good quality 5.0 mg/L
Fair quality 4.0 mg/L

(i) When a water body's D.O. is lower than the criteria in Table 210 (1)(d) (or within 0.2 mg/L of the criteria) and that condition is due to natural conditions, then human actions considered cumulatively may not cause the D.O. of that water body to decrease more than 0.2 mg/L.

(ii) Concentrations of D.O. are not to fall below the criteria in the table at a probability frequency of more than once every ten years on average.

(iii) D.O. measurements should be taken to represent the dominant aquatic habitat of the monitoring site. This typically means samples should not be taken from shallow stagnant backwater areas, within isolated thermal refuges, at the surface, or at the water's edge.

(e) Aquatic life turbidity criteria. Turbidity is measured in "nephelometric turbidity units" or "NTUs." Table 210 (1)(e) lists the one-day maximum turbidity allowed as a result of human actions for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 210 (1) (e)
Aquatic Life Turbidity Criteria in Marine Water

Category NTUs
Extraordinary quality Turbidity must not exceed:

5 NTU over background when the background is 50 NTU or less; or

A 10 percent increase in turbidity when the background turbidity is more than 50 NTU.

Excellent quality Same as above.
Good quality Turbidity must not exceed:

10 NTU over background when the background is 50 NTU or less; or

A 20 percent increase in turbidity when the background turbidity is more than 50 NTU.

Fair quality Same as above.

(i) The turbidity criteria established under WAC 173-201A-210 (1)(e) shall be modified, without specific written authorization from the department, to allow a temporary area of mixing during and immediately after necessary in-water construction activities that result in the disturbance of in-place sediments. This temporary area of mixing is subject to the constraints of WAC 173-201A-400 (4) and (6) and can occur only after the activity has received all other necessary local and state permits and approvals, and after the implementation of appropriate best management practices to avoid or minimize disturbance of in-place sediments and exceedances of the turbidity criteria. For estuaries or marine waters, the point of compliance for a temporary area of mixing shall be ((as follows:

(A) For waters up to 10 cfs flow at the time of construction, the point of compliance shall be one hundred feet downstream from the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(B) For waters above 10 cfs up to 100 cfs flow at the time of construction, the point of compliance shall be two hundred feet downstream of the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(C) For waters above 100 cfs flow at the time of construction, the point of compliance shall be three hundred feet downstream of the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(D) For projects working within or along lakes, ponds, wetlands, estuaries, marine waters or other nonflowing waters, the point of compliance shall be at a radius of one hundred fifty feet from the activity causing the turbidity exceedance)) at a radius of one hundred fifty feet from the activity causing the turbidity exceedance.

(f) Aquatic life pH criteria. Measurement of pH is expressed as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. Table 210 (1)(f) lists the pH levels allowed as a result of human actions for each of the aquatic life use categories.

Table 210 (1)(f)
Aquatic Life pH Criteria in Marine Water

Use Category pH Units
Extraordinary quality pH must be within the range of 7.0 to 8.5 with a human-caused variation within the above range of less than 0.2 units.
Excellent quality pH must be within the range of 7.0 to 8.5 with a human-caused variation within the above range of less than 0.5 units.
Good quality Same as above.
Fair quality pH must be within the range of 6.5 to 9.0 with a human-caused variation within the above range of less than 0.5 units.

(2) Shellfish harvesting.

(a) General criteria. General criteria that apply to shellfish harvesting uses for marine water are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(i) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(ii) Aesthetic values.

(b) Shellfish harvesting bacteria criteria. To protect shellfish harvesting, fecal coliform organism levels must not exceed a geometric mean value of 14 colonies/100 mL, and not have more than 10 percent of all samples (or any single sample when less than ten sample points exist) obtained for calculating the geometric mean value exceeding 43 colonies/100 mL.

(i) Shellfish growing areas approved for unconditional harvest by the state department of health are fully supporting the shellfish harvest goals of this chapter, even when comparison with the criteria contained in this chapter suggest otherwise.

(ii) When averaging bacteria sample data for comparison to the geometric mean criteria, it is preferable to average by season and include five or more data collection events within each period. Averaging of data collected beyond a thirty-day period, or beyond a specific discharge event under investigation, is not permitted when such averaging would skew the data set so as to mask noncompliance periods. The period of averaging should not exceed twelve months, and should have sample collection dates well distributed throughout the reporting period.

(iii) When determining compliance with the bacteria criteria in or around small sensitive areas, it is recommended that multiple samples are taken throughout the area during each visit. Such multiple samples should be arithmetically averaged together (to reduce concerns with low bias when the data is later used in calculating a geometric mean) to reduce sample variability and to create a single representative data point.

(iv) As determined necessary by the department, more stringent bacteria criteria may be established for waters that cause, or significantly contribute to, the decertification or conditional certification of commercial or recreational shellfish harvest areas, even when the preassigned bacteria criteria for the water is being met.

(v) Where information suggests that sample results are due primarily to sources other than warm-blooded animals (e.g., wood waste), alternative indicator criteria may be established on a site-specific basis by the department.

(3) Recreational uses. The recreational uses are primary contact recreation and secondary contact recreation.

(a) General criteria. General criteria that apply to water contact uses for marine water are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(i) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(ii) Aesthetic values.

(b) Water contact recreation bacteria criteria. Table 210 (3)(b) lists the bacteria criteria to protect water contact recreation in marine water.

Table 210 (3)(b)
Water Contact Recreation Bacteria Criteria in Marine Water

Category Bacteria Indicator
Primary Contact Recreation Fecal coliform organism levels must not exceed a geometric mean value of 14 colonies/100 mL, with not more than 10 percent of all samples (or any single sample when less than ten sample points exist) obtained for calculating the geometric mean value exceeding 43 colonies/100 mL.
Secondary Contact Recreation Enterococci organism levels must not exceed a geometric mean value of 70 colonies/100 mL, with not more than 10 percent of all samples (or any single sample when less than ten sample points exist) obtained for calculating the geometric mean value exceeding 208 colonies/100 mL.

(i) When averaging bacteria sample data for comparison to the geometric mean criteria, it is preferable to average by season and include five or more data collection events within each period. Averaging of data collected beyond a thirty-day period, or beyond a specific discharge event under investigation, is not permitted when such averaging would skew the data set so as to mask noncompliance periods. The period of averaging should not exceed twelve months, and should have sample collection dates well distributed throughout the reporting period.

(ii) When determining compliance with the bacteria criteria in or around small sensitive areas, such as swimming beaches, it is recommended that multiple samples are taken throughout the area during each visit. Such multiple samples should be arithmetically averaged together (to reduce concerns with low bias when the data is later used in calculating a geometric mean) to reduce sample variability and to create a single representative data point.

(iii) As determined necessary by the department, more stringent bacteria criteria may be established for waters that cause, or significantly contribute to, the decertification or conditional certification of commercial or recreational shellfish harvest areas, even when the preassigned bacteria criteria for the water is being met.

(iv) Where information suggests that sample results are due primarily to sources other than warm-blooded animals (e.g., wood waste), alternative indicator criteria may be established on a site-specific basis by the department.

(4) Miscellaneous uses. The miscellaneous marine water uses are wildlife habitat, harvesting, commerce and navigation, boating, and aesthetics.

General criteria. General criteria that apply in miscellaneous marine water uses are described in WAC 173-201A-260 (2)(a) and (b), and are for:

(a) Toxic, radioactive, and deleterious materials; and

(b) Aesthetic values.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.035. 06-23-117 (Order 06-04), 173-201A-210, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06. Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-210, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 06-04, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06)

WAC 173-201A-240   Toxic substances.   (1) Toxic substances shall not be introduced above natural background levels in waters of the state which have the potential either singularly or cumulatively to adversely affect characteristic water uses, cause acute or chronic toxicity to the most sensitive biota dependent upon those waters, or adversely affect public health, as determined by the department.

(2) The department shall employ or require chemical testing, acute and chronic toxicity testing, and biological assessments, as appropriate, to evaluate compliance with subsection (1) of this section and to ensure that aquatic communities and the existing and ((characteristic beneficial)) designated uses of waters are being fully protected.

(3) The following criteria, found in Table 240(3), shall be applied to all surface waters of the state of Washington for the protection of aquatic life. The department may revise the following criteria on a statewide or water body-specific basis as needed to protect aquatic life occurring in waters of the state and to increase the technical accuracy of the criteria being applied. The department shall formally adopt any appropriate revised criteria as part of this chapter in accordance with the provisions established in chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act. The department shall ensure there are early opportunities for public review and comment on proposals to develop revised criteria. Values are g/L for all substances except Ammonia and Chloride which are mg/L:


Table 240(3)
Toxics Substances Criteria

Freshwater Marine Water
Substance Acute Chronic Acute Chronic
Aldrin/Dieldrin e 2.5a 0.0019b 0.71a 0.0019b
Ammonia (un-ionized NH3) hh f,c g,d 0.233h,c 0.035h,d
(((un-ionized NH3) hh))
Arsenic dd 360.0c 190.0d 69.0c,ll 36.0d,cc,ll
Cadmium dd i,c j,d 42.0c 9.3d
Chlordane 2.4a 0.0043b 0.09a 0.004b
Chloride (Dissolved) k 860.0h,c 230.0h,d - -
Chlorine (Total Residual) 19.0c 11.0d 13.0c 7.5d
Chlorpyrifos 0.083c 0.041d 0.011c 0.0056d
Chromium (Hex) dd 15.0c,l,ii 10.0d,jj 1,100.0c,l,ll 50.0d,ll
Chromium (Tri) gg m,c n,d - -
Copper dd o,c p,d 4.8c,ll 3.1d,ll
Cyanide ee 22.0c 5.2d 1.0c,mm d,mm
DDT (and metabolites) 1.1a 0.001b 0.13a 0.001b
Dieldrin/Aldrin e 2.5a 0.0019b 0.71a 0.0019b
Endosulfan 0.22a 0.056b 0.034a 0.0087b
Endrin 0.18a 0.0023b 0.037a 0.0023b
Heptachlor 0.52a 0.0038b 0.053a 0.0036b
Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) 2.0a 0.08b 0.16a -
Lead dd q,c r,d 210.0c,ll 8.1d,ll
Mercury s 2.1c,kk,dd 0.012d,ff 1.8c,ll,dd 0.025d,ff
Nickel dd t,c u,d 74.0c,ll 8.2d,ll
Parathion 0.065c 0.013d - -
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) w,c v,d 13.0c 7.9d
((Polychlorinated))
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 2.0b 0.014b 10.0b 0.030b
Selenium 20.0c,ff 5.0d,ff 290c,ll,dd 71.0d,

x,ll,dd

Silver dd y,a - 1.9a,ll -
Toxaphene 0.73c,z 0.0002d 0.21c,z 0.0002d
Zinc dd aa,c bb,d 90.0c,ll 81.0d,ll

Notes to Table 240(3):


a. An instantaneous concentration not to be exceeded at any time.
b. A 24-hour average not to be exceeded.
c. A 1-hour average concentration not to be exceeded more than once every three years on the average.
d. A 4-day average concentration not to be exceeded more than once every three years on the average.
e. Aldrin is metabolically converted to Dieldrin. Therefore, the sum of the Aldrin and Dieldrin concentrations are compared with the Dieldrin criteria.
f. Shall not exceed the numerical value in total ammonia nitrogen (mg N/L) given by:
For salmonids present: 0.275 +

39.0
1 + 107.204-pH 1 + 10 pH-7.204
For salmonids absent: 0.411 +

58.4
1 + 107.204-pH 1 + 10 pH-7.204

g. Shall not exceed the numerical concentration calculated as follows:
Unionized ammonia concentration for waters where salmonid habitat is an existing or designated use:

0.80 (FT)(FPH)(RATIO)
where: RATIO = 13.5; 7.7 ≤ pH ≤ 9
RATIO = (20.25 x 10(7.7-pH)) (1 + 10(7.4-pH)); 6.5 ≤ pH ≤ 7.7
FT = 1.4; 15 ≤ T ≤ 30
FT = 10[0.03(20-T)]; 0 ≤ T ≤ 15
FPH = 1; 8 ≤ pH ≤ 9
FPH = (1 + 10(7.4-pH)) 1.25; 6.5 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0

Total ammonia concentrations for waters where salmonid habitat is not an existing or designated use and other fish early life stages are absent:

((STRICKEN GRAPHIC
STRICKEN GRAPHIC))


where: A = the greater of either T (temperature in degrees Celsius) or 7.

Applied as a thirty-day average concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg N/L) not to be exceeded more than once every three years on average. The highest four-day average within the thirty-day period should not exceed 2.5 times the chronic criterion.
Total ammonia concentration for waters where salmonid habitat is not an existing or designated use and other fish early life stages are present:

((STRICKEN GRAPHIC
STRICKEN GRAPHIC))


where: B = the lower of either 2.85, or 1.45 x 100.028 x (25-T). T = temperature in degrees Celsius.

Applied as a thirty-day average concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg N/L) not to be exceeded more than once every three years on the average. The highest four-day average within the thirty-day period should not exceed 2.5 times the chronic criterion.
h. Measured in milligrams per liter rather than micrograms per liter.
i. ≤ (0.944)(e(1.128[ln(hardness)]-3.828)) at hardness = 100. Conversion factor (CF) of 0.944 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as follows: CF = 1.136672 - [(ln hardness)(0.041838)].
j. ≤ (0.909)(e(0.7852[ln(hardness)]-3.490)) at hardness = 100. Conversions factor (CF) of 0.909 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as follows: CF = 1.101672 - [(ln hardness)(0.041838)].
k. Criterion based on dissolved chloride in association with sodium. This criterion probably will not be adequately protective when the chloride is associated with potassium, calcium, or magnesium, rather than sodium.
l. Salinity dependent effects. At low salinity the 1-hour average may not be sufficiently protective.
m. ≤ (0.316)(e(0.8190[ ln(hardness)] + 3.688))
n. ≤ (0.860)(e(0.8190[ ln(hardness)] + 1.561))
o. ≤ (0.960)(e(0.9422[ ln(hardness)] - 1.464))
p. ≤ (0.960)(e(0.8545[ ln(hardness)] - 1.465))
q. ≤ (0.791)(e(1.273[ ln(hardness)] - 1.460)) at hardness = 100. Conversion factor (CF) of 0.791 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as follows: CF = 1.46203 - [(ln hardness)(0.145712)].
r. ≤ (0.791)(e(1.273[ ln(hardness)] - 4.705)) at hardness = 100. Conversion factor (CF) of 0.791 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as follows: CF = 1.46203 - [(ln hardness)(0.145712)].
s. If the four-day average chronic concentration is exceeded more than once in a three-year period, the edible portion of the consumed species should be analyzed. Said edible tissue concentrations shall not be allowed to exceed 1.0 mg/kg of methylmercury.
t. ≤ (0.998)(e(0.8460[ ln(hardness)] + 3.3612))
u. ≤ (0.997)(e(0.8460[ ln(hardness)] + 1.1645))
v. ≤ e[1.005(pH) - 5.290]
w. ≤ e[1.005(pH) - 4.830]
x. The status of the fish community should be monitored whenever the concentration of selenium exceeds 5.0 ug/ l in salt water.
y. ≤ (0.85)(e(1.72[ln(hardness)] - 6.52))
z. Channel Catfish may be more acutely sensitive.
aa. ≤ (0.978)(e(0.8473[ln(hardness)] + 0.8604))
bb. ≤ (0.986)(e(0.8473[ln(hardness)] + 0.7614))
cc. Nonlethal effects (growth, C-14 uptake, and chlorophyll production) to diatoms (Thalassiosira aestivalis and Skeletonema costatum) which are common to Washington's waters have been noted at levels below the established criteria. The importance of these effects to the diatom populations and the aquatic system is sufficiently in question to persuade the state to adopt the USEPA National Criteria value (36 µg/L) as the state threshold criteria, however, wherever practical the ambient concentrations should not be allowed to exceed a chronic marine concentration of 21 µg/L.
dd. These ambient criteria in the table are for the dissolved fraction. The cyanide criteria are based on the weak acid dissociable method. The metals criteria may not be used to calculate total recoverable effluent limits unless the seasonal partitioning of the dissolved to total metals in the ambient water are known. When this information is absent, these metals criteria shall be applied as total recoverable values, determined by back-calculation, using the conversion factors incorporated in the criterion equations. Metals criteria may be adjusted on a site-specific basis when data are made available to the department clearly demonstrating the effective use of the water effects ratio approach established by USEPA, as generally guided by the procedures in USEPA Water Quality Standards Handbook, December 1983, as supplemented or replaced by USEPA or ecology. Information which is used to develop effluent limits based on applying metals partitioning studies or the water effects ratio approach shall be identified in the permit fact sheet developed pursuant to WAC 173-220-060 or 173-226-110, as appropriate, and shall be made available for the public comment period required pursuant to WAC 173-220-050 or 173-226-130(3), as appropriate. Ecology has developed supplemental guidance for conducting water effect ratio studies.
ee. The criteria for cyanide is based on the weak acid dissociable method in the ((17th)) 19th Ed. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 4500-CN I, and as revised (see footnote dd, above).
ff. These criteria are based on the total-recoverable fraction of the metal.
gg. Where methods to measure trivalent chromium are unavailable, these criteria are to be represented by total-recoverable chromium.
hh. The listed fresh water criteria are based on ((unionized)) un-ionized or total ammonia concentrations, while those for marine water are based on ((total)) un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Tables for the conversion of total ammonia to un-ionized ammonia for freshwater can be found in the USEPA's Quality Criteria for Water, 1986. Criteria concentrations based on total ammonia for marine water can be found in USEPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Saltwater)-1989, EPA440/5-88-004, April 1989.
ii. The conversion factor used to calculate the dissolved metal concentration was 0.982.
jj. The conversion factor used to calculate the dissolved metal concentration was 0.962.
kk. The conversion factor used to calculate the dissolved metal concentration was 0.85.
ll. Marine conversion factors (CF) which were used for calculating dissolved metals concentrations are given below. Conversion factors are applicable to both acute and chronic criteria for all metals except mercury. The CF for mercury was applied to the acute criterion only and is not applicable to the chronic criterion. Conversion factors are already incorporated into the criteria in the table. Dissolved criterion = criterion x CF

Metal CF
Arsenic 1.000
Cadmium 0.994
Chromium (VI) 0.993
Copper 0.83
Lead 0.951
Mercury 0.85
Nickel 0.990
Selenium 0.998
Silver 0.85
Zinc 0.946
mm. The cyanide criteria are: 2.8g/l chronic and 9.1g/l acute and are applicable only to waters which are east of a line from Point Roberts to Lawrence Point, to Green Point to Deception Pass; and south from Deception Pass and of a line from Partridge Point to Point Wilson. The chronic criterion applicable to the remainder of the marine waters is l µg/L.

(4) USEPA Quality Criteria for Water, 1986, as revised, shall be used in the use and interpretation of the values listed in subsection (3) of this section.

(5) Concentrations of toxic, and other substances with toxic propensities not listed in subsection (3) of this section shall be determined in consideration of USEPA Quality Criteria for Water, 1986, and as revised, and other relevant information as appropriate. Human health-based water quality criteria used by the state are contained in 40 CFR 131.36 (known as the National Toxics Rule).

(6) Risk-based criteria for carcinogenic substances shall be selected such that the upper-bound excess cancer risk is less than or equal to one in one million.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.035. 06-23-117 (Order 06-04), 173-201A-240, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06. Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), amended and recodified as 173-201A-240, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW and 40 CFR 131. 97-23-064 (Order 94-19), 173-201A-040, filed 11/18/97, effective 12/19/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW. 92-24-037 (Order 92-29), 173-201A-040, filed 11/25/92, effective 12/26/92.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 02-14, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03)

WAC 173-201A-260   Natural conditions and other water quality criteria and applications.   (1) Natural and irreversible human conditions.

(a) It is recognized that portions of many water bodies cannot meet the assigned criteria due to the natural conditions of the water body. When a water body does not meet its assigned criteria due to natural climatic or landscape attributes, the natural conditions constitute the water quality criteria.

(b) When a water body does not meet its assigned criteria due to human structural changes that cannot be effectively remedied (as determined consistent with the federal regulations at 40 CFR 131.10), then alternative estimates of the attainable water quality conditions, plus any further allowances for human effects specified in this chapter for when natural conditions exceed the criteria, may be used to establish an alternative criteria for the water body (see WAC 173-201A-430 and 173-201A-440).

(2) Toxics and aesthetics criteria. The following narrative criteria apply to all existing and designated uses for fresh and marine water:

(a) Toxic, radioactive, or deleterious material concentrations must be below those which have the potential, either singularly or cumulatively, to adversely affect characteristic water uses, cause acute or chronic conditions to the most sensitive biota dependent upon those waters, or adversely affect public health (see WAC 173-201A-240, toxic substances, and 173-201A-250, radioactive substances).

(b) Aesthetic values must not be impaired by the presence of materials or their effects, excluding those of natural origin, which offend the senses of sight, smell, touch, or taste (see WAC 173-201A-230 for guidance on establishing lake nutrient standards to protect aesthetics).

(3) Procedures for applying water quality criteria. In applying the appropriate water quality criteria for a water body, the department will use the following procedure:

(a) The department will establish water quality requirements for water bodies, in addition to those specifically listed in this chapter, on a case-specific basis where determined necessary to provide full support for designated and existing uses.

(b) Upstream actions must be conducted in manners that meet downstream water body criteria. Except where and to the extent described otherwise in this chapter, the criteria associated with the most upstream uses designated for a water body are to be applied to headwaters to protect nonfish aquatic species and the designated downstream uses.

(c) Where multiple criteria for the same water quality parameter are assigned to a water body to protect different uses, the most stringent criterion for each parameter is to be applied.

(d) At the boundary between water bodies protected for different uses, the more stringent criteria apply.

(e) In brackish waters of estuaries, where different criteria for the same use occurs for fresh and marine waters, the decision to use the fresh water or the marine water criteria must be selected and applied on the basis of vertically averaged daily maximum salinity, referred to below as "salinity."

(i) The fresh water criteria must be applied at any point where ninety-five percent of the salinity values are less than or equal to one part per thousand, except that the fresh water criteria for bacteria applies when the salinity is less than ten parts per thousand; and

(ii) The marine water criteria must apply at all other locations where the salinity values are greater than one part per thousand, except that the marine criteria for bacteria applies when the salinity is ten parts per thousand or greater.

(f) Numeric criteria established in this chapter are not intended for application to human created waters managed primarily for the removal or containment of pollution. This special provision also includes private farm ponds created from upland sites that did not incorporate natural water bodies.

(i) Waters covered under this provision must be managed so that:

(A) They do not create unreasonable risks to human health or uses of the water; and

(B) Discharges from these systems meet down gradient surface and ground water quality standards.

(ii) This provision does not apply to waterways designed and managed primarily to convey or transport water from one location to another, rather than to remove pollution en route.

(g) When applying the numeric criteria established in this chapter, the department will give consideration to the precision and accuracy of the sampling and analytical methods used, as well as the existing conditions at the time.

(h) The analytical testing methods for these numeric criteria must be in accordance with the "Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants" (40 CFR Part 136) or superseding methods published. The department may also approve other methods following consultation with adjacent states and with the approval of the USEPA.

(i) The primary means for protecting water quality in wetlands is through implementing the antidegradation procedures described in Part III of this chapter.

(i) In addition to designated uses, wetlands may have existing beneficial uses that are to be protected that include ground water exchange, shoreline stabilization, and storm water attenuation.

(ii) Water quality in wetlands is maintained and protected by maintaining the hydrologic conditions, hydrophytic vegetation, and substrate characteristics necessary to support existing and designated uses.

(iii) Wetlands must be delineated using the Washington State Wetlands Identification and Delineation Manual, in accordance with WAC 173-22-035.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-260, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03.]

OTS-3565.5


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 02-14, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03)

WAC 173-201A-420   Variance.   (1) The criteria established in WAC 173-201A-200 through 173-201A-260 and 173-201A-600 through 173-201A-612 may be modified for individual facilities, or stretches of waters, through the use of a variance. Variances may be approved by the department when:

(a) The modification is consistent with the requirements of federal law (currently 40 CFR 131.10(g) and 131.10(h));

(b) The water body is assigned variances for specific criteria and all other applicable criteria must be met; and

(c) Reasonable progress is being made toward meeting the original criteria.

(2) The decision to approve a variance is subject to a public and intergovernmental involvement process.

(3) The department may issue a variance for up to five years, and may renew the variance after providing for another opportunity for public and intergovernmental involvement and review.

(4) Variances are not in effect until they have been incorporated into this chapter and approved by the USEPA.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-420, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 06-04, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06)

WAC 173-201A-600   Use designations -- Fresh waters.   (1) All surface waters of the state not named in Table 602 are to be protected for the designated uses of: Salmonid spawning, rearing, and migration; primary contact recreation; domestic, industrial, and agricultural water supply; stock watering; wildlife habitat; harvesting; commerce and navigation; boating; and aesthetic values.

(a) Additionally, the following waters are also to be protected for the designated uses of: Core summer salmonid habitat; and extraordinary primary contact recreation:

(i) All surface waters lying within national parks, national forests, and/or wilderness areas;

(ii) All lakes and all feeder streams to lakes (reservoirs with a mean detention time greater than fifteen days are to be treated as a lake for use designation);

(iii) All surface waters that are tributaries to waters designated core summer salmonid habitat; or extraordinary primary contact recreation; and

(iv) All fresh surface waters that are tributaries to extraordinary ((quality)) aquatic life marine waters (WAC 173-201A-610 through 173-201A-612).

(2) The water quality standards for surface waters for the state of Washington do not apply to segments of waters that are on Indian reservations, except for surface waters overlying fee lands on the Puyallup reservation consistent with the Puyallup Tribe Land Claims Settlement of 1989.

(3) Aquatic life uses are designated based on the presence of, or the intent to provide, protection for the key uses identified in Table 600. It is required that all indigenous fish and nonfish aquatic species be protected in waters of the state in addition to the key species described below.


Table 600 (Key to Table 602)

Abbreviation General Description
Aquatic Life Uses: (see WAC 173-201A-200(1))
Char Spawning/Rearing Char spawning and rearing. The key identifying characteristics of this use are spawning or early juvenile rearing by native char (bull trout and Dolly Varden), or use by other aquatic species similarly dependent on such cold water. Other common characteristic aquatic life uses for waters in this category include summer foraging and migration of native char; and spawning, rearing, and migration by other salmonid species.
Core Summer Habitat Core summer salmonid habitat. The key identifying characteristics of this use are summer (June 15 - September 15) salmonid spawning or emergence, or adult holding; use as important summer rearing habitat by one or more salmonids; or foraging by adult and subadult native char. Other common characteristic aquatic life uses for waters in this category include spawning outside of the summer season, rearing, and migration by salmonids.
Spawning/Rearing Salmonid spawning, rearing, and migration. The key identifying characteristic of this use is salmon or trout spawning and emergence that only occurs outside of the summer season (September 16 - June 14). Other common characteristic aquatic life uses for waters in this category include rearing and migration by salmonids.
Rearing/Migration Only Salmonid rearing and migration only. The key identifying characteristic of this use is use only for rearing or migration by salmonids (not used for spawning).
Redband Trout Nonanadromous interior redband trout. For the protection of waters where the only trout species is a nonanadromous form of self-reproducing interior redband trout (O. mykis), and other associated aquatic life.
Warm Water Species Indigenous warm water species. For the protection of waters where the dominant species under natural conditions would be temperature tolerant indigenous nonsalmonid species. Examples include dace, redside shiner, chiselmouth, sucker, and northern pikeminnow.
Recreational Uses: (see WAC 173-201A-200(2))
Extraordinary Primary Cont. Extraordinary quality primary contact waters. Waters providing extraordinary protection against waterborne disease or that serve as tributaries to extraordinary quality shellfish harvesting areas.
Primary Cont. Primary contact recreation.
Secondary Cont. Secondary contact recreation.
Water Supply Uses: (see WAC 173-201A-200(3))
Domestic Water Domestic water supply.
Industrial Water Industrial water supply.
Agricultural Water Agricultural water supply.
Stock Water Stock watering.
Miscellaneous Uses: (see WAC 173-201A-200(4))
Wildlife Habitat Wildlife habitat.
Harvesting Fish harvesting.
Commerce/Navigation Commerce and navigation.
Boating Boating.
Aesthetics Aesthetic values.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.035. 06-23-117 (Order 06-04), 173-201A-600, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06. Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-600, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03.]

OTS-3574.5


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 06-04, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06)

WAC 173-201A-602   Table 602 -- Use designations for fresh waters by water resource inventory area (WRIA).   (1) Table 602 lists uses for fresh waters. All surface waters of the state have designated uses assigned to them for protection under this chapter. Table 602 lists use designations for specific fresh waters. Fresh waters not assigned designated uses in Table 602 have their designated uses assigned in accordance with WAC 173-201A-600 and 173-201A-260(3). In Table 602, the Columbia River is listed first, followed by other water bodies listed by WRIA. Only the uses with the most stringent criteria are listed. The criteria notes in Table 602 take precedence over the criteria in WAC 173-201A-200 for same parameter.

(2) Table 602 is necessary to determine and fully comply with the requirements of this chapter. If you are viewing a paper copy of the rule from the office of the code reviser or are using their web site, Table 602 may be missing (it will instead say "place illustration here"). In this situation, you may view Table 602 at the department of ecology's web site at www.ecy.wa.gov, or request a paper copy of the rule with Table 602 from the department of ecology or the office of the code reviser.

Illustration 1: Water Resources Inventory Area Map

Key:
1. Nooksack 21. Queets/Quinault 41. Lower Crab 61. Upper Lake Roosevelt
2. San Juan 22. Lower Chehalis 42. Grand Coulee 62. Pend Oreille
3. Lower Skagit/Samish 23. Upper Chehalis 43. Upper Crab/Wilson
4. Upper Skagit 24. Willapa 44. Moses Coulee
5. Stillaguamish 25. Grays/Elochoman 45. Wenatchee
6. Island 26. Cowlitz 46. Entiat
7. Snohomish 27. Lewis 47. Chelan
8. Cedar/Sammamish 28. Salmon/Washougal 48. Methow
9. Duwamish/Green 29. Wind/White Salmon 49. Okanogan
10. Puyallup/White 30. Klickitat 50. Foster
11. Nisqually 31. Rock/Glade 51. Nespelem
12. Chambers/Clover 32. Walla Walla 52. Sanpoil
13. Deschutes 33. Lower Snake 53. Lower Lake Roosevelt
14. Kennedy/Goldsborough 34. Palouse 54. Lower Spokane
15. Kitsap 35. Middle Snake 55. Little Spokane
16. Skokomish/

Dosewallips

36. Esquatzel Coulee 56. Hangman
17. Quilcene/Snow 37. Lower Yakima 57. Middle Spokane
18. Elwha/Dungeness 38. Naches 58. Middle Lake Roosevelt
19. Lyre/Hoko 39. Upper Yakima 59. Colville
20. Soleduck/Hoh 40. Alkaki/Squilchuck 60. Kettle

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[Statutory Authority: RCW 90.48.035. 06-23-117 (Order 06-04), 173-201A-602, filed 11/20/06, effective 12/21/06. Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), 173-201A-602, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.