WSR 12-24-071

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed December 4, 2012, 12:28 p.m. , effective January 4, 2013 ]


Effective Date of Rule: Thirty-one days after filing.

Purpose: This rule making complies with an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirement to adopt rule changes consistent with the final phase of their standards improvement project. This is the third phase in the OSHA standards improvement project initiative that periodically reviews OSHA regulations with the goal of improving them, and eliminating those that are confusing, outdated, duplicative, or inconsistent.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards.


WAC 296-24-29419 Safe operating practices.
WAC 296-24-29423 Alloy steel chain slings.
WAC 296-24-29425 Wire rope slings.
WAC 296-24-29427 Metal mesh slings.
WAC 296-24-29429 Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings.
WAC 296-24-29431 Synthetic web slings.

Chapter 296-37 WAC, Standards for commercial diving operations.

WAC 296-37-575 Recordkeeping requirements.

Chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards -- Longshore, stevedore and waterfront related operations.


WAC 296-56-60005 Definitions.
WAC 296-56-60229 Sanitation.

Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, Part F -- Carcinogens.

WAC 296-62-07306 Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.
WAC 296-62-07314 Medical surveillance.

Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, Part G -- Carcinogens (specific).

WAC 296-62-07329 Vinyl chloride.
WAC 296-62-07336 Acrylonitrile.
WAC 296-62-07342 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.
WAC 296-62-07460 Butadiene.

Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, Part I -- Air contaminants (specific).

WAC 296-62-07521 Lead.
WAC 296-62-07631 Recordkeeping.

Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, Part N -- Cotton dust.

WAC 296-62-14533 Cotton dust.

Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, Part O -- Coke ovens.


WAC 296-62-20023 Recordkeeping.

Chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work, Part B-1 occupational health and environmental control.

WAC 296-155-140 Sanitation.
WAC 296-155-17621 Medical surveillance.
WAC 296-155-17623 Medical removal protection.
WAC 296-155-17629 Recordkeeping.

Chapter 296-304 WAC, Safety standards for ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking.

WAC 296-304-02013 Appendix B -- Compliance assistance guidelines for confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres.
WAC 296-304-07003 Ropes, chains and slings.
WAC 296-304-07005 Shackles and hooks.
WAC 296-304-07011 Use of gear.

Chapter 296-307 WAC, Safety standards for agriculture, Part G field sanitation.

WAC 296-307-09506 What definitions apply to this section?

Chapter 296-800 WAC, Safety and health core rules -- Bathrooms and washing facilities.

WAC 296-800-23025 Provide convenient and clean washing facilities.

Chapter 296-800 WAC, Safety and health core rules -- Exit routes and employee alarm systems.

WAC 296-800-310 Summary.

Chapter 296-800 WAC, Safety and health core rules -- Using standards from national organizations and federal agencies.

WAC 296-800-370 Definitions.

Chapter 296-802 WAC, Employee medical and exposure records.

WAC 296-802-60005 Transfer or dispose of employee medical and exposure records when you go out of business.

Chapter 296-823 WAC, Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.

WAC 296-823-200 Definitions.

Chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.

WAC 296-842-13005 Select and provide appropriate respirators.
WAC 296-842-20010 Prevent conditions that could create a hazardous breathing air supply.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.

Other Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 12-17-124 on August 21, 2012.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 35, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 35, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 35, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Date Adopted: December 4, 2012.

Judy Schurke

Director

OTS-4658.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-24-29419   Safe operating practices.   Whenever any sling is used, the following practices shall be observed:

(1) Slings that are damaged or defective shall not be used.

(2) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices.

(3) Sling legs shall not be kinked.

(4) ((Slings shall not be loaded in excess of their rated capacities.)) Employers must not load a sling in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed by the sling manufacturer on the identification markings permanently affixed to the sling.

(5) Slings used in a basket hitch shall have the loads balanced to prevent slippage.

(6) Slings shall be securely attached to their loads.

(7) Slings shall be padded or protected from the sharp edges of their loads.

(8) Suspended loads shall be kept clear of all obstructions.

(9) All employees shall be kept clear of loads about to be lifted and of suspended loads.

(10) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling and its load while the sling is being tightened around the load.

(11) Shock loading is prohibited.

(12) A sling shall not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling.

(13) Employers must not use slings without affixed and legible identification markings.

[Order 76-6, 296-24-29419, filed 3/1/76.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-29, filed 9/30/76)

WAC 296-24-29423   Alloy steel chain slings.   (1) Sling identification. Alloy steel chain slings shall have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity and reach.

(2) Attachments.

(a) Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links or other attachments shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the alloy steel chain with which they are used or the sling shall not be used in excess of the rated capacity of the weakest component.

(b) Makeshift links or fasteners formed from bolts or rods, or other such attachments, shall not be used.

(3) Inspections.

(a) In addition to the inspection required by WAC 296-24-29421, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be determined on the basis of:

(i) Frequency of sling use;

(ii) Severity of service conditions;

(iii) Nature of lifts being made; and

(iv) Experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. Such inspections shall in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 months.

(b) The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shall make such record available for examination.

(c) The thorough inspection of alloy steel chain slings shall be performed by a competent person designated by the employer, and shall include a thorough inspection for wear, defective welds, deformation and increase in length. Where such defects or deterioration are present, the sling shall be immediately removed from service.

(4) Proof testing. The employer shall ensure that before use, each new, repaired, or reconditioned alloy steel chain sling, including all welded components in the sling assembly, shall be proof tested by the sling manufacturer or equivalent entity, in accordance with paragraph 5.2 of the American Society of Testing and Materials Specification A391-65 (ANSI G61.1-1968). The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and shall make it available for examination.

(5) ((Sling use. Alloy steel chain slings shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities prescribed in Table D-1. Slings not included in this table shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(6) Safe operating temperatures. Alloy steel chain slings shall be permanently removed from service if they are heated above 1000F. When exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600F maximum working load limits permitted in Table D-1 shall be reduced in accordance with the chain or sling manufacturer's recommendations.

(7))) Safe operating temperatures. Employers must permanently remove an alloy steel-chain sling from service if it is heated above 1000F. When exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600F, employers must reduce the maximum working load limits permitted by the chain manufacturer in accordance with the chain or sling manufacturer's recommendations.

(6) Repairing and reconditioning alloy steel chain slings.

(a) Worn or damaged alloy steel chain slings or attachments shall not be used until repaired. When welding or heat testing is performed, slings shall not be used unless repaired, reconditioned and proof tested by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.

(b) Mechanical coupling links or low carbon steel repair links shall not be used to repair broken lengths of chain.

(((8))) (7) Effects of wear. If the chain size at any point of any links is less than that stated in Table ((D-2)) D-1, the sling shall be removed from service.

(((9))) (8) Deformed attachments.

(a) Alloy steel chain sling with cracked or deformed master links, coupling links or other components shall be removed from service.

(b) Slings shall be removed from service if hooks are cracked, have been opened more than 15 percent of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.

[Order 76-29, 296-24-29423, filed 9/30/76; Order 76-6, 296-24-29423, filed 3/1/76.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-9, filed 7/31/79)

WAC 296-24-29425   Wire rope slings.   (1) Sling use. ((Wire rope slings shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities shown in Tables D-3 through D-14. Slings not included in these tables shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.)) Employers must use only wire rope slings that have permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer, and that indicate the recommended safe working load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used, the angle upon which it is based, and the number of legs if more than one.

(2) Minimum sling lengths.

(a) Cable laid and 6x19 and 6x37 slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 10 times the component rope diameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings.

(b) Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 40 times the component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.

(c) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings shall have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body diameter.

(3) Safe operating temperatures. Fiber core wire rope slings of all grades shall be permanently removed from service if they are exposed to temperatures in excess of 200F. When nonfiber core wire rope slings of any grade are used at temperatures above 400F or below minus 60F, recommendations of the sling manufacturer regarding use at that temperature shall be followed.

(4) End attachments.

(a) Welding of end attachments, except covers to thimbles, shall be performed prior to the assembly of the sling.

(b) All welded end attachments shall not be used unless proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at twice their rated capacity prior to initial use. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test, and make it available for examination.

(5) Removal from service. Wire rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:

(a) Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay, or five broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.

(b) Wear or scraping of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires.

(c) Kinking, crushing, bird caging or any other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure.

(d) Evidence of heat damage.

(e) End attachments that are cracked, deformed or worn.

(f) Hooks that have been opened more than 15 percent of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.

(g) Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.150, and 49.17.240. 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), 296-24-29425, filed 7/31/79; Order 76-6, 296-24-29425, filed 3/1/76.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-24-29427   Metal mesh slings.   (1) Sling marking. Each metal mesh sling shall have permanently affixed to it a durable marking that states the rated capacity for vertical basket hitch and choker hitch loadings.

(2) Handles. Handles shall have a rated capacity at least equal to the metal fabric and exhibit no deformation after proof testing.

(3) Attachments of handles to fabric. The fabric and handles shall be joined so that:

(a) The rated capacity of the sling is not reduced.

(b) The load is evenly distributed across the width of the fabric.

(c) Sharp edges will not damage the fabric.

(4) Sling coatings. Coatings which diminish the rated capacity of a sling shall not be applied.

(5) Sling testing. All new and repaired metal mesh slings, including handles, shall not be used unless proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at a minimum of 1-1/2 times their rated capacity. Elastomer impregnated slings shall be proof tested before coating.

(6) ((Proper use of metal mesh slings. Metal mesh slings shall not be used to lift loads in excess of their rated capacities as prescribed in Table D-15. Slings not included in this table shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(7))) Safe operating temperatures. Metal mesh slings which are not impregnated with elastomers may be used in a temperature range from minus 20F to plus 550F without decreasing the working load limit. Metal mesh slings impregnated with polyvinyl chloride or neoprene may be used only in a temperature range from zero degrees to plus 200F. For operations outside these temperature ranges or for metal mesh slings impregnated with other materials, the sling manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed.

(((8))) (7) Repairs.

(a) Metal mesh slings which are repaired shall not be used unless repaired by a metal mesh sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.

(b) Once repaired, each sling shall be permanently marked or tagged, or a written record maintained, to indicate the date and nature of the repairs and the person or organization that performed the repairs. Records of repairs shall be made available for examination.

(((9))) (8) Removal from service. Metal mesh slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:

(a) A broken weld or broken brazed joint along the sling edge.

(b) Reduction in wire diameter of 25 percent due to abrasion or 15 percent due to corrosion.

(c) Lack of flexibility due to distortion of the fabric.

(d) Distortion of the female handle so that the depth of the slot is increased more than 10 percent.

(e) Distortion of either handle so that the width of the eye is decreased more than 10 percent.

(f) A 15 percent reduction of the original cross sectional area of metal at any point around the handle eye.

(g) Distortion of either handle out of its plane.

[Order 76-6, 296-24-29427, filed 3/1/76.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-24-29429   Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings.   (1) Sling use.

(a) ((Fiber rope slings made from conventional three strand construction fiber rope shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities prescribed in Tables D-16 through D-19.)) Employers must use natural and synthetic fiber rope slings that have permanently affixed and legible identification markings stating the rated capacity for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle upon which it is based, type of fiber material, and the number of legs if more than one.

(b) Fiber rope slings shall have a diameter of curvature meeting at least the minimums specified in Figs. D-4 and D-5.

(c) Slings not included in these tables shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(2) Safe operating temperatures. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings, except for wet frozen slings, may be used in a temperature range from minus 20F to plus 180F without decreasing the working load limit. For operations outside this temperature range and for wet frozen slings, the sling manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed.

(3) Splicing. Spliced fiber rope slings shall not be used unless they have been spliced in accordance with the following minimum requirements and in accordance with any additional recommendations of the manufacturer:

(a) In manila rope, eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the splice center line.

(b) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall consist of at least four full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least eight full tucks, four on each side of the center line.

(c) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed flush with the surface of the rope immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This applies to all types of fiber rope and both eye and short splices. For fiber rope under one inch in diameter, the tail shall project at least six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber rope one inch in diameter and larger, the tail shall project at least six inches beyond the last full tuck. Where a projecting tail interferes with the use of the sling, the tail shall be tapered and spliced into the body of the rope using at least two additional tucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).

(d) Fiber rope slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope between eye splices equal to 10 times the rope diameter.

(e) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.

(f) Clamps not designed specifically for fiber ropes shall not be used for splicing.

(g) For all eye splices, the eye shall be of such size to provide an included angle of not greater than 60 degrees at the splice when the eye is placed over the load or support.

(4) End attachments. Fiber rope slings shall not be used if end attachments in contact with the rope have sharp edges or projections.

(5) Removal from service. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:

(a) Abnormal wear.

(b) Powdered fiber between strands.

(c) Broken or cut fibers.

(d) Variations in the size or roundness of strands.

(e) Discoloration or rotting.

(f) Distortion of hardware in the sling.

(6) Repairs. Only fiber rope slings made from new rope shall be used. Use of repaired or reconditioned fiber rope slings is prohibited.

[Order 76-6, 296-24-29429, filed 3/1/76.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-24-29431   Synthetic web slings.   (1) Sling identification. Each sling shall be marked or coded to show the rated capacities for each type of hitch and type of synthetic web material.

(2) Webbing. Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width.

(3) Fittings. Fittings shall be:

(a) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and

(b) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the webbing.

(4) Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of eyes. Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the sling.

(5) ((Sling use. Synthetic web slings illustrated in Figure D-6 shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities specified in Tables D-20 through D-22. Slings not included in these tables shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(6))) Environmental conditions. When synthetic web slings are used, the following precautions shall be taken:

(a) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present.

(b) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.

(c) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.

(((7))) (6) Safe operating temperatures. Synthetic web slings of polyester and nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180F. Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 200F.

(((8))) (7) Repairs.

(a) Synthetic web slings which are repaired shall not be used unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.

(b) Each repaired sling shall be proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity to twice the rated capacity prior to its return to service. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.

(c) Slings, including webbing and fittings, which have been repaired in a temporary manner shall not be used.

(((9))) (8) Removal from service. Synthetic web slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:

(a) Acid or caustic burns;

(b) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;

(c) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;

(d) Broken or worn stitches; or

(e) Distortion of fittings.


Figure D-1

Metal Mesh Sling (Typical)



Figure D-2

Metal Mesh Construction



Figure D-3

Major Components of a Quadruple Sling


((TABLE D-1

RATED CAPACITY (WORKING LOAD LIMIT), FOR ALLOY STEEL CHAIN SLINGS* RATED CAPACITY (WORKING LOAD LIMIT), POUNDS

TABLE D-1: Part 1 -- Double Slings


Chain

Size,

Inches

Single Branch Sling -

90 degree Loading

30 degree

60 degree

Double Sling

Vertical Angle1

45 degree

Horizontal Angle2

45 degree

60

degree

30

degree

1/4 3,250 5,650 4,550 3,250
3/8 6,600 11,400 9,300 6,600
1/2 11,250 19,500 15,900 11,250
5/8 16,500 28,500 23,300 16,500
3/4 23,000 39,800 32,500 23,000
7/8 28,750 49,800 40,600 28,750
1 38,750 67,100 54,800 38,750
1- 1/8 44,500 77,000 63,000 44,500
1- 1/4 57,500 99,500 81,000 57,500
1- 3/8 67,000 116,000 94,000 67,000
1- 1/2 80,000 138,000 112,500 80,000
1- 3/4 100,000 172,000 140,000 100,000

(1)Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading measured as the included angle between the inclined leg and the vertical as shown in Figure D-5.

(2)Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of the load, as shown in Figure D-5.

(3)Quadruple sling rating is same as triple sling because normal lifting practice may not distribute load uniformly to all 4 legs.

TABLE D-1: Part 2 -- Triple and Quadruple Slings


Chain Size, Inches Single Branch Sling -

90 degree Loading

30 degree

60 degree

Triple and Quadruple

Sling(3)

Vertical Angle(1)

45 degree

Horizontal Angle(2)

45 degree

60 degree

30 degree

1/4 3,250 8,400 6,800 4,900
3/8 6,600 17,000 14,000 9,900
1/2 11,250 29,000 24,000 17,000
5/8 16,500 43,000 35,000 24,500
3/4 23,000 59,500 48,500 34,500
7/8 28,750 74,500 61,000 43,000
1 38,750 101,000 82,000 58,000
1- 1/8 44,500 115,500 94,500 66,500
1- 1/4 57,500 149,000 121,500 86,000
1- 3/8 67,000 174,000 141,000 100,500
1- 1/2 80,000 207,000 169,000 119,500
1- 3/4 100,000 258,000 210,000 150,000))

(1)Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading measured as the included angle between the inclined leg and the vertical as shown in Figure D-5.

(2)Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of the load, as shown in Figure D-5.

(3)Quadruple sling rating is same as triple sling because normal lifting practice may not distribute load uniformly to all 4 legs.))

TABLE ((D-2)) D-1

MINIMUM ALLOWABLE CHAIN SIZE
AT ANY POINT OF LINK


Chain Size,

Inches

Minimum Allowable

Chain Size, Inches

1/4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 13/64
3/8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 19/64
1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25/64
5/8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31/64
3/4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 19/32
7/8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 45/64
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 13/16
1- 1/8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 29/32
1- 1/4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1- 3/8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 3/32
1- 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 3/16
1- 3/4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13/32

((TABLE D-3

RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS 6x19 AND 6x37 CLASSIFICATION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE WITH FIBER CORE (FC)


Rope Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Dia. Constr. Vertical Choker Vertical Basket*
(Inches) HT MS S HT MS S HT MS S
1/4 6x19 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.37 0.38 0.41 0.99 1.0 1.1
5/16 6x19 0.76 0.79 0.85 0.57 0.59 0.64 1.5 1.6 1.7
3/8 6x19 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.80 0.85 0.91 2.1 2.2 2.4
7/16 6x19 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.2 2.9 3.0 3.3
1/2 6x19 1.8 2.0 2.1 1.4 1.5 1.6 3.7 3.9 4.3
9/16 6x19 2.3 2.5 2.7 1.7 1.9 2.0 4.6 5.0 5.4
5/8 6x19 2.8 3.1 3.3 2.1 2.3 2.5 5.6 6.2 6.7
3/4 6x19 3.9 4.4 4.8 2.9 3.3 3.6 7.8 8.8 9.5
7/8 6x19 5.1 5.9 6.4 3.9 4.5 4.8 10.0 12.0 13.0
1 6x19 6.7 7.7 8.4 5.0 5.8 6.3 13.0 15.0 17.0
1- 1/8 6x19 8.4 9.5 10.0 6.3 7.1 7.9 17.0 19.0 21.0
1- 1/4 6x37 9.8 11.0 12.0 7.4 8.3 9.2 20.0 22.0 25.0
1- 3/8 6x37 12.0 13.0 15.0 8.9 10.0 11.0 24.0 27.0 30.0
1- 1/2 6x37 14.0 16.0 17.0 10.0 12.0 13.0 28.0 32.0 35.0
1- 5/8 6x37 16.0 18.0 21.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 33.0 37.0 41.0
1- 3/4 6x37 19.0 21.0 24.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 38.0 43.0 48.0
2 6x37 25.0 28.0 31.0 18.0 21.0 23.0 49.0 55.0 62.0

HT = Hand tucked splice and hidden tuck splice
For hidden tuck splice (IWRC) use value in HT columns.
MS = Mechanical splice.
S = Swaged or zinc poured socket.
* These values only apply when the D/d ratio for HT slings is 10 or greater, and for MS and S slings is 20 or greater where:
D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent.
d = Diameter of rope.

TABLE D-4

RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS 6x19 AND 6x37 CLASSIFICATION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE WITH INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE (IWRC)


Rope Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Dia. Constr. Vertical Choker Vertical Basket*
(Inches) HT MS S HT MS S HT MS S
1/4 6x19 0.53 0.56 0.59 0.40 0.42 0.44 1.0 1.1 1.2
5/16 6x19 0.81 0.87 0.92 0.61 0.65 0.69 1.6 1.7 1.8
3/8 6x19 1.1 1.2 1.3 0.86 0.93 0.98 2.3 2.5 2.6
7/16 6x19 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.3 3.1 3.4 3.5
1/2 6x19 2.0 2.2 2.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 3.9 4.4 4.6
9/16 6x19 2.5 2.7 2.9 1.8 2.1 2.2 4.9 5.5 5.8
5/8 6x19 3.0 3.4 3.6 2.2 2.5 2.7 6.0 6.8 7.2
3/4 6x19 4.2 4.9 5.1 3.1 3.6 3.8 8.4 9.7 10.0
7/8 6x19 5.5 6.6 6.9 4.1 4.9 5.2 11.0 13.0 14.0
1 6x19 7.2 8.5 9.0 5.4 6.4 6.7 14.0 17.0 18.0
1- 1/8 6x19 9.0 10.0 11.0 6.8 7.8 8.5 18.0 21.0 23.0
1- 1/4 6x37 10.0 12.0 13.0 7.9 9.2 9.9 21.0 24.0 26.0
1- 3/8 6x37 13.0 15.0 16.0 9.6 11.0 12.0 25.0 29.0 32.0
1- 1/2 6x37 15.0 17.0 19.0 11.0 13.0 14.0 30.0 35.0 38.0
1- 5/8 6x37 18.0 20.0 22.0 13.0 15.0 17.0 35.0 41.0 44.0
1- 3/4 6x37 20.0 24.0 26.0 15.0 18.0 19.0 41.0 47.0 51.0
2 6x37 26.0 30.0 33.0 20.0 23.0 25.0 53.0 61.0 66.0

HT = Hand tucked splice.
For hidden tuck splice (IWRC) use Table I value in HT columns.
MS = Mechanical splice.
S = Swaged or zinc poured socket.
* These values only apply when the D/d ratio for HT slings is 10 or greater, and for MS and S slings is 20 or greater where:
D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent.
d = Diameter of rope.

TABLE D-5

RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS CABLE LAID ROPE - MECHANICAL SPLICE ONLY 7x7x7 AND 7x7x19 CONSTRUCTIONS GALVANIZED AIRCRAFT GRADE ROPE 7x6x19 IWRC CONSTRUCTION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE


Rope Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Dia. (Inches) Constr. Vertical Choker Vertical Basket*
1/4 7x7x7 0.50 0.38 1.0
3/8 7x7x7 1.1 0.81 2.0
1/2 7x7x7 1.8 1.4 3.7
5/8 7x7x7 2.8 2.1 5.5
3/4 7x7x7 3.8 2.9 7.6
5/8 7x7x19 2.9 2.2 5.8
3/4 7x7x19 4.1 3.0 8.1
7/8 7x7x19 5.4 4.0 11.0
1 7x7x19 6.9 5.1 14.0
1- 1/8 7x7x19 8.2 6.2 16.0
1- 1/4 7x7x19 9.9 7.4 20.0
3/4 7x6x19 IWRC 3.8 2.8 7.6
7/8 7x6x19 IWRC 5.0 3.8 10.0
1 7x6x19 IWRC 6.4 4.8 13.0
1- 1/8 7x6x19 IWRC 7.7 5.8 15.0
1- 1/4 7x6x19 IWRC 9.2 6.9 18.0
1- 5/16 7x6x19 IWRC 10.0 7.5 20.0
1- 3/8 7x6x19 IWRC 11.0 8.2 22.0
1- 1/2 7x6x19 IWRC 13.0 9.6 26.0

* These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 10 or greater where:
D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent.
d = Diameter of rope.

TABLE D-6

RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS 8-PART AND 6-PART BRAIDED ROPE 6x7 AND 6x19 CONSTRUCTION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE 7x7 CONSTRUCTION GALVANIZED AIRCRAFT GRADE ROPE


Component Ropes Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Diameter

(inches)

Constr. Vertical Choker Basket Vertical

to 30 degrees*

8-Part 6-Part 8-Part 6-Part 8-Part 6-Part
3/32 6x7 0.42 0.32 0.32 0.24 0.74 0.55
1/8 6x7 0.76 0.57 0.57 0.42 1.3 0.98
3/16 6x7 1.7 1.3 1.3 0.94 2.9 2.2
3/32 7x7 0.51 0.39 0.38 0.29 0.89 0.67
1/8 7x7 0.95 0.71 0.71 0.53 1.6 1.2
3/16 7x7 2.1 1.5 1.5 1.2 3.6 2.7
3/16 6x19 1.7 1.3 1.3 0.98 3.0 2.2
1/4 6x19 3.1 2.3 2.3 1.7 5.3 4.0
5/16 6x19 4.8 3.6 3.6 2.7 8.3 6.2
3/8 6x19 6.8 5.1 5.1 3.8 12.0 8.9
7/16 6x19 9.3 6.9 6.9 5.2 16.0 12.0
1/2 6x19 12.0 9.0 9.0 6.7 21.0 15.0
9/16 6x19 15.0 11.0 11.0 8.5 26.0 20.0
5/8 6x19 19.0 14.0 14.0 10.0 32.0 24.0
3/4 6x19 27.0 20.0 20.0 15.0 46.0 35.0
7/8 6x19 36.0 27.0 27.0 20.0 62.0 47.0
1 6x19 47.0 35.0 35.0 26.0 81.0 61.0

* These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 20 or greater where:
D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent.
d = Diameter of component rope.

TABLE D-7

RATED CAPACITIES FOR 2-LEG AND 3-LEG BRIDLE SLINGS 6x19 AND 6x37 CLASSIFICATION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE WITH FIBER CORE (FC)

TABLE D-7: Part 1 -- 2-Leg Bridle Slings


Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 2-Leg Bridle Slings
Dia.

(Inches)

Constr. Vert 30 degree

Horz 60 degree

45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree

Horz 30 degree

HT MS HT MS HT MS
1/4 6x19 0.85 0.88 0.70 0.72 0.49 0.51
5/16 6x19 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.76 0.79
3/8 6x19 1.8 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.1 1.1
7/16 6x19 2.5 2.6 2.0 2.2 1.4 1.5
1/2 6x19 3.2 3.4 2.6 2.8 1.8 2.0
9/16 6x19 4.0 4.3 3.2 3.5 2.3 2.5
5/8 6x19 4.8 5.3 4.0 4.4 2.8 3.1
3/4 6x19 6.8 7.6 5.5 6.2 3.9 4.4
7/8 6x19 8.9 10.0 7.3 8.4 5.1 5.9
1 6x19 11.0 13.0 9.4 11.0 6.7 7.7
1-1/8 6x19 14.0 16.0 12.0 13.0 8.4 9.5
1-1/4 6x37 17.0 19.0 14.0 16.0 9.8 11.0
1-3/8 6x37 20.0 23.0 17.0 19.0 12.0 13.0
1-1/2 6x37 24.0 27.0 20.0 22.0 14.0 16.0
1-5/8 6x37 28.0 32.0 23.0 26.0 16.0 18.0
1-3/4 6x37 33.0 37.0 27.0 30.0 19.0 21.0
2 6x37 43.0 48.0 35.0 39.0 25.0 28.0

HT = Hand tucked splice.
MS = Mechanical splice.

TABLE D-7: Part 2 -- 3-Leg Bridle Slings


Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 3-Leg Bridle Slings
Dia. (Inches) Constr. Vert 30 degree

Horz 60 degree

45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree

Horz 30 degree

HT MS HT MS HT MS
1/4 6x19 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.74 0.76
5/16 6x19 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.7 1.1 1.2
3/8 6x19 2.8 2.9 2.3 2.4 1.6 1.7
7/16 6x19 3.7 4.0 3.0 3.2 2.1 2.3
1/2 6x19 4.8 5.1 3.9 4.2 2.8 3.0
9/16 6x19 6.0 6.5 4.9 5.3 3.4 3.7
5/8 6x19 7.3 8.0 5.9 6.5 4.2 4.6
3/4 6x19 10.0 11.0 8.3 9.3 5.8 6.6
7/8 6x19 13.0 15.0 11.0 13.0 7.7 8.9
1 6x19 17.0 20.0 14.0 16.0 10.0 11.0
1-1/8 6x19 22.0 24.0 18.0 20.0 13.0 14.0
1-1/4 6x37 25.0 29.0 21.0 23.0 15.0 17.0
1-3/8 6x37 31.0 35.0 25.0 28.0 18.0 20.0
1-1/2 6x37 36.0 41.0 30.0 33.0 21.0 24.0
1-5/8 6x37 43.0 48.0 35.0 39.0 25.0 28.0
1-3/4 6x37 49.0 56.0 40.0 45.0 28.0 32.0
2 6x37 64.0 72.0 52.0 59.0 37.0 41.0

HT = Hand tucked splice.
MS = Mechanical splice.

TABLE D-8

RATED CAPACITIES FOR 2-LEG AND 3-LEG BRIDLE SLINGS 6x19 AND 6x37 CLASSIFICATION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE WITH INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE (IWRC)

TABLE D-8: Part 1 -- 2-Leg Bridle Sling


Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 2-Leg Bridle Slings
Dia.

(Inches)

Constr. Vert 30 degree

Horz 60 degree

45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree Horz 30 degree
HT MS HT MS HT MS
1/4 6x19 0.92 0.97 0.75 0.79 0.53 0.56
5/16 6x19 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.2 0.81 0.87
3/8 6x19 2.0 2.1 1.6 1.8 1.1 1.2
7/16 6x19 2.7 2.9 2.2 2.4 1.5 1.7
1/2 6x19 3.4 3.8 2.8 3.1 2.0 2.2
9/16 6x19 4.3 4.8 3.5 3.9 2.5 2.7
5/8 6x19 5.2 5.9 4.2 4.8 3.0 3.4
3/4 6x19 7.3 8.4 5.9 6.9 4.2 4.9
7/8 6x19 9.6 11.0 7.8 9.3 5.5 6.6
1 6x19 12.0 15.0 10.0 12.0 7.2 8.5
1-1/8 6x19 16.0 18.0 13.0 15.0 9.0 10.0
1-1/4 6x37 18.0 21.0 15.0 17.0 10.0 12.0
1-3/8 6x37 22.0 25.0 18.0 21.0 13.0 15.0
1-1/2 6x37 26.0 30.0 21.0 25.0 15.0 17.0
1-5/8 6x37 31.0 35.0 25.0 29.0 18.0 20.0
1-3/4 6x37 35.0 41.0 29.0 33.0 20.0 24.0
2 6x37 46.0 53.0 37.0 43.0 26.0 30.0

HT = Hand tucked splice.
MS = Mechanical splice.

TABLE D-8: Part 2 -- 3-Leg Bridle Slings


Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 2-Leg Bridle Sling
Dia. (Inches) Constr. Vert 30 degree Horz 60 degree 45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree

Horz 30 degree

HT MS HT MS HT MS
1/4 6x19 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.2 0.79 0.84
5/16 6x19 2.1 2.3 1.7 1.8 1.2 1.3
3/8 6x19 3.0 3.2 2.4 2.6 1.7 1.9
7/16 6x19 4.0 4.4 3.3 3.6 2.3 2.5
1/2 6x19 5.1 5.7 4.2 4.6 3.0 3.3
9/16 6x19 6.4 7.1 5.2 5.8 3.7 4.1
5/8 6x19 7.8 8.8 6.4 7.2 4.5 5.1
3/4 6x19 11.0 13.0 8.9 10.0 6.3 7.3
7/8 6x19 14.0 17.0 12.0 14.0 8.3 9.9
1 6x19 19.0 22.0 15.0 18.0 11.0 13.0
1-1/8 6x19 23.0 27.0 19.0 22.0 13.0 16.0
1-1/4 6x37 27.0 32.0 22.0 26.0 16.0 18.0
1-3/8 6x37 33.0 38.0 27.0 31.0 19.0 22.0
1-1/2 6x37 39.0 45.0 32.0 37.0 23.0 26.0
1-5/8 6x37 46.0 53.0 38.0 43.0 27.0 31.0
1-3/4 6x37 53.0 61.0 43.0 50.0 31.0 35.0
2 6x37 68.0 79.0 56.0 65.0 40.0 46.0

HT = Hand tucked splice.
MS = Mechanical splice.

TABLE D-9

RATED CAPACITIES FOR 2-LEG AND 3-LEG BRIDLE SLINGS CABLE LAID ROPE - MECHANICAL SPLICE ONLY 7x7x7 AND 7x7x19 CONSTRUCTIONS GALVANIZED AIRCRAFT GRADE ROPE 7x6x19 IWRC CONSTRUCTION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE

TABLE D-9: Part 1 -- 2-Leg Bridle Slings


Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 2-Leg Bridle Sling
Dia. (Inches) Constr. Vert 30 degree Horz 60 degree 45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree

Horz 30 degree

1/4 7x7x7 0.87 0.71 0.50
3/8 7x7x7 1.9 1.5 1.1
1/2 7x7x7 3.2 2.6 1.8
5/8 7x7x7 4.8 3.9 2.8
3/4 7x7x7 6.6 5.4 3.8
5/8 7x7x19 5.0 4.1 2.9
3/4 7x7x19 7.0 5.7 4.1
7/8 7x7x19 9.3 7.6 5.4
1 7x7x19 12.0 9.7 6.9
1-1/8 7x7x19 14.0 12.0 8.2
1-1/4 7x7x19 17.0 14.0 9.9
3/4 7x6x19 IWRC 6.6 5.4 3.8
7/8 7x6x19 IWRC 8.7 7.1 5.0
1 7x6x19 IWRC 11.0 9.0 6.4
1-1/8 7x6x19 IWRC 13.0 11.0 7.7
1-1/4 7x6x19 IWRC 16.0 13.0 9.2
1-5/16 7x6x19 IWRC 17.0 14.0 10.0
1-3/8 7x6x19 IWRC 19.0 15.0 11.0
1-1/2 7x6x19 IWRC 22.0 18.0 13.0

TABLE D-9: Part 2 -- 3-Leg Bridle Slings


Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 3-Leg Bridle Sling
Dia. (Inches) Constr. Vert 30 degree

Horz 60 degree

45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree

Horz 30 degree

1/4 7x7x7 1.3 1.1 0.75
3/8 7x7x7 2.8 2.3 1.6
1/2 7x7x7 4.8 3.9 2.8
5/8 7x7x7 7.2 5.9 4.2
3/4 7x7x7 9.9 8.1 5.7
5/8 7x7x19 7.5 6.1 4.3
3/4 7x7x19 10.0 8.6 6.1
7/8 7x7x19 14.0 11.0 8.1
1 7x7x19 18.0 14.0 10.0
1-1/8 7x7x19 21.0 17.0 12.0
1-1/4 7x7x19 26.0 21.0 15.0
3/4 7x6x19 IWRC 9.9 8.0 5.7
7/8 7x6x19 IWRC 13.0 11.0 7.5
1 7x6x19 IWRC 17.0 13.0 9.6
1-1/8 7x6x19 IWRC 20.0 16.0 11.0
1-1/4 7x6x19 IWRC 24.0 20.0 14.0
1-5/16 7x6x19 IWRC 26.0 21.0 15.0
1-3/8 7x6x19 IWRC 28.0 23.0 16.0
1-1/2 7x6x19 IWRC 33.0 27.0 19.0

TABLE D-10

RATED CAPACITIES FOR 2-LEG AND 3-LEG BRIDLE SLINGS 8-PART AND 6-PART BRAIDED ROPE 6x7 AND 6x19 CONSTRUCTION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE 7x7 CONSTRUCTION GALVANIZED AIRCRAFT GRADE ROPE

TABLE D-10: Part 1 -- 2-Leg Bridle Slings



Component
Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 2-Leg Bridle Slings
Dia. (Inches) Constr. Vert 30 degree

Horz 60 degree

45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree

Horz 30 degree

8-Part 6-Part 8-Part 6-Part 8-Part 6-Part
3/32 6x7 0.74 0.55 0.60 0.45 0.42 0.32
1/8 6x7 1.3 0.98 1.1 0.80 0.76 0.57
3/16 6x7 2.9 2.2 2.4 1.8 1.7 1.3
3/32 7x7 0.89 0.67 0.72 0.55 0.51 0.39
1/8 7x7 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.0 0.95 0.71
3/16 7x7 3.6 2.7 2.9 2.2 2.1 1.5
3/16 6x19 3.0 2.2 2.4 1.8 1.7 1.3
1/4 6x19 5.3 4.0 4.3 3.2 3.1 2.3
5/16 6x19 8.3 6.2 6.7 5.0 4.8 3.6
3/8 6x19 12.0 8.9 9.7 7.2 6.8 5.1
7/16 6x19 16.0 12.0 13.0 9.8 9.3 6.9
1/2 6x19 21.0 15.0 17.0 13.0 12.0 9.0
9/16 6x19 26.0 20.0 21.0 16.0 15.0 11.0
5/8 6x19 32.0 24.0 26.0 20.0 19.0 14.0
3/4 6x19 46.0 35.0 38.0 28.0 27.0 20.0
7/8 6x19 62.0 47.0 51.0 38.0 36.0 27.0
1 6x19 81.0 61.0 66.0 50.0 47.0 35.0

TABLE D-10: Part 2 -- 3-Leg Bridle Slings



Component
Rated Capacities, Tons (2,000 lb)
Rope 3-Leg Bridle Slings
Dia. (Inches) Constr. Vert 30 degree

Horz 60 degree

45 degree

Angle

Vert 60 degree

Horz 30 degree

8-Part 6-Part 8-Part 6-Part 8-Part 6-Part
3/32 6x7 1.1 0.83 0.90 0.68 0.64 0.48
1/8 6x7 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.1 0.85
3/16 6x7 4.4 3.3 3.6 2.7 2.5 1.9
3/32 7x7 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.82 0.77 0.58
1/8 7x7 2.5 1.8 2.0 1.5 1.4 1.1
3/16 7x7 5.4 4.0 4.4 3.3 3.1 2.3
3/16 6x19 4.5 3.4 3.7 2.8 2.6 1.9
1/4 6x19 8.0 6.0 6.5 4.9 4.6 3.4
5/16 6x19 12.0 9.3 10.0 7.6 7.1 5.4
3/8 6x19 18.0 13.0 14.0 11.0 10.0 7.7
7/16 6x19 24.0 18.0 20.0 15.0 14.0 10.0
1/2 6x19 31.0 23.0 25.0 19.0 18.0 13.0
9/16 6x19 39.0 29.0 32.0 24.0 23.0 17.0
5/8 6x19 48.0 36.0 40.0 30.0 28.0 21.0
3/4 6x19 69.0 52.0 56.0 42.0 40.0 30.0
7/8 6x19 94.0 70.0 76.0 57.0 54.0 40.0
1 6x19 122.0 91.0 99.0 74.0 70.0 53.0))

((TABLE D-11

RATED CAPACITIES FOR STRAND LAID
GROMMET - HAND TUCKED IMPROVED
PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE

ROPE BODY

RATED CAPACITIES,

TONS (2,000 lb)

Dia.

(Inches)

Constr.

Vertical

Choker

Vertical

Basket*

1/4 7x19 0.85 0.64 1.7
5/16 7x19 1.3 1.0 2.6
3/8 7x19 1.9 1.4 3.8
7/16 7x19 2.6 1.9 5.2
1/2 7x19 3.3 2.5 6.7
9/16 7x19 4.2 3.1 8.4
5/8 7x19 5.2 3.9 10.00
3/4 7x19 7.4 5.6 15.0
7/8 7x19 10.0 7.5 20.0
1 7x19 13.0 9.7 26.0
1-1/8 7x19 16.0 12.0 32.0
1-1/4 7x37 18.0 14.0 37.0
1-3/8 7x37 22.0 16.0 44.0
1-1/2 7x37 26.0 19.0 52.0

* These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where:
D= Diameter of curvature around which rope is bent.
d = Diameter of rope body.

TABLE D-12

RATED CAPACITIES FOR CABLE LAID GROMMET - HAND TUCKED 7x6x7 AND 7x6x19 CONSTRUCTIONS IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE 7x7x7 CONSTRUCTION GALVANIZED AIRCRAFT GRADE ROPE


CABLE BODY

RATED CAPACITIES,

TONS (2,000 lb)

Dia.

(Inches)

Constr.

Vertical

Choker

Vertical

Basket*

3/8 7x6x7 1.3 0.95 2.5
9/16 7x6x7 2.8 2.1 5.6
5/8 7x6x7 3.8 2.8 7.6

3/8

7x7x7

1.6

1.2

3.2
9/16 7x7x7 3.5 2.6 6.9
5/8 7x7x7 4.5 3.4 9.0
5/8 7x6x19 3.9 3.0 7.9
3/4 7x6x19 5.1 3.8 10.0
15/16 7x6x19 7.9 5.9 16.0
1-1/8 7x6x19 11.0 8.4 22.0
1-5/16 7x6x19 15.0 11.0 30.0
1-1/2 7x6x19 19.0 14.0 39.0
1-11/16 7x6x19 24.0 18.0 49.0
1-7/8 7x6x19 30.0 22.0 60.0
2-1/4 7x6x19 42.0 31.0 84.0
2-5/8 7x6x19 56.0 42.0 112.0

* These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where:
D= Diameter of curvature around which cable body is bent.
d = Diameter of cable body.

TABLE D-13

RATED CAPACITIES FOR STRAND LAID ENDLESS SLINGS - MECHANICAL JOINT IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE


ROPE BODY

RATED CAPACITIES,

TONS (2,000 lb)

Dia.

(Inches)

Constr.

Vertical

Choker

Vertical

Basket*

1/4 6x19 IWRC 0.92 0.69 1.8
3/8 6x19 IWRC 2.0 1.5 4.1
1/2 6x19 IWRC 3.6 2.7 7.2
5/8 6x19 IWRC 5.6 4.2 11.0
3/4 6x19 IWRC 8.0 6.0 16.0
7/8 6x19 IWRC 11.0 8.1 21.0
1 6x19 IWRC 14.0 10.0 28.0
1-1/8 6x19 IWRC 18.0 13.0 35.0
1-1/4 6x37 IWRC 21.0 15.0 41.0
1-3/8 6x37 IWRC 25.0 19.0 50.0
1-1/2 6x37 IWRC 29.0 22.0 59.0

* These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where:
D= Diameter of curvature around which rope is bent.
d = Diameter of rope body.

TABLE D-14

RATED CAPACITIES FOR CABLE LAID ENDLESS SLINGS - MECHANICAL JOINT 7x7x7 AND 7x7x19 CONSTRUCTIONS GALVANIZED AIRCRAFT GRADE ROPE 7x6x19 IWRC CONSTRUCTION IMPROVED PLOW STEEL GRADE ROPE


CABLE BODY

RATED CAPACITIES,

TONS (2,000 lb)

Dia.

(Inches)

Constr.

Vertical

Choker

Vertical

Basket*

1/4 7x7x7 0.83 0.62 1.6
3/8 7x7x7 1.8 1.3 3.5
1/2 7x7x7 3.0 2.3 6.1
5/8 7x7x7 4.5 3.4 9.1
3/4 7x7x7 6.3 4.7 12.0
5/8 7x7x19 4.7 3.5 9.5
3/4 7x7x19 6.7 5.0 13.0
7/8 7x7x19 8.9 6.6 18.0
1 7x7x19 11.0 8.5 22.0
1-1/8 7x7x19 14.0 10.0 28.0
1-1/4 7x7x19 17.0 12.0 33.0
3/4 7x6x19 IWRC 6.2 4.7 12.0
7/8 7x6x19 IWRC 8.3 6.2 16.0
1 7x6x19 IWRC 10.0 7.9 21.0
1-1/8 7x6x19 IWRC 13.0 9.7 26.0
1-1/4 7x6x19 IWRC 16.0 12.0 31.0
1-3/8 7x6x19 IWRC 18.0 14.0 37.0
1-1/2 7x6x19 IWRC 22.0 16.0 43.0

* These values only apply when the D/d value is 5 or greater where:
D= Diameter of curvature around which cable body is bent.
d = Diameter of cable body.

TABLE D-15

RATED CAPACITIES
CARBON STTEL AND STAINLESS STEEL
METAL MESH SLINGS


EFFECT OF ANGLE ON RATED

CAPACITIES IN BASKET HITCH

SLING


WIDTH


IN


INCHES

VERTICAL

OR

CHOKER

VERTICAL

BASKET

30 deg

Vertical

60 deg

Horizontal

45 deg

Vertical

45 deg

Horizontal

60 deg

Vertical

30 deg

Horizontal

Heavy Duty-10 Ga 35 Spirals/Ft of sling width
2 1,500 3,000 2,600 2,100 1,500
3 2,700 5,400 4,700 3,800 2,700
4 4,000 8,000 6,900 5,600 4,000
6 6,000 12,000 10,400 8,400 6,000
8 8,000 16,000 13,800 11,300 8,000
10 10,000 20,000 17,000 14,100 10,000
12 12,000 24,000 20,700 16,900 12,000
14 14,000 28,000 24,200 19,700 14,000
16 16,000 32,000 27,700 22,600 16,000
18 18,000 36,000 31,100 25,400 18,000
20 20,000 40,000 34,600 28,200 20,000
Medium Duty-12 Ga 43 Spirals/Ft of sling width
2 1,350 2,700 2,300 1,900 1,400
3 2,000 4,000 3,500 2,800 2,000
4 2,700 5,400 4,700 3,800 2,700
6 4,500 9,000 7,800 6,400 4,500
8 6,000 12,000 10,400 8,500 6,000
10 7,500 15,000 13,000 10,600 7,500
12 9,000 18,000 15,600 12,700 9,000
14 10,500 21,000 18,200 14,800 10,500
16 12,000 24,000 20,800 17,000 12,000
18 13,500 27,000 23,400 19,100 13,500
20 15,000 30,000 26,000 21,200 15,000
Light Duty-14 Ga 59 Spirals/Ft of sling width
2 900 1,800 1,600 1,300 900
3 1,400 2,800 2,400 2,000 1,400
4 2,000 4,000 3,500 2,800 2,000
6 3,000 6,000 5,200 4,200 3,000
8 4,000 8,000 6,900 5,700 4,000
10 5,000 10,000 8,600 7,100 5,000
12 6,000 12,000 10,400 8,500 6,000
14 7,000 14,000 12,100 9,900 7,000
16 8,000 16,000 13,900 11,300 8,000
18 9,000 18,000 15,600 12,700 9,000
20 10,000 20,000 17,300 14,100 10,000

TABLE D-16

MANILA ROPE SLINGS

TABLE D-16: Part 1 -- Eye and Eye Sling


EYE & EYE SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 7.5 480 240 960 830 680 480
9/16 10.4 620 310 1,240 1,070 875 620
5/8 13.3 790 395 1,580 1,370 1,120 790
3/4 16.7 970 485 1,940 1,680 1,370 970
13/16 19.5 1,170 585 2,340 2,030 1,650 1,170
7/8 22.5 1,390 695 2,780 2,410 1,970 1,390
1" 27.0 1,620 810 3,240 2,810 2,290 1,620
1 1/16 31.3 1,890 945 3,780 3,270 2,670 1,890
1 1/8 36.0 2,160 1,080 4,320 3,740 3,050 2,160
1 1/4 41.7 2,430 1,220 4,860 4,210 3,440 2,430
1 5/16 47.9 2,700 1,350 5,400 4,680 3,820 2,700
1 1/2 59.9 3,330 1,670 6,660 5,770 4,710 3,330
1 5/8 74.6 4,050 2,030 8,100 7,010 5,730 4,050
1 3/4 89.3 4,770 2,390 9,540 8,260 6,740 4,770
2" 107.5 5,580 2,790 11,200 9,660 7,890 5,580
2 1/8 125.0 6,480 3,240 13,000 11,200 9,160 6,480
2 1/4 146.0 7,380 3,690 14,800 12,800 10,400 7,380
2 1/2 166.7 8,370 4,190 16,700 14,500 11,800 8,370
2 5/8 190.8 9,360 4,680 18,700 16,200 13,200 9,360

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.

TABLE D-16: Part 2 -- Endless Sling


ENDLESS SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH
Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 7.5 865 430 1,730 1,500 1,220 865
9/16 10.4 1,120 560 2,230 1,930 1,580 1,120
5/8 13.3 1,420 710 2,840 2,460 2,010 1,420
3/4 16.7 1,750 875 3,490 3,020 2,470 1,750
13/16 19.5 2,110 1,050 4,210 3,650 2,980 2,110
7/8 22.5 2,500 1,250 5,000 4,330 3,540 2,500
1" 27.0 2,920 1,460 5,830 5,050 4,120 2,920
1 1/16 31.3 3,400 1,700 6,800 5,890 4,810 3,400
1 1/8 36.0 3,890 1,940 7,780 6,730 5,500 3,890
1 1/4 41.7 4,370 2,190 8,750 7,580 6,190 4,370
1 5/16 47.9 4,860 2,430 9,720 8,420 6,870 4,860
1 1/2 59.9 5,990 3,000 12,000 10,400 8,480 5,990
1 5/8 74.6 7,290 3,650 14,600 12,600 10,300 7,290
1 3/4 89.3 8,590 4,290 17,200 14,900 12,100 8,590
2" 107.5 10,000 5,020 20,100 17,400 14,200 10,000
2 1/8 125.0 11,700 5,830 23,300 20,200 16,500 11,700
2 1/4 146.0 13,300 6,640 26,600 23,000 18,800 13,300
2 1/2 166.7 15,100 7,530 30,100 26,100 21,300 15,100
2 5/8 190.8 16,800 8,420 33,700 29,200 23,800 16,800

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.

TABLE D-17

NYLON ROPE SLINGS

TABLE D-17: Part 1 -- Eye and Eye Sling


EYE & EYE SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH
Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 6.5 635 320 1,270 1,100 900 635
9/16 8.3 790 395 1,580 1,370 1,120 790
5/8 10.5 1,030 515 2,060 1,780 1,460 1,030
3/4 14.5 1,410 705 2,820 2,440 1,990 1,410
13/16 17.0 1,680 840 3,360 2,910 2,380 1,680
7/8 20.0 1,980 990 3,960 3,430 2,800 1,980
1" 26.0 2,480 1,240 4,960 4,300 3,510 2,480
1 1/16 29.0 2,850 1,430 5,700 4,940 4,030 2,850
1 1/8 34.0 3,270 1,640 6,540 5,660 4,620 3,270
1 1/4 40.0 3,710 1,860 7,420 6,430 5,250 3,710
1 5/16 45.0 4,260 2,130 8,520 7,380 6,020 4,260
1 1/2 55.0 5,250 2,630 10,500 9,090 7,420 5,250
1 5/8 68.0 6,440 3,220 12,900 11,200 9,110 6,440
1 3/4 83.0 7,720 3,860 15,400 13,400 10,900 7,720
2" 95.0 9,110 4,560 18,200 15,800 12,900 9,110
2 1/8 109.0 10,500 5,250 21,000 18,200 14,800 10,500
2 1/4 129.0 12,400 6,200 24,800 21,500 17,500 12,400
2 1/2 149.0 13,900 6,950 27,800 24,100 19,700 13,900
2 5/8 168.0 16,000 8,000 32,000 27,700 22,600 16,000

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.

TABLE D-17: Part 2 -- Endless Sling


ENDLESS SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH
Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 6.5 1,140 570 2,290 1,980 1,620 1,140
9/16 8.3 1,420 710 2,840 2,460 2,010 1,420
5/8 10.5 1,850 925 3,710 3,210 2,620 1,850
3/4 14.5 2,540 1,270 5,080 4,400 3,590 2,540
13/16 17.0 3,020 1,510 6,050 5,240 4,280 3,020
7/8 20.0 3,560 1,780 7,130 6,170 5,040 3,560
1" 26.0 4,460 2,230 8,930 7,730 6,310 4,460
1 1/16 29.0 5,130 2,570 10,300 8,890 7,260 5,130
1 1/8 34.0 5,890 2,940 11,800 10,200 8,330 5,890
1 1/4 40.0 6,680 3,340 13,400 11,600 9,450 6,680
1 5/16 45.0 7,670 3,830 15,300 13,300 10,800 7,670
1 1/2 55.0 9,450 4,730 18,900 16,400 13,400 9,450
1 5/8 68.0 11,600 5,800 23,200 20,100 16,400 11,600
1 3/4 83.0 13,900 6,950 27,800 24,100 19,700 13,900
2" 95.0 16,400 8,200 32,800 28,400 23,200 16,400
2 1/8 109.0 18,900 9,450 37,800 32,700 26,700 18,900
2 1/4 129.0 22,300 11,200 44,600 38,700 31,600 22,300
2 1/2 149.0 25,000 12,500 50,000 43,300 35,400 25,000
2 5/8 168.0 28,800 14,400 57,600 49,900 40,700 28,800

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.

TABLE D-18

POLYESTER ROPE SLINGS

TABLE D-18: Part 1 -- Eye and Eye Sling


EYE & EYE SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH
Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 8.0 635 320 1,270 1,100 900 635
9/16 10.2 790 395 1,580 1,370 1,120 790
5/8 13.0 990 495 1,980 1,710 1,400 990
3/4 17.5 1,240 620 2,480 2,150 1,750 1,240
13/16 21.0 1,540 770 3,080 2,670 2,180 1,540
7/8 25.0 1,780 890 3,560 3,080 2,520 1,780
1" 30.5 2,180 1,090 4,360 3,780 3,080 2,180
1 1/16 34.5 2,530 1,270 5,060 4,380 3,580 2,530
1 1/8 40.0 2,920 1,460 5,840 5,060 4,130 2,920
1 1/4 46.3 3,290 1,650 6,580 5,700 4,650 3,290
1 5/16 52.5 3,710 1,860 7,420 6,430 5,250 3,710
1 1/2 66.8 4,630 2,320 9,260 8,020 6,550 4,630
1 5/8 82.0 5,640 2,820 11,300 9,770 7,980 5,640
1 3/4 98.0 6,710 3,360 13,400 11,600 9,490 6,710
2" 118.0 7,920 3,960 15,800 13,700 11,200 7,920
2 1/8 135.0 9,110 4,460 18,200 15,800 12,900 9,110
2 1/4 157.0 10,600 5,300 21,200 18,400 15,000 10,600
2 1/2 181.0 12,100 6,050 24,200 21,000 17,100 12,100
2 5/8 205.0 13,600 6,800 27,200 23,600 19,200 13,600

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.

TABLE D-18: Part 2 -- Endless Sling


ENDLESS SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH
Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 8.0 1,140 570 2,290 1,980 1,620 1,140
9/16 10.2 1,420 710 2,840 2,460 2,010 1,420
5/8 13.0 1,780 890 3,570 3,090 2,520 1,780
3/4 17.5 2,230 1,120 4,470 3,870 3,160 2,230
13/16 21.0 2,770 1,390 5,540 4,800 3,920 2,770
7/8 25.0 3,200 1,600 6,410 5,550 4,530 3,200
1" 30.5 3,920 1,960 7,850 6,800 5,550 3,920
1 1/16 34.5 4,550 2,280 9,110 7,990 6,440 4,550
1 1/8 40.0 5,260 2,630 10,500 9,100 7,440 5,260
1 1/4 46.3 5,920 2,960 11,800 10,300 8,380 5,920
1 5/16 52.5 6,680 3,340 13,400 11,600 9,450 6,680
1 1/2 66.8 8,330 4,170 16,700 14,400 11,800 8,330
1 5/8 82.0 10,200 5,080 20,300 17,600 14,400 10,200
1 3/4 98.0 12,100 6,040 24,200 20,900 17,100 12,100
2" 118.0 14,300 7,130 28,500 24,700 20,200 14,300
2 1/8 135.0 16,400 8,200 32,800 28,400 23,200 16,400
2 1/4 157.0 19,100 9,540 38,200 33,100 27,000 19,100
2 1/2 181.0 21,800 10,900 43,600 37,700 30,800 21,800
2 5/8 205.0 24,500 12,200 49,000 42,400 34,600 24,500

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.

TABLE D-19

POLYPROPYLENE ROPE SLINGS

TABLE D-19: Part 1 -- Eye and Eye Sling


EYE & EYE SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH
Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 4.7 645 325 1,290 1,120 910 645
9/16 6.1 780 390 1,560 1,350 1,100 780
5/8 7.5 950 475 1,900 1,650 1,340 950
3/4 10.7 1,300 650 2,600 2,250 1,840 1,300
13/16 12.7 1,520 760 3,040 2,630 2,150 1,520
7/8 15.0 1,760 880 3,520 3,050 2,490 1,760
1" 18.0 2,140 1,070 4,280 3,700 3,030 2,140
1 1/16 20.4 2,450 1,230 4,900 4,240 3,460 2,450
1 1/8 23.7 2,800 1,400 5,600 4,850 3,960 2,800
1 1/4 27.0 3,210 1,610 6,420 5,560 4,540 3,210
1 5/16 30.5 3,600 1,800 7,200 6,240 5,090 3,600
1 1/2 38.5 4,540 2,270 9,080 7,860 6,420 4,540
1 5/8 47.5 5,510 2,760 11,000 9,540 7,790 5,510
1 3/4 57.0 6,580 3,290 13,200 11,400 9,300 6,580
2" 69.0 7,960 3,980 15,900 13,800 11,300 7,960
2 1/8 80.0 9,330 4,670 18,700 16,200 13,200 9,330
2 1/4 92.0 10,600 5,300 21,200 18,400 15,000 10,600
2 1/2 107.0 12,200 6,100 24,400 21,100 17,300 12,200
2 5/8 120.0 13,800 6,900 27,600 23,900 19,600 13,800

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.

TABLE D-19: Part 2 -- Endless Sling


ENDLESS SLING
Rope Dia-

meter

BASKET HITCH
Angle of Rope to Horizontal

Nomi-

nal

in

Inches

Nominal Weight per

100 ft.

in Pounds

90 60 45 30
Ver-

tical Hitch

Chok-

er

Hitch

Angle of Rope to Vertical
0 30 45 60
1/2 4.7 1,160 580 2,320 2,010 1,640 1,160
9/16 6.1 1,400 700 2,810 2,430 1,990 1,400
5/8 7.5 1,710 855 3,420 2,960 2,420 1,710
3/4 10.7 2,340 1,170 4,680 4,050 3,310 2,340
13/16 12.7 2,740 1,370 5,470 4,740 3,870 2,740
7/8 15.0 3,170 1,580 6,340 5,490 4,480 3,170
1" 18.0 3,850 1,930 7,700 6,670 5,450 3,860
1 1/16 20.4 4,410 2,210 8,820 7,640 6,240 4,410
1 1/8 23.7 5,040 2,520 10,100 8,730 7,130 5,040
1 1/4 27.0 5,780 2,890 11,600 10,000 8,170 5,780
1 5/16 30.5 6,480 3,240 13,000 11,200 9,170 6,480
1 1/2 38.5 8,170 4,090 16,300 14,200 11,600 8,170
1 5/8 47.5 9,920 4,960 19,800 17,200 14,000 9,920
1 3/4 57.0 11,800 5,920 23,700 20,500 16,800 11,800
2" 69.0 14,300 7,160 28,700 24,800 20,300 14,300
2 1/8 80.0 16,800 8,400 33,600 29,100 23,800 16,800
2 1/4 92.0 19,100 9,540 38,200 33,100 27,000 19,100
2 1/2 107.0 22,000 11,000 43,900 38,000 31,100 22,000
2 5/8 120.0 24,800 12,400 49,700 43,000 35,100 24,800

See Figures D-4 and D-5 for sling configuration description.))


Notes: Angles of 5 or less from the vertical may be considered vertical angles.
For slings with legs more than 5 off vertical, the actual angle as shown in Figure D-5 must be considered.

EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS: Minimum diameter of curvature

Represents a contact surface which shall have a diameter of curvature at least double the diameter of the rope.
Represents a contact surface which shall have a diameter of curvature at least 8 times the diameter of the rope.
Represents a load in a choker hitch and illustration the rotary force on the load and/or the slippage of the rope in contact with the load. Diameter of curvature of load surface shall be at least double the diameter of the rope.


Figure D-4


Basic Sling Configurations with Vertical Legs


Notes: For vertical angles of 5 or less, refer to Figure D-4 "basic sling configuration with vertical legs."


See Figure D-4 for explanation of symbols.


Figure D-5


Sling Configurations with Angled Legs



Figure D-6


Basic Synthetic Web Sling Constructions


((TABLE D-20

RATED CAPACITY IN POUNDS SYNTHETIC WEB SLINGS 1,000 LBS. PER INCH OF WIDTH SINGLE PLY

(TABLE D-20: Part 1 -- Types I, II, III, and IV)


Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Triangle - Choker Slings, Type I

Triangle - Triangle Slings, Type II

Eye & Eye with Flat Eye Slings, Type III

Eye & Eye with Twisted Eye Slings, Type IV


Vert.


Choker


Vert.

Basket


30

Basket


45

Basket


60

Basket

1 1,000 750 2,000 1,700 1,400 1,000
2 2,000 1,500 4,000 3,500 2,800 2,000
3 3,000 2,200 6,000 5,200 4,200 3,000
4 4,000 3,000 8,000 6,900 5,700 4,000
5 5,000 3,700 10,000 8,700 7,100 5,000
6 6,000 4,500 12,000 10,400 8,500 6,000

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.

(TABLE D-20: Part 2 -- Type V)


Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Endless Slings, Type V

Vert.


Choker


Vert.

Basket


30

Basket


45

Basket


60

Basket

1 1,600 1,300 3,200 2,800 2,300 1,600
2 3,200 2,600 6,400 5,500 4,500 3,200
3 4,800 3,800 9,600 8,300 6,800 4,800
4 6,400 5,100 12,800 11,100 9,000 6,400
5 8,000 6,400 16,000 13,900 11,300 8,000
6 9,600 7,700 19,200 16,600 13,600 9,600

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.

(TABLE D-20: Part 3 -- Type VI)


Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Return Eye Slings, Type VI

Vert.

Choker

Vert.

Basket

30

Basket

45

Basket

60

Basket

1 800 650 1,600 1,400 1,150 800
2 1,600 1,300 3,200 2,800 2,300 1,600
3 2,400 1,950 4,800 4,150 3,400 2,400
4 3,200 2,600 6,400 5,500 4,500 3,200
5 4,000 3,250 8,000 6,900 5,650 4,000
6 4,800 3,800 9,600 8,300 6,800 4,800

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.

TABLE D-21

RATED CAPACITY IN POUNDS SYNTHETIC WEB SLINGS 1,200 LBS. PER INCH OF WIDTH SINGLE PLY

(TABLE D-21: Part 1 -- Types I, II, III, and IV)


Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Triangle - Choker Slings, Type I

Triangle - Triangle Slings, Type II

Eye & Eye with Flat Eye Slings, Type III

Eye & Eye with Twisted Eye Slings, Type IV

Vert. Choker Vert.

Basket

30

Basket

45

Basket

60

Basket

1 1,200 900 2,400 2,100 1,700 1,200
2 2,400 1,800 4,800 4,200 3,400 2,400
3 3,600 2,700 7,200 6,200 5,100 3,600
4 4,800 3,600 9,600 8,300 6,800 4,800
5 6,000 4,500 12,000 10,400 8,500 6,000
6 7,200 5,400 14,400 12,500 10,200 7,200

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.

(TABLE D-21: Part 2 -- Type V)



Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Endless Slings, Type V
Vert. Choker Vert.

Basket

30

Basket

45

Basket

60

Basket

1 1,900 1,500 3,800 3,300 2,700 1,900
2 3,800 3,000 7,600 6,600 5,400 3,800
3 5,800 4,600 11,600 10,000 8,200 5,800
4 7,700 6,200 15,400 13,300 10,900 7,700
5 9,600 7,700 19,200 16,600 13,600 9,600
6 11,500 9,200 23,000 19,900 16,300 11,500

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.

(TABLE D-21: Part 3 -- Type VI)


Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Return Eye Slings, Type VI
Vert. Choker Vert.

Basket

30

Basket

45

Basket

60

Basket

1 950 750 1,900 1,650 1,350 950
2 1,900 1,500 3,800 3,300 2,700 1,900
3 2,850 2,250 5,700 4,950 4,050 2,850
4 3,800 3,000 7,600 6,600 5,400 3,800
5 4,750 3,750 9,500 8,250 6,750 4,750
6 5,800 4,600 11,600 10,000 8,200 5,800

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.

TABLE D-22

RATED CAPACITY IN POUNDS SYNTHETIC WEB SLINGS 1,600 LBS. PER INCH OF WIDTH SINGLE PLY

(TABLE D-22: Part 1 -- Types I, II, III, and IV)


Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Triangle - Choker Slings, Type I

Triangle - Triangle Slings, Type II

Eye & Eye with Flat Eye Slings, Type III

Eye & Eye with Twisted Eye Slings, Type IV

Vert. Choker Vert.

Basket

30

Basket

45

Basket

60

Basket

1 1,600 1,200 3,200 2,800 2,300 1,600
2 3,200 2,400 6,400 5,500 4,500 3,200
3 4,800 3,600 9,600 8,300 6,800 4,800
4 6,400 4,800 12,800 11,100 9,000 6,400
5 8,000 6,000 16,000 13,800 11,300 8,000
6 9,600 7,200 19,200 16,600 13,600 9,600

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.


Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Endless Slings, Type V

Vert.


Choker


Vert.

Basket


30

Basket


45

Basket


60

Basket

1 2,600 2,100 5,200 4,500 3,700 2,600
2 5,100 4,100 10,200 8,800 7,200 5,100
3 7,700 6,200 15,400 13,300 10,900 7,700
4 10,100 8,200 20,400 17,700 14,400 10,200
5 12,800 10,200 25,600 22,200 18,100 12,800
6 15,400 12,300 30,800 26,700 21,800 15,400

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.

(TABLE D-22: Part 3 -- Type VI)



Sling

Body

Width,

Inches


Return Eye Slings, Type VI
Vert. Choker Vert.

Basket

30

Basket

45

Basket

60

Basket

1 1,050 1,050 2,600 2,250 1,850 1,300
2 2,600 2,100 5,200 4,500 3,700 2,600
3 3,900 3,150 7,800 6,750 5,500 3,900
4 5,100 4,100 10,200 8,800 7,200 5,100
5 6,400 5,150 12,800 11,050 9,050 6,400
6 7,700 6,200 15,400 13,300 10,900 7,700

Notes: 1. All angles shown are measured from the vertical.
2. Capacities for intermediate widths not shown may be obtained by interpolation.))

[Order 76-6, 296-24-29431, filed 3/1/76.]

OTS-4659.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 08-05-012, filed 2/8/08, effective 4/1/08)

WAC 296-37-575   Recordkeeping requirements.   (1) Recording and reporting.

(a) The employer shall comply with the requirements of chapters 296-27, 296-800, and 296-900 WAC.

(b) The employer shall record the occurrence of any diving-related injury or illness which requires any dive team member to be hospitalized, specifying the circumstances of the incident and the extent of any injuries or illnesses.

(2) Availability of records.

(a) Upon the request of the director of the department of labor and industries or his duly authorized designees, the employer shall make available for inspection and copying any record or document required by this standard.

(b) Records and documents required by this standard shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. Safe practices manuals (WAC 296-37-530), depth-time profiles (WAC 296-37-540), recording of dives (WAC 296-37-545), decompression procedure assessment evaluations (WAC 296-37-545), and records of hospitalizations (WAC 296-37-575) shall be provided in the same manner as employee exposure records or analyses using exposure or medical records. Equipment inspections and testing records which pertain to employees (WAC 296-37-570) shall also be provided upon request to employees and their designated representatives.

(c) Records and documents required by this standard shall be retained by the employer for the following period:

(i) Dive team member medical records (physician's reports) (WAC 296-37-525) - Five years;

(ii) Safe practices manual (WAC 296-37-530) - Current document only;

(iii) Depth-time profile (WAC 296-37-540) - Until completion of the recording of dive, or until completion of decompression procedure assessment where there has been an incident of decompression sickness;

(iv) Recording dive (WAC 296-37-545) one year, except five years where there has been an incident of decompression sickness;

(v) Decompression procedure assessment evaluations (WAC 296-37-545) - Five years;

(vi) Equipment inspections and testing records (WAC 296-37-570) - Current entry or tag, or until equipment is withdrawn from service;

(vii) Records of hospitalizations (WAC 296-37-575) - Five years.

(d) After the expiration of the retention period of any record required to be kept for five years, the employer shall forward such records to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Health and Human Services. The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(((e) In the event the employer ceases to do business:

(i) The successor employer shall receive and retain all dive and employee medical records required by this standard; or

(ii) If there is no successor employer, dive and employee medical records shall be forwarded to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Health and Human Services.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 08-05-012, 296-37-575, filed 2/8/08, effective 4/1/08; 07-03-163, 296-37-575, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; 04-10-026, 296-37-575, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-37-575, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-37-575, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-37-575, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 87-02-002 (Order 86-44), 296-37-575, filed 12/26/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-37-575, filed 8/27/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, and chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 78-10-094 (Order 78-18), 296-37-575, filed 10/2/78.]

OTS-4660.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)

WAC 296-56-60005   Definitions.   "Apron" means that open portion of a marine terminal immediately adjacent to a vessel berth and used in the direct transfer of cargo between the terminal and vessel.

"Assistant director for the division of WISHA services" means the assistant director of WISHA services, department of labor and industries or his/her authorized representative.

"Authorized," in reference to an employee's assignment, means selected by the employer for that purpose.

"Cargo door" (transit shed door) means a door designed to permit transfer of cargo to and from a marine terminal structure.

"Cargo packaging" means any method of containment for shipment, including cases, cartons, crates and sacks, but excluding large units such as intermodal containers, vans or similar devices.

"Confined space" means a space that:

Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and

Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); and

Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

"Conveyor" means a device designed exclusively for transporting bulk materials, packages or objects in a predetermined path and having fixed or selective points of loading or discharge.

"Danger zone" means any place in or about a machine or piece of equipment where an employee may be struck by or caught between moving parts, caught between moving and stationary objects or parts of the machine, caught between the material and a moving part of the machine, burned by hot surfaces or exposed to electric shock. Examples of danger zones are nip and shear points, shear lines, drive mechanisms, and areas beneath counterweights.

"Designated person" means a person who possesses specialized abilities in a specific area and is assigned by the employer to perform a specific task in that area.

"Dock" means a wharf or pier forming all or part of a waterfront facility, including marginal or quayside berthing facilities; not to be confused with "loading dock" as at a transit shed or container freight station, or with the body of water between piers or wharves.

"Dock facilities" includes all piers, wharves, sheds, aprons, dolphins, cranes, or other gear or equipment owned or controlled by the dock or facility owner, where cargo or materials are loaded, moved or handled to or from a vessel.

"Dockboards" (car and bridge plates) mean devices for spanning short distances between rail cars or highway vehicles and loading platforms that do not expose employees to falls greater than 4 feet (1.22 m).

"Enclosed space" means an indoor space, other than a confined space, that may contain or accumulate a hazardous atmosphere due to inadequate natural ventilation. Examples of enclosed spaces are trailers, railcars, and storage rooms.

"Examination," as applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, means a comprehensive survey consisting of the criteria outlined in WAC 296-56-60093 through 296-56-60097. The examination is supplemented by a unit proof test in the case of annual survey.

"Flammable atmosphere" means an atmosphere containing more than ten percent of the lower flammable limit (LEL) of a flammable or combustible vapor or dust mixed with air. Such atmospheres are usually toxic as well as flammable.

"Front-end attachments."

As applied to power-operated industrial trucks, means the various devices, such as roll clamps, rotating and sideshifting carriages, magnets, rams, crane arms or booms, load stabilizers, scoops, buckets, and dumping bins, attached to the load end for handling lifts as single or multiple units.

As applied to cranes, means various attachments applied to the basic machine for the performance of functions such as lifting, clamshell or magnet services.

"Fumigant" is a substance or mixture of substances, used to kill pests or prevent infestation, which is a gas or is rapidly or progressively transformed to the gaseous state even though some nongaseous or particulate matter may remain and be dispersed in the treatment space.

"Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere" means:

Any substance listed in chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC;

Any material in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 CFR Part 172;

Any article not properly described by a name in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 CFR Part 172, but which is properly classified under the definition of those categories of dangerous articles given in 49 CFR Part 173;

Atmospheres having concentrations of airborne chemicals in excess of permissible exposure limits as defined in chapter 296-62 WAC; or

Any atmosphere with an oxygen content of less than nineteen and one-half percent by volume.

"House falls" means spans and supporting members, winches, blocks, and standing and running rigging forming part of a marine terminal and used with a vessel's cargo gear to load or unload by means of married falls.

"Inspection," as applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, includes a complete visual examination of all visible parts of the device.

"Intermodal container" means a reusable cargo container of rigid construction and rectangular configuration intended to contain one or more articles of cargo or bulk commodities for transportation by water and one or more other transport modes without intermediate cargo handling. The term includes completely enclosed units, open top units, fractional height units, units incorporating liquid or gas tanks and other variations fitting into the container system, demountable or with attached wheels. It does not include cylinders, drums, crates, cases, cartons, packages, sacks, unitized loads or any other form of packaging.

"Loose gear" means removable or replaceable components of equipment or devices which may be used with or as a part of assembled material handling units for purposes such as making connections, changing line direction and multiplying mechanical advantage. Examples include shackles and snatch blocks.

"Marina" means a small harbor or boat basin providing dockage, supplies, and services for small craft.

"Marine terminal" means wharves, bulkheads, quays, piers, docks and other berthing locations and adjacent storage or contiguous areas and structures associated with the primary movement of cargo or materials from vessel to shore or shore to vessel. It includes structures which are devoted to receiving, handling, holding, consolidation, loading or delivery of waterborne shipments and passengers, and areas devoted to the maintenance of the terminal or equipment. The term does not include production or manufacturing areas having their own docking facilities and located at a marine terminal nor storage facilities directly associated with those production or manufacturing areas.

"Permit-required confined space (permit space)" means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:

Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;

Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or

Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

"Ramps" mean other flat-surface devices for passage between levels and across openings not covered under "dockboards."

"Ship's stores" means materials that are aboard a vessel for the upkeep, maintenance, safety, operation, or navigation of the vessel, or for the safety or comfort of the vessel's passengers or crew.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, 296-56-60005, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 00-21-103, 296-56-60005, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, 296-56-60005, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-56-60005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60005, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60005, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60005, filed 12/11/84.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)

WAC 296-56-60229   Sanitation.   (1) Washing and toilet facilities.

(a) The employer shall provide accessible washing and toilet facilities sufficient for the sanitary requirements of employees. The facilities shall have:

(i) Running water, including hot and cold or tepid water (when cargo handling is conducted at locations without permanent facilities, containers of potable water may be provided in lieu of running water);

(ii) Soap;

(iii) Individual hand towels, clean individual sections of continuous toweling or ((warm)) air blowers; and

(iv) Fixed or portable toilets in separate compartments with latch-equipped doors.

(b) Separate toilet facilities shall be provided for male and female employees except when toilet rooms are occupied by only one person at a time. A means of locking shall be provided.

(c) Washing and toilet facilities shall be regularly cleaned and maintained in good order.

(2) Drinking water.

(a) Potable drinking water shall be accessible to employees at all times.

(b) Potable drinking water containers shall be clean, containing only water and ice, and shall be fitted with covers.

(c) Common drinking cups are prohibited.

(3) Prohibited eating areas. Consumption of food or beverages in areas where hazardous materials are being stored or handled shall be prohibited.

(4) Garbage and overboard discharges. Work shall not be conducted in the immediate vicinity of uncovered garbage or in the area of overboard discharges from the vessel's sanitary lines unless employees are protected from the garbage or discharge by a baffle or splash boards.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), 296-56-60229, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), 296-56-60229, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), 296-56-60229, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-56-60229, filed 12/11/84.]

OTS-4661.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)

WAC 296-62-07306   Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.   (1) A regulated area shall be established by an employer where listed carcinogens are manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored.

(2) All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(a) Isolated systems. Employees working with carcinogens within an isolated system such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(b) Closed system operation. Within regulated areas where carcinogens are stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system including piping systems with any sample ports or openings closed while carcinogens are contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(c) Open vessel system operations. Open vessel system operations as defined in WAC 296-62-07304(12) are prohibited.

(d) Transfer from a closed system. Charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system. In operations involving "laboratory-type hoods," or in locations where a carcinogen is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this section shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Each employee engaged in handling operations involving the following carcinogens must be provided with and required to wear and use a ((full-face, supplied-air respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type as required in chapter 296-842 WAC:)) NIOSH-certified self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode, or any supplied air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus as required in chapter 296-842 WAC. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.


Methyl Chloromethyl Ether;
bis-Chloromethyl Ether;
Ethylenemine;
beta-Propiolactone;
4-Amino Diphenyl.

(v) Each employee((s)) engaged in handling operations involving((:)) the following carcinogens must be provided with, and required to wear and use, NIOSH-certified air-purifying, half-mask respirator with particulate filters as required in chapter 296-842 WAC. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.


4-Nitrobiphenyl;
alpha-Naphthylamine;
4-4'Methylene bis(2-Chloroaniline);
3-3'Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts);
beta-Naphthylamine;
Benzidine;
2-acetylamino fluroene;
((4-dimethylaminobenzene))

4-imethylaminoazobenzene;

n-nitrosodimethylamine.
must be provided with, and required to wear and use, a half-face, filter-type respirator certified for solid or liquid particulates with minimum efficiency rating of 95% as required in chapter 296-842 WAC. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.

(vi) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(vii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(viii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(ix) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(e) Maintenance and decontamination activities. In clean up of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with carcinogens could result, each authorized employee entering the area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear, clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with WAC 296-800-160, and respiratory protective equipment required by this chapter 296-842 WAC;

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(f) Laboratory activities. The requirements of this subdivision shall apply to research and quality control activities involving the use of carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.

(i) Mechanical pipetting aids shall be used for all pipetting procedures.

(ii) Experiments, procedures and equipment which could produce aerosols shall be confined to laboratory-type hoods or glove boxes.

(iii) Surfaces on which carcinogens are handled shall be protected from contamination.

(iv) Contaminated wastes and animal carcasses shall be collected in impervious containers which are closed and decontaminated prior to removal from the work area. Such wastes and carcasses shall be incinerated in such a manner that no carcinogenic products are released.

(v) All other forms of listed carcinogens shall be inactivated prior to disposal.

(vi) Laboratory vacuum systems shall be protected with high efficiency scrubbers or with disposable absolute filters.

(vii) Employees engaged in animal support activities shall be:

(A) Provided with, and required to wear, a complete protective clothing change, clean each day, including coveralls or pants and shirt, foot covers, head covers, gloves, and appropriate respiratory protective equipment or devices; and

(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities; and

(D) Required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Employees, other than those engaged only in animal support activities, each day shall be:

(A) Provided with and required to wear a clean change of appropriate laboratory clothing, such as a solid front gown, surgical scrub suit, or fully buttoned laboratory coat.

(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(ix) Air pressure in laboratory areas and animal rooms where carcinogens are handled and bioassay studies are performed shall be negative in relation to the pressure in surrounding areas. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated.

(x) There shall be no connection between regulated areas and any other areas through the ventilation system.

(xi) A current inventory of the carcinogens shall be maintained.

(xii) Ventilated apparatus such as laboratory-type hoods, shall be tested at least semi-annually or immediately after ventilation modification or maintenance operations, by personnel fully qualified to certify correct containment and operation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 09-15-145, 296-62-07306, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; 05-03-093, 296-62-07306, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07306, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07306, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-09-030, 296-62-07306, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-07306, filed 7/25/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), 296-62-07306, filed 4/19/85. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-07306, filed 7/27/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), 296-62-07306, filed 11/13/80.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-10-026, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04)

WAC 296-62-07314   Medical surveillance.   (1) At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance must be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(2) Examinations.

(a) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician must be provided and must include a personal history of the employee and/or his/her family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(i) Taking of employees' medical history and background history must be considered to be a routine part of standard medical practice.

(ii) This provision does not require "genetic testing" of any employee.

(iii) This provision does not require the exclusion of otherwise qualified employees from jobs on the basis of genetic factors.

(b) Authorized employees must be provided periodic physical examination, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(c) In all physical examinations, the examining physician must be requested to consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, pregnancy, cigarette smoking, and those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents.

(3) Records.

(a) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this subdivision must maintain complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records must be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. ((Upon termination of the employee's employment, including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof, must be forwarded by registered mail to the director.)) The employer shall ensure that medical records are maintained and made available in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC, Employee medical and exposure records.

(b) Records required by this section must be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) Any employer who requests a physical examination of an employee or prospective employee as required by this section must obtain from the physician a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 04-10-026, 296-62-07314, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050. 02-12-098, 296-62-07314, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07314, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-62-07314, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 83-15-017 (Order 83-19), 296-62-07314, filed 7/13/83, effective 9/12/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), 296-62-07314, filed 11/13/80.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)

WAC 296-62-07329   Vinyl chloride.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section includes requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014.

(b) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of polyvinyl chloride.

(c) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the department of transportation may regulate the hazards covered by this section.

(2) Definitions.

(a) "Action level" means a concentration of vinyl chloride of 0.5 ppm averaged over an eight-hour work day.

(b) "Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require him/her to enter a regulated area or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring procedures.

(c) "Director" means the director of department of labor and industries or his/her designated representative.

(d) "Emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, result in massive release of vinyl chloride.

(e) "Fabricated product" means a product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing at temperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of the polyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.

(f) "Hazardous operation" means any operation, procedure, or activity where a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation, which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(g) "Polyvinyl chloride" means polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymer before such is converted to a fabricated product.

(h) "Vinyl chloride" means vinyl chloride monomer.

(3) Permissible exposure limit.

(a) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and

(b) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5 ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.

(c) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact with liquid vinyl chloride.

(4) Monitoring.

(a) A program of initial monitoring and measurement shall be undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(b) Where a determination conducted under subdivision (a) of this subsection shows any employee exposures without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each such employee shall be established. Such a program:

(i) Shall be repeated at least monthly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(ii) Shall be repeated not less than quarterly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least two consecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than five working days apart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.

(c) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change which may result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employer has any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess of the action level, a determination of employee exposure under subdivision (a) of this subsection shall be performed.

(d) The method of monitoring and measurement shall have an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus fifty percent from 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus thirty-five percent from over 0.5 ppm through 1.0 ppm, plus or minus twenty-five percent over 1.0 ppm, (methods meeting these accuracy requirements are available from the director).

(e) Employees or their designated representatives shall be afforded reasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required by this subsection.

(5) Regulated area.

(a) A regulated area shall be established where:

(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted, repackaged, stored, handled or used; and

(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(6) Methods of compliance. Employee exposures to vinyl chloride shall be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided in subsection (3) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows:

(a) Feasible engineering and work practice controls shall immediately be used to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.

(b) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest practicable level, and shall be supplemented by respiratory protection in accordance with subsection (7) of this section. A program shall be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon as feasible.

(c) Written plans for such a program shall be developed and furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director. Such plans shall be updated at least every six months.

(7) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section.

(b) Respirator program. The employer must develop, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator. Exception: The requirements in WAC 296-842-13005 that address change out of vapor or gas respirator cartridges or canisters.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide organic vapor cartridges that have a service life of at least one hour when employees use air-purifying respirators in vinyl chloride concentrations up to 10 parts per million (ppm).

(iii) Make sure the following respirators, when selected, are equipped with a canister with a service life of at least four hours when used in vinyl chloride concentrations up to 25 ppm:

(A) Helmet, hood, or full-facepiece PAPRs

OR

(B) Gas masks with a front- or back-mounted canister.

(d) Where air-purifying respirators are used:

(i) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges must be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are first used, whichever occurs first, and

(ii) A continuous monitoring and alarm system must be provided when concentrations of vinyl chloride could reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Such system shall be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use, and

(iii) Respirators specified for higher concentrations may be used for lower concentration.

(8) Hazardous operations.

(a) Employees engaged in hazardous operations, including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls, shall be provided and required to wear and use;

(i) Respiratory protection in accordance with subsections (3) and (7) of this section; and

(ii) Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride or with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls. The protective garments shall be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.

(b) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use.

(c) Emergency situations. A written operational plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each facility storing, handling, or otherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency. The plan shall specifically provide that:

(i) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations of existing hazardous releases shall be equipped as required in subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subsection;

(ii) Other employees not so equipped shall evacuate the area and not return until conditions are controlled by the methods required in subsection (6) of this section and the emergency is abated.

(9) Training. Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.

(a) The program shall include:

(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride including specifically the carcinogenic hazard;

(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to vinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective steps;

(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices;

(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary protective steps;

(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;

(vi) The purpose for and a description of, the medical surveillance program;

(vii) Emergency procedures:

(A) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and

(B) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and indoctrination program, and annually thereafter.

(b) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to the director.

(10) Medical surveillance. A program of medical surveillance shall be instituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level. The program shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(a) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medical surveillance;

(i) A general physical examination shall be performed with specific attention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, or dysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connective tissues and the pulmonary system (see Appendix A).

(ii) A medical history shall be taken, including the following topics:

(A) Alcohol intake,

(B) Past history of hepatitis,

(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents, including drugs and chemicals,

(D) Past history of blood transfusions, and

(E) Past history of hospitalizations.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and determinations made of:

(A) Total bilirubin,

(B) Alkaline phosphatase,

(C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT),

(D) Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and

(E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.

(b) Examinations provided in accordance with this subdivision shall be performed at least:

(i) Every six months for each employee who has been employed in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride manufacturing for ten years or longer; and

(ii) Annually for all other employees.

(c) Each employee exposed to an emergency shall be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.

(d) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure to vinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, shall be obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination. A copy of the physician's statement shall be provided each employee.

(e) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continued exposure, such employee shall be withdrawn from possible contact with vinyl chloride.

(f) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medical examinations shall be performed in laboratories licensed under 42 CFR Part 74.

(g) If the examining physician determines that alternative medical examinations to those required by subdivision (a) of this subsection will provide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent to the exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternative examinations as meeting the requirements of subdivision (a) of this subsection, if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician setting forth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution. This statement shall be available upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the director.

(11) Signs and labels.

(a) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AREA AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY


(b) Areas containing hazardous operations or where an emergency currently exists shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY


(c) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(d) Containers of polyvinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME) CONTAINS VINYL CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(e) Containers of vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled either:

VINYL CHLORIDE EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(or)
(f) In accordance with 49 CFR Part 173, Subpart H, with the additional legends:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


Applied near the label or placard.

(g) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(12) Records.

(a) All records maintained in accordance with this section shall include the name and Social Security number of each employee where relevant.

(b) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. These records shall be provided upon request to the director. Authorized personnel rosters shall also be provided upon request to the director.

(i) Monitoring and measuring records shall:

(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrations determined and identify the instruments and methods used;

(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individual employee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other than individual monitoring of employees; and

(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.

(ii) Medical records shall be maintained for the duration of the employment of each employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.

(c) ((In the event that the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor to receive and retain his/her records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted by registered mail to the director, and each employee individually notified in writing of this transfer.)) The employer shall ((also)) comply with any additional requirements set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Employees or their designated representatives shall be provided access to examine and copy records of required monitoring and measuring.

(e) Former employees shall be provided access to examine and copy required monitoring and measuring records reflecting their own exposures.

(f) Upon written request of any employee, a copy of the medical record of that employee shall be furnished to any physician designated by the employee.

(13) Reports.

(a) Not later than 1 month after the establishment of a regulated area, the following information shall be reported to the director. Any changes to such information shall be reported within fifteen days.

(i) The address and location of each establishment which has one or more regulated areas; and

(ii) The number of employees in each regulated area during normal operations, including maintenance.

(b) Emergencies and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported within twenty-four hours to the director. Upon request of the director, the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of similar nature.

(c) Within ten working days following any monitoring and measuring which discloses that any employee has been exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit, each such employee shall be notified in writing of the results of the exposure measurement and the steps being taken to reduce the exposure to within the permissible exposure limit.

(14) Appendix A supplementary medical information.

When required tests under subsection (10)(a) of this section show abnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable, preferably within three to four weeks. If tests remain abnormal, consideration should be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinyl chloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made.

Additional tests which may be useful:

(((A))) (a) For kidney dysfunction: Urine examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal cells.

(((B))) (b) Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, and chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior, 14 x 17 inches).

(((C))) (c) Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic acid dehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.

(((D))) (d) For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests: Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 09-15-145, 296-62-07329, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; 07-05-072, 296-62-07329, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07329, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07329, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, 296-62-07329, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-62-07329, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07329, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-07329, filed 7/25/86; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-62-07329, filed 6/11/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-62-07329, filed 8/27/81; 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-07329, filed 7/27/81; Order 75-41, 296-62-07329, filed 12/19/75.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)

WAC 296-62-07336   Acrylonitrile.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to acrylonitrile (AN), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 000107131, except as provided in (b) and (c) of this subsection.

(b) This section does not apply to exposures which result solely from the processing, use, and handling of the following materials:

(i) ABS resins, SAN resins, nitrile barrier resins, solid nitrile elastomers, and acrylic and modacrylic fibers, when these listed materials are in the form of finished polymers, and products fabricated from such finished polymers;

(ii) Materials made from and/or containing AN for which objective data is reasonably relied upon to demonstrate that the material is not capable of releasing AN in airborne concentrations in excess of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average, under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and

(iii) Solid materials made from and/or containing AN which will not be heated above 170F during handling, use, or processing.

(c) An employer relying upon exemption under (1)(b)(ii) shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption, and of the basis of the employer's reliance on the data as provided in subsection (17) of this section.

(2) Definitions, as applicable to this section:

(a) "Acrylonitrile" or "AN" - Acrylonitrile monomer, chemical formula CH2=CHCN.

(b) "Action level" - A concentration of AN of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(c) "Authorized person" - Any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the opportunity to observe monitoring procedures under subsection (18) of this section.

(d) "Decontamination" means treatment of materials and surfaces by water washdown, ventilation, or other means, to assure that the materials will not expose employees to airborne concentrations of AN above 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(e) "Director" - The director of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.

(f) "Emergency" - Any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which is likely to, or does, result in unexpected exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit.

(g) "Liquid AN" means AN monomer in liquid form, and liquid or semiliquid polymer intermediates, including slurries, suspensions, emulsions, and solutions, produced during the polymerization of AN.

(h) "Polyacrylonitrile" or "PAN" - Polyacrylonitrile homopolymers or copolymers, except for materials as exempted under subsection (1)(b) of this section.

(3) Permissible exposure limits.

(a) Inhalation.

(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of two parts acrylonitrile per million parts of air (2 ppm), as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(ii) Ceiling limit. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of 10 ppm as averaged over any fifteen-minute period during the working day.

(b) Dermal and eye exposure. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin contact or eye contact with liquid AN or PAN.

(4) Notification of use and emergencies.

(a) Use. Within ten days of the effective date of this standard, or within fifteen days following the introduction of AN into the workplace, every employer shall report, unless he has done so pursuant to the emergency temporary standard, the following information to the director for each such workplace:

(i) The address and location of each workplace in which AN is present;

(ii) A brief description of each process of operation which may result in employee exposure to AN;

(iii) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to AN and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs; and

(iv) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to AN. Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by this subsection, the employer shall promptly amend such information previously provided to the director.

(b) Emergencies and remedial action. Emergencies, and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported within twenty-four hours of the initial occurrence to the director. Upon request of the director, the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of a similar nature.

(5) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to AN over an eight-hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(b) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a place of employment in which AN is present shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of AN to which employees may be exposed. Such monitoring may be done on a representative basis, provided that the employer can demonstrate that the determinations are representative of employee exposures.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee. The employer shall continue these quarterly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level, and thereafter the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee.

(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least quarterly.

(iii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly. The employer shall continue these monthly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limits, and thereafter the employer shall monitor at least quarterly.

(d) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to AN, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to AN, additional monitoring which complies with this subsection shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limits were exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.

(f) Accuracy of measurement. The method of measurement of employee exposures shall be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus twenty-five percent for concentrations of AN at or above the permissible exposure limits, and plus or minus thirty-five percent for concentrations of AN between the action level and the permissible exposure limits.

(g) Weekly survey of operations involving liquid AN. In addition to monitoring of employee exposures to AN as otherwise required by this subsection, the employer shall survey areas of operations involving liquid AN at least weekly to detect points where AN liquid or vapor are being released into the workplace. The survey shall employ an infra-red gas analyzer calibrated for AN, a multipoint gas chromatographic monitor, or comparable system for detection of AN. A listing of levels detected and areas of AN release, as determined from the survey, shall be posted prominently in the workplace, and shall remain posted until the next survey is completed.

(6) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish regulated areas where AN concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limits.

(b) Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace, in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to AN.

(c) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.

(d) The employer shall assure that in the regulated area, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, (except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under subsection((s)) (13)(a) ((-(13))) through (c) of this section.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering or work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to AN, to or below the permissible exposure limits, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by subsection (7)(a) of this section.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation or process resulting in employee exposure to AN above the permissible exposure limits;

(B) Engineering plans and other studies used to determine the controls for each process;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limits;

(D) A detailed schedule for the implementation of engineering or work practice controls; and

(E) Other relevant information.

(iii) The employer shall complete the steps set forth in the compliance program by the dates in the schedule.

(iv) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, or any affected employee or representative.

(v) The plans required by this subsection shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities or reactor cleaning, for which the employer establishes that engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;

(iv) In emergencies.

(b) Respirator program.

Employers must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators by following the requirements in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide to employees, for escape, any organic vapor, air-purifying respirator or any self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) that meets the selection requirements of WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(9) Emergency situations.

(a) Written plans.

(i) A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each workplace where AN is present. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.

(ii) The plan shall specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions shall be equipped as required in subsection (8) of this section until the emergency is abated.

(b) Alerting employees.

(i) Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm shall be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.

(ii) Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency shall be evacuated from the area and shall not be permitted to return until the emergency is abated.

(10) Protective clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use. Where eye or skin contact with liquid AN or PAN may occur, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that employees wear, appropriate protective clothing or other equipment in accordance with WAC 296-800-160 to protect any area of the body which may come in contact with liquid AN or PAN.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection, as needed to maintain their effectiveness. In addition, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.

(ii) The employer shall assure that impermeable protective clothing which contacts or is likely to have contacted liquid AN shall be decontaminated before being removed by the employee.

(iii) The employer shall assure that AN- or PAN-contaminated protective clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closable containers which prevent dispersion of the AN or PAN outside the container.

(iv) The employer shall assure that an employee whose nonimpermeable clothing becomes wetted with liquid AN shall immediately remove that clothing and proceed to shower. The clothing shall be decontaminated before it is removed from the regulated area.

(v) The employer shall assure that no employee removes AN- or PAN-contaminated protective equipment or clothing from the change room, except for those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(vi) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans AN- or PAN-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to AN.

(vii) The employer shall assure that containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment which are to be removed from the workplace for any reason are labeled in accordance with subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section, and that such labels remain affixed when such containers leave the employer's workplace.

(11) Housekeeping.

(a) All surfaces shall be maintained free of accumulations of liquid AN and of PAN.

(b) For operations involving liquid AN, the employer shall institute a program for detecting leaks and spills of liquid AN, including regular visual inspections.

(c) Where spills of liquid AN are detected, the employer shall assure that surfaces contacted by the liquid AN are decontaminated. Employees not engaged in decontamination activities shall leave the area of the spill, and shall not be permitted in the area until decontamination is completed.

(d) Liquids. Where AN is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing AN shall be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use, with adequate provision made to avoid any resulting potential explosion hazard.

(e) Surfaces.

(i) Dry sweeping and the use of compressed air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where AN and PAN are found is prohibited.

(ii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.

(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust shall be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that AN is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and

(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect AN may not be used for other cleaning purposes and shall be labeled as prescribed by subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.

(iii) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.

(12) Waste disposal. AN and PAN waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, shall be disposed of in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of AN outside the container, and labeled as prescribed in subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices. Where employees are exposed to airborne concentrations of AN above the permissible exposure limits, or where employees are required to wear protective clothing or equipment pursuant to subsection (11) of this section, or where otherwise found to be appropriate, the facilities required by WAC 296-800-230 shall be provided by the employer for the use of those employees, and the employer shall assure that the employees use the facilities provided. In addition, the following facilities or requirements are mandated.

(a) Change rooms. The employer shall provide clean change rooms in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(ii) In addition, the employer shall also assure that employees exposed to liquid AN and PAN shower at the end of the work shift.

(iii) The employer shall assure that, in the event of skin or eye exposure to liquid AN, the affected employee shall shower immediately to minimize the danger of skin absorption.

(c) Lunchrooms.

(i) Whenever food or beverages are consumed in the workplace, the employer shall provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits.

(ii) In addition, the employer shall also assure that employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) The employer shall institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed to AN above the action level. The employer shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(b) Initial examinations. At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the medical surveillance program, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:

(i) A work history and medical history with special attention to skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, and those nonspecific symptoms, such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, or other central nervous system dysfunctions that may be associated with acute or chronic exposure to AN.

(ii) A physical examination giving particular attention to central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, skin and thyroid.

(iii) A 14" x 17" posteroanterior chest X ray.

(iv) Further tests of the intestinal tract, including fecal occult blood screening, and proctosigmoidoscopy, for all workers forty years of age or older, and for any other affected employees for whom, in the opinion of the physician, such testing is appropriate.

(c) Periodic examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide examinations specified in this subsection at least annually for all employees specified in subsection (14)(a) of this section.

(ii) If an employee has not had the examinations prescribed in subsection (14)(b) of this section within six months of termination of employment, the employer shall make such examination available to the employee upon such termination.

(d) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to AN, the employer shall provide appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.

(e) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level;

(iv) The employee's anticipated or estimated exposure level (for preplacement examinations or in cases of exposure due to an emergency);

(v) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(vi) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee, which is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(f) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and test performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to AN;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to AN or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to AN.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) The employer shall train each employee exposed to AN above the action level, each employee whose exposures are maintained below the action level by engineering and work practice controls, and each employee subject to potential skin or eye contact with liquid AN in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the training program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided at the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the training program, and at least annually thereafter, and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of AN and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to AN, as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section;

(E) The emergency procedures developed, as required by subsection (9) of this section; and

(F) The engineering and work practice controls, their function and the employee's relationship thereto; and

(G) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label, required by this subsection, which contradicts or detracts from such effects of the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs to clearly indicate all workplaces where AN concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limits. The signs shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

ACRYLONITRILE (AN)

CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED



(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(c) Labels.

(i) The employer shall assure that precautionary labels are affixed to all containers of AN, and to containers of PAN and products fabricated from PAN, except for those materials for which objective data is provided as to the conditions specified in subsection (1)(b) of this section. The employer shall assure that the labels remain affixed when the AN or PAN are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace.

(ii) The employer shall assure that the precautionary labels required by this subsection are readily visible and legible. The labels shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

CONTAINS ACRYLONITRILE (AN)

CANCER HAZARD



(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exempted operations.

(i) Where the processing, use, and handling of products fabricated from PAN are exempted pursuant to subsection (1)(b) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include the following information:

(A) The relevant condition in subsection (1)(b) upon which exemption is based;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of AN;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data supports the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, and processing covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (5) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The dates, number, duration, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and the data relied upon to establish that the methods used meet the accuracy and precision requirements of subsection (5)(f) of this section;

(C) Type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any; and

(D) Name, Social Security number and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 40 years or the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever is longer.

(c) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) A copy of the physicians' written opinions;

(B) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to AN;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (14)(f) of this section; and

(D) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.

(iii) The employer shall assure that this record be maintained for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer shall assure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Records required by subdivisions (a) through (c) of this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. Records required by subdivision (a) of this section shall be provided in the same manner as exposure monitoring records.

(iii) The employer shall assure that employee medical records required to be maintained by this section, be made available, upon request, for examination and copying, to the affected employee or former employee, or to a physician designated by the affected employee, former employee, or designated representative.

(e) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(ii)(( Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained pursuant to this section, the employer shall transmit these records to the director.

(iv))) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in ((chapter 296-802)) WAC 296-802-60005.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to AN conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to AN requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled:

(A) To receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) To observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of AN performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) To record the results obtained.

(19) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligation not otherwise imposed, or to detract from any obligation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 09-15-145, 296-62-07336, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; 07-05-072, 296-62-07336, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07336, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07336, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04; 03-18-090, 296-62-07336, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07336, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07336, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), 296-62-07336, filed 5/11/88.]

OTS-4662.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)

WAC 296-62-07342   1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

(b) This section does not apply to:

(i) Exposure to DBCP which results solely from the application and use of DBCP as a pesticide; or

(ii) The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of DBCP in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to prevent exposure to DBCP vapors or liquids, except for the requirements of subsections (11), (16) and (17) of this section.

(2) Definitions applicable to this section:

(a) "Authorized person" - Any person specifically authorized by the employer and whose duties require the person to be present in areas where DBCP is present; and any person entering this area as a designated representative of employees exercising an opportunity to observe employee exposure monitoring.

(b) "DBCP" - 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 96-12-8, and includes all forms of DBCP.

(c) "Director" - The director of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.

(d) "Emergency" - Any occurrence such as, but not limited to equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which may, or does, result in unexpected release of DBCP.

(3) Permissible exposure limits.

(a) Inhalation.

(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of one part DBCP per billion part of air (ppb) as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(ii) Ceiling limit. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of five parts DBCP per billion parts of air (ppb) as averaged over any fifteen minutes during the working day.

(b) Dermal and eye exposure. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to eye or skin contact with DBCP.

(4) Notification of use. Within ten days of the effective date of this section or within ten days following the introduction of DBCP into the workplace, every employer who has a workplace where DBCP is present shall report the following information to the director for each such workplace:

(a) The address and location of each workplace in which DBCP is present;

(b) A brief description of each process or operation which may result in employee exposure to DBCP;

(c) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to DBCP and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs;

(d) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to DBCP.

(5) Regulated areas. The employer shall establish, within each place of employment, regulated areas wherever DBCP concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(a) The employer shall limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.

(b) All employees entering or working in a regulated area shall wear respiratory protection in accordance with Table I.

(6) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General. Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to DBCP over an eight-hour period. (For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.)

(b) Initial. Each employer who has a place of employment in which DBCP is present shall monitor each workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of DBCP to which employees may be exposed.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposures to be below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations at least quarterly.

(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly. The employer shall continue these monthly determinations until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limit, thereafter the employer shall monitor at least quarterly.

(d) Additional. Whenever there has been a production process, control or personnel change which may result in any new or additional exposure to DBCP, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposure to DBCP, additional monitoring which complies with subsection (6) shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of results which represent the employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.

(f) Accuracy of measurement. The method of measurement shall be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus twenty-five percent for concentrations of DBCP at or above the permissible exposure limits.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Priority of compliance methods. The employer shall institute engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to DBCP at or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible. Where feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to within the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest level achievable by these controls, and shall supplement them by use of respiratory protection.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to DBCP to or below the permissible exposure limit solely by means of engineering and work practice controls as required by this section.

(ii) The written program shall include a detailed schedule for development and implementation of the engineering and work practice controls. These plans shall be revised at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(iii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, and any affected employee or designated representative of employees.

(iv) The employer shall institute and maintain at least the controls described in his most recent written compliance program.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who are required to use respirators under this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) Maintenance and repair activities for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit;

(iv) Emergencies.

(b) The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this chapter and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide employees with one of the following respirator options to use for entry into, or escape from, unknown DBCP concentrations:

(A) A combination respirator that includes a full-facepiece air-line respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) operated in a pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode;

OR

(B) A full-facepiece SCBA operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

(9) Reserved.

(10) Emergency situations.

(a) Written plans.

(i) A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each workplace in which DBCP is present.

(ii) Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.

(b) Employees engaged in correcting conditions shall be equipped as required in subsection (11) of this section until the emergency is abated.

(c) Evacuation. Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency shall be removed and restricted from the area and normal operations in the affected area shall not be resumed until the emergency is abated.

(d) Alerting employees. Where there is a possibility of employee exposure to DBCP due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm shall be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.

(e) Medical surveillance. For any employee exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer shall provide medical surveillance in accordance with subsection (14) of this section.

(f) Exposure monitoring.

(i) Following an emergency, the employer shall conduct monitoring which complies with subsection (6) of this section.

(ii) In workplaces not normally subject to periodic monitoring, the employer may terminate monitoring when two consecutive measurements indicate exposures below the permissible exposure limit.

(11) Protective clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use. Where eye or skin contact with liquid or solid DBCP may occur, employers shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that employees wear impermeable protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-800-160 to protect the area of the body which may come in contact with DBCP.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection to maintain their effectiveness. In addition, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least daily to each affected employee.

(ii) Removal and storage.

(A) The employer shall assure that employees remove DBCP contaminated work clothing only in change rooms provided in accordance with subsection (13) of this section.

(B) The employer shall assure that employees promptly remove any protective clothing and equipment which becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids and solids. This clothing shall not be reworn until the DBCP has been removed from the clothing or equipment.

(C) The employer shall assure that no employee takes DBCP contaminated protective devices and work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(iii) The employer shall assure that DBCP-contaminated protective work clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.

(iv) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans DBCP-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to DBCP.

(v) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment which are to be removed from the workplace for any reason are labeled in accordance with subsection (16)(c) of this section.

(vi) The employer shall prohibit the removal of DBCP from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.

(12) Housekeeping.

(a) Surfaces.

(i) All surfaces shall be maintained free of accumulations of DBCP.

(ii) Dry sweeping and the use of air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where DBCP dust or liquids are found is prohibited.

(iii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.

(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust shall be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that DBCP is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and

(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect DBCP may not be used for other cleaning purposes and shall be labeled as prescribed by subsection (16)(c) of this section.

(iv) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.

(b) Liquids. Where DBCP is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing DBCP shall be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use.

(c) Waste disposal. DBCP waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, shall be disposed in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) Change rooms. The employer shall provide clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment whenever employees are required to wear protective clothing and equipment in accordance with subsections (8), (9) and (11) of this section.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees whose skin becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids or solids immediately wash or shower to remove any DBCP from the skin.

(iii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(c) Lunchrooms. The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.

(d) Lavatories.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area remove protective clothing and wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(ii) The employer shall provide a sufficient number of lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-800-230.

(e) Prohibition of activities in regulated areas. The employer shall assure that, in regulated areas, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products and implements are not present or used, and cosmetics are not present or applied.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General. The employer shall institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to DBCP. The employer shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(b) Frequency and content. At the time of initial assignment, annually thereafter, and whenever exposure to DBCP occurs, the employer shall provide a medical examination for employees who work in regulated areas, which includes at least the following:

(i) A complete medical and occupational history with emphasis on reproductive history.

(ii) A complete physical examination with emphasis on the genito-urinary tract, testicle size, and body habitus including the following tests:

(A) Sperm count;

(B) Complete urinalysis (U/A);

(C) Complete blood count; and

(D) Thyroid profile.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and the following determinations made by radioimmunoassay techniques utilizing National Institutes of Health (NIH) specific antigen or one of equivalent sensitivity:

(A) Serum multiphasic analysis (SMA 12);

(B) Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH);

(C) Serum luteinizing hormone (LH); and

(D) Serum estrogen (females).

(iv) Any other tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician.

(c) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to DBCP, the employer shall provide the employee with a medical examination which shall include those elements considered appropriate by the examining physician.

(d) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The level of DBCP to which the employee is exposed; and

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used.

(e) Physician's written opinion.

(i) For each examination under this section, the employer shall obtain and provide the employee with a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of health from exposure to DBCP;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to DBCP or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee was informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination, and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to DBCP.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(f) Emergency situations. If the employee is exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer shall provide the employee with a sperm count test as soon as practicable, or, if the employee is unable to produce a semen specimen, the hormone tests contained in subsection (14)(b) of this section. The employer shall provide these same tests three months later.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) Within thirty days of the effective date of this standard, the employer shall institute a training program for all employees who may be exposed to DBCP and shall assure their participation in such training program.

(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of DBCP and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to DBCP as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements covering respiratory protection as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(D) The purpose and description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section; and

(E) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs to clearly indicate all work areas where DBCP may be present. These signs shall bear the legend:
DANGER
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
(Insert appropriate trade or common names)

CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY



(ii) Where airborne concentrations of DBCP exceed the permissible exposure limits, the signs shall bear the additional legend:

RESPIRATOR REQUIRED


(c) Labels.

(i) The employer shall assure that precautionary labels are affixed to all containers of DBCP and of products containing DBCP, and that the labels remain affixed when the DBCP or products containing DBCP are sold, distributed, or otherwise leave the employer's workplace. Where DBCP or products containing DBCP are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace bearing appropriate labels required by EPA under the regulations in 40 CFR Part 162, the labels required by this subsection need not be affixed.

(ii) The employer shall assure that the precautionary labels required by this subsection are readily visible and legible. The labels shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

CANCER HAZARD



(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (6) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The dates, number, duration and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used;

(C) Type of respiratory worn, if any; and

(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinion;

(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to DBCP;

(D) A copy of the information provided the physician as required by subsection (14)(c) of this section; and

(E) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(c) Availability.

(i) The employer shall assure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Employee exposure monitoring records and employee medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees' designated representatives and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Transfer of records.

(i) If the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period.

(ii) ((If the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, the employer shall transmit these records by mail to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained under this section, the employer shall transmit these records by mail to the director.

(iv))) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in ((chapter 296-802)) WAC 296-802-60005.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP conducted under subsection (6) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring or measurement, observers shall be entitled to:

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of DBCP performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained.

(19) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 09-15-145, 296-62-07342, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; 07-05-072, 296-62-07342, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07342, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07342, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04; 03-18-090, 296-62-07342, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07342, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07342, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-09-030, 296-62-07342, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96; 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), 296-62-07342, filed 5/11/88.]

OTS-4663.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)

WAC 296-62-07460   Butadiene.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 106-99-0, except as provided in (b) of this subsection.

(b)(i) Except for the recordkeeping provisions in subsection (13)(a) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, or handling of products containing BD or to other work operations and streams in which BD is present where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate the work operation or the product or the group of products or operations to which it belongs may not reasonably be foreseen to release BD in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or in excess of the STEL under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release or in any plausible accident.

(ii) This section also does not apply to work operations, products or streams where the only exposure to BD is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less of BD by volume or the vapors released from such liquids, unless objective data become available that show that airborne concentrations generated by such mixtures can exceed the action level or STEL under reasonably predictable conditions of processing, use or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.

(iii) Except for labeling requirements and requirements for emergency response, this section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or in transportation pipelines sealed in such a manner as to fully contain BD vapors or liquids.

(c) Where products or processes containing BD are exempted under (b) of this subsection, the employer shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in subsection (13)(a) of this section.

(2) Definitions: For the purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

"Action level" means a concentration of airborne BD of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average.

"Director" means the director of the department of labor and industries, or authorized representatives.

"Authorized person" means any person specifically designated by the employer, whose duties require entrance into a regulated area, or a person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees to exercise the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4)(h) of this section, or a person designated under the WISH Act or regulations issued under the WISH Act to enter a regulated area.

"1,3-Butadiene" means an organic compound with chemical formula CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2) that has a molecular weight of approximately 54.15 gm/mole.

"Business day" means any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays.

"Complete blood count (CBC)" means laboratory tests performed on whole blood specimens and includes the following: White blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), differential count of white blood cells, red blood cell morphology, red blood cell indices, and platelet count.

"Day" means any part of a calendar day.

"Emergency situation" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD.

"Employee exposure" means exposure of a worker to airborne concentrations of BD which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

"Objective data" means monitoring data, or mathematical modelling or calculations based on composition, chemical and physical properties of a material, stream or product.

"Permissible exposure limits (PELs)" means either the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA) exposure or the short-term exposure limit (STEL).

"Physician or other licensed health care professional" is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide one or more of the specific health care services required by (k) of this subsection.

"Regulated area" means any area where airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA) exposure of 1 ppm or the short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 5 ppm for 15 minutes.

"This section" means this 1,3-butadiene standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

(a) Time-weighted average (TWA) limit. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of one part BD per million parts of air (ppm) measured as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of five parts of BD per million parts of air (5 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.

(4) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 15-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Representative 15-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 15-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the STEL for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iv) Except for the initial monitoring required under (b) of this subsection, where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations on different work shifts, the employer need only determine representative employee exposure for that operation from the shift during which the highest exposure is expected.

(b) Initial monitoring.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section, shall perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of BD to which employees may be exposed, or shall rely on objective data pursuant to subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section to fulfill this requirement. The initial monitoring required under this subitem shall be completed within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) Where the employer has monitored within two years prior to the effective date of this section and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (b)(i) of this subsection, provided that the conditions under which the initial monitoring was conducted have not changed in a manner that may result in new or additional exposures.

(c) Periodic monitoring and its frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below both the 8-hour TWA limit and the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a) of this subsection every twelve months.

(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the 8-hour TWA limit, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(ii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(iii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iv) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every six months to annually for any required representative monitoring for which two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that employee exposure has decreased to or below the 8-hour TWA, but is at or above the action level.

(d) Termination of monitoring.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.

(ii) If the periodic monitoring required by (c) of this subsection reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees who are represented by such monitoring.

(e) Additional monitoring.

(i) The employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under subsection (4) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures to BD or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures.

(ii) Whenever spills, leaks, ruptures or other breakdowns occur that may lead to employee exposure above the 8-hour TWA limit or above the STEL, the employer shall monitor (using leak source, such as direct reading instruments, area or personal monitoring), after the cleanup of the spill or repair of the leak, rupture or other breakdown, to ensure that exposures have returned to the level that existed prior to the incident.

(f) Accuracy of monitoring.

Monitoring shall be accurate, at a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the 1 ppm TWA limit and to within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the action level of 0.5 ppm and below the 1 ppm TWA limit.

(g) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer shall, within 5 business days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify the affected employees of these results in writing either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall, within 15 business days after receipt of any monitoring performed under this section indicating the 8-hour TWA or STEL has been exceeded, provide the affected employees, in writing, with information on the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.

(h) Observation of monitoring.

(i) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to BD conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to BD requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer at no cost with protective clothing and equipment, and shall ensure that the observer uses this equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever occupational exposures to airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limits, either the 8-hour TWA or the STEL.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(c) Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of employees exposed to BD within the regulated area.

(d) An employer at a multiemployer worksite who establishes a regulated area shall communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to other employers with work operations at that worksite whose employees may have access to these areas.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering controls and work practices.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the PELs, except to the extent that the employer can establish that these controls are not feasible or where subsection (8)(a)(i) of this section applies.

(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance plan.

(i) Where any exposures are over the PELs, the employer shall establish and implement a written plan to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs primarily by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by (a) of this subsection, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section. No compliance plan is required if all exposures are under the PELs.

(ii) The written compliance plan shall include a schedule for the development and implementation of the engineering controls and work practice controls including periodic leak detection surveys.

(iii) Copies of the compliance plan required in (b) of this subsection shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives. Such plans shall be reviewed at least every 12 months, and shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(iv) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.

(7) Exposure goal program.

(a) For those operations and job classifications where employee exposures are greater than the action level, in addition to compliance with the PELs, the employer shall have an exposure goal program that is intended to limit employee exposures to below the action level during normal operations.

(b) Written plans for the exposure goal program shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(c) Such plans shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the exposure goal program.

(d) Respirator use is not required in the exposure goal program.

(e) The exposure goal program shall include the following items unless the employer can demonstrate that the item is not feasible, will have no significant effect in reducing employee exposures, or is not necessary to achieve exposures below the action level:

(i) A leak prevention, detection, and repair program.

(ii) A program for maintaining the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems.

(iii) The use of pump exposure control technology such as, but not limited to, mechanical double-sealed or seal-less pumps.

(iv) Gauging devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as magnetic gauges on rail cars.

(v) Unloading devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as a vapor return system.

(vi) A program to maintain BD concentration below the action level in control rooms by use of engineering controls.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) Nonroutine work operations that are performed infrequently and for which exposures are limited in duration;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering controls and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PELs;

(iv) Emergencies.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, except WAC 296-842-13005 and 296-842-14005, which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(ii) If air-purifying respirators are used, the employer must replace the air-purifying filter elements according to the replacement schedule set for the class of respirators listed in Table 1 of this section, and at the beginning of each work shift.

(iii) Instead of using the replacement schedule listed in Table 1 of this section, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of their expiration service life, provided the employer:

(A) Demonstrates that employees will be adequately protected by this procedure;

(B) Uses BD breakthrough data for this purpose that have been derived from tests conducted under worst-case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air-flow rate through the filter element, and the employer also describes the data supporting the cartridge- or canister-change schedule, as well as the basis for using the data in the employer's respirator program.

(iv) A label must be attached to each filter element to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator.

(v) If NIOSH approves an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until the ESLI shows no further useful service life or until the element is replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever occurs first.

(vi) Regardless of the air-purifying element used, if an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer must replace the air-purifying element immediately.

(c) Respirator selection.

(i) The employer must select appropriate respirators from Table 1 of this section.


Table 1. - Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne BD
Concentration of Airborne BD (ppm) or condition of use Minimum required respirator
Less than or equal to 5 ppm (5 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.
Less than or equal to 10 ppm (10 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.
Less than or equal to 25 ppm (25 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(b) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(c) Continuous flow supplied air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet.
Less than or equal to 50 ppm (50 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 1 hour.
(b) Powered air purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece and an approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 1 hour.
Less than or equal to 1,000 ppm (1,000 times PEL) (a) Supplied air respirator equipped with a half mask or full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Greater than 1,000 ppm (a) Self-contained breathing unknown concentration, or apparatus equipped with a fire fighting full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
(b) Any supplied air respirator equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Escape from IDLH Conditions (a) Any positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with an appropriate service life.
(b) Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with a front or back mounted BD or organic vapor canister.

Notes: Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations. Full facepiece is required when eye irritation is anticipated.
(ii) Air-purifying respirators must have filter elements certified by NIOSH for organic vapor or BD.

(iii) When an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative-pressure respirator, the employer must provide the employee with a respirator that has less breathing resistance than the negative-pressure respirator, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied-air respirator, when the employee is able to use it and if it provides the employee adequate protection.

(9) Protective clothing and equipment. Where appropriate to prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure to BD, the employer shall provide protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the employee and shall ensure its use. Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-800-160.

(10) Emergency situations. Written plan. A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed, or an existing plan shall be modified, to contain the applicable elements specified in WAC 296-24-567, Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans, and in WAC 296-62-3112, hazardous waste operations and emergency responses, for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency.

(11) Medical screening and surveillance.

(a) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical screening and surveillance program as specified in this subsection for:

(i) Each employee with exposure to BD at concentrations at or above the action level on 30 or more days or for employees who have or may have exposure to BD at or above the PELs on 10 or more days a year;

(ii) Employers (including successor owners) shall continue to provide medical screening and surveillance for employees, even after transfer to a non-BD exposed job and regardless of when the employee is transferred, whose work histories suggest exposure to BD:

(A) At or above the PELs on 30 or more days a year for 10 or more years;

(B) At or above the action level on 60 or more days a year for 10 or more years; or

(C) Above 10 ppm on 30 or more days in any past year; and

(iii) Each employee exposed to BD following an emergency situation.

(b) Program administration.

(i) The employer shall ensure that the health questionnaire, physical examination and medical procedures are provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

(ii) Physical examinations, health questionnaires, and medical procedures shall be performed or administered by a physician or other licensed health care professional.

(iii) Laboratory tests shall be conducted by an accredited laboratory.

(c) Frequency of medical screening activities. The employer shall make medical screening available on the following schedule:

(i) For each employee covered under (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, a health questionnaire and complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count every year, and a physical examination as specified below:

(A) An initial physical examination that meets the requirements of this rule, if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination conducted as part of a medical screening program for BD exposure;

(B) Before assumption of duties by the employee in a job with BD exposure;

(C) Every 3 years after the initial physical examination;

(D) At the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional reviewing the annual health questionnaire and CBC;

(E) At the time of employee reassignment to an area where exposure to BD is below the action level, if the employee's past exposure history does not meet the criteria of (a)(ii) of this subsection for continued coverage in the screening and surveillance program, and if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination; and

(F) At termination of employment if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination.

(ii) Following an emergency situation, medical screening shall be conducted as quickly as possible, but not later than 48 hours after the exposure.

(iii) For each employee who must wear a respirator, physical ability to perform the work and use the respirator must be determined as required by chapter 296-842 WAC.

(d) Content of medical screening.

(i) Medical screening for employees covered by (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall include:

(A) A baseline health questionnaire that includes a comprehensive occupational and health history and is updated annually. Particular emphasis shall be placed on the hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial systems, including exposure to chemicals, in addition to BD, that may have an adverse effect on these systems, the presence of signs and symptoms that might be related to disorders of these systems, and any other information determined by the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to be necessary to evaluate whether the employee is at increased risk of material impairment of health from BD exposure. Health questionnaires shall consist of the sample forms in Appendix C to this section, or be equivalent to those samples;

(B) A complete physical examination, with special emphasis on the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin;

(C) A CBC; and

(D) Any other test which the examining physician or other licensed health care professional deems necessary to evaluate whether the employee may be at increased risk from exposure to BD.

(ii) Medical screening for employees exposed to BD in an emergency situation shall focus on the acute effects of BD exposure and at a minimum include: A CBC within 48 hours of the exposure and then monthly for three months; and a physical examination if the employee reports irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin, blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache. Continued employee participation in the medical screening and surveillance program, beyond these minimum requirements, shall be at the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional.

(e) Additional medical evaluations and referrals.

(i) Where the results of medical screening indicate abnormalities of the hematopoietic or reticuloendothelial systems, for which a nonoccupational cause is not readily apparent, the examining physician or other licensed health care professional shall refer the employee to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and shall make available to the specialist the results of the medical screening.

(ii) The specialist to whom the employee is referred under this subsection shall determine the appropriate content for the medical evaluation, e.g., examinations, diagnostic tests and procedures, etc.

(f) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician or other licensed health care professional involved in the evaluation:

(i) A copy of this section including its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's BD exposure;

(iii) The employee's actual or representative BD exposure level during employment tenure, including exposure incurred in an emergency situation;

(iv) A description of pertinent personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information, when available, from previous employment-related medical evaluations of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional or the specialist.

(g) The written medical opinion.

(i) For each medical evaluation required by this section, the employer shall ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional produces a written opinion and provides a copy to the employer and the employee within 15 business days of the evaluation. The written opinion shall be limited to the following information:

(A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical evaluation;

(B) A medical opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to BD;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to BD; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed of the results of the medical evaluation and any medical conditions resulting from BD exposure that require further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The written medical opinion provided to the employer shall not reveal specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on the employee's ability to work with BD.

Note: This provision does not negate the ethical obligation of the physician or other licensed health care professional to transmit any other adverse findings directly to the employee.


(h) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall ensure that information obtained from the medical screening program activities is aggregated (with all personal identifiers removed) and periodically reviewed, to ascertain whether the health of the employee population of that employer is adversely affected by exposure to BD.

(ii) Information learned from medical surveillance activities must be disseminated to covered employees, as defined in (a) of this subsection, in a manner that ensures the confidentiality of individual medical information.

(12) Communication of BD hazards to employees.

(a) Hazard communication. The employer shall communicate the hazards associated with BD exposure in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170.

(b) Employee information and training.

(i) The employer shall train each employee who is potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170.

(ii) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL, ensure employee participation in the program and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(iii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job potentially involving exposure to BD at or above the action level or STEL and at least annually thereafter.

(iv) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee exposed to BD over the action level or STEL is informed of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with BD exposure, and the purpose and a description of the medical screening and surveillance program required by this section;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of BD and the specific operations that could result in exposure to BD, especially exposures above the PEL or STEL;

(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment, and emergency procedures and personal protective equipment;

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to BD;

(E) The contents of this standard and its appendices; and

(F) The right of each employee exposed to BD at or above the action level or STEL to obtain:

(I) Medical examinations as required by subsection (10) of this section at no cost to the employee;

(II) The employee's medical records required to be maintained by subsection (13)(c) of this section; and

(III) All air monitoring results representing the employee's exposure to BD and required to be kept by subsection (13)(b) of this section.

(c) Access to information and training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and their designated representatives and shall provide a copy if requested.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the director, or the designated employee representatives, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

(13) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring.

(i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products or streams made from or containing BD are exempted from other requirements of this section under subsection (1)(b) of this section, or where objective data have been relied on in lieu of initial monitoring under subsection (4)(b)(ii) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain a record of the objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The product or activity qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and analysis of the material for the release of BD;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to BD as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to BD which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of protective devices worn, if any;

(F) Name, Social Security number and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented; and

(G) The written corrective action and the schedule for completion of this action required by subsection (4)(g)(ii) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 30 years in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) Medical screening and surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical screening and surveillance under this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) Physician's or other licensed health care professional's written opinions as described in subsection (11)(e) of this section;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional as required by subsection (11)(e) of this section.

(iii) Medical screening and surveillance records shall be maintained for each employee for the duration of employment plus 30 years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available for examination and copying to the director.

(ii) Access to records required to be maintained by (a) and (b) of this subsection shall be granted in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(e) Transfer of records. (((i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer records required by this section to the successor employer. The successor employer shall receive and maintain these records. If there is no successor employer, the employer shall notify the director, at least three months prior to disposal, and transmit them to the director if requested by the director within that period.

(ii))) The employer shall transfer medical and exposure records as set forth in ((chapter 296-802)) WAC 296-802-60005.

(14) Dates.

(a) Effective date. This section shall become effective (day, month), 1997.

(b) Start-up dates.

(i) The initial monitoring required under subsection (4)(b) of this section shall be completed immediately or within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) The requirements of subsections (3) through (13) of this section, including feasible work practice controls but not including engineering controls specified in subsection (6)(a) of this section, shall be complied with immediately.

(iii) Engineering controls specified by subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 1999, and the exposure goal program specified in subsection (7) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 2000.

(15) Appendices.

Appendices A, B, C, D, and F to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.


Appendix A. Substance Safety Data Sheet For 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Substance Identification.

(a) Substance: 1,3-Butadiene (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(b) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bi-vinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; CAS-106-99-0.

(c) BD can be found as a gas or liquid.

(d) BD is used in production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber for the tire industry. Other uses include copolymer latexes for carpet backing and paper coating, as well as resins and polymers for pipes and automobile and appliance parts. It is also used as an intermediate in the production of such chemicals as fungicides.

(e) Appearance and odor: BD is a colorless, noncorrosive, flammable gas with a mild aromatic odor at standard ambient temperature and pressure.

(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 1 part BD per million parts of air averaged over the 8-hour workday, nor may short-term exposure exceed 5 parts of BD per million parts of air averaged over any 15-minute period in the 8-hour workday.

(2) Health Hazard Data.

(a) BD can affect the body if the gas is inhaled or if the liquid form, which is very cold (cryogenic), comes in contact with the eyes or skin.

(b) Effects of overexposure: Breathing very high levels of BD for a short time can cause central nervous system effects, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased blood pressure and pulse rate, and unconsciousness. There are no recorded cases of accidental exposures at high levels that have caused death in humans, but this could occur. Breathing lower levels of BD may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Skin contact with liquefied BD can cause irritation and frostbite.

(c) Long-term (chronic) exposure: BD has been found to be a potent carcinogen in rodents, inducing neoplastic lesions at multiple target sites in mice and rats. A recent study of BD-exposed workers showed that exposed workers have an increased risk of developing leukemia. The risk of leukemia increases with increased exposure to BD. OSHA has concluded that there is strong evidence that workplace exposure to BD poses an increased risk of death from cancers of the lymphohematopoietic system.

(d) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your supervisor if you develop any of these signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to BD.

(3) Emergency First-Aid Procedures.

In the event of an emergency, follow the emergency plan and procedures designated for your work area. If you have been trained in first-aid procedures, provide the necessary first aid measures. If necessary, call for additional assistance from co-workers and emergency medical personnel.

(a) Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential that liquefied BD can come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used. If liquefied BD comes in contact with the eye, immediately flush the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and the upper lids. Flush repeatedly. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. In the event of skin contact, which can cause frostbite, remove any contaminated clothing and flush the affected area repeatedly with large amounts of tepid water.

(b) Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of BD, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you have been trained in this procedure. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately.

(c) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure. If the exposed person has been overcome, call for help and begin emergency rescue procedures. Use extreme caution so that you do not become a casualty. Understand the plant's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises.

(4) Respirators and Protective Clothing.

(a) Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering and work practice controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented or during brief, nonroutine, intermittent exposure. Respirators may also be used in situations involving nonroutine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration, and in emergency situations. In some instances cartridge respirator use is allowed, but only with strict time constraints. For example, at exposure below 5 ppm BD, a cartridge (or canister) respirator, either full or half face, may be used, but the cartridge must be replaced at least every 4 hours, and it must be replaced every 3 hours when the exposure is between 5 and 10 ppm.

If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program must be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, fit testing, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation of respirators. If you can smell BD while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air, and change cartridge (or canister) before reentering an area where there is BD exposure. If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your supervisor.

(b) Protective Clothing: Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen by contact with liquefied BD (or a vessel containing liquid BD).

Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquefied BD may contact the eyes.

(5) Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage.

(a) Fire and Explosion Hazards: BD is a flammable gas and can easily form explosive mixtures in air. It has a lower explosive limit of 2%, and an upper explosive limit of 11.5%. It has an autoignition temperature of 420 deg. C (788 deg. F). Its vapor is heavier than air (vapor density, 1.9) and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Usually it contains inhibitors to prevent self-polymerization (which is accompanied by evolution of heat) and to prevent formation of explosive peroxides. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place. If the polymerization takes place in a container, there is a possibility of violent rupture of the container.

(b) Hazard: Slightly toxic. Slight respiratory irritant. Direct contact of liquefied BD on skin may cause freeze burns and frostbite.

(c) Storage: Protect against physical damage to BD containers. Outside or detached storage of BD containers is preferred. Inside storage should be in a cool, dry, well-ventilated, noncombustible location, away from all possible sources of ignition. Store cylinders vertically and do not stack. Do not store with oxidizing material.

(d) Usual Shipping Containers: Liquefied BD is contained in steel pressure apparatus.

(e) Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations, as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be in accordance with Article 501 of the Code. If explosion-proof electrical equipment is necessary, it shall be suitable for use in Group B. Group D equipment may be used if such equipment is isolated in accordance with Section 501-5(a) by sealing all conduit 1/2-inch size or larger. See Venting of Deflagrations (NFPA No. 68, 1994), National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70, 1996), Static Electricity (NFPA No. 77, 1993), Lightning Protection Systems (NFPA No. 780, 1995), and Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids (NFPA No. 325, 1994).

(f) Fire Fighting: Stop flow of gas. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fire extinguishers and quick drenching facilities must be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.

(g) Spill and Leak: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until clean-up has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate area of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(h) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulation of any additional requirements as these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulation.

(i) You should not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials in areas where there is BD exposure, nor should you eat or drink in such areas.

(j) Ask your supervisor where BD is used in your work area and ask for any additional plant safety and health rules.

(6) Medical Requirements.

Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical screening and surveillance program if you are exposed to BD at concentrations exceeding the action level (0.5 ppm BD as an 8-hour TWA) on 30 days or more a year, or at or above the 8-hr TWA (1 ppm) or STEL (5 ppm for 15 minutes) on 10 days or more a year. Exposure for any part of a day counts. If you have had exposure to BD in the past, but have been transferred to another job, you may still be eligible to participate in the medical screening and surveillance program.

The WISHA rule specifies the past exposures that would qualify you for participation in the program. These past exposure are work histories that suggest the following:

(a) That you have been exposed at or above the PELs on 30 days a year for 10 or more years;

(b) That you have been exposed at or above the action level on 60 days a year for 10 or more years; or

(c) That you have been exposed above 10 ppm on 30 days in any past year.

Additionally, if you are exposed to BD in an emergency situation, you are eligible for a medical examination within 48 hours. The basic medical screening program includes a health questionnaire, physical examination, and blood test. These medical evaluations must be offered to you at a reasonable time and place, and without cost or loss of pay.

(7) Observation of Monitoring.

Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to BD and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, the protective clothing and equipment.

(8) Access to Information.

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this appendix. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using BD, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to BD. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits and of the schedule to implement these actions.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty years.

(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.


Appendix B. Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Physical and Chemical Data.

(a) Substance identification:

(i) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bivinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50620; CAS-106-99-0.

(ii) Formula: (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(iii) Molecular weight: 54.1.

(b) Physical data:

(i) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): -4.7 deg. C (23.5 deg. F).

(ii) Specific gravity (water = 1):0.62 at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F).

(iii) Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point of BD): 1.87.

(iv) Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 910 mm Hg.

(v) Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 0.05.

(vi) Appearance and odor: Colorless, flammable gas with a mildly aromatic odor. Liquefied BD is a colorless liquid with a mildly aromatic odor.

(2) Fire, Explosion, and Reactivity Hazard Data.

(a) Fire:

(i) Flash point: -76 deg. C (-105 deg. F) for take out; liquefied BD; Not applicable to BD gas.

(ii) Stability: A stabilizer is added to the monomer to inhibit formation of polymer during storage. Forms explosive peroxides in air in absence of inhibitor.

(iii) Flammable limits in air, percent by volume: Lower: 2.0; Upper: 11.5.

(iv) Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide for small fires, polymer or alcohol foams for large fires.

(v) Special fire fighting procedures: Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed cylinders cool.

(vi) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: BD vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

(vii) For purposes of compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-330, BD is classified as a flammable gas. For example, 7,500 ppm, approximately one-fourth of the lower flammable limit, would be considered to pose a potential fire and explosion hazard.

(viii) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-585, BD is classified as a Class B fire hazard.

(ix) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-956 and 296-800-280, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of BD shall be Class I.

(b) Reactivity:

(i) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat. Peroxides are formed when inhibitor concentration is not maintained at proper level. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place.

(ii) Incompatibilities: Contact with strong oxidizing agents may cause fires and explosions. The contacting of crude BD (not BD monomer) with copper and copper alloys may cause formations of explosive copper compounds.

(iii) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving BD.

(iv) Special precautions: BD will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. BD in storage should be checked for proper inhibitor content, for self-polymerization, and for formation of peroxides when in contact with air and iron. Piping carrying BD may become plugged by formation of rubbery polymer.

(c) Warning Properties:

(i) Odor Threshold: An odor threshold of 0.45 ppm has been reported in The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Report, Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards. (Ex. 32-28C).

(ii) Eye Irritation Level: Workers exposed to vapors of BD (concentration or purity unspecified) have complained of irritation of eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Dogs and rabbits exposed experimentally to as much as 6700 ppm for 7 1/2 hours a day for 8 months have developed no histologically demonstrable abnormality of the eyes.

(iii) Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since the mean odor threshold is about half of the 1 ppm PEL, and more than 10-fold below the 5 ppm STEL, most wearers of air purifying respirators should still be able to detect breakthrough before a significant overexposure to BD occurs.

(3) Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures.

(a) Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate areas of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(b) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulations for any additional requirements because these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulations.

(4) Monitoring and Measurement Procedures.

(a) Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit (8-hr TWA) or Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):

(i) 8-hr TWA exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this standard are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift. Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee).

(ii) STEL exposure evaluation: Measurements must represent 15 minute exposures associated with operations most likely to exceed the STEL in each job and on each shift.

(iii) Monitoring frequencies: Table 1 gives various exposure scenarios and their required monitoring frequencies, as required by the final standard for occupational exposure to butadiene.

Table 1. -- Five Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated
Monitoring Frequencies

Action Level 8-hr TWA STEL Required Monitoring Activity
__* __ __ No 8-hour TWA or STEL monitoring required.
+* __ __ No STEL monitoring required. Monitor 8-hr TWA annually.
+ __ __ No STEL monitoring required. Periodic monitoring 8-hour TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).**
+ + + Periodic monitoring 8-hour TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii)**. Periodic monitoring STEL in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).
+ __ + Periodic monitoring STEL, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii). Monitor 8-hour TWA annually.

Footnote (*) Exposure Scenario, Limit Exceeded: + = Yes, - = No.
Footnote (**) The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to annually when at least 2 consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart show exposures to be below the 8-hour TWA, but at or above the action level.
(iv) Monitoring techniques: Appendix D describes the validated method of sampling and analysis which has been tested by OSHA for use with BD. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95 percent confidence level, to plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of BD at or above 1 ppm, and to plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations below 1 ppm.

(5) Personal Protective Equipment.

(a) Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with liquid BD.

(b) Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid BD should be removed immediately and not reworn until the butadiene has evaporated.

(c) Employees should be provided with and required to use splash proof safety goggles where liquid BD may contact the eyes.

(6) Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities.

For purposes of complying with WAC 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, the following items should be emphasized:

(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition.

(b) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition.

(7) Additional Precautions.

(a) Store BD in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area and take all necessary precautions to avoid any explosion hazard.

(b) Nonsparking tools must be used to open and close metal containers. These containers must be effectively grounded.

(c) Do not incinerate BD cartridges, tanks or other containers.

(d) Employers must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to BD might occur.


Appendix C. Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene (Nonmandatory)

(1) Basis for Medical Screening and Surveillance Requirements.

(a) Route of Entry Inhalation.

(b) Toxicology.

Inhalation of BD has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, damage to the reproductive organs, and fetotoxicity. Butadiene can be converted via oxidation to epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, two genotoxic metabolites that may play a role in the expression of BD's toxic effects. BD has been tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Both species responded to BD exposure by developing cancer at multiple primary organ sites. Early deaths in mice were caused by malignant lymphomas, primarily lymphocytic type, originating in the thymus.

Mice exposed to BD have developed ovarian or testicular atrophy. Sperm head morphology tests also revealed abnormal sperm in mice exposed to BD; lethal mutations were found in a dominant lethal test. In light of these results in animals, the possibility that BD may adversely affect the reproductive systems of male and female workers must be considered.

Additionally, anemia has been observed in animals exposed to butadiene. In some cases, this anemia appeared to be a primary response to exposure; in other cases, it may have been secondary to a neoplastic response.

(c) Epidemiology.

Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that BD exposure poses an increased risk of leukemia. Mild alterations of hematologic parameters have also been observed in synthetic rubber workers exposed to BD.

(2) Potential Adverse Health Effects.

(a) Acute.

Skin contact with liquid BD causes characteristic burns or frostbite. BD in gaseous form can irritate the eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Blurred vision, coughing, and drowsiness may also occur. Effects are mild at 2,000 ppm and pronounced at 8,000 ppm for exposures occurring over the full workshift.

At very high concentrations in air, BD is an anesthetic, causing narcosis, respiratory paralysis, unconsciousness, and death. Such concentrations are unlikely, however, except in an extreme emergency because BD poses an explosion hazard at these levels.

(b) Chronic.

The principal adverse health effects of concern are BD-induced lymphoma, leukemia and potential reproductive toxicity. Anemia and other changes in the peripheral blood cells may be indicators of excessive exposure to BD.

(c) Reproductive.

Workers may be concerned about the possibility that their BD exposure may be affecting their ability to procreate a healthy child. For workers with high exposures to BD, especially those who have experienced difficulties in conceiving, miscarriages, or stillbirths, appropriate medical and laboratory evaluation of fertility may be necessary to determine if BD is having any adverse effect on the reproductive system or on the health of the fetus.

(3) Medical Screening Components At-A-Glance.

(a) Health Questionnaire.

The most important goal of the health questionnaire is to elicit information from the worker regarding potential signs or symptoms generally related to leukemia or other blood abnormalities. Therefore, physicians or other licensed health care professionals should be aware of the presenting symptoms and signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders and cancers, as well as the procedures necessary to confirm or exclude such diagnoses. Additionally, the health questionnaire will assist with the identification of workers at greatest risk of developing leukemia or adverse reproductive effects from their exposures to BD.

Workers with a history of reproductive difficulties or a personal or family history of immune deficiency syndromes, blood dyscrasias, lymphoma, or leukemia, and those who are or have been exposed to medicinal drugs or chemicals known to affect the hematopoietic or lymphatic systems may be at higher risk from their exposure to BD. After the initial administration, the health questionnaire must be updated annually.

(b) Complete Blood Count (CBC).

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an annual CBC, with differential and platelet count, to be provided for each employee with BD exposure. This test is to be performed on a blood sample obtained by phlebotomy of the venous system or, if technically feasible, from a fingerstick sample of capillary blood. The sample is to be analyzed by an accredited laboratory.

Abnormalities in a CBC may be due to a number of different etiologies. The concern for workers exposed to BD includes, but is not limited to, timely identification of lymphohematopoietic cancers, such as leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abnormalities of portions of the CBC are identified by comparing an individual's results to those of an established range of normal values for males and females. A substantial change in any individual employee's CBC may also be viewed as "abnormal" for that individual even if all measurements fall within the population-based range of normal values. It is suggested that a flowsheet for laboratory values be included in each employee's medical record so that comparisons and trends in annual CBCs can be easily made.

A determination of the clinical significance of an abnormal CBC shall be the responsibility of the examining physician, other licensed health care professional, or medical specialist to whom the employee is referred. Ideally, an abnormal CBC should be compared to previous CBC measurements for the same employee, when available. Clinical common sense may dictate that a CBC value that is very slightly outside the normal range does not warrant medical concern. A CBC abnormality may also be the result of a temporary physical stressor, such as a transient viral illness, blood donation, or menorrhagia, or laboratory error. In these cases, the CBC should be repeated in a timely fashion, i.e., within 6 weeks, to verify that return to the normal range has occurred. A clinically significant abnormal CBC should result in removal of the employee from further exposure to BD. Transfer of the employee to other work duties in a BD-free environment would be the preferred recommendation.

(c) Physical Examination.

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an initial physical examination for workers exposed to BD; this examination is repeated once every three years. The initial physical examination should assess each worker's baseline general health and rule out clinical signs of medical conditions that may be caused by or aggravated by occupational BD exposure. The physical examination should be directed at identification of signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders, including lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly.

Repeated physical examinations should update objective clinical findings that could be indicative of interim development of a lymphohematopoietic disorder, such as lymphoma, leukemia, or other blood abnormality. Physical examinations may also be provided on an as needed basis in order to follow up on a positive answer on the health questionnaire, or in response to an abnormal CBC. Physical examination of workers who will no longer be working in jobs with BD exposure are intended to rule out lymphohematopoietic disorders.

The need for physical examinations for workers concerned about adverse reproductive effects from their exposure to BD should be identified by the physician or other licensed health care professional and provided accordingly. For these workers, such consultations and examinations may relate to developmental toxicity and reproductive capacity.

Physical examination of workers acutely exposed to significant levels of BD should be especially directed at the respiratory system, eyes, sinuses, skin, nervous system, and any region associated with particular complaints. If the worker has received a severe acute exposure, hospitalization may be required to assure proper medical management. Since this type of exposure may place workers at greater risk of blood abnormalities, a CBC must be obtained within 48 hours and repeated at one, two, and three months.


Appendix D: Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene (Nonmandatory)

OSHA Method No.: 56.

Matrix: Air.

Target concentration: 1 ppm (2.21 mg/m(3)).

Procedure: Air samples are collected by drawing known volumes of air through sampling tubes containing charcoal adsorbent which has been coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. The samples are desorbed with carbon disulfide and then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector.

Recommended sampling rate and air volume: 0.05 L/min and 3 L.

Detection limit of the overall procedure: 90 ppb (200 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Reliable quantitation limit: 155 ppb (343 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Standard error of estimate at the target concentration: 6.5%.

Special requirements: The sampling tubes must be coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. Collected samples should be stored in a freezer.

Status of method: A sampling and analytical method has been subjected to the established evaluation procedures of the Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Analytical Laboratory, Salt Lake City, Utah 84165.

(1) Background.

This work was undertaken to develop a sampling and analytical procedure for BD at 1 ppm. The current method recommended by OSHA for collecting BD uses activated coconut shell charcoal as the sampling medium (Ref. 5.2). This method was found to be inadequate for use at low BD levels because of sample instability.

The stability of samples has been significantly improved through the use of a specially cleaned charcoal which is coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC). TBC is a polymerization inhibitor for BD (Ref. 5.3).

(a) Toxic effects.

Symptoms of human exposure to BD include irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. It can also cause coughing, drowsiness and fatigue. Dermatitis and frostbite can result from skin exposure to liquid BD. (Ref. 5.1)

NIOSH recommends that BD be handled in the workplace as a potential occupational carcinogen. This recommendation is based on two inhalation studies that resulted in cancers at multiple sites in rats and in mice. BD has also demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of a liver microsomal activating system. It has also been reported to have adverse reproductive effects. (Ref. 5.1)

(b) Potential workplace exposure.

About 90% of the annual production of BD is used to manufacture styrene-butadiene rubber and Polybutadiene rubber. Other uses include: Polychloroprene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene resins, nylon intermediates, styrene-butadiene latexes, butadiene polymers, thermoplastic elastomers, nitrile resins, methyl methacrylate-butadiene styrene resins and chemical intermediates. (Ref. 5.1)

(c) Physical properties (Ref. 5.1).

CAS No.: 106-99-0

Molecular weight: 54.1

Appearance: Colorless gas

Boiling point: -4.41 deg. C (760 mm Hg)

Freezing point: -108.9 deg. C

Vapor pressure: 2 atm (a) 15.3 deg. C; 5 atm (a) 47 deg. C

Explosive limits: 2 to 11.5% (by volume in air)

Odor threshold: 0.45 ppm

Structural formula: H(2)C:CHCH:CH(2)

Synonyms: BD; biethylene; bivinyl; butadiene; divinyl; buta-1,3-diene; alpha-gamma-butadiene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; pyrrolylene; vinylethylene.

(d) Limit defining parameters.

The analyte air concentrations listed throughout this method are based on an air volume of 3 L and a desorption volume of 1 mL. Air concentrations listed in ppm are referenced to 25 deg. C and 760 mm Hg.

(e) Detection limit of the analytical procedure.

The detection limit of the analytical procedure was 304 pg per injection. This was the amount of BD which gave a response relative to the interferences present in a standard.

(f) Detection limit of the overall procedure.

The detection limit of the overall procedure was 0.60 ug per sample (90 ppb or 200 ug/m(3)). This amount was determined graphically. It was the amount of analyte which, when spiked on the sampling device, would allow recovery approximately equal to the detection limit of the analytical procedure.

(g) Reliable quantitation limit.

The reliable quantitation limit was 1.03 ug per sample (155 ppb or 343 ug/m(3)). This was the smallest amount of analyte which could be quantitated within the limits of a recovery of at least 75% and a precision (+/- 1.96 SD) of +/-25% or better.

(h) Sensitivity.(1)


Footnote (1) The reliable quantitation limit and detection limits reported in the method are based upon optimization of the instrument for the smallest possible amount of analyte. When the target concentration of an analyte is exceptionally higher than these limits, they may not be attainable at the routine operation parameters.
The sensitivity of the analytical procedure over a concentration range representing 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration, based on the recommended air volume, was 387 area units per ug/mL. This value was determined from the slope of the calibration curve. The sensitivity may vary with the particular instrument used in the analysis.

(i) Recovery.

The recovery of BD from samples used in storage tests remained above 77% when the samples were stored at ambient temperature and above 94% when the samples were stored at refrigerated temperature. These values were determined from regression lines which were calculated from the storage data. The recovery of the analyte from the collection device must be at least 75% following storage.

(j) Precision (analytical method only).

The pooled coefficient of variation obtained from replicate determinations of analytical standards over the range of 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 0.011.

(k) Precision (overall procedure).

The precision at the 95% confidence level for the refrigerated temperature storage test was +/- 12.7%. This value includes an additional +/- 5% for sampling error. The overall procedure must provide results at the target concentrations that are +/- 25% at the 95% confidence level.

(l) Reproducibility.

Samples collected from a controlled test atmosphere and a draft copy of this procedure were given to a chemist unassociated with this evaluation. The average recovery was 97.2% and the standard deviation was 6.2%.

(2) Sampling procedure.

(a) Apparatus. Samples are collected by use of a personal sampling pump that can be calibrated to within +/- 5% of the recommended 0.05 L/min sampling rate with the sampling tube in line.

(b) Samples are collected with laboratory prepared sampling tubes. The sampling tube is constructed of silane-treated glass and is about 5-cm long. The ID is 4 mm and the OD is 6 mm. One end of the tube is tapered so that a glass wool end plug will hold the contents of the tube in place during sampling. The opening in the tapered end of the sampling tube is at least one-half the ID of the tube (2 mm). The other end of the sampling tube is open to its full 4-mm ID to facilitate packing of the tube. Both ends of the tube are fire-polished for safety. The tube is packed with 2 sections of pretreated charcoal which has been coated with TBC. The tube is packed with a 50-mg backup section, located nearest the tapered end, and with a 100-mg sampling section of charcoal. The two sections of coated adsorbent are separated and retained with small plugs of silanized glass wool. Following packing, the sampling tubes are sealed with two 7/32 inch OD plastic end caps. Instructions for the pretreatment and coating of the charcoal are presented in Section 4.1 of this method.

(c) Reagents.

None required.

(d) Technique.

(i) Properly label the sampling tube before sampling and then remove the plastic end caps.

(ii) Attach the sampling tube to the pump using a section of flexible plastic tubing such that the larger front section of the sampling tube is exposed directly to the atmosphere. Do not place any tubing ahead of the sampling tube. The sampling tube should be attached in the worker's breathing zone in a vertical manner such that it does not impede work performance.

(iii) After sampling for the appropriate time, remove the sampling tube from the pump and then seal the tube with plastic end caps. Wrap the tube lengthwise.

(iv) Include at least one blank for each sampling set. The blank should be handled in the same manner as the samples with the exception that air is not drawn through it.

(v) List any potential interferences on the sample data sheet.

(vi) The samples require no special shipping precautions under normal conditions. The samples should be refrigerated if they are to be exposed to higher than normal ambient temperatures. If the samples are to be stored before they are shipped to the laboratory, they should be kept in a freezer. The samples should be placed in a freezer upon receipt at the laboratory.

(e) Breakthrough.

(Breakthrough was defined as the relative amount of analyte found on the backup section of the tube in relation to the total amount of analyte collected on the sampling tube. Five-percent breakthrough occurred after sampling a test atmosphere containing 2.0 ppm BD for 90 min. at 0.05 L/min. At the end of this time 4.5 L of air had been sampled and 20.1 ug of the analyte was collected. The relative humidity of the sampled air was 80% at 23 deg. C.)

Breakthrough studies have shown that the recommended sampling procedure can be used at air concentrations higher than the target concentration. The sampling time, however, should be reduced to 45 min. if both the expected BD level and the relative humidity of the sampled air are high.

(f) Desorption efficiency.

The average desorption efficiency for BD from TBC coated charcoal over the range from 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 96.4%. The efficiency was essentially constant over the range studied.

(g) Recommended air volume and sampling rate.

(h) The recommended air volume is 3 L.

(i) The recommended sampling rate is 0.05 L/min. for 1 hour.

(j) Interferences.

There are no known interferences to the sampling method.

(k) Safety precautions.

(i) Attach the sampling equipment to the worker in such a manner that it will not interfere with work performance or safety.

(ii) Follow all safety practices that apply to the work area being sampled.

(3) Analytical procedure.

(a) Apparatus.

(i) A gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID).(2)


Footnote (2) A Hewlett-Packard Model 5840A GC was used for this evaluation. Injections were performed using a Hewlett-Packard Model 7671A automatic sampler.
(ii) A GC column capable of resolving the analytes from any interference.(3)


Footnote (3) A 20-ft x 1/8-inch OD stainless steel GC column containing 20% FFAP on 80/100 mesh Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS was used for this evaluation.
(iii) Vials, glass 2-mL with Teflon-lined caps.

(iv) Disposable Pasteur-type pipets, volumetric flasks, pipets and syringes for preparing samples and standards, making dilutions and performing injections.

(b) Reagents.

(i) Carbon disulfide.(4)


Footnote (4) Fisher Scientific Company A.C.S. Reagent Grade solvent was used in this evaluation.
The benzene contaminant that was present in the carbon disulfide was used as an internal standard (ISTD) in this evaluation.

(ii) Nitrogen, hydrogen and air, GC grade.

(iii) BD of known high purity.(5)


Footnote (5) Matheson Gas Products, CP Grade 1,3-butadiene was used in this study.
(c) Standard preparation.

(i) Prepare standards by diluting known volumes of BD gas with carbon disulfide. This can be accomplished by injecting the appropriate volume of BD into the headspace above the 1-mL of carbon disulfide contained in sealed 2-mL vial. Shake the vial after the needle is removed from the septum.(6)


Footnote (6) A standard containing 7.71 ug/mL (at ambient temperature and pressure) was prepared by diluting 4 uL of the gas with 1-mL of carbon disulfide.
(ii) The mass of BD gas used to prepare standards can be determined by use of the following equations:

MV = (760/BP)(273+t)/(273)(22.41)

Where:

MV = ambient molar volume

BP = ambient barometric pressure

T = ambient temperature

ug/uL = 54.09/MV

ug/standard = (ug/uL)(uL) BD used to prepare the standard

(d) Sample preparation.

(i) Transfer the 100-mg section of the sampling tube to a 2-mL vial. Place the 50-mg section in a separate vial. If the glass wool plugs contain a significant amount of charcoal, place them with the appropriate sampling tube section.

(ii) Add 1-mL of carbon disulfide to each vial.

(iii) Seal the vials with Teflon-lined caps and then allow them to desorb for one hour. Shake the vials by hand vigorously several times during the desorption period.

(iv) If it is not possible to analyze the samples within 4 hours, separate the carbon disulfide from the charcoal, using a disposable Pasteur-type pipet, following the one hour. This separation will improve the stability of desorbed samples.

(v) Save the used sampling tubes to be cleaned and repacked with fresh adsorbent.

(e) Analysis.

(i) GC Conditions.

Column temperature: 95 deg. C

Injector temperature: 180 deg. C

Detector temperature: 275 deg. C

Carrier gas flow rate: 30 mL/min.

Injection volume: 0.80 uL

GC column: 20-ft x 1/8-in OD stainless steel GC column containing 20%

FFAP on 80/100 Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS.

(ii) Chromatogram. See Section 4.2.

(iii) Use a suitable method, such as electronic or peak heights, to measure detector response.

(iv) Prepare a calibration curve using several standard solutions of different concentrations. Prepare the calibration curve daily. Program the integrator to report the results in ug/mL.

(v) Bracket sample concentrations with standards.

(f) Interferences (analytical).

(i) Any compound with the same general retention time as the analyte and which also gives a detector response is a potential interference. Possible interferences should be reported by the industrial hygienist to the laboratory with submitted samples.

(ii) GC parameters (temperature, column, etc.) may be changed to circumvent interferences.

(iii) A useful means of structure designation is GC/MS. It is recommended that this procedure be used to confirm samples whenever possible.

(g) Calculations.

(i) Results are obtained by use of calibration curves. Calibration curves are prepared by plotting detector response against concentration for each standard. The best line through the data points is determined by curve fitting.

(ii) The concentration, in ug/mL, for a particular sample is determined by comparing its detector response to the calibration curve. If any analyte is found on the backup section, this amount is added to the amount found on the front section. Blank corrections should be performed before adding the results together.

(iii) The BD air concentration can be expressed using the following equation:

mg/m(3) = (A)(B)/(C)(D)

Where:

A = ug/mL from Section 3.7.2

B = volume

C = L of air sampled

D = efficiency

(iv) The following equation can be used to convert results in mg/m(3) to ppm:

ppm = (mg/m(3))(24.46)/54.09

Where:

mg/m(3) = result from Section 3.7.3.

24.46 = molar volume of an ideal gas at 760 mm Hg and 25 deg. C.

(h) Safety precautions (analytical).

(i) Avoid skin contact and inhalation of all chemicals.

(ii) Restrict the use of all chemicals to a fume hood whenever possible.

(iii) Wear safety glasses and a lab coat in all laboratory areas.

(4) Additional Information.

(a) A procedure to prepare specially cleaned charcoal coated with TBC.

(i) Apparatus.

(A) Magnetic stirrer and stir bar.

(B) Tube furnace capable of maintaining a temperature of 700 deg. C and equipped with a quartz tube that can hold 30 g of charcoal.(8)


Footnote (8) A Lindberg Type 55035 Tube furnace was used in this evaluation.
(C) A means to purge nitrogen gas through the charcoal inside the quartz tube.

(D) Water bath capable of maintaining a temperature of 60 deg. C.

(E) Miscellaneous laboratory equipment: One-liter vacuum flask, 1-L Erlenmeyer flask, 350-M1 Buchner funnel with a coarse fitted disc, 4-oz brown bottle, rubber stopper, Teflon tape etc.

(ii) Reagents.

(A) Phosphoric acid, 10% by weight, in water.(9)


Footnote (9) Baker Analyzed Reagent grade was diluted with water for use in this evaluation.
(B) 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC).(10)


Footnote (10) The Aldrich Chemical Company 99% grade was used in this evaluation.
(C) Specially cleaned coconut shell charcoal, 20/40 mesh.(11)


Footnote (11) Specially cleaned charcoal was obtained from Supelco, Inc. for use in this evaluation. The cleaning process used by Supelco is proprietary.
(D) Nitrogen gas, GC grade.

(iii) Procedure.

Weigh 30g of charcoal into a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add about 250 mL of 10% phosphoric acid to the flask and then swirl the mixture. Stir the mixture for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer. Filter the mixture using a fitted Buchner funnel. Wash the charcoal several times with 250-mL portions of deionized water to remove all traces of the acid. Transfer the washed charcoal to the tube furnace quartz tube. Place the quartz tube in the furnace and then connect the nitrogen gas purge to the tube. Fire the charcoal to 700 deg. C. Maintain that temperature for at least 1 hour. After the charcoal has cooled to room temperature, transfer it to a tared beaker. Determine the weight of the charcoal and then add an amount of TBC which is 10% of the charcoal, by weight.

CAUTION-TBC is toxic and should only be handled in a fume hood while wearing gloves.

Carefully mix the contents of the beaker and then transfer the mixture to a 4-oz bottle. Stopper the bottle with a clean rubber stopper which has been wrapped with Teflon tape. Clamp the bottle in a water bath so that the water level is above the charcoal level. Gently heat the bath to 60 deg. C and then maintain that temperature for 1 hour. Cool the charcoal to room temperature and then transfer the coated charcoal to a suitable container.

The coated charcoal is now ready to be packed into sampling tubes. The sampling tubes should be stored in a sealed container to prevent contamination. Sampling tubes should be stored in the dark at room temperature. The sampling tubes should be segregated by coated adsorbent lot number.

(b) Chromatograms.

The chromatograms were obtained using the recommended analytical method. The chart speed was set at 1 cm/min. for the first three min. and then at 0.2 cm/min. for the time remaining in the analysis.

The peak which elutes just before BD is a reaction product between an impurity on the charcoal and TBC. This peak is always present, but it is easily resolved from the analyte. The peak which elutes immediately before benzene is an oxidation product of TBC.

(5) References.

(a) "Current Intelligence Bulletin 41, 1,3-Butadiene," U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH.

(b) "NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods," 2nd ed.; U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Cincinnati, OH. 1977, Vol. 2, Method No. S91 DHEW (NIOSH) Publ. (U.S.), No. 77-157-B.

(c) Hawley, G.C., Ed. "The Condensed Chemical Dictionary," 8th ed.; Van Nostrand Rienhold Company: New York, 1971; 139.5.4. Chem. Eng. News (June 10, 1985), (63), 22-66.


Appendix E: Reserved.


APPENDIX F, MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRES, (Non-mandatory)


1,3-Butadiene (BD) Initial Health Questionnaire


DIRECTIONS:


You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.


This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.


Date:
Name: SSN / /
Last First MI
Job Title:
Company's Name:
Supervisor's Name:
Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

Work History


1. Please list all jobs you have had in the past, starting with the job you have now and moving back in time to your first job. (For more space, write on the back of this page.)


Main Job Duty

Year

Company Name

City, State


Chemicals

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.


2. Please describe what you do during a typical work day. Be sure to tell about your work with BD.

3. Please check any of these chemicals that you work with now or have worked with in the past:


benzene
glues
toluene
inks, dyes
other solvents, grease cutters
insecticides (like DDT, lindane, etc.)
paints, varnishes, thinners, strippers
dusts
carbon tetrachloride ("carbon tet")
arsine
carbon disulfide
lead
cement
petroleum products
nitrites

4. Please check the protective clothing or equipment you use at the job you have now:


gloves
coveralls
respirator
dust mask
safety glasses, goggles

Please circle your answer.


5. Does your protective clothing or equipment fit you

properly? yes no


6. Have you ever made changes in your protective clothing or equipment to make it fit better? yes no


7. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no


8. Where do you eat, drink and/or smoke when you are at work? (Please check all that apply.)

Cafeteria/restaurant/snack bar
Break room/employee lounge
Smoking lounge
At my work station

Please circle your answer.


9. Have you been exposed to radiation (like x-rays or nuclear material) at the job you have now or at past

jobs? yes no


10. Do you have any hobbies that expose you to dusts or chemicals (including paints, glues, etc.)? yes no


11. Do you have any second or side jobs? yes no

If yes, what are your duties there?

12. Were you in the military? yes no


If yes, what did you do in the military?

Family Health History

1. In the FAMILY MEMBER column, across from the disease name, write which family member, if any, had the disease.


DISEASE FAMILY MEMBER

Cancer

Lymphoma

Sickle Cell Disease or Trait

Immune Disease

Leukemia

Anemia


2. Please fill in the following information about family health


Relative

Alive?

Age at Death?

Cause of Death?

Father

Mother

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister


Personal Health History


Birth Date / / Age Sex Height Weight


Please circle your answer.


1. Do you smoke any tobacco products? yes no


2. Have you ever had any kind of surgery or operation?

yes no


If yes, what type of surgery:


3. Have you ever been in the hospital for any other

reasons? yes no

If yes, please describe the reason

4. Do you have any on-going or current medical problems

or conditions? yes no


If yes, please describe:

5. Do you now have or have you ever had any of the following? Please check all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
anemia ("low blood")
HIV/AIDS
weakness
sickle cell
miscarriage
skin rash
bloody stools
leukemia/lymphoma
neck mass/swelling
wheezing
yellowing of skin
bruising easily
lupus
weight loss
kidney problems
enlarged lymph nodes
liver disease
cancer
infertility
drinking problems
thyroid problems
night sweats
chest pain
still birth
eye redness
lumps you can feel
child with birth defect
autoimmune disease
overly tired
lung problems
rheumatoid arthritis
mononucleosis ("mono")
nagging cough

Please circle your answer.


6. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:
7. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or

problems? yes no don't know


If yes, please describe:

8. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no


9. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no


10. Do you take any medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no


If yes, please list:

11. Are you allergic to any medication, food, or chemicals? yes no


If yes, please list:

12. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with

BD? yes no


If yes, please explain:

13. Did you understand all the questions? yes no

Signature



1,3-Butadiene (BD) Health Update Questionnaire


DIRECTIONS:


You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.


This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.

Date:
Name: SSN / /
Last First MI
Job Title:
Company's Name:
Supervisor's Name:
Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

1. Please describe any NEW duties that you have at your

job.


2. Please describe any additional job duties you have:
Please circle your answer.


3. Are you exposed to any other chemicals in your work

since the last time you were evaluated for exposure to

BD? yes no


If yes, please list what they are:

4. Does your personal protective equipment and clothing fit you properly? yes no


5. Have you made changes in this equipment or clothing to make if fit better? yes no


6. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no


7. Are you exposed to any NEW chemicals at home or while working on hobbies? yes no


If yes, please list what they are:

8. Since your last BD health evaluation, have you started working any new second or side jobs? yes no


If yes, what are your duties there?


Personal Health History


1. What is your current weight? pounds


2. Have you been diagnosed with any new medical

conditions or illness since your last evaluation?

yes no


If yes, please tell what they are:

3. Since your last evaluation, have you been in the hospital for any illnesses, injuries, or surgery? yes no


If yes, please describe:

4. Do you have any of the following? Please place a check for all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
anemia ("low blood")
HIV/AIDS
weakness
sickle cell
miscarriage
skin rash
bloody stools
leukemia/lymphoma
neck mass/swelling
wheezing
yellowing of skin
bruising easily
lupus
weight loss
kidney problems
enlarged lymph nodes
liver disease
cancer
infertility
drinking problems
thyroid problems
night sweats
chest pain
still birth
eye redness
lumps you can feel
child with birth defect
autoimmune disease
overly tired
lung problems
rheumatoid arthritis
mononucleosis ("mono")
nagging cough

Please circle your answer.


5. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:

6. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or

problems? yes no don't know

If yes, please describe:

7. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no


8. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no


9. Have you been taking any NEW medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no


If yes, please list:

10. Have you developed any new allergies to medications, foods, or chemicals? yes no


If yes, please list:

11. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this

questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with

BD? yes no

If yes, please explain:

12. Do you understand all the questions? yes no


Signature

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 09-15-145, 296-62-07460, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; 07-03-163, 296-62-07460, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-07460, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-07460, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04; 03-18-090, 296-62-07460, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07460, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-07460, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07460, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97.]

OTS-4664.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-10-026, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04)

WAC 296-62-07631   Recordkeeping.   (1) Monitoring data for exempted employers.

(a) Where as a result of the initial monitoring the processing, use, or handling of products made from or containing MDA are exempted from other requirements of this section under WAC 296-62-07601(2), the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of monitoring relied on in support of the exemption.

(b) This record shall include at least the following information:

(i) The product qualifying for exemption;

(ii) The source of the monitoring data (e.g., was monitoring performed by the employer or a private contractor);

(iii) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of MDA;

(iv) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption (e.g., are the monitoring data representative of the conditions at the affected facility); and

(v) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(c) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(2) Objective data for exempted employers.

(a) Where the processing, use, or handling of products made from or containing MDA are exempted from other requirements of WAC 296-62-076 under WAC 296-62-07601, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data relied upon in support of the exemption.

(b) This record shall include at least the following information:

(i) The product qualifying for exemption;

(ii) The source of the objective data;

(iii) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of MDA;

(iv) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(v) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(c) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(3) Exposure measurements.

(a) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements required by WAC 296-62-07609, in accordance with Part B of this chapter.

(b) This record shall include:

(i) The dates, number, duration, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the procedure used to determine representative employee exposures;

(ii) Identification of the sampling and analytical methods used;

(iii) A description of the type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any; and

(iv) The name, Social Security number, job classification, and exposure levels of the employee monitored and all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(c) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 30 years, in accordance with Part B of this chapter.

(4) Medical surveillance.

(a) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance required by WAC 296-62-07625, 296-62-07627, and 296-62-07629, in accordance with Part B of this chapter.

(b) This record shall include:

(i) The name, Social Security number, and description of the duties of the employee;

(ii) The employer's copy of the physician's written opinion on the initial, periodic, and any special examinations, including results of medical examination and all tests, opinions, and recommendations;

(iii) Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and

(iv) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to MDA.

(c) The employer shall keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices, except that the employer may keep one copy of the standard and its appendices for all employees provided the employer references the standard and its appendices in the medical surveillance record of each employee;

(ii) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by any sections in the regulatory text;

(iii) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to the information;

(iv) A copy of the employee's medical and work history related to exposure to MDA.

(d) The employer shall maintain this record for at least the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with Part B of this chapter.

(5) Medical removals.

(a) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee removed from current exposure to MDA pursuant to WAC 296-62-07625, 296-62-07627, and 296-62-07629.

(b) Each record shall include:

(i) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(ii) The date of each occasion that the employee was removed from current exposure to MDA as well as the corresponding date on which the employee was returned to his or her former job status;

(iii) A brief explanation of how each removal was or is being accomplished; and

(iv) A statement with respect to each removal indicating the reason for the removal.

(c) The employer shall maintain each medical removal record for at least the duration of an employee's employment plus thirty years.

(6) Availability.

(a) The employer shall assure that records required to be maintained by WAC 296-62-076 shall be made available, upon request, to the director for examination and copying.

(b) Employee exposure monitoring records required by WAC 296-62-076 shall be provided upon request for examination and copying to employees, employee representatives, and the director in accordance with the applicable sections of WAC 296-800-170.

(c) Employee medical records required by this section shall be provided upon request for examination and copying, to the subject employee, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and to the director in accordance with Part B of this chapter.

(7) Transfer of records. (((a))) The employer shall comply with the requirements involving transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(((b) If the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, the employer shall notify the director, at least ninety days prior to disposal, and transmit the records to the director if so requested by the director within that period.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 04-10-026, 296-62-07631, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, 296-62-07631, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), 296-62-07631, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]

OTS-4665.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)

WAC 296-62-14533   Cotton dust.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section, in its entirety, applies to the control of employee exposure to cotton dust in all workplaces where employees engage in yarn manufacturing, engage in slashing and weaving operations, or work in waste houses for textile operations.

(b) This section does not apply to the handling or processing of woven or knitted materials; to maritime operations covered by chapters 296-56 and 296-304 WAC; to harvesting or ginning of cotton; or to the construction industry.

(c) Only subsection (8) Medical surveillance, subsection (11)(b) Medical surveillance, subsection (11)(c) Availability, subsection (11)(d) Transfer of records, and Appendices B, C, and D of this section apply in all work places where employees exposed to cotton dust engage in cottonseed processing or waste processing operations.

(d) This section applies to yarn manufacturing and slashing and weaving operations exclusively using washed cotton (as defined by subsection (14) of this section) only to the extent specified by subsection (14) of this section.

(e) This section, in its entirety, applies to the control of all employees exposure to the cotton dust generated in the preparation of washed cotton from opening until the cotton is thoroughly wetted.

(f) This section does not apply to knitting, classing or warehousing operations except that employers with these operations, if requested by WISHA, shall grant WISHA access to their employees and workplaces for exposure monitoring and medical examinations for purposes of a health study to be performed by WISHA on a sampling basis.

(2) Definitions applicable to this section:

(a) "Blow down" - The cleaning of equipment and surfaces with compressed air.

(b) "Blow off" - The use of compressed air for cleaning of short duration and usually for a specific machine or any portion of a machine.

(c) "Cotton dust" - Dust present in the air during the handling or processing of cotton, which may contain a mixture of many substances including ground-up plant matter, fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton plant matter and other contaminants which may have accumulated with the cotton during the growing, harvesting and subsequent processing or storage periods. Any dust present during the handling and processing of cotton through the weaving or knitting of fabrics, and dust present in other operations or manufacturing processes using raw or waste cotton fibers or cotton fiber by-products from textile mills are considered cotton dust within this definition. Lubricating oil mist associated with weaving operations is not considered cotton dust.

(d) "Director" - The director of labor and industries or his authorized representative.

(e) "Equivalent instrument" - A cotton dust sampling device that meets the vertical elutriator equivalency requirements as described in subsection (4)(a)(iii) of this section.

(f) "Lint-free respirable cotton dust" - Particles of cotton dust of approximately 15 microns or less aerodynamic equivalent diameter.

(g) "Vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler" or "vertical elutriator" - A dust sampler which has a particle size cut-off at approximately 15 microns aerodynamic equivalent diameter when operating at the flow rate of 7.4 0.2 liters per minute.

(h) "Waste processing" - Waste recycling (sorting, blending, cleaning and willowing) and garnetting.

(i) "Yarn manufacturing" - All textile mill operations from opening to, but not including, slashing and weaving.

(3) Permissible exposure limits and action levels.

(a) Permissible exposure limits (PEL).

(i) The employer shall assure that no employee who is exposed to cotton dust in yarn manufacturing and cotton washing operations is exposed to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust greater than 200 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(ii) The employer shall assure than no employee who is exposed to cotton dust in textile mill waste house operations or is exposed in yarn manufacturing to dust from "lower grade washed cotton" as defined in subsection (14)(e) of this section is exposed to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust greater than 500 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(iii) The employer shall assure that no employee who is exposed to cotton dust in the textile processes known as slashing and weaving is exposed to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust greater than 750 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(b) Action levels.

(i) The action level for yarn manufacturing and cotton washing operations is an airborne concentration of lint-free respirable cotton dust of 100 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(ii) The action level for waste houses for textile operations is an airborne concentration of lint-free respirable cotton dust of 250 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(iii) The action level for the textile processes known as slashing and weaving is an airborne concentration of lint-free respirable cotton dust of 375 g/m3 mean concentration, averaged over an eight-hour period, as measured by a vertical elutriator or an equivalent instrument.

(4) Exposure monitoring and measurement.

(a) General.

(i) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(ii) The sampling device to be used shall be either the vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler or an equivalent instrument.

(iii) If an alternative to the vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler is used, the employer shall establish equivalency by demonstrating that the alternative sampling devices:

(A) It collects respirable particulates in the same range as the vertical elutriator (approximately 15 microns);

(B) Replicate exposure data used to establish equivalency are collected in side-by-side field and laboratory comparisons; and

(C) A minimum of 100 samples over the range of 0.5 to 2 times the permissible exposure limit are collected, and ninety percent of these samples have an accuracy range of plus or minus twenty-five percent of the vertical elutriator reading with a ninety-five percent confidence level as demonstrated by a statistically valid protocol. (An acceptable protocol for demonstrating equivalency is described in Appendix E of this section.)

(iv) WISHA will issue a written opinion stating that an instrument is equivalent to a vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler if:

(A) A manufacturer or employer requests an opinion in writing and supplies the following information:

(I) Sufficient test data to demonstrate that the instrument meets the requirements specified in this paragraph and the protocol specified in Appendix E of this section;

(II) Any other relevant information about the instrument and its testing requested by WISHA; and

(III) A certification by the manufacturer or employer that the information supplied is accurate((,)); and

(B) If WISHA finds, based on information submitted about the instrument, that the instrument meets the requirements for equivalency specified by this subsection.

(b) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a place of employment within the scope of subsections (1)(a), (d) or (e) of this section shall conduct monitoring by obtaining measurements which are representative of the exposure of all employees to airborne concentrations of lint-free respirable cotton dust over an eight-hour period. The sampling program shall include at least one determination during each shift for each work area.

(c) Periodic monitoring.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (4)(b) of this section or any subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be at or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall repeat the monitoring for those employees at least annually.

(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (4)(b) of this section or any subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the PEL, the employer shall repeat the monitoring for those employees at least every six months.

(iii) Whenever there has been a production, process, or control change which may result in new or additional exposure to cotton dust, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect an increase in employee exposure, the employer shall repeat the monitoring and measurements for those employees affected by the change or increase.

(d) Employee notification.

(i) Within fifteen working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the exposure measurements which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the employee's exposure exceeds the applicable permissible exposure limit specified in subsection (3) of this section, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure below the permissible exposure limit.

(5) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls. The employer shall institute engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to cotton dust at or below the permissible exposure limit specified in subsection (3) of this section, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible.

(b) Whenever feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless institute these controls to immediately reduce exposure to the lowest feasible level, and shall supplement these controls with the use of respirators which shall comply with the provisions of subsection (6) of this section.

(c) Compliance program.

(i) Where the most recent exposure monitoring data indicates that any employee is exposed to cotton dust levels greater than the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall establish and implement a written program sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit solely by means of engineering controls and work practices as required by (a) of this subsection.

(ii) The written program shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation or process resulting in employee exposure to cotton dust;

(B) Engineering plans and other studies used to determine the controls for each process;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Monitoring data obtained in accordance with subsection (4) of this section;

(E) A detailed schedule for development and implementation of engineering and work practice controls, including exposure levels projected to be achieved by such controls;

(F) Work practice program; and

(G) Other relevant information.

(iii) The employer's schedule as set forth in the compliance program, shall project completion of the implementation of the compliance program no later than March 27, 1984 or as soon as possible if monitoring after March 27, 1984 reveals exposures over the PEL, except as provided in (13)(b)(ii)(B) of this section.

(iv) The employer shall complete the steps set forth in his program by the dates in the schedule.

(v) Written programs shall be submitted, upon request, to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, and any affected employee or their designated representatives.

(vi) The written programs required under subsection (5)(c) of this section shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program and current exposure levels.

(d) Mechanical ventilation. When mechanical ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements which demonstrate the effectiveness of the system to control exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure shall be made at reasonable intervals.

(6) Use of respirators.

(a) General. For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering controls and work-practice controls;

(ii) Maintenance and repair activities for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;

(iv) Work operations specified under subsection (7)(a) of this section;

(v) Periods for which an employee requests a respirator.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(ii) Whenever a physician determines that an employee who works in an area in which the cotton-dust concentration exceeds the PEL is unable to use a respirator, including a powered air-purifying respirator, the employee must be given the opportunity to transfer to an available position, or to a position that becomes available later, that has a cotton-dust concentration at or below the PEL. The employer must ensure that such employees retain their current wage rate or other benefits as a result of the transfer.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees the appropriate respirators by following requirements in this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide employees with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) when the employee chooses to use a PAPR instead of a negative-pressure air-purifying respirator, and the PAPR will provide adequate protection.

(iii) Limit the use of filtering facepiece respirators for protection against cotton dust to concentrations less than or equal to five times (5x) the PEL.

(iv) Provide high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or N-, R-, or P-100 series filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators when used in cotton dust concentrations greater than ten times (10x) the PEL.

(7) Work practices. Each employer shall, regardless of the level of employee exposure, immediately establish and implement a written program of work practices which shall minimize cotton dust exposure. The following shall be included where applicable:

(a) Compressed air "blow down" cleaning shall be prohibited, where alternative means are feasible. Where compressed air is used for cleaning, the employees performing the "blow down" or "blow off" shall wear suitable respirators. Employees whose presence is not required to perform "blow down" or "blow off" shall be required to leave the area affected by the "blow down" or "blow off" during this cleaning operation.

(b) Cleaning of clothing or floors with compressed air shall be prohibited.

(c) Floor sweeping shall be performed with a vacuum or with methods designed to minimize dispersal of dust.

(d) In areas where employees are exposed to concentrations of cotton dust greater than the permissible exposure limit, cotton and cotton waste shall be stacked, sorted, baled, dumped, removed or otherwise handled by mechanical means, except where the employer can show that it is infeasible to do so. Where infeasible, the method used for handling cotton and cotton waste shall be the method which reduces exposure to the lowest level feasible.

(8) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) Each employer covered by the standard shall institute a program of medical surveillance for all employees exposed to cotton dust.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician and are provided without cost to the employee.

(iii) Persons other than licensed physicians, who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section shall have completed a NIOSH approved training course in spirometry.

(b) Initial examinations. The employer shall provide medical surveillance to each employee who is or may be exposed to cotton dust. For new employees' this examination shall be provided prior to initial assignment. The medical surveillance shall include at least the following:

(i) A medical history;

(ii) The standardized questionnaire contained in WAC 296-62-14537; and

(iii) A pulmonary function measurement, including a determination of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and the percentage that the measured values of FEV1 and FVC differ from the predicted values, using the standard tables in WAC 296-62-14539. These determinations shall be made for each employee before the employee enters the workplace on the first day of the work week, preceded by at least thirty-five hours of no exposure to cotton dust. The tests shall be repeated during the shift, no less than four hours and no more than ten hours after the beginning of the work shift; and, in any event, no more than one hour after cessation of exposure. Such exposure shall be typical of the employee's usual workplace exposure. The predicted FEV1 and FVC for blacks shall be multiplied by 0.85 to adjust for ethnic differences.

(iv) Based upon the questionnaire results, each employee shall be graded according to Schilling's byssinosis classification system.

(c) Periodic examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide at least annual medical surveillance for all employees exposed to cotton dust above the action level in yarn manufacturing, slashing and weaving, cotton washing and waste house operations. The employer shall provide medical surveillance at least every two years for all employees exposed to cotton dust at or below the action level, for all employees exposed to cotton dust from washed cotton (except from washed cotton defined in subsection (9)(c) of this section), and for all employees exposed to cotton dust in cottonseed processing and waste processing operations. Periodic medical surveillance shall include at least an update of the medical history, standardized questionnaire (Appendix B-111), Schilling byssinosis grade, and the pulmonary function measurements in (b)(iii) of this subsection.

(ii) Medical surveillance as required in (c)(i) of this subsection shall be provided every six months for all employees in the following categories:

(A) An FEV1 of greater than eighty percent of the predicted value, but with an FEV1 decrement of five percent or 200 ml. on a first working day;

(B) An FEV1 of less than eighty percent of the predicted value; or

(C) Where, in the opinion of the physician, any significant change in questionnaire findings, pulmonary function results, or other diagnostic tests have occurred.

(iii) An employee whose FEV1 is less than sixty percent of the predicted value shall be referred to a physician for a detailed pulmonary examination.

(iv) A comparison shall be made between the current examination results and those of previous examinations and a determination made by the physician as to whether there has been a significant change.

(d) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this regulation and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(e) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain and furnish the employee with a copy of a written opinion from the examining physician containing the following:

(A) The results of the medical examination and tests including the FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ratio;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to cotton dust;

(C) The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to cotton dust or upon the employee's use of respirators including a determination of whether an employee can wear a negative pressure respirator, and where the employee cannot, a determination of the employee's ability to wear a powered air purifying respirator; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(9) Employee education and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) The employer shall train each employee exposed to cotton dust in accordance with the requirements of this section and shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The acute and long term health hazards associated with exposure to cotton dust;

(B) The names and descriptions of jobs and processes which could result in exposure to cotton dust at or above the PEL((.));

(C) The measures, including work practices required by subsection (7) of this section, necessary to protect the employee from exposures in excess of the permissible exposure limit;

(D) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required by subsection (6) of this section and chapter 296-842 WAC (see WAC 296-842-11005, 296-842-16005 and 296-842-19005);

(E) The purpose for and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (8) of this section and other information which will aid exposed employees in understanding the hazards of cotton dust exposure; and

(F) The contents of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The training program shall be provided prior to initial assignment and shall be repeated annually for each employee exposed to cotton dust, when job assignments or work processes change and when employee performance indicates a need for retraining.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) Each employer shall post a copy of this section with its appendices in a public location at the workplace, and shall, upon request, make copies available to employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide all materials relating to the employee training and information program to the director upon request.

(10) Signs. The employer shall post the following warning sign in each work area where the permissible exposure limit for cotton dust is exceeded:


WARNING

COTTON DUST WORK AREA

MAY CAUSE ACUTE OR DELAYED LUNG INJURY

(BYSSINOSIS)

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA



(11) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements required by subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include:

(A) A log containing the items listed in WAC 296-62-14535 (4)(a), and the dates, number, duration, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the procedure used to determine representative employee exposures;

(B) The type of protective devices worn, if any, and length of time worn; and

(C) The names, Social Security number, job classifications, and exposure levels of employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least twenty years.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate medical record for each employee subject to medical surveillance required by subsection (8) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include:

(A) The name and Social Security number and description of the duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the medical examination results including the medical history, questionnaire response, results of all tests, and the physician's recommendation;

(C) A copy of the physician's written opinion;

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to cotton dust;

(E) A copy of this standard and its appendices, except that the employer may keep one copy of the standard and the appendices for all employees, provided that he references the standard and appendices in the medical surveillance record of each employee; and

(F) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (8)(d) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least twenty years.

(c) Availability.

(i) The employer shall make all records required to be maintained by subsection (11) of this section available to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Employee exposure measurement records and employee medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by subsection (11) of this section.

(ii) ((Whenever the employer ceases to do business, and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the director at least three months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the director if he requests them within that period.

(iv))) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in ((chapter 296-802)) WAC 296-802-60005.

(12) Observation of monitoring.

(a) The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to cotton dust conducted pursuant to subsection (4) of this section.

(b) Whenever observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to cotton dust requires entry into an area where the use of personal protective equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such equipment and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(c) Without interfering with the measurement, observers shall be entitled to:

(i) An explanation of the measurement procedures;

(ii) An opportunity to observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of cotton dust performed at the place of exposure; and

(iii) An opportunity to record the results obtained.

(13) Washed cotton.

(a) Exemptions. Cotton, after it has been washed by the processes described in this section is exempt from all or parts of this section as specified if the requirements of this section are met.

(b) Initial requirements.

(i) In order for an employer to qualify as exempt or partially exempt from this standard for operations using washed cotton, the employer must demonstrate that the cotton was washed in a facility which is open to inspection by the director and the employer must provide sufficient accurate documentary evidence to demonstrate that the washing methods utilized meet the requirements of this section.

(ii) An employer who handles or processes cotton which has been washed in a facility not under the employer's control and claims an exemption or partial exemption under this paragraph, must obtain from the cotton washer and make available at the worksite, to the director, or his designated representative, to any affected employee, or to their designated representative the following:

(A) A certification by the washer of the cotton of the grade of cotton, the type of washing process, and that the batch meets the requirements of this section:

(B) Sufficient accurate documentation by the washer of the cotton grades and washing process; and

(C) An authorization by the washer that the director may inspect the washer's washing facilities and documentation of the process.

(c) Medical and dyed cotton. Medical grade (USP) cotton, cotton that has been scoured, bleached and dyed, and mercerized yarn shall be exempt from all provisions of this standard.

(d) Higher grade washed cotton. The handling or processing of cotton classed as "low middling light spotted or better" (color grade 52 or better and leaf grade code 5 or better according to the 1993 USDA classification system) shall be exempt from all provisions of the standard except requirements of subsection (8) of this section, medical surveillance; subsection (11)(b) through (d) of this section, recordkeeping-medical records, and Appendices B, C, and D of this section, if they have been washed on one of the following systems:

(i) On a continuous batt system or a rayon rinse system including the following conditions:

(A) With water;

(B) At a temperature of no less than 60C;

(C) With a water-to-fiber ratio of no less than 40:1; and

(D) With the bacterial levels in the wash water controlled to limit bacterial contamination of the cotton.

(ii) On a batch kier washing system including the following conditions:

(A) With water;

(B) With cotton fiber mechanically opened and thoroughly prewetted before forming the cake;

(C) For low-temperature processing, at a temperature of no less than 60C with a water-to-fiber ratio of no less than 40:1; or, for high-temperature processing, at a temperature of no less than 93C with a water-to-fiber ratio of no less than 15:1;

(D) With a minimum of one wash cycle followed by two rinse cycles for each batch, using fresh water in each cycle; and

(E) With bacterial levels in the wash water controlled to limit bacterial contamination of the cotton.

(e) Lower grade washed cotton. The handling and processing of cotton of grades lower than "low middling light spotted," that has been washed as specified in (d) of this subsection and has also been bleached, shall be exempt from all provisions of the standard except the requirements of subsection (3)(a) Permissible exposure limits, subsection (4) Exposure monitoring and measurement, subsection (8) Medical surveillance, subsection (11) Recordkeeping, and Appendices B, C and D of this section.

(f) Mixed grades of washed cotton. If more than one grade of washed cotton is being handled or processed together, the requirements of the grade with the most stringent exposure limit, medical and monitoring requirements shall be followed.

(14) Appendices.

(a) Appendix B (B-I, B-II and B-III), WAC 296-62-14537, Appendix C, WAC 296-62-14539 and Appendix D, WAC 296-62-14541 are incorporated as part of this chapter and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.

(b) Appendix A of this chapter, WAC 296-62-14535 contains information which is not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

(c) Appendix E of this chapter is a protocol which may be followed in the validation of alternative measuring devices as equivalent to the vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler. Other protocols may be used if it is demonstrated that they are statistically valid, meet the requirements in subsection (4)(a)(iii) of this section, and are appropriate for demonstrating equivalency.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 09-15-145, 296-62-14533, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; 07-05-072, 296-62-14533, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; 05-03-093, 296-62-14533, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-10-026, 296-62-14533, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-19-065, 296-62-14533, filed 9/18/01, effective 11/1/01; 99-10-071, 296-62-14533, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-14533, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-14533, filed 7/25/86; 82-03-023 (Order 82-1), 296-62-14533, filed 1/15/82. Statutory Authority: 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-14533, filed 7/27/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), 296-62-14533, filed 11/13/80.]

OTS-4666.2


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-10-026, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04)

WAC 296-62-20023   Recordkeeping.   (1) Exposure measurements. The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to coke oven emissions required in WAC 296-62-20007.

(a) This record shall include:

(i) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employees monitored;

(ii) The date(s), number, duration and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(iii) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;

(iv) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy; and

(v) The environment variables that could affect the measurement of employee exposure.

(b) The employer shall maintain this record for at least ((forth)) forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(2) Medical surveillance. The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by WAC 296-62-20017.

(a) The record shall include:

(i) The name, Social Security number, and description of duties of the employee;

(ii) A copy of the physician's written opinion;

(iii) The signed statement of any refusal to take a medical examination under WAC 296-62-20017; and

(iv) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to coke oven emissions.

(b) The employer shall keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:

(i) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under WAC 296-62-20017;

(ii) A description of the laboratory procedures used and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results;

(iii) The initial X ray;

(iv) The X rays for the most recent five years;

(v) Any X ray with a demonstrated abnormality and all subsequent X rays;

(vi) The initial cytologic examination slide and written description;

(vii) The cytologic examination slide and written description for the most recent ten years; and

(viii) Any cytologic examination slides with demonstrated atypia, if such atypia persists for three years, and all subsequent slides and written descriptions.

(c) The employer shall maintain medical records required under subsection (2) of this section for at least forty years, or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(3) Availability.

(a) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by this section to the director for examination and copying.

(b) Employee exposure measurement records and employee medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) The employer shall make available upon request employee medical records required to be maintained by subsection (2) of this section to a physician designated by the affected employee or former employee.

(4) Transfer of records.

(a) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(b) ((Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted by registered mail to the director.

(c) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained under subsections (1) and (2) of this section, the employer shall transmit these records by registered mail to the director or shall continue to retain such records.

(d))) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in ((chapter 296-802)) WAC 296-802-60005.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 04-10-026, 296-62-20023, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-62-20023, filed 8/27/81; Order 77-14, 296-62-20023, filed 7/25/77.]

OTS-4713.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)

WAC 296-62-07521   Lead.   (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to lead, except as provided in subdivision (1)(b).

(b) This section does not apply to the construction industry or to agricultural operations covered by chapter 296-307 WAC.

(2) Definitions as applicable to this part.

(a) "Action level" - Employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of thirty micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 g/m3) averaged over an eight-hour period.

(b) "Director" - The director of the department of labor and industries.

(c) "Lead" - Metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.

(3) General requirements.

(a) Employers will assess the hazards of lead in the work place and provide information to the employees about the hazards of the lead exposures to which they may be exposed.

(b) Information provided shall include:

(i) Exposure monitoring (including employee notification);

(ii) Written compliance programs;

(iii) Respiratory protection programs;

(iv) Personnel protective equipment and housekeeping;

(v) Medical surveillance and examinations;

(vi) Training requirements;

(vii) Recordkeeping requirements.

(4) Permissible exposure limit (PEL).

(a) The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 g/m3) averaged over an eight-hour period.

(b) If an employee is exposed to lead for more than eight hours in any work day, the permissible exposure limit, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula:


Maximum permissible limit (in g/m3) = 400

hours worked in the day.


(c) When respirators are used to supplement engineering and work practice controls to comply with the PEL and all the requirements of subsection (7) have been met, employee exposure, for the purpose of determining whether the employer has complied with the PEL, may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.

(5) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) For the purposes of subsection (5), employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(ii) With the exception of monitoring under subdivision (5)(c), the employer shall collect full shift (for at least seven continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Full shift personal samples shall be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.

(b) Initial determination. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level.

(c) Basis of initial determination.

(i) The employer shall monitor employee exposures and shall base initial determinations on the employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations:

(A) Any information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead;

(B) Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and

(C) Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead.

(ii) Monitoring for the initial determination may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead in the workplace.

(iii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding twelve months may be used to satisfy the requirement to monitor under item (5)(c)(i) if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subdivision (5)(i) of this section.

(d) Positive initial determination and initial monitoring.

(i) Where a determination conducted under subdivision (5)(b) and (5)(c) of this section shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level, the employer shall conduct monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead.

(ii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding twelve months may be used to satisfy this requirement if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subdivision (5)(i) of this section.

(e) Negative initial determination. Where a determination, conducted under subdivisions (5)(b) and (5)(c) of this section is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level, the employer shall make a written record of such determination. The record shall include at least the information specified in subdivision (5)(c) of this section and shall also include the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name and Social Security number of each employee monitored.

(f) Frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.

(ii) If the initial determination or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring in accordance with this subsection at least every six months. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.

(iii) If the initial monitoring reveals that employee exposure is above the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring quarterly. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the PEL but at or above the action level at which time the employer shall repeat monitoring for that employee at the frequency specified in item (5)(f)(ii), except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.

(g) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to lead, additional monitoring in accordance with this subsection shall be conducted.

(h) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without regard to respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(i) Accuracy of measurement. The employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of ninety-five percent) of not less than plus or minus twenty percent for airborne concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30 g/m3.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls.

(i) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit for more than thirty days per year, the employer shall implement engineering and work practice controls (including administrative controls) to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead in accordance with the implementation schedule in Table I below, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible level and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.

(ii) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit, but for thirty days or less per year, the employer shall implement engineering controls to reduce exposures to 200 g/m3, but thereafter may implement any combination of engineering, work practice (including administrative controls), and respiratory controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below 50 g/m3.

TABLE 1

Industry Compliance dates:1

(50 g/m3)

Lead chemicals, secondary copper smelting.

Nonferrous foundries . . . . . . . . . . . .

July 19, 1996

July 19, 1996.2

Brass and bronze ingot manufacture. 6 years.3

1 Calculated by counting from the date the stay on implementation of subsection (6)(a) was lifted by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, the number of years specified in the 1978 lead standard and subsequent amendments for compliance with the PEL of 50 g/m3 for exposure to airborne concentrations of lead levels for the particular industry.
2 Large nonferrous foundries (20 or more employees) are required to achieve the PEL of 50 g/m3 by means of engineering and work practice controls. Small nonferrous foundries (fewer than 20 employees) are required to achieve an 8-hour TWA of 75 g/m3 by such controls.
3 Expressed as the number of years from the date on which the Court lifts the stay on the implementation of subsection (6)(a) for this industry for employers to achieve a lead in air concentration of 75 g/m3. Compliance with subsection (6) in this industry is determined by a compliance directive that incorporates elements from the settlement agreement between OSHA and representatives of the industry.

(b) Respiratory protection. Where engineering and work practice controls do not reduce employee exposure to or below the 50 g/m3 permissible exposure limit, the employer shall supplement these controls with respirators in accordance with subsection (7).

(c) Compliance program.

(i) Each employer shall establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, and interim levels if applicable, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls in accordance with the implementation schedule in subdivision (6)(a).

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation in which lead is emitted; e.g., machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance, including engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.;

(F) A work practice program which includes items required under subsections (8), (9) and (10) of this regulation;

(G) An administrative control schedule required by subdivision (6)(f), if applicable; and

(H) Other relevant information.

(iii) Written programs shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.

(iv) Written programs shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(d) Mechanical ventilation.

(i) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements which demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure shall be made at least every three months. Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure shall be made within five days of any change in production, process, or control which might result in a change in employee exposure to lead.

(ii) Recirculation of air. If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the employer shall assure that (A) the system has a high efficiency filter with reliable back-up filter; and (B) controls to monitor the concentration of lead in the return air and to bypass the recirculation system automatically if it fails are installed, operating, and maintained.

(e) Administrative controls. If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, the employer shall establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:

(i) Name or identification number of each affected employee;

(ii) Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located; and

(iii) Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.

(7) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Period necessary to install or implement engineering or work-practice controls;

(ii) Work operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit;

(iii) Periods when an employee requests a respirator.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(ii) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by subsection (11)(c)(ii)(C) of this section to determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duty.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

(ii) Provide employees with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator selected when an employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.

(iii) Provide employees with full-facepiece respirators instead of half-facepiece respirators for protection against lead aerosols that cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentration.

(iv) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.

(8) Protective work clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators or where the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and

(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with WAC 296-800-160.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in subdivision (8)(a) of this section in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to employees whose exposure levels without regard to a respirator are over 200 g/m3 of lead as an eight-hour TWA.

(ii) The employer shall provide for the cleaning, laundering, or disposal of protective clothing and equipment required by subdivision (8)(a) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall repair or replace required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms provided for that purpose as prescribed in subdivision (10)(b) of this section.

(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of lead outside the container.

(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead.

(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required by subdivision (8)(b)(v) are labeled as follows:


CAUTION: CLOTHING CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD.

DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING.

DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.


(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means which disperses lead into the air.

(9) Housekeeping.

(a) Surfaces. All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead.

(b) Cleaning floors.

(i) Floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.

(ii) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

(c) Vacuuming. Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.

(10) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) The employer shall assure that in areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators, food or beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except in change rooms, lunchrooms, and showers required under subdivision (10)(b) through (10)(d) of this section.

(b) Change rooms.

(i) The employer shall provide clean change rooms for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.

(ii) The employer shall assure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes which prevent cross-contamination.

(c) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators, shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.

(iii) The employer shall assure that employees who are required to shower pursuant to item (10)(c)(i) do not leave the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift.

(d) Lunchrooms.

(i) The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.

(ii) The employer shall assure that lunchroom facilities have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and are readily accessible to employees.

(iii) The employer shall assure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL without regard to the use of a respirator wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.

(iv) The employer shall assure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method.

(e) Lavatories. The employer shall provide an adequate number of lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-800-230.

(11) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed at or above the action level for more than thirty days per year.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician.

(iii) The employer shall provide the required medical surveillance including multiple physician review under item (11)(c)(iii) without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.

(b) Biological monitoring.

(i) Blood lead and ZPP level sampling and analysis. The employer shall make available biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section on the following schedule:

(A) At least every six months to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section;

(B) At least every two months for each employee whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 g/100 g of whole blood. This frequency shall continue until two consecutive blood samples and analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 g/100 g of whole blood; and

(C) At least monthly during the removal period of each employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level.

(ii) Follow-up blood sampling tests. Whenever the results of a blood lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level ((exceeds)) is at or above the numerical criterion for medical removal under item (12)(a)(i)(A), the employer shall provide a second (follow-up) blood sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test.

(iii) Accuracy of blood lead level sampling and analysis. Blood lead level sampling and analysis provided pursuant to this section shall have an accuracy (to a confidence level of ninety-five percent) within plus or minus fifteen percent or 6 g/100 ml, whichever is greater, and shall be conducted by a laboratory licensed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare or which has received a satisfactory grade in blood lead proficiency testing from CDC in the prior twelve months.

(iv) Employee notification. Within five working days after the receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall notify in writing each employee whose blood lead level ((exceeds)) is at or above 40 g/100 g: (A) of that employee's blood lead level and (B) that the standard requires temporary medical removal with medical removal protection benefits when an employee's blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal under item (12)(a)(i) of this section.

(c) Medical examinations and consultations.

(i) Frequency. The employer shall make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section on the following schedule:

(A) At least annually for each employee for whom a blood sampling test conducted at any time during the preceding twelve months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 g/100 g;

(B) Prior to assignment for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area in which airborne concentrations of lead are at or above the action level;

(C) As soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on the employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during use; and

(D) As medically appropriate for each employee either removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited pursuant to a final medical determination.

(ii) Content. Medical examinations made available pursuant to subitems (11)(c)(i)(A) through (B) of this section shall include the following elements:

(A) A detailed work history and a medical history, with particular attention to past lead exposure (occupational and nonoccupational), personal habits (smoking, hygiene), and past gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurological problems;

(B) A thorough physical examination, with particular attention to teeth, gums, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Pulmonary status should be evaluated if respiratory protection will be used;

(C) A blood pressure measurement;

(D) A blood sample and analysis which determines:

(I) Blood lead level;

(II) Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and examination of peripheral smear morphology;

(III) Zinc protoporphyrin;

(IV) Blood urea nitrogen; and

(V) Serum creatinine;

(E) A routine urinalysis with microscopic examination; and

(F) Any laboratory or other test which the examining physician deems necessary by sound medical practice.

The content of medical examinations made available pursuant to subitems (11)(c)(i)(C) through (D) of this section shall be determined by an examining physician and, if requested by an employee, shall include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility.

(iii) Multiple physician review mechanism.

(A) If the employer selects the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee may designate a second physician:

(I) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial physician; and

(II) To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.

(B) The employer shall promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee doing the following within fifteen days after receipt of the foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:

(I) The employee informing the employer that he or she intends to seek a second medical opinion, and

(II) The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.

(C) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee shall assure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.

(D) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their respective physicians shall designate a third physician:

(I) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the prior physicians; and

(II) To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.

(E) The employer shall act consistent with the findings, determinations and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement which is otherwise consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the three physicians.

(iv) Information provided to examining and consulting physicians.

(A) The employer shall provide an initial physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under this section with the following information:

(I) A copy of this regulation for lead including all appendices;

(II) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(III) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level to lead and to any other toxic substance (if applicable);

(IV) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used;

(V) Prior blood lead determinations; and

(VI) All prior written medical opinions concerning the employee in the employer's possession or control.

(B) The employer shall provide the foregoing information to a second or third physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under this section upon request either by the second or third physician, or by the employee.

(v) Written medical opinions.

(A) The employer shall obtain and furnish the employee with a copy of a written medical opinion from each examining or consulting physician which contains the following information:

(I) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to lead;

(II) Any recommended special protective measures to be provided to the employee, or limitations to be placed upon the employee's exposure to lead;

(III) Any recommended limitation upon the employee's use of respirators, including a determination of whether the employee can wear a powered air purifying respirator if a physician determines that the employee cannot wear a negative pressure respirator; and

(IV) The results of the blood lead determinations.

(B) The employer shall instruct each examining and consulting physician to:

(I) Not reveal either in the written opinion, or in any other means of communication with the employer, findings, including laboratory results, or diagnoses unrelated to an employee's occupational exposure to lead; and

(II) Advise the employee of any medical condition, occupational or nonoccupational, which dictates further medical examination or treatment.

(vi) Alternate physician determination mechanisms. The employer and an employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use of any expeditious alternate physician determination mechanism in lieu of the multiple physician review mechanism provided by this subsection so long as the alternate mechanism otherwise satisfies the requirements contained in this subsection.

(d) Chelation.

(i) The employer shall assure that any person whom he retains, employs, supervises or controls does not engage in prophylactic chelation of any employee at any time.

(ii) If therapeutic or diagnostic chelation is to be performed by any person in item (11)(d)(i), the employer shall assure that it be done under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring and that the employee is notified in writing prior to its occurrence.

(12) Medical removal protection.

(a) Temporary medical removal and return of an employee.

(i) Temporary removal due to elevated blood lead levels.

(A) The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a periodic and a follow-up blood sampling test conducted pursuant to this section indicate that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 60 g/100g of whole blood; and

(B) The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that the average of the last three blood sampling tests conducted pursuant to this section (or the average of all blood sampling tests conducted over the previous six months, whichever is longer) indicates that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 50 g/100g of whole blood; provided, however, that an employee need not be removed if the last blood sampling test indicates a blood lead level ((at or)) below 40 g/100g of whole blood.

(ii) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination.

(A) The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.

(B) For the purposes of this section, the phrase "final medical determination" shall mean the outcome of the multiple physician review mechanism or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section.

(C) Where a final medical determination results in any recommended special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, the employer shall implement and act consistent with the recommendation.

(iii) Return of the employee to former job status.

(A) The employer shall return an employee to his or her former job status:

(I) For an employee removed due to a blood lead level at or above 60 g/100g, or due to an average blood lead level at or above 50 g/100g, when two consecutive blood sampling tests indicate that the employee's blood lead level is ((at or)) below 40 g/100 g of whole blood;

(II) For an employee removed due to a final medical determination, when a subsequent final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.

(B) For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer return an employee to his or her former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.

(iv) Removal of other employee special protective measure or limitations. The employer shall remove any limitations placed on an employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final medical determination indicates that the limitations or special protective measures are no longer necessary.

(v) Employer options pending a final medical determination. Where the multiple physician review mechanism, or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section, has not yet resulted in a final medical determination with respect to an employee, the employer shall act as follows:

(A) Removal. The employer may remove the employee from exposure to lead, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status.

(B) Return. The employer may return the employee to his or her former job status, end any special protective measures provided to the employee, and remove any limitations placed upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with two exceptions. If:

(I) The initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; or

(II) The employee has been on removal status for the preceding eighteen months due to an elevated blood lead level, then the employer shall await a final medical determination.

(b) Medical removal protection benefits.

(i) Provision of medical removal protection benefits. The employer shall provide to an employee up to eighteen months of medical removal protection benefits on each occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to lead or otherwise limited pursuant to this section.

(ii) Definition of medical removal protection benefits. For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that the employer shall maintain the earnings, seniority and other employment rights and benefits of an employee as though the employee had not been removed from normal exposure to lead or otherwise limited.

(iii) Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee removal or limitation. During the period of time that an employee is removed from normal exposure to lead or otherwise limited, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.

(iv) Workers' compensation claims. If a removed employee files a claim for workers' compensation payments for a lead-related disability, then the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's medical removal protection obligation shall be reduced by such amount. The employer shall receive no credit for workers' compensation payments received by the employee for treatment related expenses.

(v) Other credits. The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.

(vi) Employees whose blood lead levels do not adequately decline within eighteen months of removal. The employer shall take the following measures with respect to any employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level whose blood lead level has not declined within the past eighteen months of removal so that the employee has been returned to his or her former job status:

(A) The employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section to obtain a final medical determination with respect to the employee;

(B) The employer shall assure that the final medical determination obtained indicates whether or not the employee may be returned to his or her former job status, and if not, what steps should be taken to protect the employee's health;

(C) Where the final medical determination has not yet been obtained, or once obtained indicates that the employee may not yet be returned to his or her former job status, the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee until either the employee is returned to former job status, or a final medical determination is made that the employee is incapable of ever safely returning to his or her former job status.

(D) Where the employer acts pursuant to a final medical determination which permits the return of the employee to his or her former job status despite what would otherwise be an unacceptable blood lead level, later questions concerning removing the employee again shall be decided by a final medical determination. The employer need not automatically remove such an employee pursuant to the blood lead level removal criteria provided by this section.

(vii) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to lead or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of lead exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer shall provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to that required by item (12)(b)(i) of this section.

(13) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace in which there is a potential exposure to airborne lead at any level shall inform employees of the content of Appendices A and B of this regulation.

(ii) The employer shall train each employee who is subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level or for whom the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program for and assure the participation of all employees.

(iii) The employer shall provide initial training by one hundred eighty days from the effective date for those employees covered by item (13)(a)(ii) on the standard's effective date and prior to the time of initial job assignment for those employees subsequently covered by this subsection.

(iv) The training program shall be repeated at least annually for each employee.

(v) The employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The content of this standard and its appendices;

(B) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level;

(C) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females);

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(F) The contents of any compliance plan in effect; and

(G) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician.

(b) Access to information and training materials.

(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(iii) In addition to the information required by item (13)(a)(v), the employer shall include as part of the training program, and shall distribute to employees, any materials pertaining to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the regulations issued pursuant to the act, and this lead standard, which are made available to the employer by the director.

(14) Signs.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use signs required by other statutes, regulations or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post the following warning signs in each work area where the PEL is exceeded:

WARNING

LEAD WORK AREA

POISON

NO SMOKING OR EATING



(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(15) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required in subsection (5) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The date(s), number, duration, location and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;

(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and

(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of employee exposure.

(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (11) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name, Social Security number, and description of the duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;

(C) Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to lead.

(iii) The employer shall keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:

(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under subsection (11) of this section;

(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information; and

(C) A copy of the results of biological monitoring.

(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least forty years, or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(c) Medical removals.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee removed from current exposure to lead pursuant to subsection (12) of this section.

(ii) Each record shall include:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) The date on each occasion that the employee was removed from current exposure to lead as well as the corresponding date on which the employee was returned to his or her former job status;

(C) A brief explanation of how each removal was or is being accomplished; and

(D) A statement with respect to each removal indicating whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level.

(iii) The employer shall maintain each medical removal record for at least the duration of an employee's employment.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by subsection (15) of this section to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Environmental monitoring, medical removal, and medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. Medical removal records shall be provided in the same manner as environmental monitoring records.

(iii) Upon request, the employer shall make an employee's medical records required to be maintained by this section available to the affected employee or former employee or to a physician or other individual designated by such affected employee or former employees for examination and copying.

(e) Transfer of records.

(((i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by subsection (15) of this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the director at least three months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the director if requested within the period.

(iv))) The employer shall ((also)) comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in ((chapter 296-802)) WAC 296-802-60005.

(16) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to lead conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to lead requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing and such equipment, and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be