WSR 14-07-086
PERMANENT RULES
DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed March 18, 2014, 10:25 a.m., effective May 1, 2014]
Effective Date of Rule: May 1, 2014.
Purpose: In 2012, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) adopted the final rules updating its hazard communication standard into alignment with the globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). OSHA's rule also modified other existing OSHA standards that contain hazard classification and communication provisions to be internally consistent and aligned with the GHS modifications to the hazard communication standard. The department's rules are required to be at-least-as-effective-as OSHA. Under Phase I hazard communication rule making in 2013, the department created a new rule, WAC 296-901-140, incorporating all the elements of the existing department hazard communication rules into one rule to be consistent with OSHA's hazard communication standard employers, chemical manufacturers, importers, and distributors. This rule making, Phase II, modified other existing department rules to align with the GHS changes as required by OSHA's rule. In addition, this rule making made changes to WAC 296-901-140 to reflect minor corrections made to OSHA's rule in February 2013 and other necessary technical corrections.
Phase I Rule Making: In 2012, OSHA adopted the final rules updating its hazard communication standard into alignment with GHS. The effective dates of OSHA's rule are delayed and phased in. The department rules are required to be at-least-as-effective-as OSHA. The scope of OSHA's hazard communication standard includes requirements for employers as well as chemical manufacturers, importers, and distributors. Prior to the Phase I rule making, department's comparable requirements were in separate rules, as follows:
Employer Requirements: WAC 296-800-170 Employer chemical hazard communication (core rules) and chapter 296-307 WAC, Part Y-1, Employer chemical hazard communication (agriculture).
Chemical Manufacturer, Importer, and Distributor Requirements: Chapter 296-839 WAC, Content and distribution of material safety data sheets (MSDS) and label information and chapter 296-307 WAC, Part Y-2, Material safety data sheets and label preparation (agriculture).
Trade Secrets: Chapter 296-816 WAC, Protecting trade secrets and chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B-1, Trade secrets (applies only to agriculture).
In addition, other department rules specific to activities and workplaces reference the requirements in WAC 296-800-170.
Under the Phase I rule making the department created a new rule, WAC 296-901-140, incorporating all the elements of the existing department rules into one rule to be consistent with OSHA's hazard communication standard. During the transition period, there is the option to comply with the applicable requirements in the existing rules or the requirements in the new rule or both (see Table 1). Upon completion of the transition period, the existing standards will be repealed (see Table 2).
Phase II Rule Making: OSHA's 2012 rule also modified other existing OSHA standards that contain hazard classification and communication provisions to be internally consistent and aligned with the GHS modifications to the hazard communication standard. This rule making modified other existing department rules to align with the GHS changes as required by OSHA's rule. In addition, this rule making made changes to WAC 296-901-140 to reflect minor corrections made to OSHA's rule in February 2013 and other necessary technical corrections.
Table 1 Effective Dates:
Effective Completion Date
Requirement(s)
Who
June 1, 2014
Train employees on the new label elements and safety data sheet (SDS) format.
Employers.
June 1, 2015
Compliance with all provisions of the WAC 296-901-140 final rule, except as listed below.
Chemical manufactures [manufacturers], importers, distributors, and employers.
June 1, 2016
Update alternative workplace labeling and hazard communication program as necessary, and provide additional employee training for newly identified physical or health hazards.
Employers.
December 1, 2015
The distributor must not ship containers labeled by the chemical manufacturer or importer unless it is a GHS label.
Distributors.
Transition period to the effective completion dates noted above.
 
May comply with the applicable requirements in the following rules:
Chemical manufacturers, importer[s], distributors, and employers.
 
WAC 296-800-170 Employer chemical hazard communication (core rules).
 
Chapter 296-307 WAC, Part Y-1, Employer chemical hazard communication (agriculture).
 
 
Chapter 296-839 WAC, Content and distribution of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and label information.
 
 
Chapter 296-307 WAC, Part Y-2, MSDS and label preparation (agriculture).
 
 
Chapter 296-816 WAC, Protecting trade secrets.
 
 
Chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B-1, Trade secrets (applies only to agriculture).
 
 
Or the requirements in the new hazard communication standard in WAC 296-901-140 or both.
 
Table 2 Proposed Schedule for Related Rule Changes:
Rule Change
Proposed Schedule
Phase I - Adopt WAC 296-901-140 Hazard communication.
Adopted March 5, 2013.
Phase II - Amend other existing DOSH rules to align with the GHS changes as required by OSHA's rule.
Adopted March 18, 2014.
Repeal existing rules and delete, repeal, and change all references to the existing rules.
As applicable, no later than June 1, 2016.
Amended Sections:
Chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards:
WAC 296-24-32003 Bulk oxygen systems.
Changed the title of Part E by removing the words "and combustible."
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (2)(a), (d), and (e), (3)(g) and (h).
Removed the words "lines" and "flammable" from subsection (2)(a).
Changed reference in subsections (3)(a) and (r).
Changed the word "combustible" to "flammable" in subsections (3)(g) and (h).
WAC 296-24-330 Flammable and combustible liquids.
Changed the title of this section by removing the words "and combustible."
WAC 296-24-33001 Definitions.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (3), (7), (8), (11), (18), (23), (29), and (33).
Changed the definition of flammable aerosol to match OSHA's new definitions. In definition for flammable aerosol, removed words "Class 1A" and replaced with "Category 1 flammable."
Changed definition of flammable liquid to match OSHA's new definition.
Changed the definition of flashpoint to match OSHA's new definition.
WAC 296-24-33003 Scope.
Removed the words "and combustible" from scope, subsections (1) and (3).
Removed "200°F" and replaced it with "at or below 199.4°F (93°C)."
WAC 296-24-33005 Tank storage.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (1)(a)(iv) and (vi), (c)(iv), (2)(a)(i), (ii), (iii), (b)(iv), (vi), (g)(ii)(B), (C), (g)(iii)(E), (g)(iii)(G)(II), (4)(d)(iii), (5)(f)(i), (iv), (vii), (xxii), and (xxii)(A).
Added the word "barrels" in exemption in subsection (2)(d)(vi).
Removed "Class IA" and replaced it with "Category 1 flammable" in subsection (2)(d)(vi) and exemption.
Removed "Class IB and IC" and replaced it with "Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" in subsections (2)(d)(vii), and (h)(v), (3)(e)(iv), and (4)(d)(v).
In subsection (2)(d)(vi), removed "Class IB" and replaced it with "Category 2 flammable liquids."
In subsection (2)(d)(vi), removed "Class IC" and replaced it with "Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)."
In subsections (2)(f)(ii), (3)(a) and (d)(i) removed "Class I" and replaced it with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)."
Removed "Class II or Class III" and replaced it with "Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids" in subsections (3)(a) and (d)(iii).
WAC 296-24-33007 Piping, valves, and fittings.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (1)(a), (2)(b), and (5).
WAC 296-24-33009 Container and portable tank storage.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (1)(a), (5)(a), (b) and (e), (6)(b)(i), (ii), and (c), (7)(a), (c) and (d).
Removed the words "and combustible" from subsections (2)(c), (5)(d)(i) and (f).
Updated the heading in Table H-12 from "Class IA, IB, IC, II, III" to "Category 1, 2, 3 and 4."
Removed "Class I or Class 2" and replaced it with "Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable" in subsections (1)(b)(ii), (3)(a), and (7)(a)(ii).
Updated language in subsection (4)(c).
Removed "Class I" and replaced it with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" in subsection (4)(d).
Removed "Class IA or IB" and replaced it with "Category 1 or 2" in subsection (2)(c).
Removed "Class IA" and replaced it with "Category 1 flammable" in subsection (2)(c)(ii).
Removed "Class IB" and replaced it with "Category 2 flammable" in subsection (2)(c)(ii).
Removed "Class III" and replaced it with "Category 4 flammable" in subsections (3)(a) and (4)(c).
WAC 296-24-33011 Industrial plants.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (1)(a)(i) and (ii), (2)(a), (b), (c), (d)(ii) and (iv), (3)(a), (d)(i) and (iii), (5)(d), (9)(a) and (b).
Removed the words "and combustible" from subsection (2).
In subsection (2)(b)(ii)(A), removed "Class IA" and replaced with "Category 1 flammable."
In subsection (2)(b)(ii)(B) and (C), removed "Class IB, IC, II or III" and replaced with "Category 2, 3, or 4 flammable."
In subsection (2)(d)(i) added language and it now reads "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use."
In subsections (2)(d)(iii), (4), (6)(b), and (7)(c), removed "Class I" and replaced with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)."
In subsection (3)(e)(i) and (ii) removed words "Class I" and replaced with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)."
Removed the words "Class II and Class III" and replaced with "Category 3 flammable liquids, with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids" in subsections (4) and (7)(c).
Removed the word "only" in subsection (7)(c).
WAC 296-24-33013 Bulk plants.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (1)(c), (2)(a), (4)(a), (c), (h)(vii), and (7).
Removed the words "and combustible" from subsection (4)(b).
Removed "Class I" and replaced it with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" in subsections (1)(a), (2)(b), (c)(i), (ii), (iii), (3)(a), (b), (d)(i)(A), (B), (iv)(B), (e), (f), (5)(a), (6), and (8).
Removed "Class II and Class III" and replaced with "Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids" in subsections (1)(b), (3)(a), (b), (d)(i)(B), (iv)(B), (e), and (5)(a).
Added "with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" to subsection (2)(c)(iii).
In subsection (3)(b) removed the word "class" and replaced it with "category."
Added "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" to subsection (4)(h)(v).
Removed the word "only" from subsection (5)(a).
WAC 296-24-33015 Service stations.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (1)(b)(i), (6), and (7).
Removed "Class I" and replaced it with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" in subsections (1)(a)(iii), (vi), (c)(i), (ii), (e), (2)(d)(i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), (e)(i), (f)(i), (3)(c)(iv), (4)(a), (5)(d), and (6).
Removed "Class II and Class III" and replaced with "Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids" in subsections (1)(c)(iii) and (4)(a).
Added "with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" in subsection (1)(a)(iv).
WAC 296-24-33017 Processing plants.
Removed the words "or combustible" in subsections (2)(a), (3)(b)(i), (iii), (4)(a)(i), (ii) and (iv), (b)(iii), (c)(i), (6)(b)(iii), (7)(b)(i), and (8)(a).
Removed "Class I" and replaced with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" in subsections (3)(c)(ii), (5), (7)(a)(ii), and (c)(iii).
Removed "Class I, Division I" and replaced it with "Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), Division I" in subsection (7)(c)(ii).
Removed "Class II or Class III" and replaced with "Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids" in subsections (3)(a)(i), (5), and (7)(c)(iii).
Removed "Class IA" and replaced it with "Category 1" in subsection (3)(d).
WAC 296-24-33019 Refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries.
Removed the words "or combustible" in subsections (1), (2), and (4).
WAC 296-24-370 Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.
Removed the words "and combustible" from the title.
WAC 296-24-37005 Electrical and other sources of ignition.
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsection (9)(a).
Added "or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C)" in subsection (9)(a).
WAC 296-24-37009 Flammable and combustible liquids—Storage and handling.
Changed the title to read "Flammable liquids and liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C)."
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsections (1), (2), (3), (4), (6)(d), (8), and (9).
Added in the phrase "with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C)" to subsections (1), (2), (3), (4), (6)(d), (8), and (9).
WAC 296-24-71501 General.
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed numbering in the rest of the subsections due to the new language being added.
Chapter 296-32 WAC, Safety standards for telecommunications:
WAC 296-32-230 Training.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (6).
Removed the word "chemical" in subsection (6).
Chapter 296-45 WAC, Safety standards for electrical workers:
WAC 296-45-035 Definitions.
Changed a reference in the definition of IDLH from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
Removed the words "material" and "chemical" from the Note in the definition of IDLH.
WAC 296-45-055 Employer's responsibility.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (2).
Removed the word "chemical" from subsection (2).
Chapter 296-52 WAC, Safety standards for possession, handling, and use of explosives:
WAC 296-52-69095 Ammonium nitrate.
Removed the words "and combustible" from subsection (1)(g).
Chapter 296-54 WAC, Safety standards—Logging operations:
WAC 296-54-507 Employer's responsibilities.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (4).
Removed the word "chemical" in subsection (4).
WAC 296-54-519 Miscellaneous requirements.
Removed the phrase "and combustible" from subsection (4)(a) and (b).
Chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards—Longshore, stevedore and waterfront related operations:
WAC 296-56-60001 Scope and applicability.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (3)(j).
Removed the words "chemical hazard" and "program" from subsection (3)(j).
WAC 296-56-60235 Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) (see also definition of "hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere").
Removed the words "or combustible" from subsection (3)(e).
Chapter 296-59 WAC, Safety standards for ski area facilities and operations:
WAC 296-59-005 Incorporation of other standards.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (5).
Removed the word "chemical" from subsection (5).
Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards:
WAC 296-62-05520 Retain readily visible DOT labeling.
Changed a reference from "WAC 296-800-170, Employer Chemical" to "WAC 296-901-140, Hazard Communication" in Table 1.
Removed "Introduction (see the Safety and Health Core Rules Book)" from Table 1.
WAC 296-62-07302 List of carcinogens.
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Added additional clarifying information on each carcinogen to make them identical to OSHA.
Changed numbering and lettering.
WAC 296-62-07306 Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.
Changed a reference from "WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4)" to "WAC 296-62-07302" in subsection (2)(d)(vi).
WAC 296-62-07310 Signs, information and training.
Updated the language in subsection (1)(a) from "shall be posted" to "shall post."
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Removed language from subsections (2) and (3) related to container content identification and lettering on signs.
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-62-07329 Vinyl chloride.
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-62-07336 Acrylonitrile.
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-62-07342 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed the word "assure" to "ensure."
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-62-07373 Communication of EtO hazards to employees.
Changed the title to read "Communication of EtO hazards."
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Removed the word "material" from subsection (3).
Changed numbering.
Changed reference from WAC 296-62-05413 to 296-901-14014.
WAC 296-62-07425 Communication of cadmium hazards to employees.
Changed the title to read "Communication of cadmium hazards."
Removed the word "assure" and replaced it with "ensure" in subsection (2)(c).
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed reference in subsection (4)(c)(viii) from "296-800-170" to "296-901-140."
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-62-07460 Butadiene.
Changed the title to read "1,3-Butadiene."
Moved the definition of "director" so it was in alphabetical order.
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Removed "to employees" from title of subsection (12).
Added the word "general" to subsection (12)(a).
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (12)(b)(i).
Removed the word "chemical" from subsection (12)(b)(i).
WAC 296-62-07470 Methylene chloride.
Added "hazard communication – general" to the title of subsection (11)(a).
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed the note to Table 1 to read "Note to subsection (4)(c)" instead of (3)(c).
Removed the word "chemical" from subsections (12)(c), (d) and (g).
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsections (12)(c), (d) and (g).
WAC 296-62-07473 Appendix A.
Removed the letter "M" from "MSDS" in subsection (IX)(E).
Removed the word "material" from subsection (IX)(E).
Added language: "These materials, mixtures or solutions would be classified and labeled in accordance with WAC 296-901-140" in subsection (IX)(E).
WAC 296-62-07521 Lead.
In subsection (8)(b)(vii), changed the word "assure" to "ensure."
In subsection (14), added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed numbering from (viii) to (ix) in subsection (8)(b).
Changed the word "assure" to "ensure" in subsection (14)(b)(iii).
WAC 296-62-07540 Formaldehyde.
Removed the "M" from "MSDSs" and it is now "SDSs" in subsection (13)(b).
Changed reference from chapter 296-839 WAC to WAC 296-901-140 in subsection (13)(b).
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsections (13)(c)(i), (iii), (d)(i), and (e).
Removed the word "material" from subsections (13)(c)(ii), (d)(i), (ii), (e), and (14)(c)(i).
WAC 296-62-07544 Appendix B—Sampling strategy and analytical methods for formaldehyde.
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS" in subsections (6)(b) and (c).
WAC 296-62-07601 Scope and application.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (4).
WAC 296-62-07621 Communication of hazards to employees.
Changed the title to "Communication of hazards."
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating [to] chemical manufacturers, importers, and employers on providing employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-14016 in subsection (4)(a).
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (4)(b).
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-62-07717 Protective work clothing and equipment.
Added language "The employer shall ensure that" to subsections (2)(d) and (3)(f).
Removed the word "shall" from subsection (2)(d).
Removed the words "shall be" and replaced them with "is" in subsection (3)(f).
WAC 296-62-07721 Communication of hazards to employees.
Changed the title to read "communication of hazards."
Removed language "general industry requirements" from subsection (1).
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating to hazard communication. This language provides employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Added "to be established by WAC 296-62-07711" to subsection (4)(a).
Added the phrase "and for safety data sheets" to subsection (6).
Removed the word "material" from subsection (7).
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-62-08017 Protective work clothing and equipment.
Added the words "The employer shall ensure that" in subsection (2)(d).
Changed a reference from "WAC 296-800-170, Employer chemical hazard communication" to "the Hazard communication standard, WAC 296-901-140" to subsection (2)(d).
WAC 296-62-08021 Housekeeping.
Changed reference from "WAC 296-800-170 Employer chemical hazard communication" to "WAC 296-901-140, Hazard communication" in subsection (3)(b).
WAC 296-62-08025 Communication of chromium (VI) hazards to employees.
Changed the title to read "communication of chromium (VI) hazards.
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating [to] chemical manufacturers, importers, and employers on providing employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
WAC 296-62-14533 Cotton dust.
Added the words "of this section" into subsections (1)(c) and (13)(e).
Added the word "subsection" into subsection (5)(c)(iii).
Added the following language to subsection (10)(b) "Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (10)(a) of this subsection:"
WAC 296-62-20021 Precautionary signs and labels.
Changed the title to "Communication of hazards."
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Deleted an old compliance date of January 20, 1978, in subsection (2)(b).
WAC 296-62-50035 Safe handling practices.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
Chapter 296-63 WAC, Right to know fee assessment:
WAC 296-63-009 Exemption requests.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (3)(d).
Chapter 296-67 WAC, Safety standards for process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals:
WAC 296-67-001 Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-14006 in subsection (2)(a)(ii).
Added the words "or a flammable liquid with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" in subsection (2)(a)(ii).
Added "Category 1" to subsection (2)(a)(ii).
Removed "liquid or" from subsection (2)(a)(ii).
Added "with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C)" to subsection (2)(a)(ii)(B).
WAC 296-67-005 Definitions.
Changed the reference in the definition of trade secret from "Chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B-1" to "See WAC 296-901-14030, Appendix E—Definition of "trade secret."
WAC 296-67-291 Appendix C—Compliance guidelines and recommendations for process safety management (nonmandatory).
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets" in subsection (3).
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS" in subsections (3) and (6).
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (6).
Removed the words "chemical" and "program standard" from subsection (6).
Chapter 296-78 WAC, Safety standards for sawmills and woodworking operations:
WAC 296-78-515 Management's responsibility.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (2).
Removed the word "chemical" in subsection (2).
WAC 296-78-71015 Tanks and chemicals
Removed the words "or combustible" in subsection (5)(b).
Removed the words "and/or combustible" in subsection (5)(c).
Chapter 296-115 WAC, Safety requirements for charter boats:
WAC 296-115-050 General requirements.
Removed the words "or combustible" in subsection (4)(c).
WAC 296-115-060 Operations.
Removed the words "or combustible" in subsection (3)(f).
Chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work:
WAC 296-155-17323 Communication of hazards to employees.
Changed the title to "Communication of hazards."
Added "Signs and labels" to subsection (2) and "signs" to subsection (2)(a).
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating [to] chemical manufacturers, importers, and employers on providing employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS" in subsection (3).
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-14016 in subsection (4)(a).
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (4)(b).
Changed numbering of subsections.
WAC 296-155-174 Cadmium.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets" in subsection (4)(a)(i).
Changed information on signs to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (13)(e).
Changed reference from "(13)(b)" to "(13)(c)(ii)" in subsection (11)(g).
WAC 296-155-17609 Exposure assessment.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (2)(e)(vi).
Removed the word "chemical" from subsection (2)(e)(vi).
WAC 296-155-17615 Protective work clothing and equipment.
Removed the word "assure" and replaced it with "ensure" in subsection (2)(g).
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-155-17625 Employee information and training.
Changed the title to "Communication of hazards."
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (1)(a).
Added language concerning hazards to be addressed.
WAC 296-155-17627 Signs.
Removed the word "assure" and replaced it with "ensure" in subsection (1)(c).
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
WAC 296-155-17652 Appendix B to WAC 296-155-176 Employee standard summary.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
WAC 296-155-180 Hazard communication.
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
Removed the word "chemical."
WAC 296-155-20301 Definitions.
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in the note after subsection (5) in the definition of hazardous atmosphere.
Removed the words "chemical" and "material" in the note after subsection (5) in the definition of hazardous atmosphere.
WAC 296-155-250 Definitions applicable to this part.
Deleted the definition for combustible liquid.
Removed language from the flammable liquid definition to match OSHA.
Changed the definition of flashpoint to match OSHA.
Changed numbering.
WAC 296-155-260 Fire protection.
Removed the phrase "or combustible" from subsection (3)(e).
WAC 296-155-265 Fire prevention.
Removed the phrase "or combustible" from subsection (2)(c).
WAC 296-155-270 Flammable and combustible liquids.
Changed the title to read "Flammable liquids."
Removed the phrase "and combustible" from subsections (1)(a), (c), (2)(b), and (d)(viii).
Removed the phrase "or combustible" from subsections (1)(b), (c), (2)(a), (d)(iii), (3)(c), (4)(a), (d), (5)(a), (c), (6)(b), (7)(a) and (h).
Removed "fire away" in subsection (2)(b)(iii) and replaced it with "away from open flames."
In subsection (2)(c) added the words "category 1, 2, or 3" and "category 4 flammable."
Removed the word "combustible" in subsection (2)(c).
In subsections (2)(d)(vi), (5)(b), (6)(a), (c), and (7)(g)(i) and (ii) added the words "category 1, 2, or 3."
Chapter 296-304 WAC, Safety standards for ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking:
WAC 296-304-01001 Definitions.
Changed the definition of flammable liquid to be consistent with OSHA.
WAC 296-304-01009 Precautions for hot work.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (2)(a).
Removed the words "employer chemical" and "introduction" from subsection (2)(a).
WAC 296-304-06013 Hazardous materials.
Changed a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in subsection (9).
Removed the words "chemical hazard" and "program" from subsection (9).
Changed the address for OSHA to reflect their current location in subsection (3)(b).
Removed the "M" from "MSDS" and it is now "SDS" in subsection (3)(b).
WAC 296-304-06017 Retention of DOT markings, placards, and labels.
Changed a reference from chapter 296-839 WAC to WAC 296-901-14012 in subsection (4).
Removed "Content and distribution of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and label information" and replaced it with "Labels and other forms of warning and WAC 296-901-14014, Safety data sheets" in subsection (4).
Chapter 296-800 WAC, Safety and health core rules:
WAC 296-800-15030 Make sure emergency washing facilities are functional and readily accessible.
Changed a reference in the reference section from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in the reference at the end of the rule.
Removed the words "employer chemical" from the reference at the end of the rule.
Removed the word "material" in the note of the introduction.
Removed the "M" from "MSDS" and it is now "SDS" in the note in the introduction.
WAC 296-800-16055 Make sure your employees use appropriate head protection.
Removed "class 1" and replaced it with "category 1 or 2" in subsection (3).
Added the following language to subsection (3) "category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), or …"
WAC 296-800-370 Definitions.
Deleted the definition for combustible liquid.
Changed the reference [from] WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140 in the following definitions: Commercial account, common name, container, employee exposure record, exposure or exposed, foreseeable emergency, hazard warning, identity, material safety data sheet, produce, purchaser, unstable (reactive), use, water-reactive, work area, and workplace.
Removed the words "employer chemical" from the following definitions: Commercial account, common name, container, exposure or exposed, foreseeable emergency, hazard warning, identity, mixture, produce, purchaser, unstable (reactive), use, water-reactive, work area, and workplace.
Removed the word "material" from the definitions for employee exposure record, exposure or exposed, harmful physical agent, identity, material safety data sheet, and toxic substance.
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS" in the definitions for employee exposure record, identity, and material safety data sheet.
In the definition for trade secret, changed the reference from "WAC 296-62-053" to "WAC 296-901-14018."
Changed the definition of flammable to be consistent with OSHA.
Added language to the definition of flashpoint to be consistent with OSHA.
Added language to the definition for physical to be consistent with OSHA.
Deleted the definition of material safety data sheet and replaced it with safety data sheet.
Chapter 296-802 WAC, Employee medical and exposure records:
WAC 296-802-100 Scope.
Changed a reference in the reference section from "WAC 296-800-180, Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) as exposure records" to "WAC 296-901-14014, Safety data sheets."
Removed the word "material" from the reference section.
WAC 296-802-40015 Provide employee exposure records.
Changed a reference in the note from "chapter 296-816 WAC, Protecting trade secrets" to "WAC 296-901-14018, Trade secrets."
WAC 296-802-900 Definitions.
In the definition of "employee exposure record," removed the word "material."
In the definition of "harmful physical agent," removed the word "material."
In the definition of "toxic substance" removed the word "material."
Chapter 296-809 WAC, Confined spaces:
WAC 296-809-800 Definitions.
Changed a reference in the hazardous atmosphere definition from "WAC 296-800-170, Employer chemical hazard communication" to "WAC 296-901-14014, Safety data sheets."
Removed the word "material" from the definition of hazardous atmosphere.
Chapter 296-811 WAC, Fire brigades:
WAC 296-811-600 Definitions.
Removed the phrase "or combustible" from the table in the definition for fire classifications.
Chapter 296-824 WAC, Emergency response:
WAC 296-824-70005 Follow the appropriate postemergency response requirements.
Changed a reference in Table 10 from "WAC 296-800-170, Employer chemical hazard communication" to "WAC 296-901-140, Hazard communication."
WAC 296-824-800 Definitions.
Changed the definition of health hazard to reflect OSHAs new definition.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and replaced it with "safety data sheets."
Chapter 296-828 WAC, Hazardous chemicals in laboratories:
WAC 296-828-100 Scope.
Changed a reference in Table 1.
WAC 296-828-200 Using hazardous chemicals in laboratories.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets."
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
WAC 296-828-20015 Training.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets".
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
WAC 296-828-20020 Labeling and material safety data sheets (MSDSs).
Changed the title to read "Labeling and safety data sheets (SDSs)."
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
WAC 296-828-20025 Chemicals produced in laboratories.
Changed a reference in Table 3 from "chapter 296-839 WAC, MSDS and label preparation" to "WAC 296-901-14014, Safety data sheets and WAC 296-901-14012, Labels and other forms of warning."
WAC 296-828-300 Definitions.
Changed the definition of hazardous chemical, physical hazard, reproductive toxin, and safety data sheet (SDS) to reflect OSHA changes.
Added a definition for health hazard and mutagen.
Chapter 296-835 WAC, Dipping and coating operations (dip tanks):
WAC 296-835-11015 Take additional precautions if you recirculate ventilation system exhaust air into the workplace.
Added "This section applies if exhaust air from dipping or coating operations that use flammable liquids, or liquids with flashpoints greater than 199.4°F (93°C) is recirculated back into the work environment."
Added language that reads "… system that recirculates air into the workplace."
Removed the words "or combustible" and added in "or liquids with flashpoints greater than 199.4°F (93°C)."
WAC 296-835-120 Additional requirements for dip tanks using flammable or combustible liquids.
Changed the title to read "Additional requirements for dip tanks using flammable liquids or liquids with flashpoints greater than 199.4°C[F] (93°C). Summary."
Removed the words "or combustible" and added in "or liquids with flashpoints greater than 199.4°F (93°C)."
WAC 296-835-12020 Provide fire protection in the vapor area.
Removed the words "and combustible" and added in "… and liquids with flashpoints greater than 199.4°F (93°C)."
WAC 296-835-13005 Meet specific requirements if you use a hardening or tempering tank.
Removed the words "or combustible" and added in "or liquids with flashpoints greater than 199.4°F (93°C)" in subsection (1).
WAC 296-835-140 Definitions.
Removed the definition for combustible liquid.
Changed the definition for flammable liquid to meet new requirements for OSHA.
Changed the definition for flashpoint to meet new requirements for OSHA.
Chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne contaminants:
WAC 296-841-100 Scope.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets."
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
WAC 296-841-20003 Employee protective measures.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets."
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
WAC 296-841-20005 Exposure evaluations.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets" in subsection (4).
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS" in subsection (4).
WAC 296-841-300 Definitions.
Removed the word "material" in the definition of toxic substance.
Chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators:
WAC 296-842-12005 Develop and maintain a written program.
Changed the reference in Table 3 from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
Chapter 296-843 WAC, Hazardous waste operations:
WAC 296-843-17005 Control employee exposure to site health and safety hazards.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets."
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
Changed the reference in the note section from WAC 296-800-180 to 296-901-14014.
WAC 296-843-20020 Training for postemergency response.
Changed the reference in the reference section from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
WAC 296-843-300 Definitions.
Changed the definition for health hazard to meet OSHA requirements.
Changed the definition for safety data sheets to meet OSHA requirements and be consistent with WAC 296-901-14014.
Chapter 296-848 WAC, Arsenic:
WAC 296-848-20010 Preventive practices.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed a reference in the reference section to "WAC 296-901-140, Hazard communication."
WAC 296-848-300 Training, exposure monitoring, and medical monitoring.
Added in the number and title of the new section under the important statement.
WAC 296-848-30005 Training.
Changed a reference in the reference section to "WAC 296-901-140, Hazard communication."
WAC 296-848-40025 Exposure control areas.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
WAC 296-848-40040 Personal protective equipment (PPE).
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
WAC 296-848-500 Definitions.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets" in the definition for CAS (chemical abstract service) number.
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS" in the definition for CAS number.
Chapter 296-849 WAC, Benzene:
WAC 296-849-100 Scope.
Changed the reference in Table 1 from WAC 296-800-17030 to 296-901-14016.
WAC 296-849-110 Basic rules.
Changed the wording for the title to WAC 296-849-11010 to Communication of hazards.
WAC 296-849-11010 Preventive practices.
Changed the title to "Communication of hazards."
Added OSHA identical language requirements relating [to] chemical manufacturers, importers, and employers on providing employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed the reference in the reference section from chapter 296-800 WAC and WAC 296-800-17025 to 296-901-14012 and 296-901-14014.
WAC 296-849-11020 Exposure control areas.
Deleted the signage wording and put in a reference to WAC 296-849-11010.
WAC 296-849-11050 Training.
• Changed references from chapter 296-800 WAC and WAC 296-800-17025 to 296-901-14012 and 296-901-14014.
• Changed the reference in the reference section from chapter 296-800 WAC and WAC 296-800-17030 to 296-901-14016.
WAC 296-849-190 Definitions.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets (MSDS)" and put in the phrase "safety data sheets (SDS)" in the definition of benzene.
Chapter 296-855 WAC, Ethylene oxide:
WAC 296-855-20010 Preventive practices.
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
WAC 296-855-20020 Exposure control areas.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
WAC 296-855-20090 Training.
Changed reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
WAC 296-855-500 Definitions.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets."
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
Chapter 296-856 WAC, Formaldehyde:
WAC 296-856-20010 Preventive practices.
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets."
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
Added reference to chapter 296-901 WAC.
Changed references from WAC 296-800-170 and chapter 296-839 WAC to WAC 296-901-140, 296-901-14022 and 296-901-14024.
WAC 296-856-20020 Training.
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
WAC 296-856-20030 Personal protective equipment (PPE).
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
Changed information on labels to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old labels until June 1, 2015.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
WAC 296-856-40020 Establishing exposure control areas.
Changed information on signs to be consistent with OSHA and to allow employers to be compliant with new and old signs until June 1, 2016.
WAC 296-856-500 Definitions.
Removed the words "MSDS" and put in "SDS."
Removed the phrase "material safety data sheets" and put in "safety data sheets."
Chapter 296-863 WAC, Forklifts and other powered industrial trucks:
WAC 296-863-700 Definitions.
Corrected the spelling of "ignitable" in the definition of classified location or hazardous location.
Changed the definition of flammable liquid and flashpoint to reflect OSHA's new definition.
Moved the definition of "listed by report" so it is now in alphabetical order.
Chapter 296-901 WAC, Globally harmonized system for hazard communication:
WAC 296-901-14006 Definitions.
Removed the word "must" and replaced it with "should" in the definition of hazard category and precautionary statement.
Corrected the reference in the definition of physical hazard to read WAC 296-901-14024.
WAC 296-901-14008 Hazard classification.
Removed subsections (4) through (6) to be as-effective-as OSHA.
WAC 296-901-14014 Safety data sheets.
Removed the word "must" and replaced it with "should" in the note under subsection (11).
WAC 296-901-14022 Appendix A—Health hazard criteria (mandatory).
In A.0.5.1.5, added subsection (a)(ii) C + B.
Changed the symbol "≥" to "≤" in Table A.1.1 and Table A.8.2.
Corrected the spelling of "fulfill" in A.2.2.2.2.
Changed the symbol ">" to "≥" in A.2.4.3.1 and A.3.4.3.1.
WAC 296-901-14024 Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria (mandatory).
Changed "≥" to "≤" in Table B.3.1.
Deleted a "-" that was inadvertently put into Table B.7.1.
WAC 296-901-14026 Appendix C—Allocation of label elements (mandatory).
Added in illustration C.4.28 Organic Peroxides (continued) as it was inadvertently left out.
Changed the references from OSHA to DOSH numbering in the footnotes.
WAC 296-901-14028 Appendix D—Safety data sheets (mandatory).
Changed "=" to "≥" in Table D-1 (2)(d).
WAC 296-901-14032 Appendix F—Guidance for hazard classifications regarding carcinogenicity (nonmandatory).
In Part A and Part D, changed "a2u globulin" to "α2u-globulin."
New Sections:
Chapter 296-848 WAC, Arsenic:
WAC 296-848-30007 Communication of hazards.
Requirements relating [to] chemical manufacturers, importers, and employers on providing employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Chapter 296-855 WAC, Ethylene oxide:
WAC 296-855-420 Communication of hazards.
Requirements relating [to] chemical manufacturers, importers, and employers on providing employees information about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels, other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and training is located in this section. These requirements are federally driven and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3.
Chapter 296-856 WAC, Formaldehyde:
WAC 296-856-420 Communication of hazards.
No requirements in this section.
WAC 296-856-42010 Hazard communication—General.
Section contents: Hazard communication—General.
Chemical manufacturers, importer, distributors and employers must comply with all requirements of hazard communication, WAC 296-901-140.
In classifying the hazards of formaldehyde at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; skin and respiratory sensitization; eye, skin and respiratory tract irritation; acute toxicity effects; and flammability.
Employers shall include formaldehyde in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of formaldehyde and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and WAC 296-856-20020. The above information in this section applies to chemicals associated with formaldehyde gas, all mixtures or solutions composed of greater than 0.1 percent formaldehyde, and materials capable of releasing formaldehyde into the air at concentrations reaching or exceeding 0.1 ppm.
In making the determinations of anticipated levels of formaldehyde release, the employer may rely on objective data indicating the extent of potential formaldehyde release under reasonably foreseeable conditions of use.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: See Purpose above.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060.
Other Authority: 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z.
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 13-22-063 on November 4, 2013.
Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: The following sections are being changed as indicated below:
CHANGES TO THE RULES (Proposed rule versus rule actually adopted):
WAC 296-62-07373 Communication of EtO hazards.
In subsection (13)(a) updated the references and deleted the word "chemical." It now reads, "(13) Hazard communication."
WAC 296-62-07425 Communication of cadmium hazards to employees.
In subsection (6)(c)(viii) updated a reference from WAC 296-800-170 to 296-901-140.
WAC 296-62-07540 Formaldehyde.
In subsection (13)(a) updated the references and deleted the word "chemical." It now reads, "(13) Hazard communication.
(a) General. Notwithstanding any exemption granted in WAC 296-901-140 for wood products, each employer who has a workplace covered by this standard shall comply with the requirements of WAC 296-901-140. The definitions of the hazard communication standard shall apply under this standard."
WAC 296-800-370 Definitions.
Updated a reference in the definition of "responsible party," it now reads, "As used in Hazard communication, WAC 296-901-140. Someone who can provide appropriate information about the hazardous chemical and emergency procedures."
WAC 296-901-14014 Safety data sheets.
In subsection (8) deleted the word "material." It now reads, "Where employees must travel between workplaces during a work-shift, i.e., their work is carried out at more than one geographical location, the safety data sheets may be kept at the primary workplace facility. In this situation, the employer must ensure that employees can immediately obtain the required information in an emergency."
In subsection (11) deleted the word "chemical" in three places and the word "material." It now reads, "The department of labor and industries will translate certain hazard communication documents upon receipt of written or verbal request (within available resources) to employers or the public, a translation into Cambodian, Chinese, Korean, Spanish, or Vietnamese of any of the following:
º
An employer's written hazard communication;
º
A safety data sheet; or
º
Written materials prepared by the department to inform employees of their rights described in this rule, regarding hazard communications.
WAC 296-901-14024 Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria.
Added an ending parenthesis in the note after the definition of "oxidizing gas."
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 4, Amended 133, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 4, Amended 133, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 4, Amended 133, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Date Adopted: March 18, 2014.
Joel Sacks
Director
PART E
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, FLAMMABLE ((AND COMBUSTIBLE)) LIQUIDS, SPRAY FINISHING
Hazardous Materials
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-24-017, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)
WAC 296-24-32003 Bulk oxygen systems.
(1) Definitions. As used in this section: A bulk oxygen system is an assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds, and interconnecting piping, which has storage capacity of more than 13,000 cubic feet of oxygen, normal temperature and pressure (NTP), connected in service or ready for service, or more than 25,000 cubic feet of oxygen (NTP) including unconnected reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers may be stationary or movable, and the oxygen may be stored as gas or liquid.
(2) Location.
(a) General. Bulk oxygen storage systems shall be located above ground out of doors, or shall be installed in a building of noncombustible construction, adequately vented, and used for that purpose exclusively. The location selected shall be such that containers and associated equipment shall not be exposed by electric power lines, flammable ((or combustible)) liquid ((lines,)) or ((flammable)) gas lines.
(b) Accessibility. The system shall be located so that it is readily accessible to mobile supply equipment at ground level and to authorized personnel.
(c) Leakage. Where oxygen is stored as a liquid, noncombustible surfacing shall be provided in an area in which any leakage of liquid oxygen might fall during operation of the system and filling of a storage container. For purposes of these standards, asphaltic or bituminous paving is considered to be combustible.
(d) Elevation. When locating bulk oxygen systems near above ground flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage which may be either indoors or outdoors, it is advisable to locate the system on ground higher than the flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage.
(e) Dikes. Where it is necessary to locate a bulk oxygen system on ground lower than adjacent flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage suitable means shall be taken (such as by diking, diversion curbs, or grading) with respect to the adjacent flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage to prevent accumulation of liquids under the bulk oxygen system.
(3) Distance between systems and exposures.
(a) General. The minimum distance from any bulk oxygen storage container to exposures, measured in the most direct line except as indicated in (((3)))(f) and (g) of this ((section)) subsection shall be as indicated in (((3)(b) to)) (b) through (r) of this ((section)) subsection inclusive.
(b) Combustible structures. Fifty feet from any combustible structures.
(c) Fire resistive structures. Twenty-five feet from any structures with fire-resistive exterior walls or sprinklered buildings or other construction, but not less than one-half the height of adjacent side wall of the structure.
(d) Openings. At least ((10)) ten feet from any opening in adjacent walls of fire resistive structures. Spacing from such structures shall be adequate to permit maintenance, but shall not be less than ((1)) one foot.
(e) Flammable liquid storage above ground.
Distance
(feet)
Capacity
(gallons)
 
50
_____ 
0-1000
 
90
_____ 
1001 or more
(f) Flammable liquid storage below ground.
Distance
measured
horizontally
from oxygen
storage
container to
flammable
liquid tank
(feet)
Distance
from oxygen
storage
container to
filling and
vent connections or openings to flammable
liquid tank
(feet)
Capacity
gallons
 
15
_____ 
50
_____ 
0-1000
 
30
_____ 
50
_____ 
1001 or more
(g) ((Combustible)) Flammable liquid storage above ground.
Distance
(feet)
 
Capacity
(gallons)
 
25
_____ 
0-1000
 
50
_____ 
1001 or more
(h) ((Combustible)) Flammable liquid storage below ground.
Distance measured
horizontally from
oxygen storage
container to
((combustible)) flammable liquid
tank (feet)
Distance from oxygen
storage container to
filling and vent
connections or
openings to
((combustible)) flammable liquid
tank (feet)
 
15
_____ 
 
40
(i) Flammable gas storage. (Such as compressed flammable gases, liquefied flammable gases and flammable gases in low pressure gas holders):
Distance
(feet)
Capacity
(cu. ft. NTP)
50
 
_____ 
 
Less than 5000
90
 
_____ 
 
5000 or more
(j) Highly combustible materials. Fifty feet from solid materials which burn rapidly, such as excelsior or paper.
(k) Slow-burning materials. Twenty-five feet from solid materials which burn slowly, such as coal and heavy timber.
(l) Ventilation. Seventy-five feet in one direction and ((35)) thirty-five feet in approximately 90° direction from confining walls (not including firewalls less than ((20)) twenty feet high) to provide adequate ventilation in courtyards and similar confining areas.
(m) Congested areas. Twenty-five feet from congested areas such as offices, lunchrooms, locker rooms, time clock areas, and similar locations where people may congregate.
(n) Public areas. Fifty feet from places of public assembly.
(o) Patients. Fifty feet from areas occupied by nonambulatory patients.
(p) Sidewalks. Ten feet from any public sidewalk.
(q) Adjacent property. Five feet from any line of adjoining property.
(r) Exceptions. The distances in (((3)))(b), (c), (e) ((to)) through (k) inclusive, and (p) and (q) of this ((section)) subsection do not apply where protective structures such as firewalls of adequate height to safeguard the oxygen storage systems are located between the bulk oxygen storage installation and the exposure. In such cases, the bulk oxygen storage installation may be a minimum distance of ((1)) one foot from the firewall.
(4) Storage containers.
(a) Foundations and supports. Permanently installed containers shall be provided with substantial noncombustible supports on firm noncombustible foundations.
(b) Construction—Liquid. Liquid oxygen storage containers shall be fabricated from materials meeting the impact test requirements of paragraph UG-84 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968. Containers operating at pressures above ((15)) fifteen pounds per square inch gage (p.s.i.g.) shall be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968. Insulation surrounding the liquid oxygen container shall be noncombustible.
(c) Construction—Gaseous. High-pressure gaseous oxygen containers shall comply with one of the following:
(i) Designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968.
(ii) Designed, constructed, tested, and maintained in accordance with DOT specifications and regulations.
(5) Piping, tubing, and fittings.
(a) Selection. Piping, tubing, and fittings shall be suitable for oxygen service and for the pressures and temperatures involved.
(b) Specification. Piping and tubing shall conform to Section 2—Gas and Air Piping Systems of Code for Pressure Piping, ANSI, B31.1-1967 with addenda B31.10a-1969.
(c) Fabrication. Piping or tubing for operating temperatures below -20°F shall be fabricated from materials meeting the impact test requirements of paragraph UG-84 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968, when tested at the minimum operating temperature to which the piping may be subjected in service.
(6) Safety relief devices.
(a) General. Bulk oxygen storage containers, regardless of design pressure shall be equipped with safety relief devices as required by the ASME code or the DOT specifications and regulations.
(b) DOT containers. Bulk oxygen storage containers designed and constructed in accordance with DOT specification shall be equipped with safety relief devices as required thereby.
(c) ASME containers. Bulk oxygen storage containers designed and constructed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessel—1968 shall be equipped with safety relief devices meeting the provisions of the Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet "Safety Relief Device Standards for Compressed Gas Storage Containers," S-1, Part 3.
(d) Insulation. Insulation casings on liquid oxygen containers shall be equipped with suitable safety relief devices.
(e) Reliability. All safety relief devices shall be so designed or located that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner which would interfere with proper operation of the device.
(7) Liquid oxygen vaporizers.
(a) Mounts and couplings. The vaporizer shall be anchored and its connecting piping be sufficiently flexible to provide for the effect of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes.
(b) Relief devices. The vaporizer and its piping shall be adequately protected on the oxygen and heating medium sections with safety relief devices.
(c) Heating. Heat used in an oxygen vaporizer shall be indirectly supplied only through media such as steam, air, water, or water solutions which do not react with oxygen.
(d) Grounding. If electric heaters are used to provide the primary source of heat, the vaporizing system shall be electrically grounded.
(8) Equipment assembly and installation.
(a) Cleaning. Equipment making up a bulk oxygen system shall be cleaned in order to remove oil, grease or other readily oxidizable materials before placing the system in service.
(b) Joints. Joints in piping and tubing may be made by welding or by use of flanged, threaded, slip, or compression fittings. Gaskets or thread sealants shall be suitable for oxygen service.
(c) Accessories. Valves, gages, regulators, and other accessories shall be suitable for oxygen service.
(d) Installation. Installation of bulk oxygen systems shall be supervised by personnel familiar with proper practices with reference to their construction and use.
(e) Testing. After installation all field erected piping shall be tested and proved gas tight at maximum operating pressure. Any medium used for testing shall be oil free and nonflammable.
(f) Security. Storage containers, piping, valves, regulating equipment, and other accessories shall be protected against physical damage and against tampering.
(g) Venting. Any enclosure containing oxygen control or operating equipment shall be adequately vented.
(h) Placarding. The bulk oxygen storage location shall be permanently placarded to indicate: "OXYGEN—NO SMOKING—NO OPEN FLAMES," or an equivalent warning.
(i) Electrical wiring. Bulk oxygen installations are not hazardous locations as defined and covered by chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. Therefore, general purpose or weatherproof types of electrical wiring and equipment are acceptable depending upon whether the installation is indoors or outdoors. Such equipment shall be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(9) Operating instructions. For installations which require any operation of equipment by the user, legible instructions shall be maintained at operating locations.
(10) Maintenance.
(((a))) The equipment and functioning of each charged bulk oxygen system shall be maintained in a safe operating condition in accordance with the requirements of this section. Wood and long dry grass shall be cut back within ((15)) fifteen feet of any bulk oxygen storage container.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 )
WAC 296-24-330 Flammable ((and combustible)) liquids.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 88-23-054, filed 11/14/88)
WAC 296-24-33001 Definitions.
The following definitions are applicable to all sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-24-330 in the section number.
(1) Aerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure.
(2) Atmospheric tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g.
(3) Automotive service station shall mean that portion of property where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles and shall include any facilities available for the sale and service of tires, batteries, and accessories, and for minor automotive maintenance work. Major automotive repairs, painting, body and fender work are excluded.
(4) Basement shall mean a story of a building or structure having one-half or more of its height below ground level and to which access for firefighting purposes is unduly restricted.
(5) Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for purposes of this section the ten percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, may be used as the boiling point of the liquid.
(6) Boilover shall mean the expulsion of crude oil (or certain other liquids) from a burning tank. The light fractions of the crude oil burnoff producing a heat wave in the residue, which on reaching a water strata may result in the expulsion of a portion of the contents of the tank in the form of froth.
(7) Bulk plant shall mean that portion of a property where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car, or tank vehicle, and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, or container.
(8) Chemical plant shall mean a large integrated plant or that portion of such a plant other than a refinery or distillery where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemical reactions.
(9) Closed container shall mean a container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.
(10) Crude petroleum shall mean hydrocarbon mixtures that have a flash point below 150°F and which have not been processed in a refinery.
(11) Distillery shall mean a plant or that portion of a plant where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids produced by fermentation are concentrated, and where the concentrated products may also be mixed, stored, or packaged.
(12) Fire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least one hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour.
(13) Fire resistance or fire resistive construction shall mean construction to resist the spread of fire.
(14) Flammable aerosol shall mean ((an)) a flammable aerosol ((which is required to be labeled "Flammable" under the Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act (15 U.S.C. 1261))) as defined under WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria. For the purposes of WAC 296-24-33009, such aerosols are considered ((Class IA)) Category 1 flammable liquids.
(15) "Flashpoint" means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid, and shall be determined as follows:
(a) For a liquid which has a viscosity of less than 45 SUS at 100°F (37.8°C), does not contain suspended solids, and does not have a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the procedure specified in the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Tag Closed Tester (ASTM D-56-70), WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria, shall be used.
(b) For a liquid which has a viscosity of 45 SUS or more at 100°F (37.8°C), or contains suspended solids, or has a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (ASTM D-93-71) or an equivalent method as defined by WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria, shall be used, except that the methods specified in Note 1 to section 1.1 of ASTM D-93-71 may be used for the respective materials specified in the note.
(c) For a liquid that is a mixture of compounds that have different volatilities and flashpoints, its flashpoint shall be determined by using the procedure specified in (a) or (b) of this subsection on the liquid in the form it is shipped. ((If the flashpoint, as determined by this test, is 100°F (37.8°C) or higher, an additional flashpoint determination shall be run on a sample of the liquid evaporated to ninety percent of its original volume, and the lower value of the two tests shall be considered the flashpoint of the material.))
(d) Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified in this section.
(16) Hotel shall mean buildings or groups of buildings under the same management in which there are sleeping accommodations for hire primarily used by transients who are lodged with or without meals including but not limited to inns, clubs, motels, and apartment hotels.
(17) Institutional occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof by persons harbored or detained to receive medical, charitable or other care or treatment, or by persons involuntarily detained.
(18) Liquid shall mean, for the purpose of these standards, any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials, D-5-65. When not otherwise identified, the term liquid shall include both flammable ((and combustible)) liquids.
(19) "Combustible liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C). Combustible liquids shall be divided into two classes as follows:
(a) "Class II liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F (93.3°C) or higher, the volume of which make up ninety-nine percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(b) "Class III liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F (60°C). Class III liquids are subdivided into two subclasses:
(i) "Class IIIA liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C) except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F (93.3°C) or higher, the total volume of which make up ninety-nine percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(ii) "Class IIIB liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 200°F (93.3°C). This section does not cover Class IIIB liquids. Where the term "Class III liquids" is used in this section, it shall mean only Class IIIA liquids.
(c) When a combustible liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids.
(20) "Flammable liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint at or below ((100°F (37.8°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100°F (37.8°C), or higher, the total of which make up ninety-nine percent or more of the total volume of the mixture)) 199.4°F (93°C). Flammable liquids ((shall be known as Class I liquids. Class I liquids)) are divided into ((three classes)) four categories as follows:
(a) ((Class IA)) Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below ((73°F (22.8°C))) 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or below ((100°F (37.8°C))) 95°F (35°C).
(b) ((Class IB)) Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below ((73°F (22.8°C))) 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point ((at or)) above ((100°F (37.8° C))) 95°F (35°C).
(c) ((Class IC)) Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above ((73°F (22.8°C))) 73.4°F (23°C) and at or below ((100°F (37.8°C))) 140°F (60°C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C).
(d) Category 4 must include liquids having flashpoints above 140°F (60°C) and at or below 199.4°F (93°C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C).
(e) When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.
(21) Unstable (reactive) liquid shall mean a liquid which in the pure state or as commercially produced or transported will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.
(22) Low-pressure tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures above 0.5 p.s.i.g. but not more than 15 p.s.i.g.
(23) Marine service station shall mean that portion of a property where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks or self-propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection therewith.
(24) Mercantile occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the displaying, selling, or buying of goods, wares, or merchandise.
(25) Office occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the transaction of business, or the rendering or receiving of professional services.
(26) Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over sixty United States gallons and not intended for fixed installation.
(27) Pressure vessel shall mean a storage tank or vessel which has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g.
(28) Protection for exposure shall mean adequate fire protection for structures on property adjacent to tanks, where there are employees of the establishment.
(29) Refinery shall mean a plant in which flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources.
(30) Safety can shall mean an approved container, of not more than five gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.
(31) Vapor pressure shall mean the pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute) exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the "Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)," American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D323-68.
(32) Ventilation as specified in these standards is for the prevention of fire and explosion. It is considered adequate if it is sufficient to prevent accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit.
(33) Storage: Flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be stored in a tank or in a container that complies with WAC 296-24-33009(2).
(34) Barrel shall mean a volume of forty-two United States gallons.
(35) Container shall mean any can, barrel, or drum.
(36) Approved unless otherwise indicated, approved, or listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to federal regulation 29 C.F.R. 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(37) Listed see subsection (36) of this section.
(38) "SUS" means Saybolt Universal Seconds as determined by the Standard Method of Test for Saybolt Viscosity (ASTM D-88-56), and may be determined by use of the SUS conversion tables specified in ASTM Method D2161-66 following determination of viscosity in accordance with the procedures specified in the Standard Method of Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (ASTM D445-65).
(39) "Viscous" means a viscosity of 45 SUS or more.
Note:
The volatility of liquids is increased when artificially heated to temperatures equal to or higher than their flashpoints. When so heated Class II and III liquids shall be subject to the applicable requirements for Class I or II liquids. These standards may also be applied to high flashpoint liquids when so heated even though these same liquids when not heated are outside of its scope.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-22-015, filed 10/20/95, effective 1/16/96)
WAC 296-24-33003 Scope.
This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable ((and combustible)) liquids with a flash point at or below ((200°F)) 199.4°F (93°C). This section does not apply to:
(1) Bulk transportation of flammable ((and combustible)) liquids;
(2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil burning equipment;
(3) Storage of flammable ((and combustible)) liquids on farms.
(4) Liquids without flashpoints that may be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons;
(5) Mists, sprays, or foams, except flammable aerosols covered in WAC 296-24-33009; or
(6) Installations made in accordance with requirements of the following standards:
(a) National Fire Protection Association Standard for Drycleaning Plants, NFPA No. 32-1970;
(b) National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, NFPA No. 35-1970;
(c) National Fire Protection Association Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, NFPA No. 36-1967; or
(d) National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, NFPA No. 37-1970.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 06-05-027, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06)
WAC 296-24-33005 Tank storage.
(1) Design and construction of tanks.
(a) Materials.
(i) Tanks shall be built of steel except as provided in (((1)))(a)(ii) through (v) of this ((section)) subsection.
(ii) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for installation underground or if required by the properties of the liquid stored. Tanks located above ground or inside buildings shall be of noncombustible construction.
(iii) Tanks built of materials other than steel shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering design for the material used.
(iv) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable ((or combustible)) liquids having a gravity of 40°API or heavier. Concrete tanks with special lining may be used for other services provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice.
(v) Tanks may have combustible or noncombustible linings.
(vi) Special engineering consideration shall be required if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of water or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable ((or combustible)) liquids at a liquid temperature below 0°F.
(b) Fabrication.
(i) Tanks may be of any shape or type consistent with sound engineering design.
(ii) Metal tanks shall be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods. Filler metal used in brazing shall be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000°F and below that of the metal joined.
(c) Atmospheric tanks.
(i) Atmospheric tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable good standards of design. Atmospheric tanks may be built in accordance with:
(A) Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 58, Standards for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and COMBUSTIBLE Liquids, Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.
(B) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 1966.
(C) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 1, March 1962; No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, Seventh Edition, August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, Fifth Edition, March 1961. Tanks built in accordance with these standards shall be used only as production tanks for storage of crude petroleum in oil-producing areas.
(ii) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons capacity may be used aboveground.
(iii) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.
(iv) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable ((or combustible)) liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.
(d) Low pressure tanks.
(i) The normal operating pressure of the tank shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.
(ii) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with:
(A) American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620, Recommended Rules for the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Third Edition, 1966.
(B) The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.
(iii) Atmospheric tanks built according to the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., requirements in (((1)))(c)(i) of this ((section)) subsection may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g. and shall be limited to 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions. Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.
(e) Pressure vessels.
(i) The normal operating pressure of the vessel shall not exceed the design pressure of the vessel.
(ii) Pressure vessels shall be built in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1968.
(f) Provisions for internal corrosion. When tanks are not designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s standards, or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design formulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings or linings shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank.
(2) Installation of outside aboveground tanks.
(a) Location with respect to property lines and public ways.
(i) Every aboveground tank for the storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids, except those liquids with boil-over characteristics and unstable liquids, operating at pressures not in excess of 2.5 p.s.i.g. and equipped with emergency venting which will not permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be located in accordance with Table H-5.
(ii) Every aboveground tank for the storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids, except those liquids with boil-over characteristics and unstable flammable or combustible liquids, operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting which will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be located in accordance with Table H-6.
(iii) Every aboveground tank for the storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids with boil-over characteristics shall be located in accordance with Table H-7.
(iv) Every aboveground tank for the storage of unstable liquids shall be located in accordance with Table H-8.
(v) Reference minimum distances for use in Tables H-5 to H-8 inclusive.
(vi) Where end failure or horizontal pressure tanks and vessels may expose property, the tank shall be placed with the longitudinal axis parallel to the nearest important exposure.
TABLE H-5
Type of tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from nearest side of any public way or from
nearest important building and shall be not less than 5 feet.
 
Floating
roof ———
Protection for exposures.
 
1/2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 90 ft.
 
1/6 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 30 ft.
 
 
 
None ———––
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/6 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 30 ft.
 
Vertical with weak roof to shell seam
 
 
Approved foam or inerting system on the tank.
 
1/2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 90 ft. and shall not be less than 5 ft.
 
1/6 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 30 ft.
 
 
 
Protection for exposures.
 
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
 
 
None ———––
2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
Horizontal and vertical, with emergency relief venting to limit pressures to 2.5 p.s.i.g.
 
Approved inerting system on the tank or approved foam system on vertical tanks.
 
1/2 times Table H-9 but shall not be less than 5 ft.
 
1/2 times Table H-9.
 
 
 
Protection for exposures.
 
Table H-9 ———–
Table H-9
 
 
 
None ———–
2 times table ——
Table H-9
 
TABLE H-6
Type of
tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance
in feet from
nearest side of
any public way or from nearest
important building.
 
Any type
-
Protection for exposures.
 
1 1/2 times Table H-9 but shall not be less than 25 ft.
 
1 1/2 times Table H-9 but shall not be less than 25 ft.
 
 
 
None ————–
3 times Table H-9 but shall not be less than 50 ft.
 
1 1/2 times Table H-9 but shall not be less than 25 ft.
 
TABLE H-7
Type of tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from nearest side of any public way or from
nearest important building.
 
Floating
roof ———
Protection for exposures.
 
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
None ————
2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
Fixed
roof ———
Approved foam or inerting system.
 
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
Protection
for exposures.
 
2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
2/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 120 ft.
 
None ————
4 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
2/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 120 ft.
 
TABLE H-8
Type of tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from nearest side of any public way or from
nearest important building.
 
Horizontal and vertical tanks with emergency relief venting to permit pressure not in excess of 2.5 p.s.i.g.
 
Tank protected with any of the following:
Approved water spray, approved inerting, approved insulation and refrigeration, approved barricade.
 
See Table H-9, but the distance may be not less than 25 ft.
 
Not less than 25 ft.
 
Protection for exposures.
 
2 1/2 times Table H-9 but not less than 50 ft.
 
Not less than 50 ft.
 
None ———
 
5 times Table H-9 but not less than 100 ft.
 
Not less than 100 ft.
Horizontal and vertical tanks with emergency relief venting to permit pressure over 2.5 p.s.i.g.
 
Tank protected with any one of the following:
Approved water spray, approved inerting, approved insulation and refrigeration, approved barricade.
 
2 times Table H-9 but not less than 50 ft.
 
Not less than 50 ft.
 
Protection for exposures.
 
4 times Table H-9 but not less than 100 ft.
 
Not less than 100 ft.
None ————
8 times Table H-9 but not less than 150 ft.
 
Not less than 150 ft.
TABLE H-9
Capacity tank gallons
 
Minimum distance
in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from
nearest side of any public way or from nearest important building.
 
275
 
or less
—–—–——— 5
 
5
 
276
 
to
750
–——— 10
 
5
 
751
 
to
12,000
–——— 15
 
5
 
12,001
 
to
30,000
–——— 20
 
5
 
30,001
 
to
50,000
–——— 30
 
10
 
50,001
 
to
100,000
–——— 50
 
15
 
100,001
 
to
500,000
–——— 80
 
25
 
500,001
 
to
1,000,000
–———100
 
35
 
1,000,001
 
to
2,000,000
–———135
 
45
 
2,000,001
 
to
3,000,000
–———165
 
55
 
3,000,001
 
or more
–————175
 
60
 
(b) Spacing (shell-to-shell) between aboveground tanks.
(i) The distance between any two flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall not be less than ((3)) three feet.
(ii) Except as provided in (((2)))(b)(iii) of this ((section)) subsection, the distance between any two adjacent tanks shall not be less than one-sixth the sum of their diameters. When the diameter of one tank is less than one-half the diameter of the adjacent tank, the distance between the two tanks shall not be less than one-half the diameter of the smaller tank.
(iii) Where crude petroleum in conjunction with production facilities are located in noncongested areas and have capacities not exceeding 126,000 gallons (3,000 barrels), the distance between such tanks shall not be less than ((3)) three feet.
(iv) Where unstable flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are stored, the distance between such tanks shall not be less than one-half the sum of their diameters.
(v) When tanks are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular pattern, greater spacing or other means shall be provided so that inside tanks are accessible for firefighting purposes.
(vi) The minimum separation between a liquefied petroleum gas container and a flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage tank shall be ((20)) twenty feet, except in the case of flammable ((or combustible)) liquid tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting which will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. in which case the provisions of (((2)))(b)(i) and (ii) of this ((section)) subsection shall apply. Suitable means shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids under adjacent liquefied petroleum gas containers such as by diversion curbs or grading. When flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage tanks are within a diked area, the liquefied petroleum gas containers shall be outside the diked area and at least ((10)) ten feet away from the centerline of the wall of the diked area. The foregoing provisions shall not apply when liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons or less capacity are installed adjacent to fuel oil supply tanks of 550 gallons or less capacity.
(c) Location of outside aboveground tanks with respect to important buildings on same property. Every outside aboveground tank shall be separated from important buildings on the same property by distances not less than those specified in (((2)))(a)(i)((, (ii), (iii) and)) through (iv) of this ((section)) subsection, whichever is applicable. The appropriate distance column in Tables H-5, H-6, H-7, H-8, or H-9, that shall be used shall be the one reading: "Minimum distance in feet from nearest side of any public way or from nearest important building."
(d) Normal venting for aboveground tanks.
(i) Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the development of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone roof tank or exceed the design pressure in the case of other atmospheric tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperature changes.
(ii) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with: (A) The American Petroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks; or (B), other accepted standard; or (C) shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is larger but in no case less than 1 1/4 inch nominal inside diameter.
(iii) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented to prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptying and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure of the tank or vessel. Protection shall also be provided to prevent over-pressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pump discharge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.
(iv) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawal connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent size shall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow.
(v) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 p.s.i. or less, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to discharge in such a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.
(vi) Tanks and pressure vessels storing ((Class IA)) Category 1 flammable liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting to pressures or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels storing ((Class IB and IC)) Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C) liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with approved flame arresters.
Exemption:
Tanks of 3,000 bbls. (barrels) capacity or less containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons capacity containing other than ((Class IA)) Category 1 flammable liquids may have open vents. (See (2)(f)(ii) of this section.)
(vii) Flame arresters or venting devices required in (((2)))(e)(vi) of this ((section)) subsection may be omitted for ((Class IB and IC)) Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C) where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, result in tank damage.
(e) Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks.
(i) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of construction or device that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure fires.
(ii) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in (((2)))(e)(i) of this ((section)) subsection may take the form of a floating roof, lifter roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relieving construction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to fail preferential to any other seam.
(iii) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table H-10 except as provided in (((2)))(e)(v) and (vi) of this ((section)) subsection. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of ((55)) fifty-five percent of the total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, ((75)) seventy-five percent of the total exposed area of a horizontal tank and the first ((30)) thirty feet above grade of the exposed shell area of a vertical tank.
TABLE 10
WETTED AREA VERSUS CUBIC FEET
FREE AIR PER HOUR
(14.7 psia and 60°F)
Square
feet
CFH
Square
feet
CFH
Square
feet
CFH
20
 
21,100
 
200
 
211,000
 
1,000
524,000
 
30
 
31,600
 
250
 
239,000
 
1,200
557,000
 
40
 
42,100
 
300
 
265,000
 
1,400
587,000
 
50
 
52,700
 
350
 
288,000
 
1,600
614,000
 
60
 
63,200
 
400
 
312,000
 
1,800
639,000
 
70
 
73,700
 
500
 
354,000
 
2,000
662,000
 
80
 
84,200
 
600
 
392,000
 
2,400
704,000
 
90
 
94,800
 
700
 
428,000
 
2,800
742,000
 
100
 
105,000
 
800
 
462,000
 
and
 
 
120
 
126,000
 
900
 
493,000
 
over
 
 
140
 
147,000
 
1,000
 
524,000
 
 
 
 
160
 
168,000
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
180
 
190,000
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
200
 
211,000
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(iv) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 p.s.i.g., the total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table H-10, except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800 square feet, the total rate of venting shall be calculated by the following formula:
CFH = 1,107A0.82
Where:
 
CFH =
Venting requirement, in cubic feet of free air per hour.
A =
Exposed wetted surface, in square feet.
Note:
The foregoing formula is based on Q = 21,000A0.82.
(v) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stable liquid may be determined by the following formula:
Cubic feet of free air per hour = V
 
V =
1337
L M
 
V =
Cubic feet of free air per hour from Table H-10.
L =
Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per pound.
M =
Molecular weight of specific liquids.
(vi) The required airflow rate of (((2)))(e)(iii) or (v) of this ((section)) subsection may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the following schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may be used for any one tank.
0.5 for drainage in accordance with (2)(g)(ii) of this section for tanks over 200 square feet of wetted area.
0.3 for approved water spray.
0.3 for approved insulation.
0.15 for approved water spray with approved insulation.
(vii) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with emergency venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be arranged to discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.
(viii) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the opening pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, and the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet per hour of air at 60°F and at a pressure of 14.7 p.s.i.a.
(ix) The flow capacity of tank venting devices ((12)) twelve inches and smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each type and size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by an outside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than ((12)) twelve inches nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long bolts or equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure is actually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice area are stated, the word "calculated" appears on the nameplate, and the computation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated orifice area.
(f) Vent piping for aboveground tanks.
(i) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with WAC 296-24-33007 of this section.
(ii) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are adjacent to buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than ((12)) twelve feet above the adjacent ground level. In order to aid their dispersion, vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from closely adjacent walls. Vent outlets shall be located so that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least five feet from building openings.
(iii) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.
(g) Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks.
(i) Drainage and diked areas. The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall be provided with drainage as in (((2)))(g)(ii) of this ((section)) subsection, or shall be diked as provided in (((2)))(g)(iii) of this subsection, to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjoining property or reaching waterways.
(ii) Drainage. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is by means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with the following:
(A) A slope of not less than ((1)) one percent away from the tank toward the drainage system shall be provided.
(B) The drainage system shall terminate in vacant land or other area or in an impounding basin having a capacity not smaller than that of the largest tank served. This termination area and the route of the drainage system shall be so located that, if the flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in the drainage system are ignited, the fire will not seriously expose tanks or adjoining property.
(C) The drainage system, including automatic drainage pumps, shall not discharge to adjoining property, natural water courses, public sewers, or public drains unless the discharge of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids would not constitute a hazard, or the system is so designed that it will not permit flammable ((or combustible)) liquids to be released.
(iii) Diked areas. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is accomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a dike, the volume of the diked area shall comply with the following requirements:
(A) Except as provided in (((2)))(g)(iii)(B) of this ((section)) subsection, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.
(B) For a tank or group of tanks with fixed roofs containing crude petroleum with boilover characteristics, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall be not less than the capacity of the largest tank served by the enclosure, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked enclosure shall be calculated by deducting the volume below the height of the dike of all tanks within the enclosure.
(C) Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solid masonry designed to be liquidtight and to withstand a full hydrostatic head. Earthen walls ((3)) three feet or more in height shall have a flat section at the top not less than ((2)) two feet wide. The slope of an earthen wall shall be consistent with the angle of repose of the material of which the wall is constructed.
(D) The walls of the diked area shall be restricted to an average height of ((6)) six feet above interior grade.
(E) Where provision is made for draining water from diked areas, drainage shall be provided at a uniform slope of not less than ((1)) one percent away from tanks toward a sump, drainbox, or other safe means of disposal located at the greatest practical distance from the tank. Such drains shall normally be controlled in a manner so as to prevent flammable ((or combustible)) liquids from entering natural water courses, public sewers, or public drains, if their presence would constitute a hazard. Control of drainage shall be accessible under fire conditions.
(F) No loose combustible material, empty or full drum or barrel, shall be permitted within the diked area.
(G) Each diked area containing two or more tanks shall be subdivided preferably by drainage channels or at least by intermediate curbs in order to prevent spills from endangering adjacent tanks within the diked area as follows:
(I) When storing normally stable liquids in vertical cone roof tanks constructed with weak roof-to-shell seam or approved floating roof tanks or when storing crude petroleum in producing areas in any type of tank, one subdivision for each tank in excess of 10,000 bbls. and one subdivision for each group of tanks (no tank exceeding 10,000 bbls. capacity) having an aggregate capacity not exceeding 15,000 bbls.
(II) When storing normally stable flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in tanks not covered in (g)(iii)(G)(I) of this subsection, one subdivision for each tank in excess of 100,000 gallons (2,500 bbls.) and one subdivision for each group of tanks (no tank exceeding 100,000 gallons capacity) having an aggregate capacity not exceeding 150,000 gallons (3,570 bbls.).
(III) When storing unstable liquids in any type of tank, one subdivision for each tank except that tanks installed in accordance with the drainage requirements of NFPA 15-1969, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection shall require no additional subdivision.
(IV) The drainage channels or intermediate curbs shall be located between tanks so as to take full advantage of the available space with due regard for the individual tank capacities. Intermediate curbs, where used, shall be not less than ((18)) eighteen inches in height.
(h) Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks.
(i) Connections for all tank openings shall be vaportight and liquidtight. Vents are covered in (((2)))(d) through (f) of this ((section)) subsection.
(ii) Each connection to an aboveground tank through which liquid can normally flow shall be provided with an internal or an external valve located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel except when the chemical characteristics of the liquid stored are incompatible with steel. When materials other than steel are necessary, they shall be suitable for the pressures, structural stresses, and temperatures involved, including fire exposures.
(iii) Each connection below the liquid level through which liquid does not normally flow shall be provided with a liquidtight closure. This may be a valve, plug, or blind, or a combination of these.
(iv) Openings for gaging shall be provided with a vapor tight cap or cover.
(v) For ((Class IB and Class IC)) Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity. A fill pipe entering the top of a tank shall terminate within ((6)) six inches of the bottom of the tank and shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration.
(vi) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than ((5)) five feet away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.
(3) Installation of underground tanks.
(a) Location. Excavation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks or tanks under buildings shall be so located with respect to existing building foundations and supports that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to the tank. The distance from any part of a tank storing ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), to the nearest wall of any basement or pit shall be not less than ((1)) one foot, and to any property line that may be built upon, not less than ((3)) three feet. The distance from any part of a tank storing ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or property line shall not be less than ((1)) one foot.
(b) Depth and cover. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least ((6)) six inches of noncorrosive, inert materials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well tamped in place. The tank shall be placed in the hole with care since dropping or rolling the tank into the hole can break a weld, puncture or damage the tank, or scrape off the protective coating of coated tanks. Tanks shall be covered with a minimum of ((2)) two feet of earth or shall be covered with not less than ((1)) one foot of earth, on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than ((4)) four inches thick. When underground tanks are, or are likely to be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected against damage from vehicles passing over them by at least ((3)) three feet of earth cover, or ((18)) eighteen inches of well-tamped earth, plus ((6)) six inches of reinforced concrete or ((8)) eight inches of asphaltic concrete. When asphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the protection, it shall extend at least ((1)) one foot horizontally beyond the outline of the tank in all directions.
(c) Corrosion protection. Corrosion protection for the tank and its piping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:
(i) Use of protective coatings or wrappings;
(ii) Cathodic protection; or,
(iii) Corrosion resistant materials of construction.
(d) Vents.
(i) Location and arrangement of vents for ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C). Vent pipes from tanks storing ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be so located that the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than the fill pipe opening, and not less than ((12)) twelve feet above the adjacent ground level. Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order to disperse vapors. Vent pipes ((2)) two inches or less in nominal inside diameter shall not be obstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure. Vent pipe outlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter building openings, or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions. If the vent pipe is less than ((10)) ten feet in length, or greater than ((2)) two inches in nominal inside diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum and pressure relief device or there shall be an approved flame arrester located in the vent line at the outlet or within the approved distance from the outlet.
(ii) Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate in size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while the tank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than ((1 1/4)) one and one-fourth inch nominal inside diameter.
TABLE H-11
VENT LINE DIAMETERS
Maximum flow
GPM
 
Pipe length*
 
50 feet
100 feet
200 feet
 
 
Inches
Inches
Inches
100
—————
1 1/4
1 1/4
1 1/4
200
—————
1 1/4
1 1/4
1 1/4
300
—————
1 1/4
1 1/4
1 1/2
400
—————
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
500
—————
1 1/2
1 1/2
2
600
—————
1 1/2
2
2
700
—————
2
2
2
800
—————
2
2
3
900
—————
2
2
3
1,000
—————
2
2
3
*
Vent lines of 50 ft., 100 ft., and 200 ft. of pipe plus 7 ells.
(iii) Location and arrangement of vents for ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids shall terminate outside of the building and higher than the fill pipe opening. Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level. They may be fitted with return bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize ingress of foreign material.
(iv) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with WAC 296-24-33007. Vent pipes shall be so laid as to drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. They shall be located so that they will not be subjected to physical damage. The tank end of the vent pipe shall enter the tank through the top.
(v) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.
(e) Tank openings other than vents.
(i) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquid tight.
(ii) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. If inside a building, each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or other approved device.
(iii) Fill and discharge lines shall enter tanks only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank.
(iv) For ((Class IB and Class IC)) Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within ((6)) six inches of the bottom of the tank.
(v) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than ((5)) five feet away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.
(4) Installation of tanks inside of buildings.
(a) Location. Tanks shall not be permitted inside of buildings except as provided in WAC 296-24-33011 and 296-24-33015 through 296-24-33019.
(b) Vents. Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided in subsections (2)(d),(e),(f)(ii) and (3)(d) of this section, except that emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not be permitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.
(c) Vent piping. Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with WAC 296-24-33007.
(d) Tank openings other than vents.
(i) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquidtight. Vents are covered in (((4)))(b) of this ((section)) subsection.
(ii) Each connection to a tank inside of buildings through which liquid can normally flow shall be provided with an internal or an external valve located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel except when the chemical characteristics of the liquid stored are incompatible with steel. When materials other than steel are necessary, they shall be suitable for the pressures, structural stresses, and temperatures involved, including fire exposures.
(iii) Flammable ((or combustible)) liquid tanks located inside of buildings, except in one-story buildings designed and protected for flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage, shall be provided with an automatic-closing heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the liquid level, except for connections used for emergency disposal, to prevent continued flow in the event of fire in the vicinity of the tank. This function may be incorporated in the valve required in (((4)))(d)(ii) of this ((section)) subsection, and if a separate valve, shall be located adjacent to the valve required in (((4)))(d)(ii) of this ((section)) subsection.
(iv) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe (see (((4)))(d)(vi) of this ((section)) subsection), shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover. Each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.
(v) For ((Class IB and Class IC)) Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C) liquids other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches of the bottom of the tank.
(vi) The fill pipe inside of the tank shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration of the pipe.
(vii) The inlet of the fill pipe shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than ((5)) five feet away from any building opening. The inlet of the fill pipe shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The fill connection shall be properly identified.
(viii) Tanks inside buildings shall be equipped with a device, or other means shall be provided, to prevent overflow into the building.
(5) Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations.
(a) General. Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tank supports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel. Single wood timber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outside aboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches high at their lowest point.
(b) Fire resistance. Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than ((2)) two hours, except that steel saddles need not be protected if less than ((12)) twelve inches high at their lowest point. Water spray protection or its equivalent may be used in lieu of fire-resistive materials to protect supports.
(c) Spheres. The design of the supporting structure for tanks such as spheres shall receive special engineering consideration.
(d) Load distribution. Every tank shall be so supported as to prevent the excessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion of the shell.
(e) Foundations. Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Tank foundations shall be designed to minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and to minimize corrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.
(f) Flood areas. Where a tank is located in an area that may be subjected to flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in (((5)))(f) of this ((section)) subsection shall be observed.
(i) No aboveground vertical storage tank containing a flammable ((or combustible)) liquid shall be located so that the allowable liquid level within the tank is below the established maximum flood stage, unless the tank is provided with a guiding structure such as described in (((5)))(f)(xiii), (xiv) and (xv) of this ((section)) subsection.
(ii) Independent water supply facilities shall be provided at locations where there is no ample and dependable public water supply available for loading partially empty tanks with water.
(iii) In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located that more than ((70)) seventy percent, but less than ((100)) one hundred percent, of its allowable liquid storage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum flood stage, shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank shall be raised, or its height shall be increased, until its top extends above the maximum flood stage a distance equivalent to ((30)) thirty percent or more of its allowable liquid storage capacity: Provided, however, That the submerged part of the tank shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter. Or, as an alternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides, designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product, shall be provided.
(iv) Each horizontal tank so located that more than ((70)) seventy percent of its storage capacity will be submerged at the established flood stage, shall be anchored, attached to a foundation of concrete or of steel and concrete, of sufficient weight to provide adequate load for the tank when filled with flammable ((or combustible)) liquid and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage, or adequately secured by other means.
(v) Spherical and spheroidal tanks shall be protected by applicable methods as specified for either vertical or horizontal tanks.
(vi) At locations where there is no ample and dependable water supply, or where filling of underground tanks with liquid is impracticable because of the character of their contents, their use, or for other reasons, each tank shall be safeguarded against movement when empty and submerged by high groundwater or flood waters by anchoring, weighting with concrete or other approved solid loading material, or securing by other means. Each such tank shall be so constructed and installed that it will safely resist external pressures due to high groundwater or flood waters.
(vii) At locations where there is an ample and dependable water supply available, underground tanks containing flammable ((or combustible)) liquids, so installed that more than ((70)) seventy percent of their storage capacity will be submerged at the maximum flood stage, shall be so anchored, weighted, or secured by other means, as to prevent movement of such tanks when filled with flammable or combustible liquids, and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage.
(viii) Pipe connections below the allowable liquid level in a tank shall be provided with valves or cocks located as closely as practicable to the tank shell. Such valves and their connections to tanks shall be of steel or other material suitable for use with the liquid being stored. Cast iron shall not be used.
(ix) At locations where an independent water supply is required, it shall be entirely independent of public power and water supply. Independent source of water shall be available when flood waters reach a level not less than ((10)) ten feet below the bottom of the lowest tank on a property.
(x) The self-contained power and pumping unit shall be so located or so designed that pumping into tanks may be carried on continuously throughout the rise in flood waters from a level ((10)) ten feet below the lowest tank to the level of the potential flood stage.
(xi) Capacity of the pumping unit shall be such that the rate of rise of water in all tanks shall be equivalent to the established potential average rate of rise of flood waters at any stage.
(xii) Each independent pumping unit shall be tested periodically to insure that it is in satisfactory operating condition.
(xiii) Structural guides for holding floating tanks above their foundations shall be so designed that there will be no resistance to the free rise of a tank, and shall be constructed of noncombustible material.
(xiv) The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist lateral movement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any direction equivalent to not less than ((25)) twenty-five pounds per square foot acting on the projected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.
(xv) Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a shoreline where swift currents in flood waters will be present, the structures shall be designed to withstand a unit force of not less than ((50)) fifty pounds per square foot.
(xvi) The filling of a tank to be protected by water loading shall be started as soon as flood waters reach a dangerous flood stage. The rate of filling shall be at least equal to the rate of rise of the floodwaters (or the established average potential rate of rise).
(xvii) Sufficient fuel to operate the water pumps shall be available at all times to insure adequate power to fill all tankage with water.
(xviii) All valves on connecting pipelines shall be closed and locked in closed position when water loading has been completed.
(xix) Where structural guides are provided for the protection of floating tanks, all rigid connections between tanks and pipelines shall be disconnected and blanked off or binded before the floodwaters reach the bottom of the tank, unless control valves and their connections to the tank are of a type designed to prevent breakage between the valve and the tank shell.
(xx) All valves attached to tanks other than those used in connection with water loading operations shall be closed and locked.
(xxi) If a tank is equipped with a swing line, the swing pipe shall be raised to and secured at its highest position.
(xxii) Inspections. The director or his/her designated representative shall make periodic inspections of all plants where the storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids is such as to require compliance with the foregoing requirements, in order to assure the following:
(A) That all flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage tanks are in compliance with these requirements and so maintained.
(B) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood emergencies are properly posted.
(C) That station operators and other employees depended upon to carry out such instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location and operation of such valves and other equipment necessary to effect these requirements.
(g) Earthquake areas. In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank supports and connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result of such shocks.
(6) Sources of ignition. In locations where flammable vapors may be present, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating or controlling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open flames, lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), spontaneous ignition, chemical and physical-chemical reactions, and radiant heat.
(7) Testing.
(a) General. All tanks, whether shop built or field erected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with the applicable sections of the code under which they were built. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code stamp. American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of compliance with this strength test. Tanks not marked in accordance with the above codes shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with good engineering principles and reference shall be made to the sections on testing in the codes listed in (l)(c)(i), (d)(ii) or (e)(ii) of this section.
(b) Strength. When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes is such that when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the bottom of the tank exceeds ((10)) ten pounds per square inch, the tank and related piping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure equal to the static head thus imposed.
(c) Tightness. In addition to the strength test called for in (((7)))(a) and (b) of this subsection, all tanks and connections shall be tested for tightness. Except for underground tanks, this tightness test shall be made at operating pressure with air, inert gas, or water prior to placing the tank in service. In the case of field-erected tanks the strength test may be considered to be the test for tank tightness. Underground tanks and piping, before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested for tightness hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than ((3)) three pounds per square inch and not more than ((5)) five pounds per square inch.
(d) Repairs. All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in an acceptable manner before the tank is placed in service. Mechanical caulking is not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except pinhole leaks in the roof.
(e) Derated operations. Tanks to be operated at pressures below their design pressure may be tested by the applicable provisions of (((7))) (a) or (b) of this subsection based upon the pressure developed under full emergency venting of the tank.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)
WAC 296-24-33007 Piping, valves, and fittings.
(1) General.
(a) Design. The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems containing flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses. Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31-1967 series and the provisions of this section, shall be considered prima facie evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.
(b) Exceptions. This section does not apply to any of the following:
(i) Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping connected directly thereto.
(ii) Motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engines.
(iii) Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressures vessel code.
(c) Definitions. As used in this section, piping systems consist of pipe, tubing flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the pressure containing parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers, and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow.
(2) Materials for piping, valves, and fittings.
(a) Required materials. Materials for piping, valves, or fittings shall be steel, nodular iron or malleable iron, except as provided in ((subsections)) (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection.
(b) Exceptions. Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron may be used underground, or if required by the properties of the flammable ((or combustible)) liquid handled. Material other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering practices for the material used.
(c) Linings. Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible or noncombustible linings.
(d) Low-melting materials. When low-melting point materials such as aluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such as plastics, or nonductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, special consideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure. If such materials are used in aboveground piping systems or inside buildings, they shall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so located that any spill resulting from the failure of these materials could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures or can be readily controlled by remote valves.
(3) Pipe joints. Joints shall be made liquid tight. Welded or screwed joints or approved connectors shall be used. Threaded joints and connections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or piping compound. Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used inside buildings. They may be used outside of buildings above or below ground. If used aboveground, the piping shall either be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed that any spill resulting from such disengagement could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures, and could be readily controlled by remote valves.
(4) Supports. Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.
(5) Protection against corrosion. All piping for flammable ((or combustible)) liquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to external corrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.
(6) Valves. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of valves to control properly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage. Each connection to pipelines, by which equipment such as tankcars or tank vehicles discharge liquids by means of pumps into storage tanks, shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection against backflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible.
(7) Testing. All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use shall be hydrostatically tested to ((150)) one hundred fifty percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to ((110)) one hundred ten percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than ((5)) five pounds per square inch gage at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all joints and connections, but for at least ((10)) ten minutes.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 04-18-080, filed 8/31/04, effective 11/1/04)
WAC 296-24-33009 Container and portable tank storage.
(1) Scope.
(a) General. This section shall apply only to the storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in drums or other containers (including flammable aerosols) not exceeding 60 gallons individual capacity and those portable tanks not exceeding 660 gallons individual capacity.
(b) Exceptions. This section shall not apply to the following:
(i) Storage of containers in bulk plants, service stations, refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries;
(ii) ((Class I or Class II)) Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids in the fuel tanks of a motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engine;
(iii) Flammable or combustible paints, oils, varnishes, and similar mixtures used for painting or maintenance when not kept for a period in excess of ((30)) thirty days;
(iv) Beverages when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 gallon in size.
(2) Design, construction, and capacity of containers.
(a) General. Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used. Metal containers and portable tanks meeting the requirements of and containing products authorized by Chapter I, Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations - October 1, 1972, (regulations issued by the hazardous materials regulations board, department of transportation), shall be deemed to be acceptable.
(b) Emergency venting. Each portable tank shall be provided with one or more devices installed in the top with sufficient emergency venting capacity to limit internal pressure under fire exposure conditions to 10 p.s.i.g., or ((30)) thirty percent of the bursting pressure of the tank, whichever is greater. The total venting capacity shall be not less than that specified in WAC 296-24-33005 (2)(e)(iii) or (v). At least one pressure-actuated vent having a minimum capacity of ((6,000)) six thousand cubic feet of free air (14.7 p.s.i.a. and 60°F) shall be used. It shall be set to open at not less than 5 p.s.i.g. If fusible vents are used, they shall be actuated by elements that operate at a temperature not exceeding 300°F.
TABLE H-12
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SIZE OF
CONTAINERS AND PORTABLE TANKS FOR FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
((Container
Type
Flammable liquids
 
 
Combustible Liquids
Class
IA
Class
IB
Class
IC
Class
II
&
Class
III
Glass or approved
plastic ————–
 
1 pt.
 
 
1 qu.
 
 
1 gal.
 
 
1 gal.
 
 
 
1 gal.
Metal (other than
DOTdrums) ——–
 
1 gal.
 
 
5 gal.
 
 
5 gal.
 
 
5 gal.
 
 
 
5 gal.
Safety cans ———
2 gal.
 
5 gal.
 
5 gal.
 
5 gal.
 
 
5 gal.
Metal drums (DOT
spec.) ————––
 
60 gal.
 
 
60 gal.
 
 
60 gal.
 
 
60 gal.
 
 
 
60 gal.
Approved portable
tanks —————
 
660 gal.
 
 
660 gal.
 
 
660 gal.
 
 
660 gal.
 
 
 
660 gal.))
Container type
Category 1
Category 2
Category 3 and 4
Glass or approved plastic
1 pt
1 qt
1 gal
Metal (other than DOT drums)
1 gal
5 gal
5 gal
Safety cans
2 gal
Metal drums (DOT specifications)
60 gal
60 gal
60 gal
Approved portable tanks
660 gal
660 gal
660 gal
Container exemptions:
(((i))) (c) Medicines, beverages, foodstuffs, cosmetics and other common consumer items, when packaged according to commonly accepted practices, shall be exempt from the requirements of subsection (4)(a) and (b) of this section.
(((c))) (d) Size. Flammable ((and combustible)) liquid containers shall be in accordance with Table H-12, except that glass or plastic containers of no more than 1-gallon capacity may be used for a ((Class IA or IB)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquid if:
(i) Such liquid either would be rendered unfit for its intended use by contact with metal or would excessively corrode a metal container so as to create a leakage hazard; and
(ii) The user's process either would require more than 1 pint of ((Class IA)) Category 1 flammable liquid or more than 1 quart of a ((Class IB)) Category 2 flammable liquid of a single assay lot to be used at one time, or would require the maintenance of an analytical standard liquid of a quality which is not met by the specified standards of liquids available, and the quantity of the analytical standard liquid required to be used in any one control process exceeds one-sixteenth the capacity of the container allowed under Table H-12 for the class of liquid; or
(iii) The containers are intended for direct export outside the United States.
(3) Design, construction, and capacity of storage cabinets.
(a) Maximum capacity. Not more than 60 gallons of ((Class I or Class II)) Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids, nor more than 120 gallons of ((Class III)) Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored in a storage cabinet.
(b) Fire resistance. Storage cabinets shall be designed and constructed to limit the internal temperature to not more than 325°F when subjected to a ((10)) ten-minute fire test using the standard time-temperature curve as set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969. All joints and seams shall remain tight and the door shall remain securely closed during the fire test. Cabinets shall be labeled "Flammable—Keep fire away."
(i) Metal cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be deemed to be in compliance. The bottom, top, door, and sides of cabinet shall be at least No. 18 gage sheet iron and double walled with ((1 1/2-inch)) one and one-half inch air space. Joints shall be riveted, welded or made tight by some equally effective means. The door shall be provided with a three-point lock, and the door sill shall be raised at least ((2)) two inches above the bottom of the cabinet.
(ii) Wooden cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be deemed in compliance. The bottom, sides, and top shall be constructed of an approved grade of plywood at least ((1)) one inch in thickness, which shall not break down or delaminate under fire conditions. All joints shall be rabbetted and shall be fastened in two directions with flathead woodscrews. When more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbetted overlap of not less than ((1)) one inch. Hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as not to lose their holding capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to the fire test.
(4) Design and construction of inside storage rooms.
(a) Construction. Inside storage rooms shall be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction shall comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969. Where an automatic sprinkler system is provided, the system shall be designed and installed in an acceptable manner. Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least ((4)) four inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least ((4)) four inches below the surrounding floor. Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The room shall be liquid tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench inside of the room which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the building or other properties are exposed, windows shall be protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1968, for Class E or F openings. Wood at least ((1)) one inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations.
(b) Rating and capacity. Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table H-13.
TABLE H-13
STORAGE IN INSIDE ROOMS
Fire
protection*
provided
Fire
resistance
Maximum
size
Total
allowable
quantities (gals./sq.
Ft./floor
area)
Yes —————–
2 hours —————
500 sq. ft. ————————
10
No —————–
2 hours —————
500 sq. ft. ————————
4
Yes —————–
1 hour —————–
150 sq. ft. ————————
5
No —————–
1 hour —————–
150 sq. ft. ————————
2
*
Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide, or other system.
(c) Wiring. Electrical wiring and equipment ((within)) located inside storage rooms used ((to store Class I)) for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall comply with the provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations((. For inside storage rooms used to store Class II and III)); for Category 3 flammable liquids ((the pertinent provisions chapter 296-24 WAC Part L apply)) with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids, shall be approved for general use.
(d) Ventilation. Every inside storage room shall be provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhaust ventilation system. Such system shall be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least six times per hour. If a mechanical exhaust system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures shall be operated by the same switch. A pilot light shall be installed adjacent to the switch if ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhaust outlet from the room, shall be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located.
(e) Storage in inside storage rooms. In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one clear aisle at least 3 feet wide. Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other. Dispensing shall be by approved pump or self-closing faucet only.
(5) Storage inside building.
(a) Egress. Flammable ((or combustible)) liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored so as to limit use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of people.
(b) Containers. The storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in containers or portable tanks shall comply with subsection (4)(c) through (e) of this section.
(c) Office occupancies. Storage shall be prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of building and operation of equipment. Such storage shall be kept in closed metal containers stored in a storage cabinet or in safety cans or in an inside storage room not having a door that opens into that portion of the building used by the public.
(d) Mercantile occupancies and other retail stores.
(i) In rooms or areas accessible to the public, storage shall be limited to quantities needed for display and normal merchandising purposes but shall not exceed 2 gallons per square foot of gross floor area. The gross floor area used for computing the maximum quantity permitted shall be considered as that portion of the store actually being used for merchandising flammable ((and combustible)) liquids.
(ii) Where the aggregate quantity of additional stock exceeds 60 gallons of Class IA, or 120 gallons of Class IB, or 180 gallons of Class IC, or 240 gallons of Class II, or 500 gallons of Class III liquids, or any combination of Class I and Class II liquids exceeding 240 gallons, it shall be stored in a room or portion of the building that complies with the construction provisions for an inside storage room as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section. For water miscible liquids, these quantities may be doubled.
(iii) Containers in a display area shall not be stacked more than ((3)) three feet or two containers high, whichever is the greater, unless the stacking is done on fixed shelving or is otherwise satisfactorily secured.
(iv) Shelving shall be of stable construction, of sufficient depth and arrangement such that containers displayed thereon shall not be easily displaced.
(v) Leaking containers shall be removed to a storage room or taken to a safe location outside the building and the contents transferred to an undamaged container.
(e) General purpose public warehouses. Storage shall be in accordance with Table H-14 or H-15 and in buildings or in portions of such buildings cut off by standard firewalls. Material creating no fire exposure hazard to the flammable ((or combustible)) liquids may be stored in the same area.
TABLE H-14
INDOOR CONTAINER STORAGE
Class
liquid
Storage
level
Protected
storage
maximum
per pile
Unprotected
storage
maximum
per pile
 
 
Gal.
Ht.
Gal.
Ht.
IA ——
Ground and upper
floors ——————
2,750
3 ft.
660
3 ft.
 
 
(50)
(1)
(12)
(1)
Basement —————
Not permitted
Not permitted
IB ——
Ground and upper
floors ——————
5,500
6 ft.
1,375
3 ft.
 
(100)
(2)
(25)
(1)
Basement —————
Not permitted
Not permitted
IC ——
Ground and upper
floors ——————
16,500
6 ft
4,125
3 ft.
 
(300)
(2)
(75)
(1)
Basement —————
Not permitted
Not permitted
II ——–
Ground and upper
floors ——————
16,500
9 ft.
4,125
9 ft.
 
(300)
(3)
(75)
(3)
Basement —————
5,500
(100)
9 ft.
(3)
Not permitted
III ——
Ground and upper
floors ——————
55,000
15 ft.
13,750
12 ft.
 
(1,000)
(5)
(250)
(4)
Basement —————
8,250
(450)
9 ft.
(3)
Not permitted
Note 1:
When 2 or more classes of materials are stored in a single pile, the maximum gallonage permitted in that pile shall be the smallest of the 2 or more separate maximum gallonages.
Note 2:
Aisles shall be provided so that no container is more than 12 ft. from an aisle. Main aisles shall be at least 8 ft. wide and side aisles at least 4 ft. wide.
 
(Numbers in parentheses indicate corresponding number of 55-gal. drums.)
Note 3:
Each pile shall be separated from each other by at least 4 ft.
TABLE H-15
INDOOR PORTABLE TANK STORAGE
Class
liquid
Storage
level
Protected
storage
maximum
per pile
Unprotected
storage
maximum
per pile
 
 
 
Gal.
Ht.
 
 
Gal.
Ht.
IA ——
 
Ground and
upper floors ————
Not permitted
Not permitted
Basement —————–
Not permitted
Not permitted
IB ——
Ground and
upper floors ————
20,000
7ft.
 
 
2,000
7 ft.
Basement —————–
Not permitted
Not permitted
IC ——
Ground and
upper floors ————
40,000
14 ft
 
 
5,500
7 ft.
Basement —————–
Not permitted
Not permitted
II ——–
Ground and
upper floors ————
40,000
14 ft.
 
 
5,500
7 ft.
Basement —————–
20,000
7 ft.
 
Not permitted
III ——
 
Ground and
upper floors ————
60,000
14 ft.
 
 
22,000
7 ft.
Basement —————–
20,000
7 ft.
 
Not permitted
Note 1:
When 2 or more classes of materials are stored in a single pile, the maximum gallonage permitted in that pile shall be the smallest of the 2 or more separate maximum gallonages.
Note 2:
Aisles shall be provided so that no portable tank is more than 12 ft. from an aisle. Main aisles shall be at least 8 ft. wide and side aisles at least 4 ft. wide.
Note 3:
Each pile shall be separated from each other by at least 4 ft.
(f) Flammable ((and combustible)) liquid warehouses or storage buildings.
(i) If the storage building is located ((50)) fifty feet or less from a building or line of adjoining property that may be built upon, the exposing wall shall be a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of at least ((2)) two hours.
(ii) The total quantity of liquids within a building shall not be restricted, but the arrangement of storage shall comply with Table H-14 or H-15.
(iii) Containers in piles shall be separated by pallets or dunnage where necessary to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls.
(iv) Portable tanks stored over one tier high shall be designed to nest securely, without dunnage and adequate materials handling equipment shall be available to handle tanks safely at the upper tier level.
(v) No pile shall be closer than ((3)) three feet to the nearest beam, chord, girder, or other obstruction, and shall be ((3)) three feet below sprinkler deflectors or discharge orifices of water spray, or other overhead fire protection systems.
(vi) Aisles of at least ((3)) three feet wide shall be provided where necessary for reasons of access to doors, windows or standpipe connections.
(6) Storage outside buildings.
(a) General. Storage outside buildings shall be in accordance with Table H-16 or H-17, and (((6)))(b) and (d) of this ((section)) subsection.
TABLE H-16
OUTDOOR CONTAINER STORAGE
1
Class
 
2
Maximum
per pile
(see note 1)
3
Distance
between
piles
(see
note 2)
4
Distance
to
property
line that
can be
built
upon
(see notes
3 & 4)
5
Distance
to
street,
alley,
public
way
(see note
4)
 
 
gal.
ft.
 
ft.
 
ft.
 
IA ——————
1,100
5
 
20
 
10
 
IB ——————
2,200
5
 
20
 
10
 
IC ——————
4,400
5
 
20
 
10
 
II ——————–
8,800
5
 
10
 
5
 
III ——————
22,000
5
 
10
 
5
 
Note 1:
When 2 or more classes of materials are stored in a single pile, the maximum gallonage in that pile shall be the smallest of the 2 or more separate gallonages.
Note 2:
Within 200 ft. of each container, there shall be 12-ft. wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
Note 3:
The distances listed apply to properties that have protection for exposures as defined. If there are exposures, and such protection for exposures does not exist, the distances in column 4 shall be doubled.
Note 4:
When total quantity stored does not exceed 50 percent of maximum per pile, the distances in columns 4 and 5 may be reduced 50 percent, but not less than 3 ft.
(b) Maximum storage. A maximum of 1,100 gallons of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids may be located adjacent to buildings located on the same premises and under the same management provided the provisions of (((6)))(b)(i) and (ii) of this subsection are complied with.
(i) The building shall be a one-story building devoted principally to the handling and storing of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or the building shall have ((2)) two hour fire-resistive exterior walls having no opening within ((10)) ten feet of such storage.
(ii) Where quantity stored exceeds 1,100 gallons, or provisions of (((6)))(b)(i) of this subsection cannot be met, a minimum distance of ((10)) ten feet between buildings and nearest container of flammable ((or combustible)) liquid shall be maintained.
TABLE H-17
OUTDOOR PORTABLE TANK STORAGE
1
Class
 
2
Maximum
per pile
3
Distance
between
piles
4
Distance
to
property
line that
can be
built
upon
5
Distance
to
street,
alley,
public
way
 
 
gal.
ft.
ft.
ft.
IA ——————–
2,200
5
20
10
IB ——————–
4,400
5
20
10
IC ——————–
8,800
5
20
10
II ——————–
17,600
5
10
5
III ——————–
44,000
5
10
5
Note 1:
When 2 or more classes of materials are stored in a single pile, the maximum gallonage in that pile shall be the smallest of the 2 or more separate gallonages.
Note 2:
Within 200 ft. of each portable tank, there shall be a 12-ft. wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
Note 3:
The distances listed apply to properties that have protection for exposures as defined. If there are exposures, and such protection for exposures does not exist, the distances in column 4 shall be doubled.
Note 4:
When total quantity stored does not exceed 50 percent of maximum per pile, the distances in columns 4 and 5 may be reduced 50 percent, but not less than 3 ft.
(c) Spill containment. The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures or shall be surrounded by a curb at least ((6)) six inches high. When curbs are used, provisions shall be made for draining of accumulations of ground or rain water or spills of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids. Drains shall terminate at a safe location and shall be accessible to operation under fire conditions.
(d) Security. The storage area shall be protected against tampering or trespassers where necessary and shall be kept free of weeds, debris and other combustible material not necessary to the storage.
(7) Fire control.
(a) Extinguishers. Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers, shall be available at locations where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are stored.
(i) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units shall be located outside of, but not more than ((10)) ten feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage.
(ii) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units must be located not less than ((10)) ten feet, nor more than ((25)) twenty-five feet, from any ((Class I or Class II)) Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquid storage area located outside of a storage room but inside a building.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
(b) Sprinklers. When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with chapter 296-24 WAC, Part G-3.
(c) Open flames and smoking. Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted in flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage areas.
(d) Water reactive materials. Materials which will react with water shall not be stored in the same room with flammable ((or combustible)) liquids.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-33011 Industrial plants.
(1) Scope.
(a) Application. This section shall apply to those industrial plants where:
(i) The use of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids is incidental to the principal business, or
(ii) Where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are handled or used only in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical reaction. This section shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.
(b) Exceptions. Where portions of such plants involve chemical reactions such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes, those portions of the plant shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-33017.
(2) Incidental storage or use of flammable ((and combustible)) liquids.
(a) Application. This shall be applicable to those portions of an industrial plant where the use and handling of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids is only incidental to the principal business, such as automobile assembly, construction of electronic equipment, furniture manufacturing, or other similar activities.
(b) Containers. Flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be stored in tanks or closed containers.
(i) Except as provided in (b)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection all storage shall comply with WAC 296-24-33009 (3) or (4).
(A) When the only operation involved is the storage of flammables in containers or tanks that are closed and remain closed throughout the storage, WAC 296-24-33009(5) and tables H-14 and H-15 will apply.
(B) When the procedure involved is mixing, transferring, or other exposure of liquids to vaporization through operational procedures in which containers or tanks do not remain closed in the storage area, WAC 296-24-33009(4) and table H-13 shall be used to determine permissible quantities.
(ii) The quantity of liquid that may be located outside of an inside storage room or storage cabinet in a building or in any one fire area of a building shall not exceed:
(A) Twenty-five gallons of ((Class IA)) Category 1 flammable liquids in containers.
(B) One hundred twenty gallons of ((Class IB, IC, II, or III)) Category 2, 3, or 4 flammable liquids in containers.
(C) Six hundred sixty gallons of ((Class IB, IC, II, or III)) Category 2, 3, or 4 flammable liquids in a single portable tank.
(iii) Where large quantities of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are necessary, storage may be in tanks which shall comply with the applicable requirements of WAC 296-24-33005.
(c) Separation and protection. Areas in which flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are transferred from one tank or container to another container shall be separated from other operations in the building by adequate distance or by construction having adequate fire resistance. Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or mechanical ventilation shall be provided.
(d) Handling liquids at point of final use.
(i) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use.
(ii) Where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are used or handled, except in closed containers, means shall be provided to dispose promptly and safely of leakage or spills.
(iii) ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the possible path of vapor travel.
(iv) Flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or portable tanks within a building only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container or portable tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks shall be prohibited.
(3) Unit physical operations.
(a) Application. This subsection (3) shall be applicable in those portions of industrial plants where flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are handled or used in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical change. Examples are plants compounding cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, solvents, cleaning fluids, insecticides, and similar types of activities.
(b) Location. Industrial plants shall be located so that each building or unit of equipment is accessible from at least one side for firefighting and fire control purposes. Buildings shall be located with respect to lines of adjoining property which may be built upon as set forth in WAC 296-24-33017 (2)(a) and (b) except that the blank wall referred to in WAC 296-24-33017 (2)(b) shall have a fire resistance rating of at least two hours.
(c) Chemical processes. Areas where unstable liquids are handled or small scale unit chemical processes are carried on shall be separated from the remainder of the plant by a fire wall of two-hour minimum fire resistance rating.
(d) Drainage.
(i) Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable ((or combustible)) liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire; see WAC 296-24-33005 (2)(g)(ii).
(ii) Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separators.
(iii) The industrial plant shall be designed and operated to prevent the normal discharge of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids into public waterways, public sewers, or adjoining property.
(e) Ventilation.
(i) Areas as defined in subsection (1)(a) of this section using ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than one cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provision shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.
(ii) Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than five feet from equipment which exposes ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.
(f) Storage and handling. The storage, transfer, and handling of liquid shall comply with WAC 296-24-33017(4).
(4) Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading.
Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of twenty-five feet for ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), and fifteen feet for ((Class II and Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids, measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of WAC 296-24-33013(3).
(5) Fire control.
(a) Portable and special equipment. Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.
(b) Water supply. Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam-producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation, dispensing and storage.
(c) Special extinguishers. Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation dispensing and storage.
(d) Special hazards. Where the need is indicated by special hazards of operation, flammable ((or combustible)) liquid processing equipment, major piping, and supporting steel shall be protected by approved water spray systems, deluge systems, approved fire-resistant coatings, insulation, or any combination of these.
(e) Maintenance. All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition, and they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.
(6) Sources of ignition.
(a) General. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.
(b) Grounding. ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of these standards shall be deemed to have been complied with.
(7) Electrical.
(a) All electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(b) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class I, Division 1 according to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with the requirements of subsection (3)(e)(ii) of this section, the Division 1 area shall extend five feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.
(c) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. These locations include an area within twenty feet horizontally, three feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to three feet above floor or grade level within twenty-five feet, if indoors, or ten feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fitting, meter, or similar device handling ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C). Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If ((Class II or Class III)) only Category 3 flammable liquids ((only)) with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.
(d) Where the provisions of (a), (b), and (c) of this subsection require the installation of electrical equipment suitable for Class I, Division 1 or Division 2 locations, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.
(8) Repairs to equipment. Hot work, such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge. The individual in responsible charge shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.
(9) Housekeeping.
(a) General. Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.
(b) Access. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of flammable ((or combustible)) liquid storage, use, or any unit physical operation.
(c) Waste and residue. Combustible waste material and residues in a building or unit operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.
(d) Clear zone. Ground area around buildings and unit operating areas shall be kept free of weeds, trash, or other unnecessary combustible materials.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-33013 Bulk plants.
(1) Storage.
(a) ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C). ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be stored in closed containers, or in storage tanks above ground outside of buildings, or underground in accordance with WAC 296-24-33005.
(b) ((Class II and III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids. ((Class II and Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids shall be stored in containers, or in tanks within buildings or above ground outside of buildings, or underground in accordance with WAC 296-24-33005.
(c) Piling containers. Containers of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids when piled one upon the other shall be separated by dunnage sufficient to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls. The height of the pile shall be consistent with the stability and strength of containers.
(2) Buildings.
(a) Exits. Rooms in which flammable ((or combustible)) liquids are stored or handled by pumps shall have exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire.
(b) Heating. Rooms in which ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are stored or handled shall be heated only by means not constituting a source of ignition, such as steam or hot water. Rooms containing heating appliances involving sources of ignition shall be located and arranged to prevent entry of flammable vapors.
(c) Ventilation.
(i) Ventilation shall be provided for all rooms, buildings, or enclosures in which ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are pumped or dispensed. Design of ventilation systems shall take into account the relatively high specific gravity of the vapors. Ventilation may be provided by adequate openings in outside walls at floor level unobstructed except by louvers or course screens. Where natural ventilation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided.
(ii) ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be stored or handled within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors may travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.
(iii) Containers of ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be drawn from or filled within buildings unless provision is made to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors in hazardous concentrations. Where mechanical ventilation is required, it shall be kept in operation while flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C) are being handled.
(3) Loading and unloading facilities.
(a) Separation. Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings or nearest line of adjoining property that may be built upon by a distance of ((25)) twenty-five feet for ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), and ((15)) fifteen feet for ((Class II and Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill spout. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility.
(b) ((Class)) Category restriction. Equipment such as piping, pumps, and meters used for the transfer of ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), between storage tanks and the fill stem of the loading rack shall not be used for the transfer of ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids.
(c) Valves. Valves used for the final control for filling tank vehicles shall be of the self-closing type and manually held open except where automatic means are provided for shutting off the flow when the vehicle is full or after filling of a preset amount.
(d) Static protection.
(i) Bonding facilities for protection against static sparks during the loading of tank vehicles through open domes shall be provided:
(A) Where ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are loaded((,)); or
(B) Where ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are loaded into vehicles which may contain vapors from previous cargoes of ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C).
(ii) Protection as required in (((3)))(d)(i) of this ((section)) subsection shall consist of a metallic bond wire permanently electrically connected to the fill stem or to some part of the rack structure in electrical contact with the fill stem. The free end of such wire shall be provided with a clamp or equivalent device for convenient attachment to some metallic part in electrical contact with the cargo tank of the tank vehicle.
(iii) Such bonding connection shall be made fast to the vehicle or tank before dome covers are raised and shall remain in place until filling is completed and all dome covers have been closed and secured.
(iv) Bonding as specified in (((3)))(d)(i), (ii) and (iii) of this ((section)) subsection is not required:
(A) Where vehicles are loaded exclusively with products not having a static accumulating tendency, such as asphalt, most crude oils, residual oils, and water soluble liquids;
(B) Where no ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are handled at the loading facility and the tank vehicles loaded are used exclusively for ((Class II and Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids; and
(C) Where vehicles are loaded or unloaded through closed bottom or top connections.
(v) Filling through open domes into the tanks of tank vehicles or tank cars, that contain vapor-air mixtures within the flammable range or where the liquid being filled can form such a mixture, shall be by means of a downspout which extends near the bottom of the tank. This precaution is not required when loading liquids which are nonaccumulators of static charges.
(e) Stray currents. Tank car loading facilities where ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are loaded through open domes shall be protected against stray currents by bonding the pipe to at least one rail and to the rack structure if of metal. Multiple lines entering the rack area shall be electrically bonded together. In addition, in areas where excessive stray currents are known to exist, all pipe entering the rack area shall be provided with insulating sections to electrically isolate the rack piping from the pipelines. No bonding between the tank car and the rack or piping is required during either loading or unloading of ((Class II or III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids.
(f) Container filling facilities. ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of these standards shall be deemed to have been complied with.
(4) Wharves.
(a) Definition, application. The term wharf shall mean any wharf, pier, bulkhead, or other structure over or contiguous to navigable water used in conjunction with a bulk plant, the primary function of which is the transfer of flammable ((or combustible)) liquid cargo in bulk between the bulk plant and any tank vessel, ship, barge, lighter boat, or other mobile floating craft; and this subparagraph shall apply to all such installations except marine service stations as covered in WAC 296-24-33015.
(b) Package cargo. Package cargo of flammable ((and combustible)) liquids, including full and empty drums, bulk fuel, and stores may be handled over a wharf and at such times and places as may be agreed upon by the wharf superintendent and the senior deck officer on duty.
(c) Location. Wharves at which flammable ((or combustible)) liquid cargoes are to be transferred in bulk quantities to or from tank vessels shall be at least ((100)) one hundred feet from any bridge over a navigable waterway, or from an entrance to or superstructure of any vehicular or railroad tunnel under a waterway. The termination of the wharf loading or unloading fixed piping shall be at least ((200)) two hundred feet from a bridge or from an entrance to or superstructure of a tunnel.
(d) Design and construction. Substructure and deck shall be substantially designed for the use intended. Deck may employ any material which will afford the desired combination of flexibility, resistance to shock, durability, strength, and fire resistance. Heavy timber construction is acceptable.
(e) Tanks. Tanks used exclusively for ballast water or Class II or Class III liquids may be installed on suitably designed wharves.
(f) Pumps. Loading pumps capable of building up pressures in excess of the safe working pressure of cargo hose or loading arms shall be provided with bypasses, relief valves, or other arrangement to protect the loading facilities against excessive pressure. Relief devices shall be tested at not more than yearly intervals to determine that they function satisfactorily at the pressure at which they are set.
(g) Hoses and couplings. All pressure hoses and couplings shall be inspected at intervals appropriate to the service. The hose and couplings shall be tested with the hose extended and using the "inservice maximum operating pressures." Any hose showing material deteriorations, signs of leakage, or weakness in its carcass or at the couplings shall be withdrawn from service and repaired or discarded.
(h) Piping and fittings. Piping, valves, and fittings shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-33007 with the following exceptions and additions:
(i) Flexibility of piping shall be assured by appropriate layout and arrangement of piping supports so that motion of the wharf structure resulting from wave action, currents, tides, or the mooring of vessels will not subject the pipe to repeated strain beyond the elastic limit.
(ii) Pipe joints depending upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials or grooving of pipe ends for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used.
(iii) Swivel joints may be used in piping to which hoses are connected, and for articulated swivel-joint transfer systems, provided that the design is such that the mechanical strength of joint will not be impaired if the packing material should fail, as by exposure to fire.
(iv) Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to control the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage.
(v) In addition to the requirements of (4)(h)(iv), each line conveying Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), leading to a wharf shall be provided with a readily accessible block valve located on shore near the approach to the wharf and outside of any diked area. Where more than one line is involved, the valves shall be grouped in one location.
(vi) Means of easy access shall be provided for cargo line valves located below the wharf deck.
(vii) Pipelines on flammable ((or combustible)) liquids wharves shall be adequately bonded and grounded. If excessive stray currents are encountered, insulating points shall be installed. Bonding and grounding connections on all pipelines shall be located on wharfside of hose-riser insulating flanges, if used, and shall be accessible for inspection.
(viii) Hose or articulated swivel-joint pipe connections used for cargo transfer shall be capable of accommodating the combined effects of change in draft and maximum tidal range, and mooring lines shall be kept adjusted to prevent the surge of the vessel from placing stress on the cargo transfer system.
(ix) Hose shall be supported so as to avoid kinking and damage from chafing.
(i) Fire protection. Suitable portable fire extinguishers with a rating of not less than 12-BC shall be located with ((75)) seventy-five feet of those portions of the facility where fires are likely to occur, such as hose connections, pumps, and separator tanks.
(i) Where piped water is available, ready-connected fire hose in size appropriate for the water supply shall be provided so that manifolds where connections are made and broken can be reached by at least one hose stream.
(ii) Material shall not be placed on wharves in such a manner as to obstruct access to firefighting equipment, or important pipeline control valves.
(iii) Where the wharf is accessible to vehicle traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access of firefighting apparatus.
(j) Operations control. Loading or discharging shall not commence until the wharf superintendent and officer in charge of the tank vessel agree that the tank vessel is properly moored and all connections are properly made. Mechanical work shall not be performed on the wharf during cargo transfer, except under special authorization by a delegated person or the delegated persons authorized representative based on a review of the area involved, methods to be employed, and precaution necessary.
(5) Electrical equipment.
(a) Application. This subsection shall apply to areas where ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are stored or handled. For areas where ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids ((only)) with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are stored or handled, the electrical equipment may be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L for ordinary locations.
(b) Conformance. All electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(c) Classification. So far as it applies Table H-18 shall be used to delineate and classify hazardous areas for the purpose of installation of electrical equipment under normal circumstances. In Table H-18 a classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or other solid partition. The area classifications listed shall be based on the premise that the installation meets the applicable requirements of this section in all respects.
TABLE H-18
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARDOUS
AREAS—BULK PLANTS
Location
Class
I Group D
division
Extent of
classified
area
Tank vehicle and tank
car:1 Loading
through open
dome —————————
 
 
 
1
Within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
 
2
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through bottom connections with atmospheric
venting ————————
 
 
 
1
Within 3 feet of point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions.
 
2
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of loading connection.
Loading through closed
dome with
atmospheric
venting ————————
 
 
 
1
Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
 
2
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions. Also within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through closed
dome with vapor
recovery ————————
 
 
 
2
Within 3 feet of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions.
Bottom loading with vapor recovery or any
bottom
unloading ———————
 
 
 
2
Within 3 feet of point of connections extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of connection.
Drum and container
filling: Outdoors, or
indoors with
adequate
ventilation ———————
 
 
 
1
Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
 
2
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent or fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Outdoors, or indoors with adequate
ventilation ———————
 
 
 
1
Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
 
2
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent or fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Tank—Aboveground:
Shell, ends, or roof
and dike area ——————
 
 
 
2
Within 10 feet from shell, ends, or roof of tank, area inside dikes to level of top of dike.
Vent —————————
1
Within 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
 
2
Area between 5 feet and 10 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Floating roof ——————
1
Area above the roof and within the shell.
Pits:
Without mechanical
ventilation ———————
 
 
 
1
Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
With mechanical
ventilation ———————
 
 
 
2
Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Containing valves,
fittings or piping, and not
within a Division 1 or 2
classified area —————
 
 
 
2
Entire pit.
Pumps, bleeders,
withdrawal fittings,
meters and similar
devices:
Indoors ————————
 
 
 
2
Within 5 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Outdoors ———————
2
Within 3 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade level within 10 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Storage and repair garage
for tank
vehicles ————————
 
 
 
1
All pits or spaces below floor level.
 
2
Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage.
Drainage ditches,
separators,
impounding
basins —————————
 
 
 
2
Area up to 18 inches above ditch, separator or basin. Also up to 18 inches above grade within 15 feet horizontally from any edge.
Garages for other than
tank vehicles ——————
 
 
 
Ordinary
If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified area, the entire room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening.
Outdoor drum storage ————
Ordinary
 
Indoor warehousing where
there is no
flammable liquid
transfer ————————
 
 
 
Ordinary
If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified area, the room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
Office and rest rooms —————
Ordinary
 
 
 
 
1
When classifying the extent of the area, consideration shall be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles may be spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading or unloading positions shall be used.
(6) Sources of ignition. ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be handled, drawn, or dispensed where flammable vapors may reach a source of ignition. Smoking shall be prohibited except in designated localities. "No smoking" signs shall be conspicuously posted where hazard from flammable liquid vapors is normally present.
(7) Drainage and waste disposal. Provision shall be made to prevent flammable ((or combustible)) liquids which may be spilled at loading or unloading points from entering public sewers and drainage systems, or natural waterways. Connection to such sewers, drains, or waterways by which flammable ((or combustible)) liquids might enter shall be provided with separator boxes or other approved means whereby such entry is precluded. Crankcase drainings and flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall not be dumped into sewers, but shall be stored in tanks or tight drums outside of any building until removed from the premises.
(8) Fire control. Suitable fire-control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers, shall be available to locations where fires are likely to occur. Additional fire-control equipment may be required where a tank of more than 50,000 gallons individual capacity contains ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), and where an unusual exposure hazard exists from surrounding property. Such additional fire-control equipment shall be sufficient to extinguish a fire in the largest tank. The design and amount of such equipment shall be in accordance with approved engineering standards.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-17-033, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-24-33015 Service stations.
(1) Storage and handling.
(a) General provisions.
(i) Liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers not exceeding 60 gallons capacity, in tanks located underground, in tanks in special enclosures as described in (b) of this subsection, or in aboveground tanks as provided for in subsection (3)(b)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section.
(ii) Aboveground tanks, located in an adjoining bulk plant, may be connected by piping to service station underground tanks if, in addition to valves at aboveground tanks, a valve is also installed within control of service station personnel.
(iii) Apparatus dispensing ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles of the public shall not be located at a bulk plant unless separated by a fence or similar barrier from the area in which bulk operations are conducted.
(iv) The provisions of subsection (1) of this section shall not prohibit the dispensing of flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C) in the open from a tank vehicle to a motor vehicle. Such dispensing shall be permitted provided:
(A) The tank vehicle complies with the requirements covered in the Standard on Tank Vehicles for Flammable Liquids, NFPA 385-1966.
(B) The dispensing is done on premises not open to the public.
(C) The dispensing hose does not exceed 50 feet in length.
(D) The dispensing nozzle is a listed automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.
(((vi) Class I)) (v) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be stored or handled within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors may travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.
(((vii))) (vi) Accurate inventory records shall be maintained and reconciled on all Class I liquid storage tanks for possible indication of leakage from tanks or piping.
(b) Special enclosures.
(i) When installation of tanks in accordance with WAC 296-24-33005(3) is impractical because of property or building limitations, tanks for flammable ((or combustible)) liquids may be installed in buildings if properly enclosed.
(ii) The enclosure shall be substantially liquid and vaportight without backfill. Sides, top, and bottom of the enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least ((6)) six inches thick, with openings for inspection through the top only. Tank connections shall be so piped or closed that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space. Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment may be employed to discharge to the outside any liquid or vapors which might accumulate should leakage occur.
(iii) At automotive service stations provided in connection with tenant or customer parking facilities at or below grade level in large buildings of commercial, mercantile, or residential occupancy, tanks containing Class I liquids, installed of necessity in accordance with ((subsection (1)))(b)(ii) of this ((section)) subsection, shall not exceed 6,000 gallons individual or 18,000 gallons aggregate capacity.
(c) Inside buildings.
(i) Except where stored in tanks as provided in ((subsection (1)))(b) of this ((section)) subsection, no ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be stored within any service station building except in closed containers of aggregate capacity not exceeding 60 gallons. One container not exceeding 60 gallons capacity equipped with an approved pump is permitted.
(ii) ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), may be transferred from one container to another in lubrication or service rooms of a service station building provided the electrical installation complies with Table H-19 and provided that any heating equipment complies with subsection (5) of this section.
(iii) ((Class II and Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored and dispensed inside service station buildings from tanks of not more than 120 gallons capacity each.
(d) Labeling. No sale or purchase of any Class I, II, or III liquids shall be made in containers unless such containers are clearly marked with the name of the product contained therein.
(e) Dispensing into portable containers. No delivery of any ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be made into portable containers unless the container is constructed of metal, has a tight closure with screwed or spring cover, and is fitted with a spout or so designed that the contents can be poured without spilling.
(2) Dispensing systems.
(a) Location. Dispensing devices at automotive service stations shall be so located that all parts of the vehicle being served will be on the premises of the service station.
(b) Inside location. Approved dispensing units may be located inside of buildings. The dispensing area shall be separated from other areas in an approved manner. The dispensing unit and its piping shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means and shall be located in a position where it cannot be struck by a vehicle descending a ramp or other slope out of control. The dispensing area shall be provided with an approved mechanical or gravity ventilation system. When dispensing units are located below grade, only approved mechanical ventilation shall be used and the entire dispensing area shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Ventilating systems shall be electrically interlocked with gasoline dispensing units so that the dispensing units cannot be operated unless the ventilating fan motors are energized.
(c) Emergency power cutoff. A clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) or a circuit breaker(s) shall be provided at a location remote from dispensing devices, including remote pumping systems, to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency.
(d) Dispensing units.
(i) ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps so designed and equipped as to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage or accidental discharge.
(ii) Only listed devices may be used for dispensing ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C). No such device may be used if it shows evidence of having been dismantled.
(iii) Every dispensing device for ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), installed after December 31, 1978, shall contain evidence of listing so placed that any attempt to dismantle the device will result in damage to such evidence, visible without disassembly or dismounting of the nozzle.
(iv) ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be dispensed by pressure from drums, barrels, and similar containers. Approved pumps taking suction through the top of the container or approved self-closing faucets shall be used.
(v) The dispensing units, except those attached to containers, shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means.
(e) Remote pumping systems.
(i) This subdivision shall apply to systems for dispensing ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), where such liquids are transferred from storage to individual or multiple dispensing units by pumps located elsewhere than at the dispensing units.
(ii) Pumps shall be designed or equipped so that no part of the system will be subjected to pressures above its allowable working pressure. Pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than ((10)) ten feet from lines of adjoining property which is/or may be built upon, and not less than ((5)) five feet from any building opening. When an outside pump location is impractical, pumps may be installed inside of buildings, as provided for dispensers in (b) of this subsection, or in pits as provided in (e)(iii) of this subsection. Pumps shall be substantially anchored and protected against physical damage by vehicles.
(iii) Pits for subsurface pumps or piping manifolds of submersible pumps shall withstand the external forces to which they may be subjected without damage to the pump, tank, or piping. The pit shall be no larger than necessary for inspection and maintenance and shall be provided with a fitted cover.
(iv) A control shall be provided that will permit the pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed from its bracket on the dispensing unit and the switch on this dispensing unit is manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when all nozzles have been returned to their brackets.
(v) An approved impact valve, incorporating a fusible link, designed to close automatically in the event of severe impact or fire exposure shall be properly installed in the dispensing supply line at the base of each individual dispensing device.
(vi) Testing. After the completion of the installation, including any paving, that section of the pressure piping system between the pump discharge and the connection for the dispensing facility shall be tested for at least ((30)) thirty minutes at the maximum operating pressure of the system. Such tests shall be repeated at ((5)) five-year intervals thereafter.
(f) Delivery nozzles.
(i) A listed manual or automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve shall be provided on dispensers used for the dispensing of ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C).
(ii) Manual-closing type valves shall be held open manually during dispensing. Automatic-closing type valves may be used in conjunction with an approved latch-open device.
(g) Special type dispensers.
(i) Emergency controls shall be installed at an acceptable location, but controls shall not be more than ((100)) one hundred feet from dispensers.
(ii) Instructions for the operation of dispensers shall be conspicuously posted.
(3) Marine service stations.
(a) Dispensing.
(i) The dispensing area shall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for safe ingress and egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing units shall in all cases be at least 20 feet from any activity involving fixed sources of ignition.
(ii) Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or without integral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or floating docks or on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.
(iii) Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-open latch.
(b) Tanks and pumps.
(i) Tanks, and pumps not integral with the dispensing unit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, except as provided below.
(ii) Where shore location would require excessively long supply lines to dispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that applicable portions of WAC 296-24-33005 relative to spacing, diking, and piping are complied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1,100 gallons aggregate capacity.
(iii) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located above ground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground tanks impractical.
(iv) Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on the dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure control valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in WAC 296-24-33005 (2)(h)(ii), so adjusted that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.
(c) Piping.
(i) Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall be as described in WAC 296-24-33007, except that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on the floating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline.
(ii) A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier and at the shore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where flexible hose is attached.
(iii) Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage.
(iv) Piping handling ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C) shall be grounded to control stray currents.
(4) Electrical equipment.
(a) Application. This subsection shall apply to areas where ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are stored or handled. For areas where ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are stored or handled the electrical equipment may be installed according to the provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L for ordinary locations.
(b) All electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(c) So far as it applies, Table H-19 shall be used to delineate and classify hazardous areas for the purpose of installation of electrical equipment under normal circumstances. A classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or other solid partition.
(d) The area classifications listed shall be based on the assumption that the installation meets the applicable requirements of this section in all respects.
TABLE H-19
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARDOUS
AREAS—SERVICE STATIONS
Location
Class I,
Group D
division
 
Extent of
classified
area
Underground tank:
Fill opening ———————
 
 
 
1
Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
 
2
Up to 18 inches above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from a loose fill connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet from a tight fill connection.
Vent─Discharging
upward ————————
 
 
 
1
Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
 
2
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Dispenser: Pits ———————
1
Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Dispenser enclosure —————
1
The area 4 feet vertically above base within the enclosure and 18 inches horizontally in all directions.
Outdoor ——————————
2
Up to 18 inches above grade level within 20 feet horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
Indoor:
With mechanical
ventilation —————
 
 
 
2
Up to 18 inches above grade or floor level within 20 feet horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
With gravity
ventilation —————
2
Up to 18 inches above grade or floor level within 25 feet horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
Remote pump─Outdoor ————
1
Any pit, box or space below grade level if any part is within a horizontal distance of 10 feet from any edge of pump.
2
Within 3 feet of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade level within 10 feet horizontally from any edge of pump.
Remote pump─Indoor —————
1
Entire area within any pit.
2
Within 5 feet of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of pump.
Lubrication or service
room —————————
 
 
 
1
Entire area within any pit.
 
2
Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within entire lubrication room.
Dispenser for Class I
liquids —————————
 
 
 
2
Within 3 feet of any fill or dispensing point, extending in all directions.
Special enclosure inside
building per
WAC 296-24-33013
(1)(b) —————————
 
 
 
1
Entire enclosure.
Sales, storage and rest
rooms —————————
 
 
 
((Ordinary)) (1)
If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of a Division 1 area, the entire room shall be classified as Division 1.
Footnote
(1) Ordinary.
(5) Heating equipment.
(a) Conformance. Heating equipment shall be installed as provided in (b) through (e) of this subsection.
(b) Application. Heating equipment may be installed in the conventional manner in an area except as provided in (c), (d) or (e) of this subsection.
(c) Special room. Heating equipment may be installed in a special room separated from an area classified by Table H-19 by walls having a fire resistance rating of at least ((1)) one hour and without any openings in the walls within ((8)) eight feet of the floor into an area classified in Table H-19. This room shall not be used for combustible storage and all air for combustion purposes shall come from outside the building.
(d) Work areas. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel may be installed in the lubrication, sales, or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least ((18)) eighteen inches above the floor and the heating equipment is protected from physical damage by vehicles. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel listed for use in garages may be installed in the lubrication or service room where ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are dispensed provided the equipment is installed at least ((8)) eight feet above the floor.
(e) Electric heat. Electrical heating equipment shall conform to subsection (4) of this section.
(6) Drainage and waste disposal. Provision shall be made in the area where ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), are dispensed to prevent spilled liquids from flowing into the interior of service station buildings. Such provision may be by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other equally effective means. Crankcase drainings and flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall not be dumped into sewers but shall be stored in tanks or drums outside of any building until removed from the premises.
(7) Sources of ignition. In addition to the previous restrictions of this section, the following shall apply: There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids. Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted within sight of the customer being served. The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation.
(8) Fire control. Each service station shall be provided with at least one fire extinguisher having a minimum approved classification of 6 B, C located so that an extinguisher will be within ((75)) seventy-five feet of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service room.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-24-017, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)
WAC 296-24-33017 Processing plants.
(1) Scope. This section shall apply to those plants or buildings which contain chemical operations such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes but shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.
(2) Location.
(a) Classification. The location of each processing vessel shall be based upon its flammable ((or combustible)) liquid capacity. Processing vessels shall be located, with respect to distances to lines of adjoining property which may be built upon, in accordance with Table H−20, except when the processing plant is designed in accordance with (((2)))(b) of this ((section)) subsection.
TABLE H-20
Processing vessels with emergency relief venting to permit pressure
Stable liquids
Unstable liquids
Not in excess of
2.5 p.s.i.g.
Table H−9
2 1/2 times
Table H−9.
Over 2.5. p.s.i.g.
1 1/2 times
Table H−9.
4 times
Table H−9.
(b) Exception. The distances required in (((2)))(a) of this ((section)) subsection may be waived when the vessels are housed within a building and the exterior wall facing the line of adjoining property which may be built upon is a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 4 hours. When Class IA or unstable liquids are handled, the blank wall shall have explosion resistance in accordance with good engineering practice, see subsection (3)(d) of this section.
(3) Processing building.
(a) Construction.
(i) Processing buildings shall be of fire-resistance or noncombustible construction, except heavy timber construction with load-bearing walls may be permitted for plants utilizing only stable ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Except as provided in subsection (2)(b) of this section or in the case of explosion resistant walls used in conjunction with explosion relieving facilities, see (((3)))(d) of this ((section)) subsection, loadbearing walls are prohibited. Buildings shall be without basements or covered pits.
(ii) Areas shall have adequate exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire. Exits shall not be exposed by the drainage facilities described in (((3)))(b) of this ((section)) subsection.
(b) Drainage.
(i) Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable ((or combustible)) liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire, see WAC 296-24-33005 (2)(g)(ii).
(ii) Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separators.
(iii) The processing plant shall be designed and operated to prevent the normal discharge of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids to public waterways, public sewers, or adjoining property.
(c) Ventilation.
(i) Enclosed processing buildings shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than ((1)) one cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provision shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.
(ii) Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than ((5)) five feet from equipment which exposes ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.
(d) Explosion relief. Areas where ((Class IA)) Category 1 or unstable liquids are processed shall have explosion venting through one or more of the following methods:
(i) Open air construction.
(ii) Lightweight walls and roof.
(iii) Lightweight wall panels and roof hatches.
(iv) Windows of explosion venting type.
(4) Liquid handling.
(a) Storage.
(i) The storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in tanks shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of WAC 296-24-33005.
(ii) If the storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in outside aboveground or underground tanks is not practical because of temperature or production considerations, tanks may be permitted inside of buildings or structures in accordance with the applicable provisions of WAC 296-24-33005.
(iii) Storage tanks inside of buildings shall be permitted only in areas at or above grade which have adequate drainage and are separated from the processing area by construction having a fire resistance rating of at least ((2)) two hours.
(iv) The storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in containers shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of WAC 296-24-33009.
(b) Piping, valves, and fittings.
(i) Piping, valves, and fittings shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-33007.
(ii) Approved flexible connectors may be used where vibration exists or where frequent movement is necessary. Approved hose may be used at transfer stations.
(iii) Piping containing flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be identified.
(c) Transfer.
(i) The transfer of large quantities of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be through piping by means of pumps or water displacement. Except as required in process equipment, gravity flow shall not be used. The use of compressed air as a transferring medium is prohibited.
(ii) Positive displacement pumps shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank or to pump suction.
(d) Equipment.
(i) Equipment shall be designed and arranged to prevent the unintentional escape of liquids and vapors and to minimize the quantity escaping in the event of accidental release.
(ii) Where the vapor space of equipment is usually within the flammable range, the probability of explosion damage to the equipment can be limited by inerting, by providing an explosion suppression system, or by designing the equipment to contain the peak explosion pressure which may be modified by explosion relief. Where the special hazards of operation, sources of ignition, or exposures indicate a need, consideration shall be given to providing protection by one or more of the above means.
(5) Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading. Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings, or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of ((25)) twenty-five feet for ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), and ((15)) fifteen feet for ((Class II and Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and Category 4 flammable liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of WAC 296-24-33013(3).
(6) Fire control.
(a) Portable extinguishers. Approved portable fire extinguishers of appropriate size, type and number shall be provided.
(b) Other controls. Where the special hazards of operation or exposure indicate a need, the following fire control provision shall be provided.
(i) A reliable water supply shall be available in pressure and quantity adequate to meet the probable fire demands.
(ii) Hydrants shall be provided in accordance with accepted good practice.
(iii) Hose connected to a source of water shall be installed so that all vessels, pumps, and other equipment containing flammable ((or combustible)) liquids can be reached with at least one hose stream. Nozzles that are capable of discharging a water spray shall be provided.
(iv) Processing plants shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system or equivalent extinguishing system. If special extinguishing systems including but not limited to those employing foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical are provided, approved equipment shall be used and installed in an approved manner.
(c) Alarm systems. An approved means for prompt notification of fire to those within the plant and any public fire department available shall be provided. It may be advisable to connect the plant system with the public system where public fire alarm system is available.
(d) Maintenance. All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition and that they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.
(7) Sources of ignition.
(a) General.
(i) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, any mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.
(ii) ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.
(b) Maintenance and repair.
(i) When necessary to do maintenance work in a flammable ((or combustible)) liquid processing area, the work shall be authorized by a responsible representative of the employer.
(ii) Hot work such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge who shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.
(c) Electrical.
(i) All electrical wiring and equipment within storage or processing areas shall be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(ii) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), Division 1 according to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with subsection (3)(c)(ii) of this section, the Division 1 area shall extend ((5)) five feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.
(iii) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. These locations include an area within ((20)) twenty feet horizontally, ((3)) three feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to ((3)) three feet above floor or grade level within ((25)) twenty-five feet, if indoors, or ((10)) ten feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fittings, meter, or similar device handling ((Class I)) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C). Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If ((Class II or Class III)) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) or Category 4 flammable liquids only are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.
(iv) Where the provisions of (((7)))(c)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this ((section)) subsection require the installation of explosion-proof equipment, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.
(8) Housekeeping.
(a) General. Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.
(b) Access. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of the processing equipment.
(c) Waste and residues. Combustible waste material and residues in a building or operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in closed metal waste cans, and disposed of daily.
(d) Clear zone. Ground area around buildings and operating areas shall be kept free of tall grass, weeds, trash, or other combustible materials.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 )
WAC 296-24-33019 Refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries.
(1) Storage tanks. Flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be stored in tanks, in containers, or in portable tanks. Tanks shall be installed in accordance with WAC 296-24-33005. Tanks for the storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids in tank farms and in locations other than process areas shall be located in accordance with WAC 296-24-33005 (2)(a) and (b).
(2) Wharves. Wharves handling flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-33013(4).
(3) Fired and unfired pressure vessels.
(a) Fired vessels. Fired pressure vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Fired Pressure Vessels, section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968.
(b) Unfired vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968.
(4) Location of process units. Process units shall be located so that they are accessible from at least one side for the purpose of fire control. Where topographical conditions are such that flammable ((or combustible)) liquids may flow from a processing area so as to constitute a fire hazard to property of others, provision shall be made to divert or impound the flow by curbs, drains, or other suitable means.
(5) Fire control.
(a) Portable equipment. Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.
(b) Water supply. Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.
(c) Special equipment. Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 )
WAC 296-24-370 Spray finishing using flammable ((and combustible)) materials.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-24-017, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)
WAC 296-24-37005 Electrical and other sources of ignition.
(1) Conformance. All electrical equipment, open flames and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of this section, except as follows:
(a) Electrostatic apparatus shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-37015 and 296-24-37017.
(b) Drying, curing, and fusion apparatus shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-37019.
(c) Automobile undercoating spray operations in garages shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-37021.
(d) Powder coating equipment shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-37023.
(2) Minimum separation. There shall be no open flame or spark producing equipment in any spraying area nor within ((20)) twenty feet thereof, unless separated by a partition.
(3) Hot surfaces. Space-heating appliances, steampipes, or hot surfaces shall not be located in a spraying area where deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate.
(4) Wiring conformance. Electrical wiring and equipment shall conform to the provisions of this section and chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(5) Combustible residues, areas. Unless specifically approved for locations containing both deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors, there shall be no electrical equipment in any spraying area, whereon deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate, except wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing no taps, splices, or terminal connections.
(6) Wiring type approved. Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combustible residues but located in a spraying area as herein defined shall be of explosion-proof type approved for Class I, Group D locations and conform to the provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, for Class I, Division 1, hazardous locations. Electrical wiring, motors, and other equipment outside of but within twenty feet of any spraying area, and not separated therefrom by partitions, shall not produce sparks under normal operating conditions and conform to the provisions of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L for Class I, Division 2, hazardous locations.
(7) Lamps. Electric lamps outside of, but within twenty feet of any spraying area, and not separated therefrom by a partition, shall be totally enclosed to prevent the falling of hot particles and shall be protected from mechanical injury by suitable guards or by location.
(8) Portable lamps. Portable electric lamps shall not be used in any spraying area during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps, if used during cleaning or repairing operations, shall be of the type approved for hazardous Class I locations.
(9) Grounding.
(a) All metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, and piping systems conveying flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) or aerated solids shall be properly electrically grounded in an effective and permanent manner.
(b) "Airless" high-fluid pressure spray guns and any conductive object being sprayed should be properly electrically grounded.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 )
WAC 296-24-37009 Flammable ((and combustible)) liquids((—Storage and handling)) and liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C).
(1) Conformance. The storage of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) in connection with spraying operations shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-330, where applicable.
(2) Quantity. The quantity of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) kept in the vicinity of spraying operations shall be the minimum required for operations and should ordinarily not exceed a supply for ((1)) one day or one shift. Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) shall be in a separate, constructed building detached from other important buildings or cut off in a standard manner.
(3) Containers. Original closed containers, approved portable tanks, approved safety cans or a properly arranged system of piping shall be used for bringing flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) into spray finishing room. Open or glass containers shall not be used.
(4) Transferring liquids. Except as provided in subsection (5) of this section, the withdrawal of flammable ((and combustible)) liquids and liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) from containers having a capacity of greater than 60 gallons shall be by approved pumps. The withdrawal of flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) from containers and the filling of containers, including portable mixing tanks, shall be done only in a suitable mixing room or in a spraying area when the ventilating system is in operation. Adequate precautions shall be taken to protect against liquid spillage and sources of ignition.
(5) Spraying containers. Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be of closed type or provided with metal covers kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on metal supports or suspended by wire cables. Containers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not exceed 10 gallons capacity. Original shipping containers shall not be subject to air pressure for supplying spray nozzles. Containers under air pressure supplying spray nozzles shall be of limited capacity, not exceeding that necessary for ((1)) one day's operation; shall be designed and approved for such use; shall be provided with a visible pressure gage; and shall be provided with a relief valve set to operate in conformance with the requirements of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968. Containers under air pressure supplying spray nozzles, air-storage tanks and coolers shall conform to the standards of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968 for construction, tests, and maintenance.
(6) Pipes and hoses.
(a) All containers or piping to which is attached a hose or flexible connection shall be provided with a shutoff valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut when spraying operations are not being conducted.
(b) When a pump is used to deliver products, automatic means shall be provided to prevent pressure in excess of the design working pressure of accessories, piping, and hose.
(c) All pressure hose and couplings shall be inspected at regular intervals appropriate to this service. The hose and couplings shall be tested with the hose extended, and using the "inservice maximum operating pressures." Any hose showing material deteriorations, signs of leakage, or weakness in its carcass or at the couplings, shall be withdrawn from service and repaired or discarded.
(d) Piping systems conveying flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) shall be of steel or other material having comparable properties of resistance to heat and physical damage. Piping systems shall be properly bonded and grounded.
(7) Spray liquid heaters. Electrically powered spray liquid heaters shall be approved and listed for the specific location in which used (see WAC 296-24-37005). Heaters shall not be located in spray booths nor other locations subject to the accumulation of deposits or combustible residue. Agitators, if used, should preferably be driven by compressed air, water, or low-pressure steam. If an electric motor is used, (see WAC 296-24-37005).
(8) Pump relief. If flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) are supplied to spray nozzles by positive displacement pumps, the pump discharge line shall be provided with an approved relief valve discharging to a pump suction or a safe detached location, or a device provided to stop the prime mover if the discharge pressure exceeds the safe operating pressure of the system.
(9) Grounding. Whenever flammable ((or combustible)) liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) are transferred from one container to another, both containers shall be effectively bonded and grounded to prevent discharge sparks of static electricity.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73)
WAC 296-24-71501 General.
(1) Contamination. The requirements in this section have been established on the basis of the following three factors in arc and gas welding which govern the amount of contamination to which welders may be exposed:
(a) Dimensions of space in which welding is to be done (with special regard to height of ceiling).
(b) Number of welders.
(c) Possible evolution of hazardous fumes, gases, or dust according to the metals involved.
(2) Ventilation. It is recognized that in individual instances other factors may be involved in which case ventilation or respiratory protective devices should be provided as needed to meet the equivalent requirements of this section. Such factors would include:
(a) Atmospheric conditions.
(b) Heat generated.
(c) Presence of volatile solvents.
(3) Screens. When welding must be performed in a space entirely screened on all sides, the screens shall be so arranged that no serious restriction of ventilation exists. It is desirable to have the screens so mounted that they are about 2 feet above the floor unless the work is performed at so low a level that the screen must be extended nearer to the floor to protect nearby workers from the glare of welding.
(4) Maximum allowable concentration. Local exhaust or general ventilating systems shall be provided and arranged to keep the amount of toxic fumes, gases, or dusts below the maximum allowable concentration as specified in chapter 296-62 WAC.
Note:
A number of potentially hazardous materials are employed in fluxes, coatings, coverings, and filler metals used in welding and cutting or are released to the atmosphere during welding and cutting. These include but are not limited to the materials itemized in WAC 296-24-71509 through 296-24-71523.
(5) ((Precautionary labels. The employer shall ascertain the potentially hazardous materials, associated with welding, cutting, etc., and inform the employee of same wither [whether]through signs, labels or other appropriate means.
(a))) Hazard communication. The employer shall include the potentially hazardous materials employed in fluxes, coatings, coverings, and filler metals, all of which are potentially used in welding and cutting, or are released to the atmosphere during welding and cutting, in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140. The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of such materials and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of WAC 296-901-14014. Potentially hazardous materials shall include, but not be limited to, the materials itemized in WAC 296-24-71509 through 296-24-71523.
(a) Additional considerations for hazard communication in welding, cutting, and brazing.
(i) The suppliers shall determine and shall label in accordance with WAC 296-901-140 any hazards associated with the use of their materials in welding, cutting, and brazing.
(ii) In addition to any requirements imposed by WAC 296-901-140, all filler metals and fusible granular materials shall carry the following notice, at a minimum, on tags, boxes, or other containers:
Do not use in areas without adequate ventilation. See ANSI Z49.1-1967 Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes published by the American Welding Society.
(iii) Where brazing (welding) filler metals contain cadmium in significant amounts, the labels shall indicate the hazards associated with cadmium including cancer, lung and kidney effects, and acute toxicity effects.
(iv) Where brazing and gas welding fluxes contain fluorine compounds, the labels shall indicate the hazards associated with fluorine compounds including eye and respiratory tract effects.
(b) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on labels in lieu of the labeling requirements in (a) of this subsection:
(i) All filler metals and fusible granular materials shall carry the following notice, as a minimum, on tags, boxes, or other containers:
CAUTION
Welding may produce fumes and gases hazardous to health. Avoid breathing these fumes and gases. Use adequate ventilation. See ANSI Z 49.1-1967 Safety in Welding and Cutting published by the American Welding Society.
(((b))) (ii) Brazing (welding) filler metals containing cadmium in significant amounts shall carry the following notice on tags, boxes, or other containers:
WARNING
CONTAINS CADMIUM—POISONOUS FUMES MAY BE FORMED
ON HEATING
Do not breathe fumes. Use only with adequate ventilation such as fume collectors, exhaust ventilators, or air-supplied respirators. See ANSI Z49.1-1967.
If chest pain, cough, or fever develops after use call physician immediately.
Keep children away when using.
(((c))) (iii) Brazing and gas welding fluxes containing fluorine compounds shall have a cautionary wording to indicate that they contain fluorine compounds. One such cautionary wording recommended by the American Welding Society for brazing and gas welding fluxes reads as follows:
CAUTION
CONTAINS FLUORIDES
This flux when heated gives off fumes that may irritate eyes, nose and throat.
(((i))) (A) Avoid fumes((-)) - Use only in well-ventilated spaces.
(((ii))) (B) Avoid contact of flux with eyes or skin.
(((iii))) (C) Do not take internally.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-32-230 Training.
(1) Employers shall provide training in the various precautions and safe practices described in this section and shall insure that employees do not engage in the activities to which this chapter applies until such employees have received proper training in the various precautions and safe practices required by this section. However, where the employer can demonstrate that an employee is already trained in the precautions and safe practices required by this section prior to their employment, training need not be provided to that employee in accordance with this section.
(2) Where training is required, it shall consist of on-the-job training or classroom-type training or a combination of both.
(3) The training program shall include a list of the subject courses and the types of personnel required to receive such instruction. A written description of the training program and a record of employees who have received such training shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment and shall be made available upon request to the director of the department of labor and industries, or his/her authorized representative.
(4) Such training shall, where appropriate, include the following subjects:
(a) Recognition and avoidance of dangers relating to encounters with harmful substances, and animal, insect, or plant life.
(b) Procedures to be followed in emergency situations, and
(c) First-aid training, including instruction in artificial respiration.
(5) It shall be the responsibility of the employer to hold monthly safety meetings at practical points throughout the operation and insist upon employees attending said meetings. Minutes shall be kept of each safety meeting and retained for a period of one year.
(6) It shall be the responsibility of management to develop and maintain a ((chemical)) hazard communication program as required by WAC ((296-800-170)) 296-901-140, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-45-035 Definitions.
These definitions apply to chapter 296-45 WAC.
"Aerial manlift equipment" - Equipment such as extended towers, boom-mounted cages or baskets, and truck-mounted ladders, that is primarily designed to place personnel and equipment aloft to work on elevated structures and equipment.
"Affected employee" - An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
"Apprentice" - An employee who is being trained to be journey level.
"Approved" - Meets or exceeds the recognized standards of safety within the industry.
"Approved protectors" - Gloves worn over rubber insulating gloves which are of such material or substance and so constructed as to protect the rubber gloves from abrasions, lacerations, or other physical damage which might otherwise occur to rubber gloves. Approved protectors must conform to the standards which are recognized by the industry.
"Attendant" - An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.
"Authorized employee" - An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.
"Automatic circuit recloser" - A self-controlled device for interrupting and reclosing an alternating current circuit with a predetermined sequence of opening and reclosing followed by resetting, hold-closed, or lockout operation.
"Barricade" - A physical obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame type wood or metal structures intended to provide a warning about and to limit access to a hazardous area.
"Barrier" - A physical obstruction which is intended to prevent contact with energized lines or equipment or to prevent unauthorized access to a work area.
"Bond" - The electrical interconnection of conductive parts designed to maintain a common electrical potential.
"Bus" - A conductor or a group of conductors that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits.
"Bushing" - An insulating structure, including a through conductor or providing a passageway for such a conductor, with provision for mounting on a barrier, conducting or otherwise, for the purposes of insulating the conductor from the barrier and conducting current from one side of the barrier to the other.
"Cable" - A conductor with insulation, or a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).
"Cable sheath" - A conductive protective covering applied to cables.
Note:
A cable sheath may consist of multiple layers of which one or more is conductive.
"Circuit" - A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow.
"Clearance" (between objects) - The clear distance between two objects measured surface to surface.
"Clearance" (for work) - Authorization to perform specified work or permission to enter a restricted area.
"Communication lines." (See "Lines, communication.")
"Conductor" - A material, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or bus bar, used for carrying an electric current.
"Covered conductor" - A conductor covered with a dielectric having no rated insulating strength or having a rated insulating strength less than the voltage of the circuit in which the conductor is used.
"Current-carrying part" - A conducting part intended to be connected in an electric circuit to a source of voltage. Noncurrent-carrying parts are those not intended to be so connected.
"Deenergized" - Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential difference and from electric charge; not having a potential difference from that of the earth.
Note:
The term is used only with reference to current-carrying parts, which are sometimes energized (alive).
"Designated employee/person" - An employee/person who is designated by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this section and who is knowledgeable in the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved.
"Electric line truck" - Any vehicle used to transport employees, tools, and material, which serves as a traveling workshop for electric power line construction and maintenance work. It may be equipped with a boom and auxiliary equipment for setting poles, digging holes, and elevating material and/or workers.
"Electric supply equipment" - Equipment that produces, modifies, regulates, controls, or safeguards a supply of electric energy.
"Electric supply lines." (See "Lines, electric supply.")
"Electric utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of an electric supply system.
"Emergency" - An unforeseen occurrence endangering life, limb, or property.
"Enclosed" - Surrounded by a case, cage, fence or otherwise which will protect the contained equipment and prevent accidental contact of a person with live parts.
"Enclosed space" - A working space, such as a manhole, vault, tunnel, or shaft, that has a limited means of egress or entry, that is designed for periodic employee entry under normal operating conditions, and that under normal conditions does not contain a hazardous atmosphere, but that may contain a hazardous atmosphere under abnormal conditions.
Note:
Spaces that are enclosed but not designed for employee entry under normal operating conditions are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Similarly, spaces that are enclosed and that are expected to contain a hazardous atmosphere are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Such spaces meet the definition of permit spaces in WAC 296-62-145, and entry into them must be performed in accordance with that standard.
"Energized" (alive, live) - Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity.
"Energy isolating device" - A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including, but not limited to, the following: A manually operated electric circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line valve, blocks, and any similar device with a visible indication of the position of the device. (Push buttons, selector switches, and other control-circuit-type devices are not energy isolating devices.)
"Energy source" - Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy source that could cause injury to personnel.
"Equipment" (electric) - A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like used as part of or in connection with an electrical installation.
"Exposed" - Not isolated or guarded.
"Fault current" - The current that flows in an electrical system because of a defect in the circuit induced accidentally or otherwise.
"Fixed ladder" - A ladder that is permanently secured to a structure.
"Ground" - A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electric circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded" - Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded system" - A system of conductors in which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire, or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded either solidly or through a current-limiting device (not a current-interrupting device).
"Groundperson" - A member of crew working on ground under direction of a leadworker.
"Guarded" - Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to prevent the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or accidental contact by persons or objects.
Note:
Wires which are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not considered as guarded.
"Hazardous atmosphere" - An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from an enclosed space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
• Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
• Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;
Note:
This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less;
• Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
• Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part L, or in chapter 296-62 WAC, toxic and hazardous substances, and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;
Note:
An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.
• Any other atmospheric condition that is "immediately dangerous to life or health" (IDLH).
"IDLH" - Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
Note:
Some materials (hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example) may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.
Note:
For air contaminants for which WISHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as ((Material)) Safety Data Sheets that comply with the ((Chemical)) hazard communication program, WAC ((296-800-170)) 296-901-140, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
"High-power tests" - Tests in which fault currents, load currents, magnetizing currents, and line-dropping currents are used to test equipment, either at the equipment's rated voltage or at lower voltages.
"High-voltage tests" - Tests in which voltages of approximately 1000 volts are used as a practical minimum and in which the voltage source has sufficient energy to cause injury.
"High wind" - A wind of such velocity that the following hazards would be present:
• An employee would be exposed to being blown from elevated locations; or
• An employee or material handling equipment could lose control of material being handled; or
• An employee would be exposed to other hazards not controlled by the standard involved.
Note:
Winds exceeding 40 miles per hour (64.4 kilometers per hour), or 30 miles per hour (48.3 kilometers per hour) if material handling is involved, are normally considered as meeting this criteria unless precautions are taken to protect employees from the hazardous effects of the wind.
"Insulated" - Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current.
Note:
When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the conditions to which it is normally subjected. Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of this section, uninsulated.
"Insulation" (cable) - That which is relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from ground.
"Insulation shielding" - An envelope which encloses the insulation of a cable and provides an equipotential surface in contact with cable insulation.
"Isolated" - An object that is not readily accessible to persons unless special means of access are used.
"Leadworker" - The person directly in charge of workers doing the work, regardless of title.
"Line-clearance tree trimmer" - An employee who, through related training or on-the-job experience or both, is familiar with the special techniques and hazards involved in line-clearance tree trimming.
Note 1:
An employee who is regularly assigned to a line-clearance tree-trimming crew and who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a line-clearance tree trimmer.
Note 2:
A line-clearance tree trimmer is not considered to be a "qualified employee" under this section unless he or she has the training required for a qualified employee under WAC 296-45-065. However, under the electrical safety-related work practices standard, a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a "qualified employee." Tree trimming performed by such "qualified employees" is not subject to the electrical safety-related work practice requirements contained in WAC 296-24-970. (See also the note following WAC 296-24-970 for information regarding the training an employee must have to be considered a qualified employee.)
"Line-clearance tree trimming" - The pruning, trimming, repairing, maintaining, removing, or clearing of trees or the cutting of brush that is within 10 feet (305 cm) of electric supply lines and equipment.
"Lines" -
"Communication lines" - The conductors and their supporting or containing structures which are used for public or private signal or communication service, and which operate at potentials not exceeding 400 volts to ground or 750 volts between any two points of the circuit, and the transmitted power of which does not exceed 150 watts. If the lines are operating at less than 150 volts, no limit is placed on the transmitted power of the system. Under certain conditions, communication cables may include communication circuits exceeding these limitations where such circuits are also used to supply power solely to communication equipment.
Note:
Telephone, telegraph, railroad signal, data, clock, fire, police alarm, cable television, and other systems conforming with this definition are included. Lines used for signaling purposes, but not included under this definition, are considered as electric supply lines of the same voltage.
"Electric supply lines" - Conductors used to transmit electric energy and their necessary supporting or containing structures. Signal lines of more than 400 volts are always supply lines within this section, and those of less than 400 volts are considered as supply lines, if so run and operated throughout.
"Live-line tools and ropes" - Tools and ropes specifically designed for work on energized high voltage lines and equipment.
"Load-break elbow" - A connector designed to close and interrupt current on energized circuits within the design current and voltage rating.
"Manhole" - A subsurface enclosure which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, and maintaining submersible equipment or cable.
"Manhole steps" - A series of steps individually attached to or set into the walls of a manhole structure.
"Minimum approach distance" - The closest distance an employee is permitted to approach an energized or a grounded object.
"Neutral" - A system in which one conductor is used as the neutral for one or more circuits; one conductor may be used as the neutral for both primary and secondary circuits of a distribution system.
"Pole" - Any device used to support a power distribution or transmission line. The pole may be made of any substance including wood, concrete, metal, is usually cylindrical in shape and comparatively slender. It is the upright standard to which is affixed part of the power distribution and transmission line system as defined in this chapter.
"Power dispatcher" (load dispatcher or system operator) - A person who has been designated by the employer as having authority over switching and clearances of high voltage lines and station equipment.
"Protective devices" - Devices such as rubber gloves, rubber blankets, line hose, rubber boots, or other insulating devices, which are specifically designed for the protection of employees.
"Public highway" - Every way, land, road, street, boulevard, and every other way or place in the state open as a matter of right to public vehicular travel, both inside and outside the limits of cities and towns, regardless of ownership.
"Qualified person or qualified employee" - A person who is familiar with the construction of, or operation of such lines and/or equipment that concerns his/her position and who is fully aware of the hazards connected therewith, or, one who has passed a journey status examination for the particular branch of the electrical trades with which he/she may be connected.
Note 1:
An employee must have the training required by WAC 296-45-065(1) in order to be considered a qualified employee.
Note 2:
(Apprentice) Except under WAC 296-45-25510(12), an employee who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person is considered to be a qualified person for the performance of those duties.
"Rubber" - Any goods, equipment, or tool made out of either natural or synthetic rubber.
"Secured ladder" - A ladder which is not capable of being dislodged from the top by lateral, or jerking motion(s).
"Sheath" - As applied to tools carried in a lineman's tool belt, a sheath that effectively covers the tool and prevents such tool from falling from the belt.
"Step bolt" - A bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member and used for foot placement during climbing or standing.
"Supporting structure" - The main supporting unit (usually a pole or tower).
"Switch" - A device for opening and closing or for changing the connection of a circuit. In these rules, a switch is understood to be manually operable, unless otherwise stated.
"System operator or power dispatcher" - A qualified person who has been designated by the employer and having authority over switching, clearances, and operation of the system and its parts.
"Tag" - A system or method of identifying circuits, systems, or equipment for the purpose of alerting employees and others that the circuit, system, or equipment is being worked on.
"Underground network" - An underground electrical installation fed from multiple primary sources directly associated with area-wide secondary network connected into a common grid.
"Underground residential distribution system" (URD) - An electrical installation normally fed from a single primary source which may feed one or more transformers with secondaries not connected to a common grid.
"Utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of electric supply or communications systems.
"Vault" - An enclosure, above or below ground, which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, or maintaining equipment or cable.
"Vented vault" - A vault that has provision for air changes using exhaust flue stacks and low level air intakes operating on differentials of pressure and temperature providing for airflow which precludes a hazardous atmosphere from developing.
"Voltage" - The effective (rms) potential difference between any two conductors or between a conductor and ground. Voltages are expressed in nominal values unless otherwise indicated. The nominal voltage of a system or circuit is the value assigned to a system or circuit of a given voltage class for the purpose of convenient designation. The operating voltage of the system may vary above or below this value.
Note:
Low voltage includes voltages from 50 to 600 volts. High voltage shall mean those voltages of 601 volts to 230,000. Extra high voltage means any voltage over 230,000 volts. Where the words "high voltage" are used in this chapter it shall include extra high voltage, unless otherwise specified.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-45-055 Employer's responsibility.
(1) The employer shall provide and maintain the necessary protective devices specified in these rules and require the employees to use them properly.
(2) The employer shall develop and maintain a ((chemical)) hazard communication program as required by WAC ((296-800-170)) 296-901-140, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.
(3) There shall be installed and maintained in every fixed establishment employing eight or more persons a safety bulletin board of a size to display and post safety bulletins, newsletters, posters, accident statistics and other safety educational material. It is recommended that safety bulletin boards be painted green and white.
(4) The employer shall require the leadworker to observe and enforce all safety rules and shall furnish a copy of the electrical workers' safety rules to each employee who is covered by these rules.
(5) The employer shall appoint only competent workers to supervise other employees and those appointed shall be responsible for the safety of the employees under their supervision.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 03-06-073, filed 3/4/03, effective 8/1/03)
WAC 296-52-69095 Ammonium nitrate.
(1) Storage.
(a) Ammonium nitrate storage requirements do not apply to:
• The transportation of ammonium nitrates while under the jurisdiction of and in compliance with U.S. DOT regulations (see 49 C.F.R., Part 173)
• The storage of ammonium nitrates while under the jurisdiction of and in compliance with U.S. Coast Guard (see 49 C.F.R., Parts 146-149)
• The storage of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures, which are more sensitive than allowed by the bulletin
"Definition and test procedures for ammonium nitrate fertilizers" from the Fertilizer Institute, 501 2nd ((St. NE)) Street N.E., Washington, D.C. 20006.
This definition limits the contents of organic materials, metals, sulfur, etc., in products that may be classified ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
• The production of ammonium nitrate or the storage of ammonium nitrate on the premises of the producing plant, if no hazards are created to the employees or public
• The standards for ammonium nitrate (nitrous oxide grade) that are found in the:
"Specifications, properties and recommendations for packaging, transportation, storage and use of ammonium nitrate," from the Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1004, Arlington, VA 22202-4100.
(b) Ammonium nitrate storage requirements apply to:
• Anyone, in addition to the owner or lessee of any building, premises, or structure having or storing ammonium nitrate in quantities of one thousand pounds (425 kg) or more
• Ammonium nitrate in the form of crystals, flakes, grains, or prills including fertilizer grade, dynamite grade, nitrous oxide grade, technical grade, and other mixtures containing sixty percent or more ammonium nitrate by weight
Note:
The approval of large quantity storage is based on the fire and explosion hazards, including exposure to toxic vapors from burning or decomposing ammonium nitrate.
(c) Storage buildings housing ammonium nitrate must:
• Have adequate ventilation or be self-ventilating in the event of a fire
• Have fire resistant walls when the exposed side of a storage building is within fifty feet (15.2 m) of a combustible building, forest, piles of combustible materials, and similar exposure hazards. Other suitable means of exposure protection such as a freestanding wall may be used instead of a fire resistant wall
• Have roof coverings that are Division 1.4 or better as defined in Roof Coverings, NFPA 203M-1970
• Have flooring of noncombustible material or be protected against saturation by ammonium nitrate. In case of fire, the floor must not have open drains, traps, tunnels, pits, or pockets into which molten ammonium nitrate could flow and be confined
• Be dry and free from water seepage through the roof, walls, and floors
• Not have basements, unless the basements are open on at least one side
• Not be over one story in height
Note:
The continued use of an existing storage building or structure may be approved in cases where continued use will not constitute a hazard to life or adjoining property.
Bags, drums, and other containers of ammonium nitrate must:
(d) Comply with specifications and standards required for use in interstate commerce (see 49 C.F.R., Chapter 1). Containers used on the premises in the actual manufacturing or processing do not need to comply.
• Not be used for storage when the temperature of the ammonium nitrate exceeds 130°F (54.4°C)
• Not be stored within thirty inches (76 cm) of the storage building walls and partitions
• Not be stacked higher than twenty feet (6.1 m) in height, twenty feet (6.1 m) in width, and fifty feet (15.2 m) in length. When buildings are constructed of noncombustible materials or protected by automatic sprinklers, there are no stacking height restrictions
• Never be stacked closer than thirty-six inches (.09 m) below the roof or overhead supporting and spreader beams
• Be separated by aisles a minimum of ((3)) three feet wide. There must be one main aisle in the storage area a minimum of four feet (1.2 m) wide
(e) Bulk ammonium nitrate must be stored:
• In warehouses with adequate ventilation or be capable of adequate ventilation in case of fire
• In structures that are not more than forty feet (12.2 m) high, unless:
– They are constructed of noncombustible material
OR
– Have adequate facilities for fighting a roof fire
• In clean bins that are free of materials that could cause contamination
• In bins or piles that are clearly identified by signs reading "AMMONIUM NITRATE" in letters a minimum of two inches (5 cm) high
• In bins or piles sized and arranged so all material is moved periodically to minimize the possibility of caking
• Adequately separated from easily combustible fuels. Bins cannot be made of galvanized iron, copper, lead, and zinc because of the:
– Corrosive and reactive properties of ammonium nitrate
AND
– To avoid contamination
• In tightly constructed wooden and aluminum bins that are protected against saturation from ammonium nitrate
• In tightly constructed partitions that divide the ammonium nitrate from other products to avoid contamination
• Where the temperature of the product does not exceed 130°F (54.4°C)
• No higher than thirty-six inches (0.9 m) below the roof or overhead supporting and spreader beams if stacked in piles. Stack limits (height and depth), should be determined by the pressure setting tendency of the product
(f) Bulk ammonium nitrate when caked, cannot be broken up or loosed by the use of dynamite, other explosives or blasting agents.
(g) Bulk ammonium nitrate cannot be stored with:
• LP Gas on the premises except when such storage complies with WAC 296-24-475, Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases
• Sulfur and finely divided metals in the same building except when such storage complies with this chapter and NFPA standard 495, Explosives Materials Code
• Explosives and blasting agents in the same building except on the premises of manufacturers, distributors, and user of explosives or blasting agents
• When explosives or blasting agents are stored in separate buildings, other than on the approval of manufacturers, distributors, and user, they must be separated from the ammonium nitrate by the distances and/or barricades specified in Table H-22 or a minimum of fifty feet (15.2 m)
• With flammable liquids, such as gasoline, kerosene, solvents, and light fuel oils on the premises except when such storage conforms to WAC 296-24-330, Flammable ((and combustible)) liquids, and when walls, sills or curbs are provided in accordance with WAC 296-52-69095, Ammonium nitrate
(2) Contaminants must be stored in a separate building from ammonium nitrate
OR
Be separated by an approved firewall of not less that one-hour fire resistance rating which should extend to the underside of the roof. Alternatively, the contaminants may be separated by a minimum of thirty feet (9.1 m), instead of using walls. These contaminants are:
• Organic chemicals
• Acids
• Other corrosive materials
• Materials that may require blasting during processing or handling
• Compressed flammable gases
• Flammable and combustible materials
• Other substances including:
Animal fats
Baled cotton
Baled rags
Baled scrap paper
Bleaching powder
Burlap or cotton bags
Caustic soda
Coal
Coke
Charcoal
Cork
Camphor
Excelsior
Fibers of any kind
Fish oil
Fish meal
Foam rubber
Hay
Lubricating oil
Linseed oil
Other oxidizable or drying oils
Naphthalene
Oakum
Oiled clothing
Oiled paper
Oiled textiles
Paint
Straw
Sawdust
Wood shavings
Vegetable oil
 
(3) Housekeeping requirements must have:
• Electrical installations, which meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L, Electrical, and WAC 296-800-280, Basic electrical rules, for ordinary locations and be designed to minimize damage from corrosion
• Adequate lightning protections in areas where lightning storms are prevalent (see NFPA 78-1992, Lightning Protection Code)
• Procedures to prevent unauthorized personnel from entering the ammonium nitrate storage area
(4) Fire protection must provide:
• Water supplies and fire hydrants
• Suitable fire control devices, such as a small hose or portable fire extinguishers, throughout the warehouse and in the loading/unloading areas. These devices must comply with the requirements of WAC 296-800-300, Portable fire extinguishers, and WAC 296-24-602, Standpipe and hose systems
• Approved sprinkler systems installed according to WAC 296-24-607, Automatic sprinkler systems
• Two thousand five hundred tons (two thousand two hundred seventy metric) or less of bagged ammonium nitrate may be stored in a structure that does not have an automatic sprinkler system.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 06-07-142, filed 3/21/06, effective 5/1/06)
WAC 296-54-507 Employer's responsibilities.
The employer must comply with the requirements of all safety and health regulations and must:
(1) Provide safety training for each employee.
(2) Take additional precautions to ensure safe logging operations when extreme weather or other extreme conditions create hazards. If the logging operation cannot be made safe, the work must be discontinued until safe to resume.
(3) Ensure that danger trees within reach of landings, rigging, buildings, or work areas are either fell before regular logging operations begin, or arrange work so that employees are not exposed to the related hazards.
(4) Develop and maintain a ((chemical)) hazard communication program as required by WAC ((296-800-170)) 296-901-140. The program must provide information to all employees about hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.
(5) Ensure that intoxicating beverages and narcotics are prohibited on or near the worksite. The employer must remove from the worksite any employee under the influence of alcohol or narcotics.
Note:
Narcotics do not include prescription drugs taken under a doctor's direction if the use does not endanger any employee.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-17-117, filed 8/18/99, effective 12/1/99)
WAC 296-54-519 Miscellaneous requirements.
(1) Spikes, drift bolts, nails, or other metal must not be left in any recoverable log.
(2) The employer must provide and maintain portable fire extinguishers on each machine and vehicle.
(3) Machines, vehicles, and portable powered tools (unless diesel powered) must not be fueled while the motors are running.
Note:
See WAC 296-54-58130(3) for exceptions related to helicopters.
(4) Flammable ((and combustible)) liquids must be stored, handled, transported, and used according to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part E, and the following:
(a) Flammable ((and combustible)) liquids must not be transported in the driver compartment or in any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.
(b) Flammable ((or combustible)) liquids, including chain-saw and diesel fuel, may be used to start a fire, if the employer ensures that in the particular situation its use does not create a hazard for an employee.
(5) Smoking is prohibited in battery charging areas and within fifty feet of all refueling operations. Precautions must be taken to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in battery charging or refueling areas.
(6) When charging batteries:
(a) The vent caps must be kept in place to avoid electrolyte spray;
(b) Caps must be functioning; and
(c) The battery (or compartment) cover(s) must be open to dissipate heat.
(7) Tools and other metallic objects must be kept away from the tops of uncovered batteries.
(8) Explosives and blasting agents must be stored, handled, transported, and used according to the requirements of chapter 296-52 WAC, Possession and handling of explosives.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-15-144, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)
WAC 296-56-60001 Scope and applicability.
(1) The rules included in this chapter apply throughout the state of Washington, to any and all waterfront operations under the jurisdiction of the department of labor and industries.
(2) These minimum requirements are promulgated in order to augment the general safety and health standards, and any other safety and health standards promulgated by the department of labor and industries which are applicable to all places of employment under the jurisdiction of the department of labor and industries. The rules of this chapter, and the rules of chapters 296-24, 296-62 and 296-800 WAC are applicable to all longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations: Provided, That such rules shall not be applicable to those operations under the exclusive safety jurisdiction of the federal government.
(3) The provisions of this chapter shall prevail in the event of a conflict with, or duplication of, provisions contained in chapters 296-24, 296-62 and 296-800 WAC. Specific standards which are applicable include, but are not limited to:
(a) Electrical—Chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, and WAC 296-800-280.
(b) Toxic and hazardous substances are regulated by chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC. Where references to this chapter are given they are for informational purposes only. Where specific requirements of this chapter conflict with the provisions of chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC, this chapter prevails. Chapter 296-62 WAC does not apply when a substance or cargo is contained within a manufacturer's original, sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with the department of transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements.
(c) Hearing loss prevention (noise)—Chapter 296-817 WAC.
(d) Standards for commercial diving operations—Chapter 296-37 WAC.
(e) Safety requirements for scaffolding—Chapter 296-874 WAC.
(f) Safe practices of abrasive blasting operations—Chapter 296-818 WAC.
(g) Access to employee exposure and medical records—Chapter 296-802 WAC.
(h) Respiratory protection—Chapter 296-842 WAC.
(i) Safety standards for grain handling facilities—Chapter 296-99 WAC.
(j) ((Chemical)) Hazard communication ((program))—WAC ((296-800-170)) 296-901-140.
(k) Asbestos—Chapters 296-62 Part I-1 and 296-65 WAC.
(l) Permit - required confined spaces and confined space—Chapter 296-809 WAC.
(m) Servicing multipiece and single-piece rim wheels—Chapter 296-864 WAC.
(n) First-aid requirements—WAC 296-800-150.
(o) Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans—Chapter 296-24 WAC Part G-1.
(4) The provisions of this chapter do not apply to the following:
(a) Fully automated bulk coal handling facilities contiguous to electrical power generating plants.
(b) Facilities subject to the regulations of the office of pipeline safety regulation of the materials transportation bureau, department of transportation, to the extent such regulations apply.
(5) WAC 296-62-074 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to cadmium in every employment and place of employment covered by chapter 296-56 WAC in lieu of any different standard on exposures to cadmium that would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-15-144, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)
WAC 296-56-60235 Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) (see also definition of "hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere").
(1) Definition. "Hot work" means riveting, welding, flame cutting or other fire or spark-producing operation.
(2) Hot work in confined spaces. Hot work shall not be performed in a confined space until all requirements of chapter 296-809 WAC, are met.
(3) Fire protection.
(a) To the extent possible, hot work shall be performed in designated locations that are free of fire hazards.
(b) When hot work must be performed in a location that is not free of fire hazards, all necessary precautions shall be taken to confine heat, sparks, and slag so that they cannot contact flammable or combustible material.
(c) Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for the location shall be immediately available and shall be maintained in readiness for use at all times.
(d) When the hot work operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire during hot work and for a sufficient time after completion of the work to ensure that no fire hazard remains. The employer shall instruct all employees involved in hot work operations as to potential fire hazards and the use of firefighting equipment.
(e) Drums and containers which contain or have contained flammable ((or combustible)) liquids shall be kept closed. Empty containers shall be removed from the hot work area.
(f) When openings or cracks in flooring cannot be closed, precautions shall be taken to ensure that no employees or flammable or combustible materials are exposed to sparks dropping through the floor. Similar precautions shall be taken regarding cracks or holes in walls, open doorways and open or broken windows.
(g) Hot work shall not be performed:
(i) In flammable or potentially flammable atmospheres;
(ii) On or in equipment or tanks that have contained flammable gas or liquid or combustible liquid or dust-producing material, until a designated person has tested the atmosphere inside the equipment or tanks and determined that it is not hazardous; or
(iii) Near any area in which exposed readily ignitable materials such as bulk sulphur, baled paper or cotton are stored. Bulk sulphur is excluded from this prohibition if suitable precautions are followed, the person in charge is knowledgeable and the person performing the work has been instructed in preventing and extinguishing sulphur fires.
(h)(i) Drums, containers or hollow structures that have contained flammable or combustible substances shall either be filled with water or cleaned, and shall then be ventilated. A designated person shall test the atmosphere and determine that it is not hazardous before hot work is performed on or in such structures.
(ii) Before heat is applied to a drum, container or hollow structure, an opening to release built-up pressure during heat application shall be provided.
(4) Gas welding and cutting.
(a) Compressed gas cylinders:
(i) Shall have valve protection caps in place except when in use, hooked up or secured for movement. Oil shall not be used to lubricate caps;
(ii) Shall be hoisted only while secured, as on a cradle or pallet, and shall not be hoisted by magnet, choker sling or cylinder caps;
(iii) Shall be moved only by tilting or rolling on their bottom edges;
(iv) Shall be secured when moved by vehicle;
(v) Shall be secured while in use;
(vi) Shall have valves closed when cylinders are empty, being moved or stored;
(vii) Shall be secured upright except when hoisted or carried;
(viii) Shall not be freed when frozen by prying the valves or caps with bars or by hitting the valve with a tool;
(ix) Shall not be thawed by boiling water;
(x) Shall not be exposed to sparks, hot slag, or flame;
(xi) Shall not be permitted to become part of electrical circuits or have electrodes struck against them to strike arcs;
(xii) Shall not be used as rollers or supports;
(xiii) Shall not have contents used for purposes not authorized by the supplier;
(xiv) Shall not be used if damaged or defective;
(xv) Shall not have gases mixed within, except by gas suppliers;
(xvi) Shall be stored so that oxygen cylinders are separated from fuel gas cylinders and combustible materials by either a minimum distance of twenty feet (6.1 m) or a barrier having a fire-resistance rating of thirty minutes; and
(xvii) Shall not have objects that might either damage the safety device or obstruct the valve placed on top of the cylinder when in use.
(b) Use of fuel gas. Fuel gas shall be used only as follows:
(i) Before regulators are connected to cylinder valves, the valves shall be opened slightly (cracked) and closed immediately to clear away dust or dirt. Valves shall not be cracked if gas could reach possible sources of ignition;
(ii) Cylinder valves shall be opened slowly to prevent regulator damage and shall not be opened more than one and one-half turns. Any special wrench required for emergency closing shall be positioned on the valve stem during cylinder use. For manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one wrench shall be immediately available. Nothing shall be placed on top of a cylinder or associated parts when the cylinder is in use;
(iii) Pressure-reducing regulators shall be attached to cylinder valves when cylinders are supplying torches or devices equipped with shut-off valves;
(iv) Cylinder valves shall be closed and gas released from the regulator or manifold before regulators are removed;
(v) Leaking fuel gas cylinder valves shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If the leak continues, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous. If a regulator attached to a valve stops a leak, the cylinder need not be removed from the workplace but shall be tagged and may not be used again before it is repaired; and
(vi) If a plug or safety device leaks, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous.
(c) Hose.
(i) Fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be easily distinguishable from each other by color or sense of touch. Oxygen and fuel hoses shall not be interchangeable. Hoses having more than one gas passage shall not be used.
(ii) When oxygen and fuel gas hoses are taped together, not more than four of each twelve inches (10.16 cm of each 30.48 cm) shall be taped.
(iii) Hose shall be inspected before use. Hose subjected to flashback or showing evidence of severe wear or damage shall be tested to twice the normal working pressure but not less than two hundred p.s.i. (1378.96 kPa) before reuse. Defective hose shall not be used.
(iv) Hose couplings shall not unlock or disconnect without rotary motion.
(v) Hose connections shall be clamped or securely fastened to withstand twice the normal working pressure but not less than three hundred p.s.i. (2068.44 kPa) without leaking.
(vi) Gas hose storage boxes shall be ventilated.
(d) Torches.
(i) Torch tip openings shall only be cleaned with devices designed for that purpose.
(ii) Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches with such defects shall not be used.
(iii) Torches shall not be lighted from matches, cigarette lighters, other flames or hot work.
(e) Pressure regulators. Pressure regulators, including associated gauges, shall be maintained in safe working order.
(f) Operational precaution. Gas welding equipment shall be maintained free of oil and grease.
(5) Arc welding and cutting.
(a) Manual electrode holders.
(i) The employer shall ensure that only manual electrode holders intended for arc welding and cutting and capable of handling the maximum current required for such welding or cutting shall be used.
(ii) Current-carrying parts passing through those portions of the holder gripped by the user and through the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder shall be insulated against the maximum voltage to ground.
(b) Welding cables and connectors.
(i) Arc welding and cutting cables shall be insulated, flexible and capable of handling the maximum current required by the operation, taking into account the duty cycles.
(ii) Only cable free from repair or splice for ten feet (3 m) from the electrode holder shall be used unless insulated connectors or splices with insulating quality equal to that of the cable are provided.
(iii) When a cable other than the lead mentioned in (b)(ii) of this subsection wears and exposes bare conductors, the portion exposed shall not be used until it is protected by insulation equivalent in performance capacity to the original.
(iv) Insulated connectors of equivalent capacity shall be used for connecting or splicing cable. Cable lugs, where used as connectors, shall provide electrical contact. Exposed metal parts shall be insulated.
(c) Ground returns and machine grounding.
(i) Ground return cables shall have current-carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
(ii) Structures or pipelines, other than those containing gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits, may be used in the ground return circuit if their current-carrying capacity equals or exceeds the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
(iii) Structures or pipelines forming a temporary ground return circuit shall have electrical contact at all joints. Arcs, sparks or heat at any point in the circuit shall cause rejection as a ground circuit.
(iv) Structures or pipelines acting continuously as ground return circuits shall have joints bonded and maintained to ensure that no electrolysis or fire hazard exists.
(v) Arc welding and cutting machine frames shall be grounded, either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire at the source of the current. Grounding circuits shall have resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
(vi) Ground connections shall be mechanically and electrically adequate to carry the current.
(d) When electrode holders are left unattended, electrodes shall be removed and holders placed to prevent employee injury.
(e) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water.
(f) The employer shall ensure that when arc welders or cutters leave or stop work or when machines are moved, the power supply switch is kept in the off position.
(g) Arc welding or cutting equipment having a functional defect shall not be used.
(h)(i) Arc welding and cutting operations shall be separated from other operations by shields, screens, or curtains to protect employees in the vicinity from the direct rays and sparks of the arc.
(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with subsection (8) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, they shall wear filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.
(i) The control apparatus of arc welding machines shall be enclosed, except for operating wheels, levers, and handles.
(j) Input power terminals, top change devices and live metal parts connected to input circuits shall be enclosed and accessible only by means of insulated tools.
(k) When arc welding is performed in wet or high-humidity conditions, employees shall use additional protection, such as rubber pads or boots, against electric shock.
(6) Ventilation and employee protection in welding, cutting and heating.
(a) Mechanical ventilation requirements. The employer shall ensure that general mechanical ventilation or local exhaust systems shall meet the following requirements:
(i) General mechanical ventilation shall maintain vapors, fumes and smoke below a hazardous level;
(ii) Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of movable hoods positioned close to the work and shall be of such capacity and arrangement as to keep breathing zone concentrations below hazardous levels;
(iii) Exhausts from working spaces shall be discharged into the open air, clear of intake air sources;
(iv) Replacement air shall be clean and respirable; and
(v) Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation, cooling or cleaning clothing or work areas.
(b) Hot work in confined spaces. Except as specified in (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection, when hot work is performed in a confined space the employer shall, in addition to the requirements of chapter 296-809 WAC, ensure that:
(i) General mechanical or local exhaust ventilations shall be provided; or
(ii) Employees in the space shall wear respirators in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC.
(c) Welding, cutting or heating of toxic metals.
(i) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation that ensures that employees are not exposed to hazardous levels of fumes:
(A) Lead base metals;
(B) Cadmium-bearing filler materials; and
(C) Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials.
(ii) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of this subsection or by employees wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC;
(A) Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials;
(B) Metals containing lead other than as an impurity, or coated with lead-bearing materials;
(C) Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals; and
(D) Metals coated with mercury-bearing materials.
(iii) Employees performing hot work in confined or enclosed spaces involving beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by local exhaust ventilation and wear supplied air respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(iv) The employer shall ensure that employees performing hot work in the open air that involves any of the metals listed in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall be protected by respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC and those working on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by supplied air respirators, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(v) Any employee exposed to the same atmosphere as the welder or burner shall be protected by the same type of respiratory and other protective equipment as that worn by the welder or burner.
(d) Inert-gas metal-arc welding. Employees shall not engage in and shall not be exposed to the inert-gas metal-arc welding process unless the following precautions are taken:
(i) Chlorinated solvents shall not be used within two hundred feet (61 m) of the exposed arc. Surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is performed on them.
(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section shall be worn to protect against flashes and radiant energy.
(iii) Employees exposed to radiation shall have their skin covered completely to prevent ultraviolet burns and damage. Helmets and hand shields shall not have leaks, openings or highly reflective surfaces.
(iv) Inert-gas metal-arc welding on stainless steel shall not be performed unless exposed employees are protected either by local exhaust ventilation or by wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(7) Welding, cutting and heating on preservative coatings.
(a) Before hot work is commenced on surfaces covered by a preservative coating of unknown flammability, a test shall be made by a designated person to determine the coating's flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.
(b) Appropriate precaution shall be taken to prevent ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings. Highly flammable coatings shall be stripped from the area to be heated. An uncoiled fire hose with fog nozzle, under pressure, shall be immediately available in the hot work area.
(c) Surfaces covered with preservative coatings shall be stripped for at least four inches (10.16 cm) from the area of heat application or employees shall be protected by supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(8) Protection against radiant energy.
(a) Employees shall be protected from radiant energy eye hazards by spectacles, cup goggles, helmets, hand shields or face shields with filter lenses complying with the requirements of this subsection.
(b) Filter lenses shall have an appropriate shade number, as indicated in Table G-1, for the work performed. Variations of one or two shade numbers are permissible to suit individual preferences.
(c) If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under the helmet, the shade numbers of both lenses equals the value shown in Table G-1 for the operation.
Table G-1.—Filter Lenses for Protection
Against Radiant Energy
Operation
Shade No.
Soldering . . . .
2
Torch Brazing . . . .
3 or 4
Light cutting, up to 1 inch . . . .
3 or 4
Medium cutting, 1-6 inches . . . .
4 or 5
Heavy cutting, over 6 inches . . . .
5 or 6
Light gas welding, up to 1/8 inch . . . .
4 or 5
Medium gas welding, 1/8-1/2 inch . . . .
5 or 6
Heavy gas welding, over 1/2 inch . . . .
6 or 8
Shielded Metal-Arc Welding 1/16 to
5/32-inch electrodes . . . .
10
Inert gas Metal-Arc Welding (nonferrous) 1/16 to 5/32-inch electrodes . . . .
11
Shielded Metal-Arc Welding:
 
3/16 to 1/4-inch electrodes . . . .
12
5/16 and 3/8-inch electrodes . . . .
14
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 06-19-074, filed 9/19/06, effective 12/1/06)
WAC 296-59-005 Incorporation of other standards.
(1) Lifts and tows shall be designed, installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with American National Standard Institute (ANSI) B77.1-1982, Standards for Passenger Tramways—Aerial Tramways and Lifts, Surface Lifts, and Tows