WSR 15-15-150
PROPOSED RULES
DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed July 21, 2015, 7:55 a.m.]
Original Notice.
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 14-17-089.
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: eRules phase III; chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards for longshore, stevedore, and waterfront operations; chapter 296-809 WAC, Confined spaces; chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety; chapter 296-828 WAC, Hazardous chemicals in laboratories; chapter 296-860 WAC, Railroad clearances and walkways in private rail yards and plants; and chapter 296-864 WAC, Split (multipiece) rim and single-piece rim wheels.
Hearing Location(s): Department of Labor and Industries, 7273 Linderson Way S.W., Tumwater, WA 98501, on September 14, 2015, at 1:00 p.m.
Date of Intended Adoption: October 27, 2015.
Submit Written Comments to: Tari Enos, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504, e-mail tari.enos@lni.wa.gov, fax (360) 902-5619, by September 21, 2015.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Tari Enos by September 8, 2015, at (360) 902-5541.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules:
No changes in requirements as a result of this rule making.
Consistent format for all DOSH safety and health rules.
Easy to access rules for smart phone and table [tablet] users.
Easy navigation in PDF files provided through bookmarks in the rules.
Easier referencing by replacing bullets and dashes with numbers and letters.
Enhanced rule update efficiency for customers through electronic postings.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: When the agency updated its web site, template DOSH rules in HTML were broken and DOSH began forwarding rule users to the office of the code reviser web site, causing more confusion among customers. This rule package will resolve stakeholder issues that have caused confusion for rule users by bringing one clear and consistent format to all of our rules.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Name of Proponent: Department of labor and industries, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Chris Miller, Tumwater, (360) 902-5516; Implementation and Enforcement: Anne Soiza, Tumwater, (360) 902-5090.
No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. No change in requirements, so no economic impact.
A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. No change in requirements, so no change in costs or benefits.
July 22 [21], 2015
Joel Sacks
Director
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-56-099 Definitions.
Approved. The equipment has been approved for the specified use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Approved power-operated industrial truck. One listed or approved for the intended use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Apron. That open portion of a marine terminal immediately adjacent to a vessel berth and used in the direct transfer of cargo between the terminal and vessel.
Assistant director for DOSH. The assistant director of DOSH services, department of labor and industries or their authorized representative.
Authorized. In reference to an employee's assignment, means selected by the employer for that purpose.
Cage (basket guard). A barrier enclosing or nearly enclosing a ladder's climbing space and fastened to one or both of the ladder's side rails or to another structure.
Cargo board. The typical wing or lip-type stevedore board hoisted to or from vessels by means of a bar bridle. Other pallet boards include all other platforms used to hold cargo for the purpose of transporting it from place to place.
Cargo door (transit shed door). A door designed to permit transfer of cargo to and from a marine terminal structure.
Cargo packaging. Any method of containment for shipment, including cases, cartons, crates, and sacks, but excluding large units such as intermodal containers, vans, or similar devices.
Confined space. A space that:
(a) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
(b) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); and
(c) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Conveyor. A device designed exclusively for transporting bulk materials, packages or objects in a predetermined path and having fixed or selective points of loading or discharge.
Danger zone. Any place in or about a machine or piece of equipment where an employee may be struck by or caught between moving parts, caught between moving and stationary objects or parts of the machine, caught between the material and a moving part of the machine, burned by hot surfaces or exposed to electric shock. Examples of danger zones are nip and shear points, shear lines, drive mechanisms, and areas beneath counterweights.
Designated person. A person who possesses specialized abilities in a specific area and is assigned by the employer to perform a specific task in that area.
Dock. A wharf or pier forming all or part of a waterfront facility, including marginal or quayside berthing facilities; not to be confused with "loading dock" as at a transit shed or container freight station, or with the body of water between piers or wharves.
Dock facilities. Includes all piers, wharves, sheds, aprons, dolphins, cranes, or other gear or equipment owned or controlled by the dock or facility owner, where cargo or materials are loaded, moved or handled to or from a vessel.
Dockboards (car and bridge plates). Devices for spanning short distances between rail cars or highway vehicles and loading platforms that do not expose employees to falls greater than 4 feet (1.22 m).
DOSH. Division of Occupational Safety and Health.
Elevator. A permanent hoisting and lowering mechanism with a car or platform moving vertically in guides and serving two or more floors of a structure. The term excludes such devices as conveyors, tiering or piling machines, material hoists, skip or furnace hoists, wharf ramps, lift bridges, car lifts, and dumpers.
Enclosed space. An indoor space, other than a confined space, that may contain or accumulate a hazardous atmosphere due to inadequate natural ventilation. Examples of enclosed spaces are trailers, railcars, and storage rooms.
Escalator. A power-driven continuous moving stairway principally intended for the use of persons.
Examination. As applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, means a comprehensive survey consisting of the criteria outlined in WAC 296-56-60093 through 296-56-60097. The examination is supplemented by a unit proof test in the case of annual survey.
Fixed ladder. A ladder, including individual rung ladders, permanently attached to a structure, building, or piece of equipment.
Fixed stairway. Interior or exterior stairs serving machinery, tanks, or equipment, and stairs to or from floors, platforms, or pits. The term does not apply to stairs intended only for fire exit purposes, to articulated stairs (the angle of which changes with the rise and fall of the base support) or to stairs forming an integral part of machinery.
Flammable atmosphere. An atmosphere containing more than ten percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) of a flammable or combustible vapor or dust mixed with air. Such atmospheres are usually toxic as well as flammable.
Front-end attachments.
(a) As applied to power-operated industrial trucks, means the various devices, such as roll clamps, rotating and sideshifting carriages, magnets, rams, crane arms or booms, load stabilizers, scoops, buckets, and dumping bins, attached to the load end for handling lifts as single or multiple units.
(b) As applied to cranes, means various attachments applied to the basic machine for the performance of functions such as lifting, clamshell, or magnet services.
Fumigant. Is a substance or mixture of substances, used to kill pests or prevent infestation, which is a gas or is rapidly or progressively transformed to the gaseous state even though some nongaseous or particulate matter may remain and be dispersed in the treatment space.
Guarded. Shielded, fenced, or enclosed by covers, casings, shields, troughs, spillways or railings, or guarded by position or location. Examples of guarding methods are guarding by location (positioning hazards so they are inaccessible to employees) and point of operation guarding (using barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, or other such devices).
Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere.
(a) Any substance listed in chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC;
(b) Any material in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 C.F.R. Part 172;
(c) Any article not properly described by a name in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 C.F.R. Part 172, but which is properly classified under the definition of those categories of dangerous articles given in 49 C.F.R. Part 173;
(d) Atmospheres having concentrations of airborne chemicals in excess of permissible exposure limits as defined in chapter 296-62 WAC; or
(e) Any atmosphere with an oxygen content of less than nineteen and one-half percent by volume.
Hot work. Riveting, welding, flame cutting or other fire or spark-producing operation.
House falls. Spans and supporting members, winches, blocks, and standing and running rigging forming part of a marine terminal and used with a vessel's cargo gear to load or unload by means of married falls.
Inspection. As applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, includes a complete visual examination of all visible parts of the device.
Intermodal container. A reusable cargo container of rigid construction and rectangular configuration intended to contain one or more articles of cargo or bulk commodities for transportation by water and one or more other transport modes without intermediate cargo handling. The term includes completely enclosed units, open top units, fractional height units, units incorporating liquid or gas tanks and other variations fitting into the container system, demountable or with attached wheels. It does not include cylinders, drums, crates, cases, cartons, packages, sacks, unitized loads or any other form of packaging.
Ladder safety device. A support system limiting an employee's drop or fall from the ladder, and which may incorporate friction brakes, lifelines and lanyards, or sliding attachments.
Loose gear. Removable or replaceable components of equipment or devices which may be used with or as a part of assembled material handling units for purposes such as making connections, changing line direction and multiplying mechanical advantage. Examples include shackles and snatch blocks.
Marina. A small harbor or boat basin providing dockage, supplies, and services for small craft.
Marine terminal. Wharves, bulkheads, quays, piers, docks, and other berthing locations and adjacent storage or contiguous areas and structures associated with the primary movement of cargo or materials from vessel to shore or shore to vessel. It includes structures which are devoted to receiving, handling, holding, consolidation, loading or delivery of waterborne shipments and passengers, and areas devoted to the maintenance of the terminal or equipment. The term does not include production or manufacturing areas having their own docking facilities and located at a marine terminal nor storage facilities directly associated with those production or manufacturing areas.
Other pallet boards. All other platforms used to hold cargo for the purpose of transporting it from place to place.
Permit-required confined space (permit space). A confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
(a) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
(b) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;
(c) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or
(d) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
Ramps. Other flat-surface devices for passage between levels and across openings not covered under "dockboards."
Ship's stores. Materials that are aboard a vessel for the upkeep, maintenance, safety, operation, or navigation of the vessel, or for the safety or comfort of the vessel's passengers or crew.
Spiral stairway. One with closed circular form, uniform sector-shaped treads and a supporting column.
Spray booth. An enclosure containing a flammable or combustible spraying operation and confining and limiting the escape of paint, vapor and residue by means of a powered exhaust system.
Spraying area. Any area where flammable vapors, mists or combustible residues, dusts or deposits may be present due to paint spraying operations.
Well. A permanent complete enclosure around a fixed ladder, which is attached to the walls of the well.
((PART A—GENERAL))
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-600 Marine terminals.
Summary
Your responsibility: To protect employees from hazards associated with marine terminals.
You must meet the requirements …
in this section:
Scope and applicability
WAC 296-56-60001
Variance and procedure
WAC 296-56-60003
Definitions
WAC 296-56-60005
Personnel
WAC 296-56-60006
Housekeeping
WAC 296-56-60007
Accident prevention program
WAC 296-56-60009
Emergency action plans
WAC 296-56-60010
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
WAC 296-56-60006 Personnel.
(1) ((Qualifications of)) You must make sure machinery operators((.)) meet qualifications:
(a) Only those employees determined by the employer to be competent by reason of training or experience, who understand the signs, notices, and operating instructions and are familiar with the signal code in use ((shall)) must be permitted to operate a crane, winch, or other power-operated cargo handling apparatus, or any power-operated vehicle, or give signals to the operator of any hoisting apparatus. Employees being trained and supervised by a designated individual may operate such machinery and give signals to operators during training.
(b) No employee known to have defective uncorrected eyesight or hearing, or to be suffering from heart disease, epilepsy, or similar ailments which may suddenly incapacitate the employee ((shall)) must be permitted to operate a crane, winch, other power-operated cargo handling apparatus, or a power-operated vehicle.
(c) Persons who have recovered from a heart attack ((shall)) must be exempted from the provisions of (b) of this subsection, as it pertains to their heart condition, provided:
(i) A medical release is obtained from their attending medical doctor.
(ii) The release ((shall)) must state that the operation of a crane, winch, power-operated cargo handling apparatus, or power-operated vehicle, will not present a hazard to themselves or others.
(iii) An examination by a medical doctor, and renewal of the work release certification is required annually.
(2) You must meet the following requirements for supervisory accident prevention proficiency((.)):
(a) Immediate supervisors of cargo-handling operations of more than five persons ((shall)) must satisfactorily complete a course in accident prevention. Employees newly assigned to supervisory duties ((shall)) must be required to meet the provisions of this subsection (2)(a) within ninety days of such assignment.
(b) The course ((shall)) must consist of instruction suited to the particular operations involved.
(c) No minor under eighteen years of age ((shall)) must be employed in occupations involving the operation of any power-operated hoisting apparatus or assisting in such operations by performing work such as hooking on or landing drafts, rigging gear, etc.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 92-22-067, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)
WAC 296-56-60007 Housekeeping.
(1) You must keep active work areas ((shall be kept)) free of equipment and materials not in use, and clear of debris, projecting nails, strapping and other sharp objects not necessary for the work in progress.
(2) You must make sure hatch beams, covers, and pontoons placed in terminal working areas ((shall be)) are stowed in stable piles with beams secured against tipping or falling. Alternatively, beams may be laid on their sides. When beams and pontoons are stowed in tiers more than one high, dunnage or other suitable material ((shall)) must be used under and between tiers.
(3) ((Cargo and material shall)) You must not obstruct access to vessels, cranes, vehicles, or buildings with cargo and materials. Means of access and egress within buildings ((shall)) must be unobstructed.
(4) ((The employer shall)) You must eliminate, to the extent possible, conditions causing slippery working or walking surfaces in immediate work areas used by employees.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)
WAC 296-56-60009 Accident prevention program.
(1) You must establish an accident prevention program, which provides equitable management-employee participation, ((shall be established)) in all establishments, industrial plants, or operations.
(2) ((It shall be the responsibility of the employer to)) You must initiate and maintain the accident prevention program necessary to comply with this section. ((The division of WISHA services)) DOSH may be contacted for assistance in initiating and maintaining an effective accident prevention program.
(3) You must tailor all accident prevention programs ((shall be tailored)) to the needs of the particular operation.
(4) You must have employer and employee representatives, as elected, delegated or appointed, ((shall)) to attend and actively take part in frequent and regular safety committee meetings.
(5) You must provide in the accident prevention programs ((shall provide)) for employer-employee safety meetings and frequent and regular safety inspections of job sites, materials, equipment, and operating procedures.
(6) You must maintain a record of safety activities, such as inspections and meetings, ((shall be maintained by the employer)) for a period covering the previous twelve months and ((shall)) must be made available, upon request, to noncompliance personnel of the department of labor and industries.
(7) You must ensure employees ((shall)) individually comply with all safety rules and cooperate with management in carrying out the accident prevention program.
(8) You must establish committees in each port to make effective the preceding statement and promote on-the-job accident prevention((, committees shall be established in each port)). These committees ((shall)) must consist of an equal number of port or stevedore company and longshoremen representatives at the job level with the industry or company safety supervisor serving as secretary and coordinator. Some functions of the committee are to maintain the interest of the workers in accident prevention by providing for their actual participation in the program, to direct their attention to the real causes of accidents, and to provide a means for making practical use of their intimate knowledge of working conditions and practices.
(9) It is intended that this program will produce mutually practical and effective recommendations regarding correction of accident-producing circumstances and conditions.
Note:
For first-aid requirements, see WAC 296-800-150.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)
WAC 296-56-60010 Emergency action plans.
(1) ((Scope and application. This section requires all employers to)) You must develop and implement an emergency action plan. The emergency action plan ((shall)) must be in writing (except as provided in subsection (5)(d) of this section) and ((shall)) must cover those designated actions employers and employees must take to ensure employee safety from fire and other emergencies.
Note:
When an employer directs ((his or her)) their employees to respond to an emergency that is beyond the scope of the emergency action plan developed in accordance with this section, then chapter 296-824 WAC ((shall)) must apply.
(2) ((Elements.)) You must include the following elements, at a minimum, ((shall be included)) in the plan:
(a) Emergency escape procedures and emergency escape route assignments;
(b) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate;
(c) Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuation has been completed;
(d) Rescue and medical duties for those employees who are to perform them;
(e) The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies; and
(f) Names or regular job titles of persons or departments that can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.
(3) ((Alarm system. The employer shall)) You must establish an employee alarm system that provides warning for necessary emergency action and for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area.
(4) ((Evacuation. The employer shall)) You must establish the types of evacuation to be used in emergency circumstances.
(5) ((Training.)) You must meet the following requirements for training:
(a) Before implementing the emergency action plan, ((the employer shall)) you must designate and train a sufficient number of persons to assist in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees.
(b) ((The employer shall)) You must review the plan with each employee covered by the plan at the following times:
(i) Initially when the plan is developed;
(ii) Whenever the employee's responsibilities or designated actions under the plan change; and
(iii) Whenever the plan is changed.
(c) ((The employer shall)) You must review with each employee upon initial assignment those parts of the plan that the employee must know to protect the employee in the event of an emergency. The written plan ((shall)) must be kept at the workplace and be made available for employee review.
(d) ((Employers with ten or fewer employees)) You may communicate the plan orally to employees and need not maintain a written plan if you have ten or fewer employees.
((PART B—WATERFRONT OPERATIONS))
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-56-60010A Waterfront operations.
Summary
This section applies to all waterfront operations in your workplace.
Your responsibility: To protect employees from waterfront operation hazards in your workplace.
You must meet the requirements …
in this section:
Slinging
WAC 296-56-60011
Stacking of cargo and pallets
WAC 296-56-60013
Coopering
WAC 296-56-60015
Line handling
WAC 296-56-60017
Standard gauge railroad operations
WAC 296-56-60019
Signals displayed by each maintenance crew
WAC 296-56-60021
Warning flags or lights
WAC 296-56-60023
Signals unobscured
WAC 296-56-60025
Audible warning system
WAC 296-56-60027
Safety observer on railroad switching
WAC 296-56-60029
Warning at road crossing
WAC 296-56-60031
Flying switches
WAC 296-56-60033
Clearance from railroad tracks
WAC 296-56-60035
Car plates
WAC 296-56-60037
Dockboards (bridge plates)
WAC 296-56-60039
Log handling
WAC 296-56-60041
Movement of barges and railcars
WAC 296-56-60043
Communication
WAC 296-56-60045
Open fires
WAC 296-56-60047
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
WAC 296-56-60011 Slinging.
(1) ((Drafts shall be safely slung)) You must safely sling drafts before being hoisted. Loose dunnage or debris hanging or protruding from loads ((shall)) must be removed.
(2) You must hoist bales of cotton, wool, cork, wood pulp, gunny bags, or similar articles ((shall be hoisted)) only by straps strong enough to support the weight of the bale. At least two hooks, each in a separate strap, ((shall)) must be used.
(3) You must only hoist unitized loads bound by bands or straps ((shall only be hoisted)) by the banding or strapping if the banding or strapping is suitable for hoisting and is strong enough to support the weight of the load.
(4) You must use additional means of hoisting ((shall be employed)) to ensure safe lifting of unitized loads having damaged banding or strapping.
(5) You must use case hooks ((shall be used)) only with cases designed to be hoisted by these hooks.
(6) You must guide loads requiring continuous manual guidance during handling ((shall be guided)) by guide ropes (tag lines) that are long enough to control the load.
(7) You must handle intermodal containers ((shall be handled)) in accordance with WAC 296-56-60103.
(8) ((The employer shall)) You must require employees to stay clear of the area beneath overhead drafts or descending lifting gear.
(9) ((Employees shall not be permitted)) You must not permit employees to ride the hook or the load.
(10) You must attach cargo handling bridles, such as pallet bridles, which are to remain attached to the hoisting gear while hoisting successive drafts, ((shall be attached)) by shackles, or other positive means ((shall)) must be taken to prevent them from becoming accidentally disengaged from the cargo hook.
(11) You must sling drafts of lumber, pipe, dunnage and other pieces, the top layer of which is not bound by the sling, ((shall be slung)) in such a manner as to prevent sliders. Double slings ((shall)) must be used on unstrapped dunnage, except, when due to the size of hatch or deep tank openings, it is impractical to use them.
(12) You must not load hand loaded buckets, tubs, bins and baskets used in handling bulk cargo ((shall not be loaded)) above their rim.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-60013 Stacking of cargo and pallets.
You must stack cargo, pallets, and other material stored in tiers ((shall be stacked)) in such a manner as to provide stability against sliding and collapse.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-60015 Coopering.
You must perform repair and reconditioning of damaged or leaking cargo packaging (coopering) ((shall be performed)) so as not to endanger employees.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-15-144, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)
WAC 296-56-60017 Line handling.
(1) ((In order to provide safe access for handling lines while mooring and unmooring vessels,)) You must not stow cargo or material ((shall not be stowed or vehicles placed)) or place vehicles where they obstruct the work surface, in order to provide safe access for handling lines while mooring and unmooring vessels.
(2) You must install grab lines or rails on the sides of permanent structures when stringpiece or apron width is insufficient for safe footing((, grab lines or rails shall be installed on the sides of permanent structures)). ("Stringpiece" means a narrow walkway between the water edge of a berth and a shed or other structure.)
(3) You must light areas around bitts or cleats where workers perform their duties as line handlers ((shall be lighted)) as required by this chapter. There ((shall)) must be a nonslip surface around each bitt or cleat.
(4) You must ensure a six inch by six inch toeboard is installed if the handrail is omitted on the line handling side for walkways on which the mooring hawsers must be moved ((may have the handrail omitted on the line handling side provided a six inch by six inch toeboard is installed)).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60019 Standard gauge railroad operations.
WAC 296-56-60019 through 296-56-60041 apply to standard gauge railroad operations.
(1) ((Work shall be)) You must make sure work is performed in railcars only if floors of the railcars are in visibly safe condition for the work activity being conducted and the equipment being used.
(2) You must establish a route ((shall be established)) to allow employees to pass to and from places of employment without passing under, over or through railcars, or between cars less than ten feet (3 m) apart on the same track.
(3) ((The employer shall)) You must direct that no employees remain in railcars after work is concluded. No employee ((shall)) may remain in a railcar after work is concluded.
(4) ((Railcars shall be)) You must make sure railcars are chocked or otherwise prevented from moving:
(a) While dockboards or carplates are in position; or
(b) While employees are working within, on or under the railcars or near the tracks at the ends of the cars.
(5) You must take positive means to protect employees from exposure to impact from moving railcars when employees are working in, on, or under a railcar((, positive means shall be taken to protect them from exposure to impact from moving railcars)).
(6) You must protect employees by flags and derails set a minimum of fifty feet from one or both ends of the worksite when there is work being carried on, in, or under cars which subjects employees to the hazard of moving railroad equipment ((shall be protected by flags and derails set a minimum of fifty feet from one or both ends of the worksite)). Where the spur track switch is less than fifty feet from the work location, the switch padlocked in the open position may take the place of the derail. The blue flag ((shall)) must be placed at that point.
(7) You must remove or place unsecured and over-hanging stakes, wire straps, banding, and similar objects so as not to create hazards before cars are moved((, unsecured and over-hanging stakes, wire straps, banding, and similar objects shall be removed or placed so as not to create hazards)).
(8) ((The employer shall)) You must institute all necessary controls during railcar movement to safeguard personnel. If winches or capstans are employed for movement, employees ((shall)) must stand clear of the hauling rope and ((shall)) must not stand between the rope and the cars.
(9) You must open doors slightly before being opened fully((, doors shall be opened slightly)) to ensure that the load has not shifted during transit. Special precautions ((shall)) must be taken if the doors being opened are visibly damaged.
(10) You must equip trucks or railcar doors with door opening attachments if power industrial trucks are used to open freight car doors((, the trucks or the railcar doors shall be equipped with door opening attachments)). Employees ((shall)) must stand clear of the railcar doors while they are being opened and closed.
(11) ((Only)) You must only use railcar door openers or power trucks equipped with door opening attachments ((shall be used)) to open jammed doors.
(12) ((Employees shall)) You must make sure employees do not remain in or on gondolas or flat cars when drafts that create overhead, caught-in, caught-between or struck-by hazards are being landed in or on the railcar. End gates, if raised, ((shall)) must be secured.
(13) You must make sure operators of railcar dumps ((shall)) have an unrestricted view of dumping operations and ((shall)) must have an emergency means of stopping movement.
(14) You must enclose recessed railroad switches ((shall be enclosed)) to provide a level surface.
(15) You must post warning signs ((shall be posted)) where doorways open onto tracks, at blind corners and at similar places where vision may be restricted.
(16) You must post warning signs ((shall be posted)) if insufficient clearance for personnel exists between railcars and structures.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-60021 Signals displayed by each maintenance crew.
You must have each maintenance crew ((shall)) display and remove its own set of blue signals.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60023 Warning flags or lights.
You must display a blue flag, bright colored flag or blue light ((shall be displayed)) at one or both ends of an engine, car or train to indicate that workers are under or about the railway equipment. When such warning devices are displayed, the equipment ((shall)) must not be coupled to or moved. On a dead end spur, a blue light or flag may be displayed adjacent to the switch opening while cars are being loaded or unloaded.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60025 Signals unobscured.
You must not place equipment which could obscure signals ((shall not be placed)) on the track.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60027 Audible warning system.
You must employ a clearly audible warning system ((shall be employed)) when cars are being moved in areas where workers may be in the vicinity of the tracks. When the audible warning signal might not be heard above the surrounding noises, a person ((shall)) must be delegated and stationed close enough to the track crew to warn them, by contact, of the oncoming equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60029 Safety observer on railroad switching.
You must have a person charged with the responsibility to warn of an approaching switch of the railway car or cars when persons are required to work between railway cars, underneath railway cars or in areas where switching is done, ((there shall be a person charged with the responsibility to warn of an approaching switch of the railway car or cars,)) unless other reasonable and practical safeguards are provided.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60031 Warning at road crossing.
You must have the locomotive engineer sound an audible whistle, horn or bell ((shall be sounded by the locomotive engineer)) to give adequate warning prior to switching across any road crossing. Whenever cars are pushed with a locomotive, a signalman ((shall)) must be located at the crossing to give signals in conjunction with other warnings by the engineer.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-60033 Flying switches.
You must not use flying switches ((shall not be used)) when switching railroad equipment in congested areas or across roadways or walkways.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-60035 Clearance from railroad tracks.
You must not stack or pile materials ((shall not be stacked or piled)) closer than eight and one-half feet from the center line of the railroad tracks.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60037 Car plates.
You must use a railway car plate whenever workers are required to move cargo into or out of a railway car((, a railway car plate shall be used which shall)) that meets the following specifications:
(1) All car plates ((shall)) must be strong enough to carry maximum loads with a safety factor of three.
(2) All car plates ((shall)) must be provided with positive stops to prevent shifting of plates. One set of these stops ((shall)) must be adjustable to allow for different spaces between car door and platform.
(3) Car plates ((shall)) must be so shaped that edges will always bear on the floor of car and platform to prevent "teetering" or rocking.
(4) All car plates ((shall)) must have skid resistant surfaces.
(5) All car plates ((shall)) must be provided with toe or guard plates at the sides with a minimum height of four inches.
(6) All car plates must bear no less than six inches back from edge of platform.
(7) Maximum capacity of car plates ((shall)) must be marked in a conspicuous place.
(8) Car plates ((shall)) must be provided with an appropriate fixture to enable the plates to be lifted and moved by fork trucks.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60039 Dockboards (bridge plates).
(1) You must use portable and powered dockboards ((shall be)) strong enough to carry the load imposed.
(2) You must secure portable dockboards ((shall be secured)) in position, either by being anchored or equipped with devices which will prevent slipping.
(3) You must design and construct powered dockboards ((shall be designed and constructed)) in accordance with commercial standards CS202-56 (1956) Industrial Lifts and Hinged Loading Ramps published by the United States Department of Commerce.
(4) You must provide handholds or other effective means((, shall be provided)) on portable dockboards to permit safe handling.
(5) You must provide positive protection ((shall be provided)) to prevent railroad cars from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 92-22-067, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)
WAC 296-56-60041 Log handling.
(1) ((The employer shall)) You must ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid sling damage.
(2) You must have two or more binders or equivalently safe means of containment ((shall remain)) on logging trucks and railcars to secure logs during movement of the truck or car within the terminal. During unloading, logs ((shall)) must be prevented from moving while binders are being removed.
(3) ((Logs shall be hoisted)) You must hoist logs by two slings or by other gear designed for safe hoisting.
(4) You must not stack logs placed adjacent to vehicle curbs on the dock ((shall not be)) over one tier high unless placed in bunks or so stacked as not to roll or otherwise creating a hazard to employees.
(5) You must make sure before logs are slung up from the dock, they ((shall be)) are stably supported to prevent spreading and to allow passage of slings beneath the load. When bunks or similar retaining devices are used, no log shall be higher than the stanchions or retaining members of the device.
(6) You must make sure a draft of logs for hoisting aboard ship ((shall)) will not vary in length more than twenty percent.
(7) You must make sure audible alarms((.)) meet the following requirements:
(a) All bidirectional machines, ((shall)) must be equipped with a horn, distinguishable from the surrounding noise level, which ((shall)) must be operated as needed when the machine is moving in either direction. The horn ((shall)) must be maintained in operable condition.
(b) Automatic back-up alarms ((shall)) must be installed on bidirectional equipment used to handle logs or containers and ((shall)) must be maintained in operable condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 92-22-067, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)
WAC 296-56-60043 Movement of barges and railcars.
You must not move barges and railcars ((shall not be moved)) by cargo runners (running rigging) from vessel cargo booms, cranes or other equipment not suitable for the purpose.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-10-004, filed 4/19/85)
WAC 296-56-60045 Communication.
(1) ((Radio.)) You must provide crane operators, when practical and safe, ((crane operators shall be provided)) with a radio or telephone to be in contact with the signalman or crane chaser in those cases where a signalman or crane chaser is required.
(2) ((Interference.)) You must make sure cargo handling operations ((shall not be)) are not carried on when noise-producing maintenance, construction or repair work interferes with communication of warnings or instructions.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-60047 Open fires.
You must prohibit open fires and fires in drums or similar containers ((are prohibited)).
((PART C—HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES AND MATERIALS))
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-56-60048 Hazardous atmospheres and materials.
Summary
This section applies to all machines in your workplace.
Your responsibility: To protect employees from hazardous atmospheres and materials in the workplace.
You must meet the requirements …
in this section:
Hazardous cargo
WAC 296-56-60049
Handling explosives or hazardous materials
WAC 296-56-60051
Hazardous atmospheres and substances
WAC 296-56-60053
Carbon monoxide
WAC 296-56-60055
Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also WAC 296-56-60049, 296-56-60051 and 296-56-60053)
WAC 296-56-60057
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60049 Hazardous cargo.
(1) You must ascertain whether any hazardous cargo is to be handled and must determine the nature of the hazard before cargo handling operations begin((, the employer shall ascertain whether any hazardous cargo is to be handled and shall determine the nature of the hazard. The employer shall)). You must inform employees of the nature of any hazard and any special precautions to be taken to prevent employee exposure, and ((shall)) must instruct employees to notify the employer of any leaks or spills.
(2) You must sling and secure all hazardous cargo ((shall be slung and secured)) so that neither the draft nor individual packages can fall as a result of tipping the draft or slackening of the supporting gear.
(3) You must remove employees from the affected area if hazardous cargo is spilled or if its packaging leaks((, employees shall be removed from the affected area)) until the employer has ascertained the specific hazards, provided any equipment, clothing, ventilation and fire protection equipment necessary to eliminate or protect against the hazard. Cleanup employees ((shall)) must be instructed as to the safe method of cleaning up and disposing of the spill, and handling and disposing of leaking containers. Actual cleanup or disposal work ((shall)) must be conducted under the supervision of a designated person.
(4) The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard impose requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 C.F.R. Part 126, 46 C.F.R., 49 C.F.R.).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60051 Handling explosives or hazardous materials.
(1) You must thoroughly inform all workers handling explosive or other hazardous material which is properly labeled pursuant to the Washington State Labeling Code, chapters 296-62 and 296-64 WAC, promulgated by the department of labor and industries; or the Explosive Act, chapter 70.74 RCW and chapter 296-52 WAC; or the Federal and Washington State Food, Drug and Cosmetic Acts; the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, the Washington Pesticide Act, chapter 17.21 RCW; the Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act; or the Interstate Commerce Commission and Foreign Commerce regulations; or explosives or other dangerous cargo which is reasonably known by the employers to be mislabeled or to be lacking a required label, ((shall be thoroughly informed by the employer)) of the explosive or hazardous nature of the cargo.
(2) ((In)) You must ensure that all shipping operations including, but not limited to, handling, storage, and preparation, compliance with the standards of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the United States Coast Guard, or the safety rules developed by the Institute of Makers of Explosives ((shall be)) are deemed proper and safe methods of operation.
(3) ((Handling of breakage.)) You must require the foreman to order the work in the immediate area to cease, if breakage should occur while handling explosives or other hazardous materials, ((the foreman shall order the work in the immediate area to cease)) until the hazard has been removed. ((It shall be the responsibility of the employer to)) You must use a safe method of handling such breakage and placing it in a remote, safe location.
(4) ((No smoking.)) You must prohibit all workers supervising or engaged in the handling, hoisting, stowing of explosives, combustible oxidizing materials or flammable materials ((shall smoke only)) from smoking, except in designated areas. No person shall smoke within one hundred feet of any location where such materials are handled or stored.
(5) ((Loading chute.)) You must take care in chuting packaged explosives((, care must be exercised)) to ensure that one package is taken from the mat before starting another. Each package ((shall)) must be completely removed from the mat before another is placed on the chute.
(6) ((Specifications for chutes.)) You must construct chutes only of wood in the loading of explosive merchandise in package form where chutes are used((, the chutes shall be constructed only of wood)). All fastenings shall be of wooden pins, dowelings, or pegs. Metal fastenings may be used, provided they are countersunk.
(7) ((Mattress landing buffer. The bottoms of the chutes shall be provided with)) You must provide a stuffed mattress not less than four inches thick and of sufficient width and length to allow for safe landing of packages at the bottoms of the chutes.
(8) You must sling and secure drafts of hazardous or explosive cargo shall be so slung and secured that neither the draft nor individual packages can fall as a result of tipping the draft or slackening the supporting gear.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-56-60053 Hazardous atmospheres and substances.
(1) Purpose and scope. ((This section covers areas where a hazardous atmosphere or substance may exist, except where one or more of the following sections apply: WAC 296-56-60049 Hazardous cargo; WAC 296-56-60051 Handling explosives or hazardous materials; WAC 296-56-60055 Carbon monoxide; WAC 296-56-60057 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives; WAC 296-56-60107 Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish; WAC 296-56-60235 Welding, cutting and heating (hot work); and WAC 296-56-60237 Spray painting.))
Important:
This section covers areas where a hazardous atmosphere or substance may exist, except where one or more of the following sections apply:
1.
WAC 296-56-60049 Hazardous cargo
2.
WAC 296-56-60051 Handling explosives or hazardous materials
3.
WAC 296-56-60055 Carbon monoxide
4.
WAC 296-56-60057 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives
5.
WAC 296-56-60107 Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish
6.
WAC 296-56-60235 Welding, cutting and heating (hot work)
7.
WAC 296-56-60237 Spray painting
(2) You must make a determination of hazard((.)):
(a) Whenever a room, building, vehicle, railcar or other space contains or has contained a hazardous atmosphere, a designated and appropriately equipped person ((shall)) must test the atmosphere before entry to determine whether a hazardous atmosphere exists.
(b) Records of results of any tests required by this section ((shall)) must be maintained for at least thirty days.
(3) ((Testing during ventilation. When mechanical ventilation is used to maintain a safe atmosphere, tests shall be)) You must make sure tests are made by a designated person to ensure that the atmosphere is not hazardous when mechanical ventilation is used to maintain a safe atmosphere.
(4) ((Entry into hazardous atmospheres.)) You must make sure only designated persons ((shall)) enter hazardous atmospheres. The following provisions ((shall)) apply:
(a) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere ((shall)) must be protected by respiratory and emergency protective equipment meeting the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC;
(b) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere ((shall)) must be instructed in the nature of the hazard, precautions to be taken, and the use of protective and emergency equipment. Standby observers, similarly equipped and instructed, ((shall)) must continuously monitor the activity of employees within such space; and
(c) Except for emergency or rescue operations, employees ((shall)) must not enter into any atmosphere which has been identified as flammable or oxygen deficient (less than nineteen and one-half percent oxygen). Persons who may be required to enter flammable or oxygen deficient atmospheres in emergency operations ((shall)) must be instructed in the dangers attendant to those atmospheres and instructed in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, which ((shall)) must be utilized.
(d) To prevent inadvertent employee entry into spaces that have been identified as having hazardous, flammable or oxygen deficient atmospheres, appropriate warning signs or equivalent means ((shall)) must be posted at all means of access to those spaces.
(5) ((When the packaging of asbestos cargo leaks, spillage shall be cleaned up by)) You must make sure only designated employees protected from the harmful effects of asbestos as required by WAC 296-62-07517 and chapter 296-65 WAC, clean up spills when the packaging of asbestos cargo leaks.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60055 Carbon monoxide.
(1) ((Exposure limits.)) You must maintain the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere in a room, building, vehicle, railcar or any enclosed space shall be maintained below fifty parts per million (0.005%) as an eight-hour time-weighted average. Employees ((shall)) must be removed from the enclosed space if the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds one hundred parts per million (0.01%).
(2) ((Testing.)) You must conduct tests to determine carbon monoxide concentration ((shall be made)) whenever necessary to ensure that employee exposure does not exceed the limits specified in subsection (1) of this section.
(3) ((Instrumentation.)) You must make sure tests for carbon monoxide concentration ((shall be)) are made by designated persons using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 C.F.R. Part 11 or other measuring instruments whose accuracy is as great or greater.
(4) ((Records.)) You must make available a record of the date, time, location and result of carbon monoxide tests ((shall be available)) for at least thirty days.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-56-60057 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also WAC 296-56-60049, 296-56-60051 and 296-56-60053).
(1) You must make a determination as to whether a hazardous atmosphere is present whenever cargo in a space is or has been stowed, handled, or treated with a fumigant, pesticide, insecticide, or hazardous preservative((, a determination shall be made as to whether a hazardous atmosphere is present in the space)). Only employees protected as required in subsection (5) of this section shall enter the space if it is hazardous.
(2) You must make sure tests to determine the atmospheric concentration of chemicals used to treat cargo ((shall be)) are:
(a) Appropriate for the hazard involved;
(b) Conducted by designated persons; and
(c) Performed at the intervals necessary to ensure that employee exposure does not exceed the permissible exposure limit for the chemical involved, see chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC.
(3) ((Results of any tests shall be available)) You must make available any test results for at least thirty days.
(4) ((Chemicals shall only be)) You must make sure chemicals are only applied to cargoes by designated persons.
(5) You must make sure only designated persons ((shall)) enter hazardous atmospheres. Whenever a hazardous atmosphere is entered the following provisions apply((.)):
(a) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere ((shall)) must be protected by respiratory and emergency protective equipment meeting the requirements of part G of this standard; and
(b) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere ((shall)) must be instructed in the nature of the hazard, precautions to be taken, and the use of protective and emergency equipment. Standby observers, similarly equipped and instructed, ((shall)) must continuously monitor the activity of employees within such a space.
(6) ((Signs shall be clearly posted)) You must clearly post signs where fumigants, pesticides or hazardous preservatives have created a hazardous atmosphere. These signs ((shall)) must note the danger, identify specific chemical hazards, and give appropriate information and precautions, including instructions for the emergency treatment of employees affected by any chemical in use.
(7) ((In the case of containerized shipments of fumigated tobacco,)) You must aerate the contents of ((the)) a container ((shall be aerated)) by opening the container doors for a period of forty-eight hours after the completion of fumigation and prior to loading in the case of containerized shipments of fumigated tobacco. When tobacco is within shipping cases having polyethylene or similar bag liners, the aeration period ((shall)) must be seventy-two hours. ((The employer shall)) You must obtain a written warranty from the fumigation facility stating that the appropriate aeration period has been met.
((PART E—CARGO HANDLING GEAR AND EQUIPMENT))
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-56-60070 Cargo handling gear and equipment.
Summary
This section applies to all cargo handling gear and equipment in your workplace.
Your responsibility: To protect employees from cargo handling gear and equipment hazards in your workplace.
You must meet the requirement …
in this section:
House falls
WAC 296-56-60071
Miscellaneous auxiliary gear
WAC 296-56-60073
Cargo boards and other type pallet boards
WAC 296-56-60075
Powered industrial trucks
WAC 296-56-60077
General rules applicable to vehicles
WAC 296-56-60079
Multipiece and single-piece rim wheels
WAC 296-56-60081
Cranes and derricks
WAC 296-56-60083
Crane load and limit devices
WAC 296-56-60085
Winches
WAC 296-56-60087
Conveyors
WAC 296-56-60089
Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment
WAC 296-56-60091
Certification of marine terminal material handling devices
WAC 296-56-60093
Advisory crane certification panel
WAC 296-56-60095
Unit proof load test and inspection
WAC 296-56-60097
Examination and inspection of cranes and derricks
WAC 296-56-60098
Hand tools
WAC 296-56-60099
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-01-022, filed 12/11/84)
WAC 296-56-60071 House falls.
(1) You must secure span beams ((shall be secured)) to prevent accidental dislodgement.
(2) You must provide a safe means of access ((shall be provided)) for employees working with house fall blocks.
(3) You must have designated employees ((shall)) inspect chains, links, shackles, swivels, blocks and other loose gear used in house fall operations before each day's use. Defective gear ((shall)) must not be used.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 00-21-103, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01)
WAC 296-56-60073 Miscellaneous auxiliary gear.
(1) You must meet the following requirements for routine inspections((.)):
(a) At the completion of each use, loose gear such as slings, chains, bridles, blocks, and hooks ((shall)) must be so placed as to avoid damage to the gear. Loose gear ((shall)) must be inspected and any defects corrected before reuse.
(b) All loose gear ((shall)) must be inspected by the employer or ((his/her)) their authorized representative before each use and, when necessary, at intervals during its use, to ensure that it is safe. Any gear which is found upon inspection to be unsafe ((shall)) must not be used until it is made safe.
(c) Defective gear ((shall)) must not be used. Distorted hooks, shackles, or similar gear ((shall)) must be discarded.
(d) Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered, or repaired by welding ((shall)) must be properly heat treated, and before again being put into use, ((shall)) must be tested and reexamined in the manner set forth in WAC 296-56-60097 and 296-56-60098.
(2) ((The employer shall)) You must maintain a record of the dates and results of the tests with each unit of gear concerned clearly identified. The records ((shall)) must be available for examination by division of consultation and compliance personnel and the employee safety committee.
(3) You must meet the following requirements for wire rope and wire rope slings((.)):
(a) ((The employer shall)) You must ascertain and adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for wire rope and wire rope slings and ((shall)) must have such ratings available at the terminal. When the manufacturer is unable to supply such ratings, ((the employer shall)) you must use the tables for wire rope and wire rope slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI/ASME B30.9-1984. A design safety factor of at least five ((shall)) must be maintained for the common sizes of running wire used as falls, in purchases or in such uses as light load slings. Wire rope with a safety factor of less than five may be used only:
(i) In specialized equipment, such as cranes designed to be used with lesser wire rope safety factors;
(ii) In accordance with design factors in standing rigging applications; or
(iii) For heavy lifts or other purposes for which a safety factor of five is impractical and for which the employer can demonstrate that equivalent safety is ensured.
(b) Wire rope or wire rope slings exhibiting any of the following conditions ((shall)) must not be used:
(i) Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three or more broken wires in one strand in one rope lay;
(ii) Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure;
(iii) Evidence of heat damage;
(iv) Excessive wear, corrosion, deformation or other defect in the wire or attachments, including cracks in attachments;
(v) Any indication of strand or wire slippage in end attachments; or
(vi) More than one broken wire in the close vicinity of a socket or swaged fitting.
(c) Four by twenty-nine (4 x 29) wire rope ((shall)) must not be used in any running rigging.
(d) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles ((shall)) must be covered or blunted. Coverings ((shall)) must be removable so that splices can be examined. Means used to cover or blunt ends ((shall)) must not damage the wire.
(e) Where wire rope clips are used to form eyes, ((the employer shall)) you must adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations, which ((shall)) must be available at the terminal. If "U" bolt clips are used and the manufacturer's recommendations are not available, Table C-1 ((shall)) must be used to determine the number and spacing of clips. "U" bolts ((shall)) must be applied with the "U" section in contact with the dead end of the rope.
Table C-1 (())
Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips
Improved plow steel, rope
diameter
Minimum number of clips
Minimum spacing
inches/(cm)
Drop
forged
Other
material
inches/(cm)
1/2 or less (1.3)
3
4
3 (7.6)
5/8 (1.6)
3
4
3 3/4 (9.5)
3/4 (1.9)
4
5
4 1/2 (11.4)
7/8 (2.2)
4
5
5 1/4 (13.3)
1 (2.5)
5
7
6 (15.2)
1 1/8 (2.9)
6
7
6 3/4 (17.1)
1 1/4 (3.2)
6
8
7 1/2 (19.1)
1 3/8 (3.5)
7
8
8 1/4 (21.0)
1 1/2 (3.8)
7
9
9 (22.9)
(f) Wire rope ((shall)) must not be secured by knots.
(g) Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, bull wires, or in single parts used for hoisting ((shall)) must not be formed by wire rope clips or knots.
(h) Eye splices in wire ropes ((shall)) must have at least three tucks with a whole strand of the rope and two tucks with one-half of the wire cut from each strand. Other forms of splices or connections which are demonstrated to be equally safe may be used.
(i) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in bulling cargo, ((shall)) must consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
(4) You must meet the following requirements for natural fiber rope.
(a) ((The employer shall)) You must ascertain the manufacturer's ratings for the specific natural fiber rope used and have such ratings available at the terminal. The manufacturer's ratings ((shall)) must be adhered to and a minimum design safety factor of five maintained.
(b) Eye splices ((shall)) must consist of at least three full tucks. Short splices ((shall)) must consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the center line.
(5) You must meet the following requirements for synthetic rope((.)):
(a) ((The employer shall)) You must adhere to the manufacturer's ratings and use recommendations for the specific synthetic fiber rope used and ((shall)) must have such ratings available at the terminal.
(b) Unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer, when synthetic fiber ropes are substituted for manila ropes of less than three inches (7.62 cm) circumference, the substitute ((shall)) must be of equal size. Where substituted for manila rope of three inches or more in circumference, the size of the synthetic rope ((shall)) must be determined from the formula:
 
C = √.6(Cs2) + .4(Cm2)
Where C = the required circumference of the synthetic rope in inches, Cs = the circumference to the nearest one-quarter inch of a synthetic rope having a breaking strength not less than that of the size manila rope that would be required by subsection (4) of this section, and Cm = the circumference of manila rope in inches which would be required by subsection (4) of this section.
(c) In making such substitution, it ((shall)) must be ascertained that the inherent characteristics of the synthetic fiber are suitable for hoisting.
(6) ((Removal of natural and synthetic rope from service.)) You must remove natural or synthetic rope having any of the following defects ((shall be removed)) from service:
(a) Abnormal wear;
(b) Powdered fiber between strands;
(c) Sufficient cut or broken fibers to affect the capacity of the rope;
(d) Variations in the size or roundness of strands;
(e) Discolorations other than stains not associated with rope damage;
(f) Rotting; or
(g) Distortion or other damage to attached hardware.
(7) ((Thimbles.)) You must use properly fitting thimbles ((shall be used)) where any rope is secured permanently to a ring, shackle or attachment, where practical.
(8) You must meet the following requirements for synthetic web slings((.)):
(a) Slings and nets or other combinations of more than one piece of synthetic webbing assembled and used as a single unit (synthetic web slings) ((shall)) must not be used to hoist loads in excess of the sling's rated capacity.
(b) Synthetic web slings ((shall)) must be removed from service if they exhibit any of the following defects:
(i) Acid or caustic burns;
(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
(iv) Broken or worn stitches;
(v) Distortion or damage to fittings; or
(vi) Display of visible warning threads or markers designed to indicate excessive wear or damage.
(c) Defective synthetic web slings removed from service ((shall)) must not be returned to service unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or similar entity. Each repaired sling ((shall)) must be proof tested by the repairer to twice the slings' rated capacity prior to its return to service. ((The employer shall)) You must retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.
(d) Synthetic web slings provided by ((the employer shall)) you must only be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, which ((shall)) must be made available upon request.
(e) Fittings ((shall)) must have a breaking strength at least equal to that of the sling to which they are attached and ((shall)) must be free of sharp edges.
(9) You must meet the following requirements for chains and chain slings used for hoisting.
(a) ((The employer shall)) You must adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for safe working loads for the sizes of the wrought iron and alloy steel chains and chain slings used and ((shall)) must have such ratings available. When the manufacturer is unable to provide such ratings, ((the employer shall)) you must use the tables for chains and chain slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI B30.9-1971.
(b) Proof coil steel chain, also known as common or hardware chain, and other chain not recommended by the manufacturer for slinging or hoisting ((shall)) must not be used for slinging or hoisting.
(c)(((i))) Sling chains, including end fastenings, ((shall)) must be inspected for visible defects before each day's use and as often as necessary during use to ensure integrity of the sling.
(((ii))) (i) Thorough inspections of chains in use ((shall)) must be made quarterly to detect wear, defective welds, deformation, increase in length or stretch. The month of inspection ((shall)) must be indicated on each chain by color of paint on a link or by other effective means.
(((iii))) (ii) Chains ((shall)) must be removed from service when maximum allowable wear, as indicated in Table C-2, is reached at any point of link.
(((iv))) (iii) Chain slings ((shall)) must be removed from service when stretch has increased the length of a measured section by more than five percent; when a link is bent, twisted or otherwise damaged; or when a link has a raised scarf or defective weld.
(((v))) (iv) Only designated persons shall inspect chains used for slinging and hoisting.
Table C-2 (())
Maximum Allowable Wear at Any Point of Link
Chain Size
Maximum Allowable Wear
Inches
(cm)
Inches
(cm)
1/4 (9/32)
(0.6)
 
3/64
(0.1)
3/8
(1.0)
 
5/64
(0.2)
1/2
(1.3)
 
7/64
(0.3)
5/8
(1.6)
 
9/64
(0.4)
3/4
(1.9)
 
5/32
(0.4)
7/8
(2.2)
 
11/64
(0.4)
1
(2.5)
 
3/16
(0.5)
1 1/8
(2.9)
 
7/32
(0.6)
1 1/4
(3.2)
 
1/4
(0.6)
1 3/8
(3.5)
 
9/32
(0.7)
1 1/2
(3.8)
 
5/16
(0.8)
1 3/4
(4.4)
 
((1 1/32)) 11/32
(0.9)
(d) Chains ((shall)) must only be repaired under qualified supervision. Links or portions of chain defective under any of the criteria ((of WAC 296-56-60073 (9)(c) shall)) under (c) of this subsection must be replaced with properly dimensioned links or connections of material similar to that of the original chain. Before repaired chains are returned to service, they ((shall)) must be tested to the proof test load recommended by the manufacturer for the original chain. Tests ((shall)) must be performed by the manufacturer or ((shall)) must be certified by an agency accredited for the purpose under WAC 296-56-60093. Test certificates ((shall)) must be available at the terminal.
(e) Wrought iron chains in constant use ((shall)) must be annealed or normalized at intervals not exceeding six months. Heat treatment certificates ((shall)) must be available at the terminal. Alloy chains ((shall)) must not be annealed.
(f) Kinked or knotted chains ((shall)) must not be used for lifting. Chains ((shall)) must not be shortened by bolting, wiring or knotting. Makeshift links or fasteners such as wire, bolts or rods ((shall)) must not be used.
(g) Hooks, rings, links and attachments affixed to sling chains ((shall)) must have rated capacities at least equal to that of the chains to which they are attached.
(h) Chain slings ((shall)) must bear identification of size, grade and rated capacity.
(10) You must meet the following requirements for shackles((.)):
(a) If available, the manufacturer's recommended safe working loads for shackles ((shall)) must not be exceeded. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, Table C-3 ((shall)) must apply.
(b) Screw pin shackles used aloft in house fall or other gear, except in cargo hook assemblies, ((shall)) must have their pins moused or otherwise effectively secured.
Table C-3 (())
Safe Working Loads for Shackles
Material Size
Pin Diameter
Safe Working Load in 2,000 lb Tons
Inches
(cm)
Inches
(cm)
1/2
(1.3)
5/8
(1.6)
1.4
5/8
(1.6)
3/4
(1.9)
2.2
3/4
(1.9)
7/8
(2.2)
3.2
7/8
(2.2)
1
(2.5)
4.3
1
(2.5)
1 1/8
(2.9)
5.6
1 1/8
(2.9)
1 1/4
(3.2)
6.7
1 1/4
(3.2)
1 3/8
(3.5)
8.2
1 3/8
(3.5)
1 1/2
(3.8)
10.0
1 1/2
(3.8)
1 5/8
(4.1)
11.9
1 3/4
(4.4)
2
(5.1)
16.2
2
(5.1)
2 1/4
(5.7)
21.2
(c) Tables G-2 through G-5 ((shall)) must be used to determine the safe working loads of various sizes and classifications of improved plow steel wire rope slings with various types of terminals. For sizes, classifications and grades not included in these tables the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer for specific, identifiable products ((shall)) must be followed, however, a safety factor of not less than five ((shall)) must be maintained.
TABLE G-1
MANILA ROPE
In Pounds or Tons of 2,000 Pounds
((Circum-
ference
 
Diameter
in
Inches
 
Single
Leg
60
Degree
45
Degree
30
Degree
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.))
Circum-
ference
 
Diameter
in
Inches
 
Single
Leg
60
Degree
45
Degree
30
Degree
 
 
 
 
 
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
3/4
1/4
120
204
170
120
1
5/16
200
346
282
200
1 1/8
3/8
270
467
380
270
1 1/4
7/16
350
605
493
350
1 3/8
15/32
450
775
635
450
1 1/2
1/2
530
915
798
530
1 3/4
9/16
690
1190
973
690
2
5/8
880
1520
1240
880
2 1/4
3/4
1080
1870
1520
1080
2 1/2
13/16
1300
2250
1830
1300
2 3/4
7/8
1540
2660
2170
1540
3
1
1800
3120
2540
1800
 
 
Tons
Tons
Tons
Tons
3 1/4
1 1/16
1.0
1.7
1.4
1.0
3 1/2
1 1/8
1.2
2.1
1.7
1.2
3 3/4
1 1/4
1.35
2.3
1.9
1.35
4
1 5/16
1.5
2.6
2.1
1.5
4 1/2
1 1/2
1.8
3.1
2.5
1.8
5
1 5/8
2.25
3.9
3.2
2.25
5 1/2
1 3/4
2.6
4.5
3.7
2.6
6
2
3.1
5.4
4.4
3.1
6 1/2
2 1/8
3.6
6.2
5.1
3.6
TABLE G-2
RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE, WIRE ROPE AND WIRE SLINGS
(In Tons of 2,000 Pounds)
Rope
Diameter
Inches
Single Leg
Vertical
Choker
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4"
.59
.56
.53
.44
.42
.40
3/8"
1.3
1.2
1.1
.98
.93
.86
1/2"
2.3
2.2
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.5
5/8"
3.6
3.4
3.0
2.7
2.5
2.2
3/4"
5.1
4.9
4.2
3.8
3.6
3.1
7/8"
6.9
6.6
5.5
5.2
4.9
4.1
1"
9.0
8.5
7.2
6.7
6.4
5.4
((1-1/8"))
1 1/8"
11
10
9.0
8.5
7.8
6.8
6 x 37 Classification
((1-1/4"))
1 1/4"
13
12
10
9.9
9.2
7.9
((1-3/8"))
1 3/8"
16
15
13
12
11
9.6
((1-1/2"))
1 1/2"
19
17
15
14
13
11
((1-3/4"))
1 3/4"
26
24
20
19
18
15
2"
33
30
26
25
23
20
((2-1/4"))
2 1/4"
41
38
33
31
29
25
(A) — Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) — Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) — Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
TABLE G-3
RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE, WIRE ROPE SLING (IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)
 
((Two-leg bridle or basket hitch
 
 
Vertical
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
Rope
dia.
inches
 
 
 
))
 
Two-leg bridle or basket hitch
 
 
Vertical
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
Rope
dia.
inches
 
 
 
 
 
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4"
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
.97
.92
.83
.79
.75
.59
.56
.53
3/8"
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.1
1/2"
4.6
4.4
3.9
4.0
3.8
3.4
3.2
3.1
2.8
2.3
2.2
2.0
5/8"
7.2
6.8
6.0
6.2
5.9
5.2
5.1
4.8
4.2
3.6
3.4
3.0
3/4"
10
9.7
8.4
8.9
8.4
7.3
7.2
6.9
5.9
5.1
4.9
4.2
7/8"
14
13
11
12
11
9.6
9.8
9.3
7.8
6.9
6.6
5.5
1"
18
17
14
15
15
12
13
12
10
9.0
8.5
7.2
1 1/8"
23
21
18
19
18
16
16
15
13
11
10
9.0
6 x 37 Classification
1 1/4"
26
24
21
23
21
18
19
17
15
13
12
10
1 3/8"
32
29
25
28
25
22
22
21
18
16
15
13
1 1/2"
38
35
30
33
30
26
27
25
21
19
17
15
1 3/4"
51
47
41
44
41
35
36
33
29
26
24
20
2"
66
61
53
57
53
46
47
43
37
33
30
26
2 1/4"
83
76
66
72
66
57
58
54
47
41
38
33
(A) Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
TABLE G-4
RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, FIBER CORE, WIRE ROPE AND WIRE ROPE SLINGS
(In Tons of 2,000 pounds)
Rope dia. Inches
Single leg
Vertical
Choker
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4"
.55
.51
.49
.41
.38
.37
3/8"
1.2
1.1
1.1
.91
.85
.80
1/2"
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4
5/8"
3.3
3.1
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.1
3/4"
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.6
3.3
2.9
7/8"
6.4
5.9
5.1
4.8
4.5
3.9
1"
8.4
7.7
6.7
6.3
5.8
5.0
((1-1/8))
1 1/8"
10
9.5
8.4
7.9
7.1
6.3
6 x 37 Classification
((1-1/4))
1 1/4"
12
11
9.8
9.2
8.3
7.4
((1-3/8))
1 3/8"
15
13
12
11
10
8.9
((1-1/2))
1 1/2"
17
16
14
13
12
10
((1-3/4))
1 3/4"
24
21
19
18
16
14
2"
31
28
25
23
21
18
(A) — Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) — Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) — Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
TABLE G-5
RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, FIBER CORE, WIRE ROPE SLINGS
(IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)
 
((Two-leg bridle or basket hitch
 
 
Vertical
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
Rope
dia.
inches
 
 
 
)) 
 
Two-leg bridle or basket hitch
 
 
Vertical
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
Rope
dia.
inches
 
 
 
 
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4"
1.1
1.0
.99
.95
.88
.85
.77
.72
.70
.55
.51
.49
3/8"
2.4
2.2
2.1
2.1
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.1
1/2"
4.3
3.9
3.7
3.7
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.1
2.0
1.8
5/8"
6.7
6.2
5.6
5.8
5.3
4.8
4.7
4.4
4.0
3.3
3.1
2.8
3/4"
9.5
8.8
7.8
8.2
7.6
6.8
6.7
6.2
5.5
4.8
4.4
3.9
7/8"
13
12
10
11
10
8.9
9.1
8.4
7.3
6.4
5.9
5.1
1"
17
15
13
14
13
11
12
11
9.4
8.4
7.7
6.7
1 1/2"
21
19
17
18
16
14
15
13
12
10
9.5
8.4
6 x 37 Classification
1 1/4"
25
22
20
21
19
17
17
16
14
12
11
9.8
1 3/8"
30
27
24
26
23
20
21
19
17
15
13
12
1 1/2"
35
32
28
30
27
24
25
22
20
17
16
14
1 3/4"
48
43
38
41
37
33
34
30
27
24
21
19
2"
62
55
49
53
48
43
43
39
35
31
28
25
(A) Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
TABLE G-6
ALLOY STEEL CHAIN
(In Tons of 2,000 Pounds)
((Nominal
Size
Chain
Stock
Inch
Single
Leg
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
 
 
 
)) 
Nominal
Size
Chain
Stock
Inch
Single
Leg
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
 
 
1/4
1.62
2.82
2.27
1.62
3/8
3.30
5.70
4.65
3.30
1/2
5.62
9.75
7.90
5.62
5/8
8.25
14.25
11.65
8.25
3/4
11.5
19.9
16.2
11.5
7/8
14.3
24.9
20.3
14.3
1
19.3
33.5
27.3
19.8
1 1/8
22.2
38.5
31.5
22.2
1 1/4
28.7
49.7
40.5
28.7
1 3/8
33.5
58.0
47.0
33.5
1 1/2
39.7
68.5
56.0
39.7
1 5/8
42.5
73.5
59.5
42.5
1 3/4
47.0
81.5
62.0
47.0
(11) You must meet the following requirements for hooks other than hand hooks((.)):
(a) The manufacturer's recommendations ((shall)) must be followed in determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available ((shall)) must be tested to twice the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. ((The employer shall)) You must maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.
(b) Loads ((shall)) must be applied to the throat of the hook since loading the point may overstress, bend, or spring the hook.
(c) Hooks ((shall)) must be inspected once a month to see that they have not been bent by overloading. Bent or sprung hooks ((shall)) must not be used.
(d) ((Crane hooks.)) For crane hooks, magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection ((shall)) must be performed at least once each year. When testing by X ray, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's standards for protection against radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, ((shall)) must apply.
(e) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or X rays, whether or not under license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ((shall)) must be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, ((shall)) must perform such work.
(f) Teeth of case hooks ((shall)) must not be split, cracked, or deformed.
(g) Jaws of patent clamp type plate hooks ((shall)) must be kept in safe condition so that they will grip plates securely.
(12) You must meet the following requirements for pallets((.)):
(a) Pallets ((shall)) must be made and maintained to safely support and carry loads being handled. Fastenings of reusable pallets used for hoisting ((shall)) must be bolts and nuts, drive screws (helically threaded nails), annular threaded nails or fastenings of equivalent holding strength.
(b) Damaged pallets ((shall)) must be stored in designated areas and identified.
(c) Reusable wing or lip-type pallets ((shall)) must be hoisted by bar bridles or other suitable gear and ((shall)) must have an overhanging wing or lip of at least three inches (7.62 cm). They ((shall)) must not be hoisted by wire slings alone.
(d) Loaded pallets that do not meet the requirements of this ((paragraph shall)) subsection (12)(d) must be hoisted only after being placed on pallets meeting such requirements or ((shall)) must be handled by other means providing equivalent protection.
(e) Bridles for handling flush end or box-type pallets ((shall)) must be designed to prevent disengagement from the pallet under load.
(f) Pallets ((shall)) must be stacked or placed to prevent falling, collapsing or otherwise causing a hazard under standard operating conditions.
(g) Disposable pallets intended only for one use ((shall)) must not be reused for hoisting.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60075 Cargo boards and other type pallet boards.
(1) (("Cargo board" means the typical wing or lip-type stevedore board hoisted to or from vessels by means of a bar bridle. "Other pallet boards" includes all other platforms used to hold cargo for the purpose of transporting it from place to place.
(2))) You must make sure all pallets and cargo boards ((shall be)) are of such material and construction as to safely support and carry loads being handled.
(((3))) (2) You must make sure all cargo boards ((shall be)) are sheathed (decked) top and bottom with the top sheathing being of two-inch lumber and extending at least six inches beyond the end stringers.
(((4))) (3) You must fasten the outer sheathing boards or boards adjacent thereto on cargo boards ((shall be fastened)) to the stringers by bolts and nuts. Other sheathing ((shall)) must be fastened by bolts and nuts, drive screws (helically threaded nails), annular threaded nails, or fastenings of equivalent strength.
(((5))) (4) You may hoist pallet boards, other than cargo boards, ((may be hoisted)) if safe means are provided for the type of board used.
(((6))) (5) You must make sure loaded cargo or pallet boards which do not meet the requirements of this section ((shall be)) are reboarded or placed on cargo boards meeting the requirements of this section before being hoisted, only if the weight of the load can be safely distributed on the cargo board.
(((7))) (6) You must prohibit cargo boards from being hoisted which are not loaded and secured so that the load will not tip or fall ((shall not be hoisted)).
(((8))) (7) You must make sure bridles used to handle flush-end or box-type pallets ((shall be of such a design as)) are designed to prevent them from becoming disengaged from the pallet under load.
Note:
In areas where a two lip cargo board is being used, that practice shall continue. The department of labor and industries recommends the use of the two lip cargo board.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-15-144, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)
WAC 296-56-60077 Powered industrial trucks.
(1) ((Applicability.)) This section applies to every type of powered industrial truck used for material or equipment handling within a marine terminal. ((Employers)) You must comply with the provisions of chapter 296-863 WAC and this section. It does not apply to over-the-road vehicles.
(2) ((General.)) You must meet the following general requirements for powered industrial trucks:
(a) Modifications, such as adding counterweights, that might affect the vehicle's capacity or safety ((shall)) must not be performed without either the manufacturer's prior written approval or the written approval of a professional engineer experienced with the equipment who has consulted with the manufacturer, if available. Capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags or decals ((shall)) must be changed to conform to the equipment as modified.
(b) Unauthorized personnel ((shall)) must not ride on powered industrial trucks. A safe place to ride ((shall)) must be provided when riding is authorized.
(c) When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load-engaging means ((shall)) must be fully lowered, controls neutralized and brakes set. Unless the truck is in view and within twenty-five feet (7.62 m) of the operator, power ((shall)) must be shut off. Wheels ((shall)) must be blocked or curbed if the truck is on an incline.
(d) Powered industrial trucks ((shall)) must not be operated inside highway vehicles or railcars having damage which could affect operational safety.
(e) Powered industrial trucks ((shall)) must be marked with their rated capacities, which ((shall)) must be visible to the operator.
(f) Only stable and safely arranged loads within the rated capacity of the truck ((shall)) must be handled.
(g) Drivers ((shall)) must ascend and descend grades slowly.
(h) Drivers ((shall)) must slow down and sound the horn at crossaisles and other locations where visibility is obstructed.
(i) If the load obstructs the forward view drivers ((shall)) must travel with the load trailing.
(j) Steering knobs ((shall)) must not be used unless the truck is equipped with power steering.
(k) When powered industrial trucks use cargo lifting devices that have a means of engagement hidden from the operator, a means ((shall)) must be provided to enable the operator to determine that the cargo has been engaged.
(l) When cargo is being towed on pipe trucks or similar equipment, a safe means ((shall)) must be provided to protect the driver from sliding loads.
(3) You must meet the following requirements for maintenance((.)):
(a) Only designated persons ((shall)) must perform maintenance and repair.
(b) Batteries on all powered trucks ((shall)) must be disconnected during repairs to the primary electrical system unless power is necessary for testing and repair. On trucks equipped with systems capable of storing residual energy, that energy ((shall)) must be safely discharged before work on the primary electrical system begins.
(c) Replacement parts whose function might affect operational safety ((shall)) must be equivalent in strength and performance capability to the original parts which they replace.
(d) Braking systems or other mechanisms used for braking ((shall)) must be operable and in safe condition.
(e) Powered industrial trucks ((shall)) must be maintained in safe working order. Safety devices ((shall)) must not be removed or made inoperative except as otherwise provided in this section. Trucks with a fuel system leak or any other safety defect ((shall)) must not be operated.
(f) Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve fire hazards ((shall)) must be conducted only in locations designated as safe for such repairs.
(4) You must meet these requirements for approved trucks((.)):
(a) (("Approved power-operated industrial truck" means one listed or approved for the intended use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(b))) Approved trucks acquired and used after February 15, 1972, ((shall)) must bear a label or other identification indicating testing laboratory approval.
(((c))) (b) When the atmosphere in an area is hazardous and the provisions of United States Coast Guard regulations at 33 C.F.R. 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations ((shall)) must be used.
(5) ((Duties of operator.)) You must meet these requirements for operator duties:
(a) A power-driven vehicle operator's special duties are:
(i) To operate the vehicle in a safe manner.
(ii) To test brakes, steering gear, lights, horns, or other warning devices, clutches, etc., before starting work.
(iii) To have the vehicle at all times under control so that it can be brought to an emergency stop in the clear space in front of the vehicle.
(iv) To back down any incline of two percent or more when traveling with a load on the fork lift jitney.
(b) ((Unobstructed view.)) When traveling, power-propelled vehicles ((shall)) must at all times be operated in a manner giving the operator a reasonably unobstructed view in the direction of travel. Where this is impractical, the operator ((shall)) must be directed in travel, by a person designated to do so.
(c) ((Employee riding safety.)) Operators and authorized passengers ((shall not be)) are not permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor ((shall)) are they ((be)) permitted to ride while standing unless the vehicle is designed to be operated from a standing position.
(d) ((Moving vehicles.)) Vehicles ((shall)) must be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. Special precautions ((shall)) must be taken when pushing vehicles where the view is obstructed. Vehicles ((shall)) must not be pushed with blades of a forklift.
(e) ((Moving highway trailers.)) In all cargo operations involving the use of highway trailers, trailers ((shall)) must be moved in such a manner that the moving trailer is completely under control at all times. Special caution ((shall)) must be exercised when such trailers are moving on inclines. Trailers ((shall)) must be loaded in a manner which will prevent the cargo from shifting, and the load in the trailer ((shall)) must be evenly distributed ((so as not to cause)) to prevent the trailer ((to tip)) from tipping to one side.
(f) ((Prohibited forms of riding.)) Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of power-propelled vehicles is prohibited.
(g) ((Regular seats for riders.)) No one except the operator shall ride on power-driven vehicles unless regular seats are provided to accommodate passengers.
(h) ((Jumping on or off moving vehicles.)) Employees ((shall)) must not jump on or off moving vehicles.
(i) ((Reporting defects.)) If a power-driven vehicle is at any time found to be in any way unsafe, the operator ((shall)) must report ((same)) the defect immediately to the person in charge and such vehicle ((shall)) must not be used for production work until it has been made safe.
(6) You must meet the following requirements for vehicle equipment and maintenance((.)):
(a) ((Horns and lights.)) All power-propelled vehicles ((shall)) must be provided with horns or other warning devices.
(b) Power-propelled vehicles used for night work, when required to travel away from an illuminated work area ((shall)) must be equipped with a light or lights directed in the direction of travel in order to safely travel about the area.
(c) ((Guards on operator's platform.)) Every power truck operated from an end platform or standing position ((shall)) must be equipped with a substantial guard securely attached to the platform or frame of the vehicle in such a manner as to protect the operator from falling objects and so designed that the operator can easily mount or dismount from the operating station.
(d) ((Seat cushions.)) All vehicles having a driver's seat ((shall)) must be provided with resilient seat cushions fixed in place.
(e) ((Securing of counterbalances.)) Counterbalances of all power-driven vehicles ((shall)) must be positively secured to prevent accidental dislodging, but may be a removable type which may be removed, if desired, prior to hoisting the vehicle.
(f) ((Exhaust pipes and mufflers.)) Exhaust pipes and mufflers of internal combustion engines, where workers are exposed to contact shall be isolated or insulated. Exhaust pipes ((shall)) must be constructed to discharge not less than seventy-two inches above the floor on jitneys and eighty-four inches on forklifts or less than twenty inches from the floor.
(g) ((Ventilation where internal combustion vehicles are used.)) Internal combustion engines may be used only in areas where adequate ventilation is provided.
(h) Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas created by powered industrial truck operations ((shall)) must not exceed the levels specified in WAC 296-56-60055.
(i) When disputes arise concerning degree of concentration, methods of sampling to ascertain the conditions should be referred to a qualified industrial hygienist.
(j) ((Cargo truck couplings.)) Couplings installed on cargo trucks (four-wheelers) ((shall)) must be of a type which will prevent accidental disengaging.
(k) ((Operating levers.)) Operating levers on power-driven vehicles ((shall)) must be so placed as not to project toward the operator's body.
(l) ((Front axle assembly.)) The front axle assembly on all trailers ((shall)) must be securely fastened to the truck bed.
(m) ((Air line hook-up.)) Tractors hauling heavy duty highway trailers ((shall)) must have an air line brake hook-up.
(n) ((Floor mats.)) On power-driven vehicles where the operator stands on a platform, resilient foot mats ((shall)) must be securely attached.
(o) ((Cleaning vehicles.)) All power-propelled vehicles ((shall)) must be cleaned at frequent intervals to remove any accumulation of dust and grease that may present a hazard.
(7) You must meet the following requirements for forklift trucks((.)):
(a) Overhead guards.
(i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, forklift trucks ((shall)) must be equipped with securely attached overhead guards. Guards ((shall)) must be constructed to protect the operator from falling boxes, cartons, packages, or similar objects.
(ii) Overhead guards ((shall)) must not obstruct the operator's view, and openings in the top of the guard ((shall)) must not exceed six inches (15.24 cm) in one of the two directions, width or length. Larger openings are permitted if no opening allows the smallest unit of cargo being handled to fall through the guard.
(iii) Overhead guards ((shall)) must be built so that failure of the vehicle's mast tilting mechanism will not displace the guard.
(iv) An overhead guard, otherwise required by this paragraph, may be removed only when it would prevent a truck from entering a work space and if the operator is not exposed to low overhead obstructions in the work space.
(v) Overhead guards ((shall)) must be large enough to extend over the operator during all truck operations, including forward tilt.
(b) ((Supplies to ship's rail.)) Cargo or supplies ((shall)) must not be hoisted to or from ship's rail with a forklift. This does not apply to ramp or side port loading.
(c) ((Position of forks.)) When standing, lift forklift forks ((shall)) must be lowered to floor. When moving, lift forklift forks ((shall)) must be kept as low as possible.
(d) ((Forklift use in gangplank moving.)) Not less than two forklifts ((shall)) must be used to place or remove gangplanks unless fork width prevents tipping and manufacturer's rated lifting capacity of the forklift is not exceeded.
(e) ((Forklift seat covers.)) Seats on forklifts ((shall)) must be provided with a removable waterproof cover when they are exposed to the weather.
(f) ((Raised equipment to be blocked.)) Workers ((shall)) must not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling. When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking ((shall)) must be used in conjunction with the jack.
(g) ((Maximum speed.)) The maximum speed for forklifts on all docks ((shall)) must not exceed eight miles per hour. The speed limit ((shall)) must be prominently posted on such docks.
(h) ((Load backrest extensions.)) Where necessary to protect the operator, forklift trucks ((shall)) must be fitted with a vertical load backrest extension to prevent the load from hitting the mast when the mast is positioned at maximum backward tilt. For this purpose, a "load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame to prevent raised loads from falling backward.
(i) ((Forks.)) Forks, fork extensions and other attachments ((shall)) must be secured so that they cannot be accidentally dislodged, and ((shall)) must be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(j) ((Counterweights.)) Counterweights ((shall)) must be so affixed that they cannot be accidentally dislodged.
(k) Capacities and weights((.)):
(i) Forklift truck rated capacities, with and without removable counterweights, ((shall)) must not be exceeded. Rated capacities ((shall)) must be marked on the vehicle and ((shall)) be visible to the operator. The vehicle weight, with and without counterweight, ((shall)) must be similarly marked.
(ii) If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight of the load ((shall)) must not exceed the combined rated lifting capacity of all trucks involved.
(l) ((Lifting of employees.)) Employees may be elevated by forklift trucks only when a platform is secured to the lifting carriage or forks. The platform ((shall)) must meet the following requirements:
(i) The platform ((shall)) must have a railing complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3).
(ii) The platform ((shall)) must have toeboards complying with WAC 296-56-60123(4), if tools or other objects could fall on employees below.
(iii) When the truck has controls which are elevated with the lifting carriage, means ((shall)) must be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle.
(iv) Employees on the platform ((shall)) must be protected from exposure to moving truck parts.
(v) The platform floor ((shall)) must be skid resistant.
(vi) A truck operator ((shall)) must be at the truck's controls when employees are elevated unless the truck's controls are elevated with the lifting carriage.
(vii) While employees are elevated, the truck may be moved only to make minor placement adjustments.
(8) You must meet the following requirements for bulk cargo-moving vehicles((.)):
(a) Where a seated operator may come into contact with projecting overhead members, crawler-type ((bulk-cargo-moving)) bulk cargo-moving vehicles that are rider operated ((shall)) must be equipped with operator guards.
(b) Guards and their attachment points ((shall)) must be so designed as to be able to withstand, without excessive deflection, a load applied horizontally at the operator's shoulder level equal to the drawbar pull of the machine.
(c) After July 26, 1999, bulk cargo-moving vehicles ((shall)) must be equipped with rollover protection of such design and construction as to prevent the possibility of the operator being crushed because of a rollover or upset.
(9) You must meet the following requirements for straddle trucks((.)):
(a) ((Accessibility.)) Straddle trucks ((shall)) must have a permanent means of access to the operator's station, including any handholds necessary for safe ascent and descent.
(b) Guarding((.)):
(i) Main sprockets and chains to the wheels ((shall)) must be guarded as follows:
(A) The upper sprocket ((shall)) must be fully enclosed;
(B) The upper half of the lower sprocket ((shall)) must be enclosed; and
(C) The drive chain ((shall)) must be enclosed to a height of eight feet (2.44 m) except for that portion at the lower half of the lower sprocket.
(ii) Gears ((shall)) must be fully enclosed and revolving parts which may be contacted by the operator ((shall)) must be guarded.
(iii) When straddle trucks are used in the vicinity of employees, personnel-deflecting guards ((shall)) must be provided around leading edges of front and rear wheels.
(c) ((Visibility.)) Operator visibility ((shall)) must be provided in all directions of movement.
(10) You must meet the following requirements for trailer-spotting tractors((.)):
(a) Trailer-spotting tractors (fifth wheels) ((shall)) must be fitted with any hand grabs and footing necessary for safe access to the fifth wheel.
(b) Rear cab windows ((shall)) must be of safety glass or equivalent material.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
WAC 296-56-60079 General rules applicable to vehicles.
(1) The requirements of this section apply to general vehicle use within marine terminals except in cases where the provisions of subsections (3) and (13) of this section are preempted by regulations of the department of transportation.
(2) You must allow private vehicle parking in marine terminals ((shall be allowed)) only in designated areas.
(3) ((Trailers shall not be disconnected)) You must not disconnect trailers from tractors at loading docks until the road wheels have been immobilized. The road wheels ((shall)) must be immobilized from the time the brake system is disconnected until braking is again provided. Supplementary front end support ((shall)) must be employed as necessary to prevent tipping when a trailer is entered by a material handling vehicle. Rear end support ((shall)) must be employed if rear wheels are so far forward as to allow tipping when the trailer is entered.
(4) ((The employer shall)) You must direct motor vehicle operators to comply with any posted speed limits, other traffic control signs or signals, and written traffic instructions.
(5) You must post stop signs ((shall be posted)) at main entrances and exits of structures where visibility is impaired, and at blind intersections, unless direct traffic control, warning mirror systems or other systems of equivalent safety are provided.
(6) You must establish, identify, and use vehicular routes, traffic rules and parking areas ((shall be established, identified and used)).
(7) You must make sure vehicle drivers ((shall)) warn anyone in traffic lanes of the vehicle's approach.
(8) You must clearly post signs indicating pedestrian traffic ((shall be clearly posted)) at vehicular check-in and check-out lines and similar locations where employees may be working.
(9) You must maintain a distance of not less than twenty feet (6.1 m) ((shall be maintained)) between the first two vehicles in a check-in, check-out, road ability, or vessel loading/discharging line. This distance ((shall)) must be maintained between any subsequent vehicles behind which employees are required to work.
(10) You must make sure no unattended vehicle shall be left with its engine running unless secured against movement (see WAC 296-56-60077 for powered industrial trucks).
(11) You must provide and secure a ramp when the rear of a vehicle is elevated to facilitate loading or discharging((, a ramp shall be provided and secured)). The vehicle ((shall)) must be secured against accidental movement during loading or discharging.
(12) You must make sure only vehicle floors in safe condition ((shall be)) are used.
(13) You must make sure when flatbed trucks, platform containers or similar conveyances are loaded or discharged and the cargo consists of pipe or other products which could spread or roll to endanger employees, the cargo ((shall be)) is contained to prevent movement.
(14) You must maintain vehicles used to transport employees within a terminal ((shall be maintained)) in safe working order and safety devices ((shall)) not be removed or made inoperable.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)
WAC 296-56-60081 Multipiece and single-piece rim wheels.
You must make sure servicing of multipiece and single-piece rim wheels in marine terminal and other maritime work locations on large vehicles is regulated by requirements of chapter 296-864 WAC, Split (multipiece) rim and single-piece rim wheels.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-17-033, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-56-60083 Cranes and derricks.
(1) Scope.
(a) This section through WAC 296-56-60103 applies to every kind of crane and derrick and to any other type of equipment performing the functions of a crane or derrick except as noted in (b) of this subsection.
(b) This section does not apply to small industrial truck-type cranes, container handling toploaders and sideloaders, chain hoists, and mobile straddle-type cranes incapable of straddling two or more intermodal containers (sixteen feet (4.88 m) in width).
(2) You must meet the following requirements for ratings((.)):
(a) Except for bridge cranes covered by subsection (7) of this section, cranes and derricks having ratings that vary with boom length, radius (outreach) or other variables ((shall)) must have a durable rating chart visible to the operator, covering the complete range of the manufacturer's (or design) capacity ratings. The rating chart ((shall)) must include all operating radii (outreach) for all permissible boom lengths and jib lengths as applicable, with and without outriggers, and alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such ratings. Precautions or warnings specified by the owner or manufacturer ((shall)) must be included.
(b) The manufacturer's (or design) rated loads for the conditions of use ((shall)) must not be exceeded.
(c) Designated working loads ((shall)) must not be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations unless such increase receives the manufacturer's approval. When the manufacturer's services are not available or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering design analysis ((shall)) must be performed or approved by a person accredited for certifying the equipment under WAC 296-56-60093. Cranes ((shall)) must conform with the manufacturer's specifications or any current ANSI standards that apply. Engineering design analysis ((shall)) must be performed by a registered professional engineer competent in the field of cranes and derricks. Any structural changes necessitated by the change in rating ((shall)) must be carried out.
(3) ((Radius indicator.)) You must make sure when the rated load varies with the boom radius, the crane or derrick ((shall be)) is fitted with a boom angle or radius indicator visible to the operator.
(4) ((Prohibited)) You must prohibit the following usage((.)):
(a) Equipment ((shall)) must not be used in a manner that exerts sideloading stresses upon the crane or derrick boom.
(b) No crane or derrick having a visible or known defect that affects safe operation ((shall)) must be used.
(5) You must meet the following requirements for protective devices((.)):
(a) When exposed moving parts such as gears, chains and chain sprockets present a hazard to employees during crane and derrick operations, those parts ((shall)) must be securely guarded.
(b) Crane hooks ((shall)) must be latched or otherwise secured to prevent accidental load disengagement.
(c) When hoisting personnel in an approved man basket, the hook ((shall)) must have a positive safety latch to prevent rollouts.
(6) ((General.)) You must meet the following general requirements:
(a) Operating controls((.)):
(i) Crane and derrick operating controls ((shall)) must be clearly marked, or a chart indicating their function ((shall)) must be posted at the operator's position.
(ii) All crane controls ((shall)) must operate in a uniform manner within a given port.
(iii) Overhead bridge and container gantry crane operating control levers ((shall)) must be self-centering so that they will automatically move to the "off" position when the operator releases the control.
(b) ((Booms.)) Cranes with elevatable booms and without operable automatic limiting devices ((shall)) must be provided with boom stops if boom elevation can exceed maximum design angles from the horizontal.
(c) ((Foot pedals.)) Foot pedals ((shall)) must have a nonskid surface.
(d) ((Access.)) Ladders, stairways, stanchions, grab irons, foot steps or equivalent means ((shall)) must be provided as necessary to ensure safe access to footwalks, cab platforms, the cab and any portion of the superstructure which employees must reach.
(i) Footwalks ((shall)) must be of rigid construction((, and shall be)) and capable of supporting a load of one hundred pounds (4.79 kPa) per square foot.
(ii) If more than twenty feet (6.1 m) in height, vertical ladders ((shall)) must comply with WAC 296-56-60209 (4), (5)(a), (5)(b)(iii) and (5)(b)(iv).
(iii) Stairways on cranes ((shall)) must be equipped with rigid handrails meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123 (5)(a).
(iv) If the top of a ladder or stairway or any position thereof is located where a moving part of a crane, such as a revolving house, could strike an employee ascending or descending the ladder or stairway, a prominent warning sign ((shall)) must be posted at the foot of the ladder or stairway. A system of communication (such as a buzzer or bell) ((shall)) must be established and maintained between the foot of the ladder or stairway and the operator's cab.
(e) ((Operator's station.)) The cab, controls, and mechanism of the equipment ((shall)) must be so arranged that the operator has a clear view of the load or signal person, when one is used. Cab glass, when used, ((shall)) must be safety plate glass or equivalent and good visibility ((shall)) must be maintained through the glass. Clothing, tools and equipment ((shall)) must be stored so as not to interfere with access, operation, or the operator's view.
(f) A seat (lap) belt, meeting the requirements of 49 C.F.R. 571.208-210 for a Type 1 seat belt assembly, ((shall)) must be installed on the operator's seat of high speed container gantry cranes where the seat trolleys.
(g) ((Counterweights or ballast.)) Cranes ((shall)) must be operated only with the specified type and amount of ballast or counterweights. Ballast or counterweight ((shall)) must be located and secured only as provided in the manufacturer's or design specifications, which ((shall)) must be available.
(h) ((Outriggers.)) Outriggers ((shall)) must be used according to the manufacturer's specifications or design data, which ((shall)) must be available. Floats, when used, ((shall)) must be securely attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks or other support ((shall)) must be of sufficient size to support the outrigger, free of defects that may affect safety and of sufficient width and length to prevent the crane from shifting or toppling under load.
(i) ((Exhaust gases.)) Engine exhaust gases ((shall)) must be discharged away from the normal position of crane operating personnel.
(j) Electrical equipment ((shall)) must be so located or enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact. Designated persons may work on energized equipment only if necessary during inspection, maintenance, or repair.
(k) Fire extinguisher((.)):
(i) At least one portable fire extinguisher of at least 5-BC rating or equivalent ((shall)) must be accessible in the cab of the crane or derrick.
(ii) No portable fire extinguisher using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents ((shall)) must be used.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
(l) ((Rope on drums.)) At least three full turns of rope ((shall)) must remain on ungrooved drums, and two turns on grooved drums, under all operating conditions. Wire rope ((shall)) must be secured to drums by clamps, U-bolts, shackles, or equivalent means. Fiber rope fastenings are prohibited.
(m) ((Assembly or disassembly of boom sections.)) Mobile crane booms being assembled or disassembled on the ground with or without the support of the boom harness ((shall)) must be blocked to prevent dropping of the boom or boom sections.
(n) Brakes((.)):
(i) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane ((shall)) must be equipped with at least one holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or gear train.
(ii) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane, except worm geared hoists, the angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the lowering direction, ((shall)) must, in addition to a holding brake, be equipped with a controlled braking means to control lowering speeds.
(iii) Holding brakes for hoist units ((shall)) must have not less than the following percentage of the rated load hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied:
(A) One hundred twenty-five percent when used with a controlled braking means.
(B) One hundred percent when used with a mechanically controlled braking means.
(C) One hundred percent when two holding brakes are provided.
(iv) All power control braking means ((shall)) must be capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated loads.
(o) Each crane or derrick ((shall)) must be equipped with sufficient lights to maintain five foot candles in the working area around the load hook. All crane ladders and machinery houses ((shall)) must be illuminated at a minimum of two candle power.
(p) Light fixtures connected to the boom, gantry legs, or machinery house ((shall)) must be provided with safety devices which will prevent the light fixture from falling in case of bracket failure.
(q) Electronic devices may be installed to prevent collision subject to approval of the accredited certification agency.
(r) On all rail gantry cranes, truck guards ((shall)) must extend on the ends of the trucks, close to the top of the rail to prevent worker's feet from being caught between the rail and wheel. This subsection does not apply if rail sweeps are present.
(s) All hydraulic cylinders used to control crane booms or to provide crane stability (outriggers) ((shall)) must be equipped with a pilot operated check valve or a device which will prevent the boom or outrigger from retracting in case of failure of a component of the hydraulic system.
(t) Gantry cranes ((shall)) must be provided with automatic rail clamps or other devices to prevent the crane from moving when not being used or when power is off.
(7) You must meet the following requirements for rail-mounted cranes (excluding locomotive types)((.)):
(a) For the purposes of this section, rail-mounted cranes include bridge cranes and portal cranes.
(b) ((Rated load marking.)) The rated loads of bridge cranes ((shall)) must be plainly marked on each side of the crane and in the cab. If there is more than one hoisting unit, each hoist ((shall)) must have its rated load marked on it or on its load block. Marking ((shall)) must be legible from the ground level.
(c) Wind-indicating devices((.)):
(i) Each rail-mounted bridge and portal crane located outside of an enclosed structure ((shall)) must be fitted with an operable wind-indicating device.
(ii) The wind indicating device ((shall)) must provide a visible or audible warning to alert the operator of high wind conditions. That warning ((shall)) must be transmitted whenever the following circumstances are present:
(A) When wind velocity reaches the warning speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations; and
(B) When wind velocity reaches the shutdown speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations, at which work is to be stopped and the crane secured.
(iii) ((Instructions. The employer shall)) You must post operating instructions for high wind conditions in the operator's cab of each crane. Operators ((shall)) must be directed to comply with these instructions. The instructions ((shall)) must include procedures for responding to high wind alerts and for any coordination necessary with other cranes.
(d) Securing of cranes in high winds.
(i) When the wind reaches the crane's warning speed:
(A) Gantry travel ((shall)) must be stopped; and
(B) The crane ((shall)) must be readied for shutdown.
(ii) When the wind reaches the crane's shutdown speed:
(A) Any portion of the crane spanning or partially spanning a vessel ((shall)) must be moved clear of the vessel if safe to do so; and
(B) The crane ((shall)) must be secured against travel, using all available means of securing.
(e) ((The employer shall)) You must monitor local weather conditions by subscribing to a weather service or using equally effective means.
(f) The following applies for stops and bumpers((.)):
(i) The ends of all tracks ((shall)) must be equipped with stops or bumpers. If a stop engages the tread of the wheel, it ((shall)) must be of a height not less than the radius of the wheel.
(ii) When more than one crane operates on the same runway or more than one trolley on the same bridge, each crane or trolley ((shall)) must be equipped with bumpers or equivalent devices at adjacent ends subject to impact.
(g) Employee exposure to crane movement. When employees may be in the vicinity of the tracks, crane trucks ((shall)) must be equipped with personnel-deflecting guards.
(h) ((Pedestrian clearance.)) If the track area is used for employee passage or for work, a minimum clearance of three feet (0.91 m) ((shall)) must be provided between trucks or the structures of rail-mounted cranes and any other structure or obstruction. When the required clearance is not available on at least one side of the crane's trucks, the area ((shall)) must not be used and ((shall)) must be marked and identified.
(i) ((Warning devices.)) Rail-mounted cranes ((shall)) must be equipped with an effective audible and visible travel warning device which ((shall)) must be used to warn employees who may be in the path of the moving crane.
(j) The following are requirements for communications((.)):
(i) Means of communication ((shall)) must be provided between the operator's cab and the base of the gantry of all rail-mounted cranes. This requirement may be met by telephone, radio, sound-signaling system or other effective methods, but not solely by hand-signaling.
(ii) All rail-mounted cranes thirty ton and above capacity ((shall)) must be equipped with a voice hailing device (PA system) from the operator to the ground, audible within one hundred feet.
(k) Limit switch bypass systems ((shall)) must be secured during all cargo operations. Such bypass systems ((shall)) must not be used except in an emergency or during noncargo handling operations such as stowing cranes or derricks or performing repairs. When a situation requiring the use of a bypass system or the readjustment of a limit switch arises, it ((shall)) must be done only under the direction of a crane mechanic.
(l) Cranes and crane operations—Scope and application. The sections of this chapter, WAC 296-56-60083 through 296-56-60099, apply to cranes, derricks, and crane operations.
(m) ((Signal persons.)) A signal person ((shall)) must be required when a crane operator's visibility is obstructed. When a signal person is required to transmit hand signals, they ((shall)) must be in such a position that the operator can plainly see the signals.
(n) ((Signals.)) All operators and signal persons ((shall)) must use standard signals as illustrated for longshore crane operations. (See Appendices C and D, at the end of this chapter.)
(o) ((Signal person for power units.)) Where power units, such as cranes and winches are utilized and signaling is required, the operator ((shall)) must be instructed as to who is authorized to give signals. The operator ((shall)) must take signals only from such authorized person. In case of emergency, any worker ((shall)) must be authorized to give a stop signal.
(i) No draft ((shall)) must be hoisted unless the winch or crane operator can clearly see the draft itself or see the signals of any signal person associated with the operation.
(ii) Loads requiring continuous manual guidance while in motion ((shall)) must be provided with tag lines.
(p) ((Landing loads.)) Persons assisting in landing a load ((shall)) must face the load and use caution to prevent themselves from getting in a position where they may be caught between the load and a fixed object.
(8) ((Stabilizing of locomotive cranes. Loads may be hoisted)) You may hoist loads by locomotive cranes only if outriggers are in place, unless means are taken to prevent the load being carried by the truck springs of the crane.
(9) You must meet the following requirements for operations((.)):
(a) ((Use of cranes together.)) When two or more cranes hoist a load in unison, a designated person ((shall)) must direct the operation and instruct personnel in positioning, rigging of the load and movements to be made.
(b) ((Guarding of swing radius.)) Accessible areas within the swing radius of the body of a revolving crane ((shall)) must be physically guarded during operations to prevent an employee from being caught between the body of the crane and any fixed structure or between parts of the crane.
(c) ((Securing mobile crane components in transit.)) The crane's superstructure and boom ((shall)) must be secured against rotation and carried in line with the direction of travel except when negotiating turns with an operator in the cab or when the boom is supported on a dolly. The empty hook or other attachment ((shall)) must be secured.
(d) ((Unattended cranes.)) The following steps ((shall)) must be taken before leaving a crane unattended between work periods:
(i) Suspended loads, such as those hoisted by lifting magnets or clamshell buckets, ((shall)) must be landed unless the storage position or maximum hoisting of the suspended device will provide equivalent safety;
(ii) Clutches ((shall)) must be disengaged;
(iii) The power supply ((shall)) must be shut off;
(iv) The crane ((shall)) must be secured against accidental travel; and
(v) The boom ((shall)) must be lowered or secured against movement.
(e) Operating near electric power lines((.)):
(i) ((Clearance.)) Unless electrical distribution and transmission lines are deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work, or unless insulating barriers not a part of or an attachment to the crane have been erected to prevent physical contact with lines, cranes may be operated near power lines only in accordance with the following:
(A) For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load ((shall)) must be ten feet (3.05 m);
(B) For lines rated over 50 kV, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load ((shall)) must be either 10 feet (3.05 m) plus 0.4 inch (10.16 mm) for each 1 kV over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than ten feet; and
(C) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the clearance ((shall)) must be a minimum of four feet (1.22 m).
(ii) ((Boom guards.)) Cage-type boom guards, insulating links or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but they ((shall)) must not be used in place of the clearances required by subsection (9)(e)(i) of this section.
(iii) ((Determination of energized lines.)) Any overhead line ((shall)) must be presumed to be energized until the owner of the line indicates that it is not energized.
(10) You must meet the following requirements for protection for employees being hoisted((.)):
(a) ((No employee shall be)) You must make sure no employee is hoisted by the load hoisting apparatus of a crane or derrick except:
(i) On intermodal container spreaders, equipped in accordance with this subsection; or
(ii) In a boatswain's chair or other device rigged to prevent it from accidental disengagement from the hook or supporting member; or
(iii) On a platform meeting the following requirements:
(A) Enclosed by a railing or other means providing protection equivalent to that described in WAC 296-56-60123(3). If equipped with open railings, the platform ((shall)) must be fitted with toe boards;
(B) Having a safety factor of four based on ultimate strength;
(C) Bearing a plate or permanent marking indicating maximum load rating, which ((shall)) must not be exceeded, and the weight of the platform itself;
(D) Equipped with a device to prevent access doors, when used, from opening accidentally;
(E) Equipped with overhead protection for employees on the platform if they are exposed to falling objects or overhead hazards;
(F) Secured to the load line by means other than wedge and socket attachments, unless the free (bitter) end of the line is secured back to itself by a clamp placed as close above the wedge as possible.
(b) Except in an emergency, the hoisting mechanism of all overhead and container gantry cranes used to hoist personnel ((shall)) must operate in power up and power down, with automatic brake application when not hoisting or lowering.
(c) Variable radius booms of a crane or derrick used to hoist personnel ((shall)) must be so constructed or secured as to prevent accidental boom movement.
(d) Platforms or devices used to hoist employees ((shall)) must be inspected for defects before each day's use and ((shall)) must be removed from service if defective.
(e) Employees being hoisted ((shall)) must remain in continuous sight of and communication with the operator or signal person.
(f) Operators ((shall)) must remain at the controls when employees are hoisted.
(g) Cranes ((shall)) must not travel while employees are hoisted, except in emergency or in normal tier to tier transfer of employees during container operations.
(h) When intermodal container spreaders are used to transfer employees to or from the tops of containers, the spreaders ((shall)) must be equipped with a personnel platform equipped with fixed railings, provided that the railings have one or more openings for access. The openings ((shall)) must be fitted with a means of closure, such as chains with hooks. Existing railings ((shall)) must be at least thirty-six inches (0.91 m) in height. New railings installed after October 3, 1983 ((shall)), must be forty-two inches (1.07 m), plus or minus three inches (7.62 cm), in height. The provisions of (a)(iii)(C), (D), and (F) of this subsection also apply to personnel platforms when container spreaders are used.
(i) Positive safety latch-type hooks or moused hooks ((shall)) must be used.
(j) Employees ((shall)) must not be hoisted on intermodal container spreaders while a load is engaged. Additional requirements are located in WAC 296-24-23533.
(11) You must meet the following requirements for routine ((inspection.)) inspections:
(a) Designated persons ((shall)) must visually inspect each crane and derrick on each day of use for defects in functional operating components and ((shall)) must report any defect found to the employer. ((The employer shall)) You must inform the operator of the findings.
(b) A designated person ((shall)) must thoroughly inspect all functional components and accessible structural features of each crane or device at monthly intervals.
(c) Any defects found during such inspections which may create a safety hazard ((shall)) must be corrected before further use. Repairs ((shall)) must be performed only by designated persons.
(d) A record of monthly inspections ((shall)) must be maintained for six months in or on the crane or derrick or at the terminal.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
WAC 296-56-60085 Crane load and limit devices.
(1) You must fit every crane with a load indicating device or alternative device in proper working condition, except as provided in subsection (8) of this section((, every crane shall be fitted with a load indicating device or alternative device in proper working condition)). The type or model or any load indicating or alternate device which is used shall provide:
(a) A direct indication in the cab of actual weight hoisted or a means of determining this by referencing a weight indication to crane ratings posted and visible to the operator. The use of a dynamometer or simple scale alone ((shall)) must not meet this requirement; or
(b) Indications in the cab according to the radius and load at the moment; or
(c) A direct means to prevent an overload from occurring.
(2) You must make sure the accuracy of the devices required by this section ((shall)) must be such that any indicated load (or limit), including the sum of actual weight hoisted and additional equipment or "add ons" such as slings, sensors, blocks, etc., is within the range from no less than ninety-five percent of the actual true total load (five percent overload) to one hundred ten percent of the actual true total load (ten percent underload). Such accuracy ((shall)) must be required over the range of the daily operating variables to be expected under the conditions of use.
(3) ((The device shall)) You must make sure the device permits the operator to determine, before making any lift, that the indicating or substitute system is operative. In the alternative, if a device is so
mounted or attached to preclude such a determination, it may not be used unless it has been certified by the manufacturer to remain operable within the limits stated in subsection (2) of this section for a specific period of use. Checks for accuracy, using known values of load, ((shall)) must be performed at the time of every certification survey (see WAC 296-56-60093) and at such additional times as may be recommended by the manufacturer.
(4) You must make sure when a load indicating device or alternative system is so arranged in the supporting system (crane structure) that its failure could cause the load to be dropped, its strength ((shall)) must not be the limiting factor of the supporting system (crane structure).
(5) ((Marking shall be)) You must make sure marking is conspicuously placed giving: Units of measure in pounds or both pounds and kilograms, capacity of the indicating system, accuracy of the indicating system, and operating instructions and precautions. In the case of systems utilizing indications other than actual weights, the marking ((shall)) must include data on: The means of measurement, capacity of the system, accuracy of the system, operating instructions and precautions. If the system used provides no read-out, but it is such as to automatically cease crane operation when the rated load limit under any specific condition of use is reached, marking ((shall)) must be provided giving the make and model of the device installed, a description of what it does, how it is operated, and any necessary precautions regarding the system. All weight indications, other types of loading indications, and other data required ((shall)) must be readily visible to the operator.
(6) You must make sure all load indicating devices ((shall be)) are operative over the full operating radius. Overall accuracy ((shall)) must be based on actual applied load and not on full scale (full capacity) load.
Explanatory note((.)): For example, if accuracy of the load indicating device is based on full scale load and the device is arbitrarily set at plus or minus ten percent, it would accept a reading between ninety thousand and one hundred ten thousand pounds, at full capacity of a machine with one hundred thousand pounds, maximum rating, but would also allow a reading between zero and twenty thousand pounds, at that outreach (radius) at which the rating would be ten thousand pounds capacity—an unacceptable figure. If, however, accuracy is based on actual applied load under the same conditions, the acceptable range would remain the same with the one hundred thousand pound load but becomes a figure between nine thousand and eleven thousand pounds, a much different and acceptable condition, at the ten thousand pound load.
(7) You must make sure when the device uses the radius as a factor in its use or in its operating indications, the indicated radius (which may be in feet and/or meters, or degrees of boom angle, depending on the system used) ((shall be)) is a figure which is within the range of a figure no greater than one hundred ten percent of the actual radius to a figure which is no less than ninety-seven percent of the actual (true) radius. A conversion chart ((shall)) must be provided whenever it is necessary to convert between degrees of radius and feet or meters.
(8) The load indicating device requirements of this section do not apply to a crane:
(a) Of trolley equipped bridge type while handling container known to be and identified as empty, or loaded, and in either case in compliance with the provisions of WAC 296-56-60103, or while hoisting other lifts by means of a lifting beam supplied by the crane manufacturer for the purpose, and in all cases within the crane rating;
(b) While handling bulk commodities or cargoes by means of clamshell bucket or magnet;
(c) While used to handle or hold hoses in connection with transfer of bulk liquids or other hose handled products; or
(d) While the crane is used exclusively to handle cargo or equipment the total actual gross weight of which is known by means of marking of the unit or units hoisted, when such total actual gross weight never exceeds eleven thousand two hundred pounds, and when eleven thousand two hundred pounds, is less than the rated capacity of the crane at the maximum outreach that is possible under the conditions of use at the time.
(9) You must install limit switches ((shall be installed)) on the main line and whip line assemblies, of all cranes and derricks, which will deactivate the hoisting power when a load reaches the upper limits of travel and at such other places as required by this chapter. Line limit switches ((shall)) must be tested prior to or at the beginning of each shift to determine if they are functioning properly. Any malfunction ((shall)) must be reported to the person in charge immediately and ((shall)) must be repaired prior to use.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
WAC 296-56-60087 Winches.
(1) You must guard moving winch parts which present hazards to employees ((shall be guarded)).
(2) You must make sure winches ((shall)) have clearly identifiable and readily accessible stop controls.
(3) You must secure portable winches ((shall be secured)) against accidental shifting while in use.
(4) You must fit portable winches ((shall be fitted)) with limit switches if employees have access to areas from which it is possible to be drawn into the winch.
(5) The provisions of WAC 296-56-60083 (6)(l) apply to winches.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60089 Conveyors.
(1) ((Guards.)) You must meet the following requirements for guards:
(a) Danger zones at or adjacent to conveyors ((shall)) must be guarded to protect employees.
(b) An elevated walkway with guardrail or equivalent means of protection ((shall)) must be provided where employees cross over moving conveyors. Suitable guarding ((shall)) must be provided when employees pass under moving conveyors.
(2) ((Moving parts.)) You must secure conveyor rollers and wheels ((shall be secured)) in position.
(3) ((Positioning.)) You must firmly place and secure gravity conveyor sections ((shall be firmly placed and secured)) to prevent them from falling.
(4) You must meet the following requirements for braking((.)):
(a) When necessary for safe operation, provisions ((shall)) must be made for braking objects at the delivery end of the conveyor.
(b) Conveyors using electrically released brakes ((shall)) must be constructed so that the brakes cannot be released until power is applied, and the brakes are automatically engaged if the power fails or the operating control is returned to the "stop" position.
(5) ((Stability.)) You must make sure portable conveyors ((shall be)) are stable within their operating ranges. When used at variable fixed levels, the unit ((shall)) must be secured at the operating level.
(6) ((Emergency stop devices.)) You must provide readily accessible stop controls ((shall be provided)) for use in an emergency whenever employees are required to walk or work in the vicinity of the conveyor. The emergency stop device ((shall)) must be available within easy reach from any position on or adjacent to the conveyor.
(7) ((Starting powered conveyors.)) You must not start powered conveyors ((shall not be started)) until all employees are clear of the conveyor or have been warned that the conveyor is about to start.
(8) ((Loading and unloading.)) You must keep the area around conveyor loading and unloading points ((shall be kept)) clear of obstructions during conveyor operations.
(9) You must meet the following requirements for lockout/tagout((.)):
(a) Conveyors ((shall)) must be stopped and their power sources locked out and tagged out during maintenance, repair, and servicing, unless power is necessary for testing.
(b) The starting device ((shall)) must be locked out and tagged out in the stop position before an attempt is made to remove the cause of a jam or overload of the conveying medium, unless it is necessary to have the power on to remove the jam.
(10) You must meet the requirements for chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers((.)):
(a) Chutes used in the manual handling of cargo ((shall)) must be adequate for the use to which they are put and ((shall)) must be kept free of splinters and sharp edges.
(b) Chutes ((shall)) must be equipped with sideboards of sufficient height to prevent cargo from falling off.
(c) Chutes and gravity roller sections ((shall)) must be firmly placed or secured to prevent displacement.
(d) Gravity rollers ((shall)) must be of sufficient strength for the weight of material which is placed upon them. Rollers ((shall)) must be locked in position to prevent them from falling or jumping out of the frame.
(e) Frames ((shall)) must be kept free of burrs and sharp edges.
(f) When necessary, provision ((shall)) must be made for braking objects at the delivery end of the roller or chute.
(11) You must meet the following requirements for safe practices((.)):
(a) Only designated persons ((shall)) must operate, repair or service powered conveyors.
(b) ((The employer shall)) You must direct employees to stay off operating conveyors.
(c) Conveyors ((shall)) must be operated only with all overload devices, guards and safety devices in place and functional.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 92-22-067, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)
WAC 296-56-60091 Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment.
(1) You must inspect standing and running rigging and associated gear used as a permanent part of spouts, chutes or similar devices ((shall be inspected)) before each use and ((shall)) must not be used if it has any functional defects. (See WAC 296-56-60093 for certification requirements.)
(2) You must provide direct communication ((shall be provided)) between the discharge or shipboard control end of loading spouts or chutes, and the point in the terminal from which the flow of cargo is controlled.
(3) You must guard chute and hopper openings which present a hazard ((shall be guarded)) to prevent employees from falling through.
(4) You must equip the hopper with a safe walkway and safe means of access when employees are working on hoppers((, the hopper shall be equipped with a safe walkway and safe means of access)).
(5) You must equip chutes with sideboards to afford protection from falling objects when necessary for the safety of employees((, chutes shall be equipped with sideboards to afford protection from falling objects)).
(6) ((Chutes shall be firmly placed and secured)) You must firmly place and secure chutes to prevent them from falling.
(7) You must make provisions for braking objects other than bulk commodities at the delivery end of the chute when necessary for the safety of employees((, provisions shall be made for braking objects other than bulk commodities at the delivery end of the chute)).
(8) You must make sure that before an employee enters an empty bin:
(a) Personnel controlling the flow of cargo into the bin ((shall)) must be notified of the entry; and
(b) The power supply to the equipment carrying the cargo to the bin ((shall)) must be turned off, locked out and tagged.
(9) You must ensure that before an employee enters a bin containing a bulk commodity such as coal or sugar((, the employer shall ensure)) that:
(a) Personnel controlling the flow of cargo into the bin ((shall)) must be notified of the entry;
(b) The power supply to the equipment carrying the cargo to the bin ((shall)) must be turned off, locked out and tagged;
(c) The employee entering the bin ((shall)) must wear a life-line and safety harness; and
(d) A standby attendant equipped to perform a rescue ((shall)) must be continuously stationed outside the bin until the employee has left the bin.
(10) You must cover bin top openings that present a hazard to employees ((shall be covered)) to prevent employees from falling into bins.
(11) You must make sure chutes and hoppers ((shall be repaired)) are only repaired by designated persons.
(12)(((a))) You must have a designated person inspect the equipment that is to be used before power shoveling operations begin((, a designated person shall inspect the equipment to be used)). The inspection ((shall)) must include at least the eye bolts, wires, and sheaves.
(((b))) (a) Power shovels and associated equipment with defects affecting safe operation ((shall)) must not be used.
(((c))) (b) Before adjustments are made to a power shovel, wire, or associated equipment, the power supply to the shovel ((shall)) must be turned off, locked out, and tagged, the belt stopped, and the hopper closed.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
WAC 296-56-60093 Certification of marine terminal material handling devices.
(1) ((The employer shall)) You must not use any material handling device listed in WAC 296-56-60098(8) until ((he/she has)) you have ascertained that the device has been certified, as evidenced by current and valid documents attesting to compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-56-60097 and 296-56-60098.
(2) You must make sure certification surveys are ((to be)) completed for the conditions of use found at the time such surveys are performed. Equipment owners or users may change the configurations of the equipment according to the manufacturer's specifications without affecting the established certification status for the equipment.
(3) These rules apply to employment within a marine terminal including the loading, unloading, movement, or other handling of cargo, ship's stores, or gear within the terminal or into or out of any land carrier, holding or consolidation area, or any other activity within and associated with the overall operation and functions of the terminal, such as the use and routine maintenance of facilities and equipment.
(4) You must make sure inspection and test certificates ((shall be)) are issued only for that equipment which meets or exceeds the requirements specified in these rules. All inspection and test certificates ((shall)) must be issued through the office of the assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance, department of labor and industries, and ((shall)) must be valid for a period not to exceed one year from the date of issuance.
(5) You must make sure equipment requiring certification ((shall be)) is inspected by individuals who have received a "certificate of competency" from the assistant director((, division of WISHA services)) of DOSH indicating that they are qualified and capable of performing such work.
(6) You must make sure that when deficiencies are found they ((shall be)) are noted on forms provided for such purpose by the division of consultation and compliance. Copies ((shall)) must be delivered to the owner of the equipment and the division of consultation and compliance at the headquarter's office by the person conducting such tests or inspections.
(7) You must make sure a certificate of unit test or examination of equipment ((shall not be)) is not issued for any equipment found not to be in compliance with the provisions of this chapter.
(8) You must make sure persons desiring a "certificate of competency" ((shall)) demonstrate and document their capabilities and qualifications to the assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance, who will issue certificates to those persons who have demonstrated competency. The assistant director reserves the right to revoke such certificates at any time for cause. A "certificate of competency" ((shall)) must be issued for a period of not more than three years. Applications for renewal may be made not more than sixty days prior to the expiration date shown on the certificate.
(9) The assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance or ((his/her)) their representative, reserves the right to inspect such equipment or to witness or attend any test or inspection in order to ascertain the adequacy of any certification activity performed.
(10) You must make sure, unless otherwise exempted, all cranes or derricks required to be ((certificated)) certified by these regulations ((shall)) must have a current test certificate posted in the operator's cab or station. No person ((shall)) may operate such crane or derrick unless a current valid certificate is posted.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)
WAC 296-56-60095 Advisory crane certification panel.
(1) Any person desiring a certificate of competency for crane inspection or certification ((shall)) must make application to the assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance for the certificate of competency. The application ((shall)) must include documentation of all qualifications, including all past experience, education, training and any other factors deemed to be relevant to the application.
(2) The advisory crane certification panel ((shall)) must assist the assistant director of the division of consultation and compliance in ((his/her)) their duties under this chapter. The panel ((shall)) must consist of six members. Two members ((shall)) must represent labor, two members ((shall)) must represent management, and one member ((shall)) must be a crane expert. The sixth member ((shall)) must be chair of the panel. ((He/she shall)) The chair must be the assistant director of consultation and compliance or ((his/her)) the chair's designee. The panel ((shall)) must be responsible for advising the assistant director as to the issuance of any certificate of competency. The panel ((shall)) must review all applications for certificates of competency. Minutes of meetings ((shall)) must be kept.
(3) In addition, the panel ((shall)) must, upon request by the assistant director, render advice concerning any matter which is relevant to crane safety. The panel ((shall)) must meet twice yearly or more often as deemed necessary by the chairman of the panel. Any panel member who is not an employee of the state of Washington ((shall)) must serve voluntarily.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
WAC 296-56-60097 Unit proof load test and inspection.
(1) You must make sure cranes and derricks ((shall be)) are proof load tested, rated and certified in tons (2,000 lbs. = 1 ton). Cranes and derricks ((shall)) must be inspected and unit proof load tested prior to being put into use, after any significant modification or repairs of structural parts, or when deemed necessary by the assistant director of consultation and compliance or ((his/her)) their designee. However, each crane or derrick ((shall)) must be unit proof load tested at least once during each twelve-month period. Unit proof load tests ((shall)) must be carried out by the use of weights as a dead load. When use of weights for unit proof load tests is not possible or reasonable a dynamometer or other recording test equipment may be used. Such equipment ((shall)) must be tested for accuracy with certified calibrating equipment within twelve months prior to being used and a copy of the certified calibration test ((shall)) must be made available to authorized representatives of the division of consultation and compliance upon request.
(2) The weight of the objects used for a dead load weight test ((shall)) must be certified and a record of the weight ((shall)) must be made available upon request. Any replacements or repairs deemed necessary by the person conducting a test ((shall)) must be carried out before application of the required proof load unit test.
(((1))) (3) The proof load tests for derricks ((shall)) must be conducted as follows:
Safe Working Load
Proof Load
To 20 tons
25% in excess
20-50 tons
5 tons in excess
Over 50 tons
10% in excess of manufacturer's recommended lifting capacity.
Proof load ((shall)) must be applied at the designed maximum and minimum boom angles or radii, or if this is impractical, as close to these as practical. The angles or radii of test ((shall)) must be stated in the certificate of test. Proof loads ((shall)) must be swung as far as possible in all directions. The weight of auxiliary handling devices such as spreader bars, robots, clams, magnets, or other gear ((shall)) must be considered a part of the load. Brakes ((shall)) must be tested by holding the proof load suspended without other mechanical assistance. After satisfactory completion of a unit proof load test the derrick and all component parts thereof ((shall)) must be carefully examined and nondestructive tests may be conducted to assure that the equipment is safe for use and has not been damaged in the unit proof load testing process.
(((2))) (4) Unit proof load tests for cranes ((shall)) must be carried out with the boom in the least stable direction relative to the mounting, based on the manufacturer's specifications.
(5) Unit proof load tests for cranes ((shall)) must be based on the manufacturer's load ratings for the conditions of use and ((shall)) must, except in the case of bridge type cranes utilizing a trolley, consist of application of a proof load of ten percent in excess of the load ratings at maximum and minimum radius, and at such intermediate radii as the certifying authority may deem necessary in the circumstances. (The manufacturer's load ratings are usually based upon percentage of tipping loads under some conditions and upon limitations of structural competence at others, as well as on other criteria such as type of crane mounting, whether or not outriggers are used, etc. Some cranes utilizing a trolley may have only one load rating assigned and applicable at any outreach. It is important that the manufacturer's ratings be used.) Trolley equipped cranes ((shall)) must be subject to a proof load of twenty-five percent in excess of the manufacturer's load rating. In cases of foreign manufacture, the manufacturer's specifications ((shall)) must be subject to approval by the certifying authority. The weight of all auxiliary handling devices such as magnets, hooks, slings, and clamshell buckets ((shall)) must be considered part of the load.
(((3))) (6) If the operation in which equipment is engaged never utilizes more than a fraction of the safe working load rating, the owner of the equipment may, at ((his/her)) their option, have the crane or derrick certified for and operated at a lesser maximum safe working load in keeping with the use and based on radius and other pertinent factors, however, the equipment concerned ((shall)) must be physically capable of operation at the original load rating and the load reduction ((shall)) must not be for the purpose of avoiding correction of any deficiency.
(((4))) (7) Safe working load ratings ((shall)) must not be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations without prior approval by the accredited certification agency. Such prior approval ((shall)) must be based on the manufacturer's approval of such increase or documented engineering design analysis or both. All necessary structural changes ((shall)) must be completed prior to approval by the accredited certification agency.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 00-21-103, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01)
WAC 296-56-60098 Examination and inspection of cranes and derricks.
(1) You must carry out an examination ((shall be carried out)) in conjunction with each annual unit proof load test. The accredited person, or their authorized representative, ((shall)) must make a determination as to correction of deficiencies found. The examination ((shall)) must include the following: (Refer to WAC 296-56-60093(8) for definition of accredited person.)
(a) All functional operating mechanisms ((shall)) must be examined for improper function, maladjustment, and excessive component wear, with particular attention to sheaves, pins, and drums. The examinations ((shall)) must include operation with partial load, in which all functions and movements, including maximum possible rotation in both directions, are checked.
(b) All safety devices ((shall)) must be examined for malfunction.
(c) Lines, tanks, valves, drains, pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems ((shall)) must be examined for deterioration or leakage.
(d) Rope reeving ((shall)) must comply with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(e) Deformed, cracked, or excessively corroded members in crane structure and boom ((shall)) must be repaired or replaced as necessary.
(f) Loose bolts, rivets, or other connections ((shall)) must be corrected.
(g) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts affecting safe operation ((shall)) must be corrected.
(h) All brakes, used to control the load, boom or travel of the crane, ((shall)) must be tested. Air, hydraulic, or electrically operated brakes ((shall)) must be of such design as to set and stop the load if the source of power fails.
(i) Brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets ((shall)) must be examined for excessive wear and free operation.
(j) Load, boom angle, or other indicators ((shall)) must be checked over their full range. Defects in such indicators ((shall)) must be immediately corrected.
(k) Where used, clamshell buckets or other similar equipment, such as magnets, ((shall)) must be carefully examined in all respects, with particular attention to closing line wires and sheaves. The accredited person may supplement such examination by requesting any operational tests deemed appropriate.
(l) Careful examination of the junction areas of removable boom sections, particularly for proper seating, cracks, deformities, or other defects in securing bolts and in the vicinity of such bolts, ((shall)) must be made.
(m) All platforms, steps and footwalks located on cranes where workers are exposed to the hazard of slipping ((shall)) must be of a nonslip material. Wire rope used for railings on cranes ((shall)) must be kept taut at all times.
Note:
In critical areas such as footwalks along booms, a grating material should be used.
(n) No counterweights in excess weight of the manufacturer's specifications ((shall)) must be fitted or used.
(o) Such other examination or supplemental functional tests ((shall)) must be made as may be deemed necessary by the accredited person under the circumstances.
(2) You must meet the following requirements for wire rope((.)):
(a) All wire rope ((shall)) must be inspected at least once a month, dependent upon conditions to which the wire ropes are subjected, and at intervals not exceeding a twelve-month period. Records of inspection of wire rope ((shall)) must be kept and ((shall)) must be available to the department of labor and industries representative. Records ((shall)) must be kept for one year. Refer to the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-24013.
(b) Wire rope ((shall)) must not be used if in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds ten percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect. Particular attention ((shall)) must be given to the condition of those sections of wire rope adjacent to any terminal connections, those sections exposed to abnormal wear, and those sections not normally exposed for examination.
(c) Documentation available for inspection ((shall)) must include wire rope test certificates relating to any replacements made since the last unit test or annual examination as required.
(d) Wire rope and replacement wire rope ((shall)) must be of the same size, same or better grade, and same construction as originally furnished by the equipment manufacturer or contemplated in the design, unless otherwise recommended by the equipment or wire rope manufacturer due to actual working conditions. In the absence of specific requirements, wire rope ((shall)) must be of a size and construction suitable for the purpose, and ((shall)) must have the capacity to handle five times the heaviest expected load, verified by wire rope test certificate.
(e) Wire rope in use on equipment previously constructed and prior to initial certification of said equipment ((shall)) must not be required to be tested but ((shall)) must be subject to thorough examination at the time of initial certification of the equipment.
(3)(((a))) You must meet the following requirements for accessory components((.)):
(a) Container spreader bar twist locks ((shall)) must be carefully examined periodically and at the time of annual examination and inspection. Cracked or deformed hooks ((shall)) must be discarded immediately and not reused.
(b) Crane hooks and container spreader bar twist lock. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection ((shall)) must be performed at least once each year. When testing by X ray, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's standards for protection against radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, ((shall)) must apply.
(4) You must make sure, in the event that heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, the latest heat treatment certificate attesting to compliance with the manufacturer's specifications ((shall)) must be part of the available documentation. Heat treatment ((shall)) must be carried out in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer by persons competent to perform such work.
(5) You must make sure replacement parts ((shall be)) are of equal or better quality than the original equipment and suitable for the purpose. Repairs or modifications ((shall)) must be such as to render the equipment equal to or better than the original construction or design.
(6) You must make sure, in cases of foreign manufactured cranes, there ((shall be)) is an owner's warranty that the design is adequate for the intended use. The warranty ((shall)) must be based on a thorough examination of the design specifications by a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.
(7) You must make sure the certifications required by this section ((shall be)) are performed in accordance with WAC 296-56-60093 by persons accredited by the assistant director of ((WISHA services)) DOSH.
(8) You must make sure the marine terminal material handling devices listed below ((shall be)) are certified in the following manner:
(a) Each crane and derrick ((shall)) must be tested and examined as a unit annually. A copy of the certificate of tests and examinations ((shall)) must be posted in the crane operator's cab.
(b) Bulk cargo spouts and suckers, together with any portable extensions and rigging or outriggers supporting them vertically, ((shall)) must be examined annually. Certificates attesting to the required examination ((shall)) must be made readily available for inspection.
(c) Vertical pocket or bucket conveyors such as banana, sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine terminal facility ((shall)) must be examined annually. The annual examination ((shall)) must include all supporting structures, rigging, mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates attesting to the required examinations ((shall)) must be readily available for inspection.
(d)(((i))) House fall cargo-handling gear ((shall)) must be proof load tested as a unit upon initial certification and every fourth year thereafter.
(i) An examination ((shall)) must be carried out in conjunction with each unit proof load test and annually thereafter. The unit test ((shall)) must consist of a proof load of twenty-five percent in excess of the rated safe working load. Examinations ((shall)) must include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting to the required tests and examinations ((shall)) must be readily available for inspection.
(ii) House fall span beams or other house fall block supports ((shall)) must be marked with the safe working load, which ((shall)) must not be exceeded.
(e) You must meet the following requirements for special gear((.)):
(i) Special stevedoring gear provided by the employer, the strength of which depends upon components other than commonly used stock items such as shackles, ropes or chains, ((shall)) must be tested as a unit in accordance with the following table before initially being put into use (see Table A). In addition, any special stevedoring gear that suffers damage necessitating structural repair ((shall)) must be inspected and retested after repair and before being returned to service.
Table A
Safe Working Load
Proof Load
Up to 20 short tons . . . .
25 percent in excess
Over 20 to 50 short tons . . . .
5 short tons in excess
Over 50 short tons . . . .
10 percent in excess
(ii) Special stevedoring gear provided by the employer that has a SWL of five short tons (10,000 or 4.54 metric tons) or less ((shall)) must be inspected and tested as a unit before initial use according to (d) and (e) of this subsection or by a designated person (see Table A).
(iii) Every spreader not a part of ship's gear and used for hoisting intermodal containers ((shall)) must be tested to a proof load equal to twenty-five percent in excess of its rated capacity. Additionally, any spreader which suffers damage necessitating structural repair ((shall)) must be retested after repair and before being returned to service.
(iv) Certificates attesting to the required tests ((shall)) must be available for inspection.
(v) All cargo handling gear covered by this section with a SWL greater than five short tons (10,000 lbs. or 4.54 metric tons) ((shall)) must be proof load tested according to Table A every four years in accordance with subsection (7) of this section or by a designated person.
(f) Wire rope and loose gear used for material handling ((shall)) must be tested and certified before being placed into use in accordance with the provisions of WAC 296-56-60097. Certificates attesting to the required tests, inspections and examinations ((shall)) must be available.
(9) ((Disassembly and reassembly of equipment does not require recertification of the equipment)) You do not need to recertify equipment that has been disassembled and reassembled provided that the equipment is reassembled and used in a manner consistent with its certification.
(10) Equipment certified in Washington and transferred to a site in another state does not require recertification in this state upon its return, until the next inspection or examination becomes due as if it had not been moved.
(11) You must make sure certification procedures ((shall not be)) are not construed as a substitute for, or cause for elimination of, normal operational inspection and maintenance routine throughout the year.
(12)(((a))) You must make sure every unit of equipment requiring annual certification ((shall have)) has had such annual certification within the previous twelve months.
(a) Equipment requiring annual certification ((shall)) must have had such annual certification within the previous twelve months, except that no annual certification is required within twelve months after any required certification. Annual examinations for certification may be accomplished up to one month early without effect on subsequent due dates.
(b) When certified equipment is out of service for six months or more beyond the due date of a certification inspection, an examination equivalent to an initial certification, including unit proof load test, ((shall)) must be performed before the equipment reenters service.
(13) You must make sure loose gear ((shall)) bears a legible mark indicating that it has been tested (see WAC 296-56-60097). Single sheave blocks ((shall)) must be marked with safe working loads and proof test loads. Marks relating to testing ((shall)) must be identifiable on the related certificates, which ((shall)) must be available.
(14) The certification requirements of this section do not apply to the following equipment:
(a) Industrial trucks and small industrial crane trucks; and
(b) Any straddle truck not capable of straddling two or more intermodal containers sixteen feet (4.88 m) in width.
(15) You must meet the following requirements for a safe working load((.)):
(a) The safe working load of gear as specified in this section ((shall)) must not be exceeded.
(b) All cargo handling gear provided by the employer with a safe working load greater than five short tons (10,000 lbs. or 4.54 metric tons) ((shall)) must have its safe working load plainly marked on it.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 85-10-004, filed 4/19/85)
WAC 296-56-60099 Hand tools.
(1) You must maintain hand tools used by employees ((shall be maintained)) in safe operating condition.
(2)(((a))) You must make sure hand-held portable electric tools ((shall be)) are equipped with switches that must be manually held in a closed position to operate the tool.
(((b))) (a) Portable power-driven circular saws ((shall)) must be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe.
(b) The upper guard ((shall)) must cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc needed to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts.
(c) The lower guard ((shall)) must cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc needed to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard ((shall)) must automatically and instantly return to the covering position.
(3) You must make sure only cutting tools ((shall be)) are used to cut metal strapping or banding used to secure cargo.
((PART F—SPECIALIZED TERMINALS))
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-56-60100 Specialized terminals.
Summary
This section applies to all specialized terminals in your workplace.
Your responsibility: To protect employees from hazards in specialized terminals in your workplace.
You must meet the requirements …
in this section:
General
WAC 296-56-60101
Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations
WAC 296-56-60103
Grain elevator terminals
WAC 296-56-60105
Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish
WAC 296-56-60107
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-15-144, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)
WAC 296-56-60103 Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.
(1) You must make sure every intermodal container ((shall be)) is legibly and permanently marked with:
(a) The weight of the container when empty, in pounds;
(b) The maximum cargo weight the container is designed to carry, in pounds; and
(c) The sum of the maximum weight of the container with cargo, in pounds (gross container capacity).
(2) You must make sure no container ((shall be)) is hoisted by any crane or derrick unless the following conditions have been met:
(a) ((The employer shall)) You must ascertain from the carrier whether a container to be hoisted is loaded or empty. Empty containers ((shall)) must be identified before loading or discharge in such a manner as will inform every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of loading or discharging, and every crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, that the container is empty. Methods of identification may include cargo plans, manifests or markings on the container.
(b) In the case of a loaded container:
(i) The actual gross weight ((shall)) must be plainly marked so as to be visible to the crane operator, other hoisting equipment operator, signalman, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation; or
(ii) The cargo stowage plan or equivalent permanently recorded display serving the same purpose, containing the actual gross weight and the serial number or other positive identification of that specific container, ((shall)) must be provided to the crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation.
(c) Every outbound loaded container which is received at a marine terminal ready to load aboard a vessel without further consolidation or loading ((shall)) must be weighed to obtain the actual gross weight before being hoisted.
(d)(((i))) When container weighing scales are located at a marine terminal, any outbound container with a load consolidated at that terminal ((shall)) must be weighed to obtain an actual weight before being hoisted.
(((ii))) (i) If the terminal has no scales, the actual gross weight may be calculated on the basis of the container's contents and the container's empty weight. The weights used in the calculation ((shall)) must be posted conspicuously on the container, with the name of the person making the calculation and the date.
(((iii))) (ii) Container weights ((shall)) must be subject to random sample weight checks at the nearest weighing facility. In cases where such weight checks or experience otherwise indicate consistently inaccurate weights, the weight of containers so calculated at the source from which the inaccurate weights originated ((shall)) must no longer be recognized as true gross weights. Such containers ((shall)) must not be hoisted unless actual gross weights have been obtained by weighing.
(e) The following containers are exempted from the requirements of (c) and (d) of this subsection:
(i) Open type vehicle containers.
(ii) The container is marked on the outside in such a manner that an employee can readily discern that the container is carrying vehicles.
(iii) Containers built specifically for the carriage of compressed gases.
(iv) The container carries only completely assembled vehicles and no other cargo.
(v) The vehicles were loaded into the container at the marine terminal.
(f) The weight of loaded inbound containers from foreign ports ((shall)) must be determined by weighing or by the method of calculation described in (d)(ii) of this subsection or by shipping documents.
(g) Any scale used within Washington state to weigh containers for the purpose of the requirements of this section ((shall)) must meet the accuracy standards of the state or local public authority in which the scale is located.
(3) You must make sure no container ((shall be)) is hoisted if its actual gross weight exceeds the weight marked as required in subsection (1)(c) of this section, or if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device intended to be used.
(4)(((a))) You must make sure there are marked or designated areas ((shall be)) set aside within a container or roll-on roll-off terminal for passage of employees to and from active cargo transfer points, except where you provide transportation to and from those points ((is provided by the employer)).
(((b) The employer shall)) (a) You must direct employees to stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container.
(b) Employees ((shall)) must stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container.
(5) You must make sure each employee working in the immediate area of container handling equipment or in the terminal's traffic lanes ((shall)) wears a high visibility vest (or equivalent protection).
Note to subsection (5): High visibility vests or equivalent protection means high visibility/retroreflective materials which are intended to provide conspicuity of the user by day through the use of high visibility (fluorescent) material and in the dark by vehicle headlights through the use of retroreflective material. The minimum area of material for a vest or equivalent protection is .5m(2)(760 in.(2)) for fluorescent (background) material and .13m(2)(197 in.(2)) for retroreflective material. Vests or equivalent protection, such as high visibility/retro-reflective coveralls, that are available for industrial use, may also be acceptable.
(6) You must make sure containers ((shall be)) are handled using lifting fittings or other arrangements suitable and intended for the purposes as set forth in (a) and (c) of this subsection, unless when damage to an intermodal container makes special means of handling necessary.
(a) Loaded intermodal containers of twenty feet (6.1 m) or more in length ((shall)) must be hoisted as follows:
(i) When hoisting by the top fittings, the lifting forces ((shall)) must be applied vertically from at least four top fittings or by means which will safely lift the container without damage. The lifting fittings provided ((shall)) must be used.
(A) The container being lifted is an ISO closed box container;
(B) The condition of the box is sound;
(C) The speed of hoisting and lowering is moderated when heavily ladened containers are encountered;
(D) The lift angle is at eighty to ninety degrees;
(E) The distance between the lifting beam and the load is at least eight feet and 2.4 inches (2.5 m); and
(F) The length of the spreader beam is at least 16.3 feet (5 m) for a twenty-foot container, and at least 36.4 feet (11.1 m) for a forty-foot container.
(ii) If hoisted from bottom fittings, the hoisting connections ((shall)) must bear on the fittings only, making no other contact with the container. The angles of the four bridle legs ((shall)) must not be less than thirty degrees to the horizontal in the case of forty foot (12.2 m) containers, thirty-seven degrees in the case of thirty foot (9.1 m) containers, or forty-five degrees in the case of twenty foot (6.1 m) containers.
(iii) Lifting containers by fork lift trucks or by grappling arms from above or from one side may be done only if the container is designed for this type of handling.
(b) Other means of hoisting may be used only if the containers and hoisting means are designed for such use.
(c)(((i))) When using intermodal container spreaders that employ lanyards for activation of load disengagement, all possible precautions ((shall)) must be taken to prevent accidental release of the load. (((ii))) Intermodal container spreader twistlock systems ((shall)) must be designed and used so that a suspended load cannot accidentally be released.
(d) Flat bed trucks or container chassis used to move intermodal containers ((shall)) must be equipped with pins, flanges, or other means to prevent the container from shifting.
(e) Flat bed, low boy trailers (mafis) and other similar equipment used to transport containers ((shall)) must be marked with their cargo capacities and ((shall)) must not be overloaded.
(f) Each tractor ((shall)) must have all brake air lines connected when pulling trailers equipped with air brakes and ((shall)) must have the brakes tested before commencing operations.
(7)(((a))) You must inspect intermodal containers ((shall be inspected)) for defects in structural members or fittings before handling. (((b))) Any intermodal container found to be unsafe ((shall)) must be identified as such, promptly removed from service and repaired before being returned to service.
(8) You must make sure containers ((shall not be)) are not hoisted unless all engaged chassis twist locks are released.
(9) ((Vertical tandem lifts.)) You must meet the following requirements ((apply to)) for operations involving the lifting of two or more intermodal containers by the top container (((vertical tandem lifts of VTLs))), also known as vertical tandem lifts (VTLs).
(a) Each employee involved in VTL operations ((shall)) must be trained and competent in the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job assignments.
(b) No more than two intermodal containers may be lifted in a VTL.
(c) Before the lift begins, ((the employer shall)) you must ensure that the two containers lifted as part of a VTL are empty.
Note:
The lift begins immediately following the end of the prelift required by subsection (9)(c) of this section. Thus, the weight may be determined during the prelift using a load indicating device meeting WAC 296-56-60085 (1)(a) on the crane being used to the lift the VTL.
(d) The lift ((shall)) must be performed using either a shore-based container gantry crane or another type of crane that:
(i) Has the precision control necessary to restrain unintended rotation of the containers about any axis;
(ii) Is capable of handling the load volume and wind sail potential of VTLs; and
(iii) Is specifically designed to handle containers.
(e) ((The employer shall)) You must ensure that the crane operator pauses the lift when the vertically coupled containers have just been lifted above the supporting surface to assure that each interbox connector is properly engaged.
(f) Containers below deck may not be handled as a VTL.
(g) VTL operations may not be conducted when the wind speed exceeds the lesser of:
(i) Fifty-five km/h (thirty-four mph or thirty knots); or
(ii) The crane manufacturer's recommendation for maximum wind speed.
(h) ((The employer shall)) You must ensure that each interbox connector used in a VTL operation:
(i) Automatically locks into corner castings on containers but only unlocks manually (manual twistlocks or latchlocks are not permitted);
(ii) Is designed to indicate whether it is locked or unlocked when fitted into a corner casting;
(iii) Locks and releases in an identical direction and manner as all other interbox connectors in the VTL;
(iv) Has been tested and certificated by a competent authority of this chapter (for interbox connectors that are a part of a vessel's gear) or WAC 296-56-60093 (for other interbox connectors):
(A) As having a load-bearing surface area of eight hundred mm\two\ when connected to a corner casting with an opening that is sixty-five mm wide; and
(B) As having a safe working load of ninety-eight kN (ten thousand kg) with a safety factor of five when the load is applied by means of two corner castings with openings that are sixty-five mm wide or equivalent devices;
(v) Has a certificate that is available for inspection and that attests that the interbox connector meets the strength criteria given in subsection (9)(h)(iv) of this section; and
(vi) Is clearly and durably marked with its safe working load for lifting and an identifying number or mark that will enable it to be associated with its test certificate.
(i) Reserved.
(j) ((The employer shall)) You must ensure that each container and interbox connector used in a VTL and each corner casting to which a connector will be coupled is inspected immediately before use in the VTL.
(i) Each employee performing the inspection ((shall)) must be capable of detecting defects or weaknesses and be able to assess their importance in relation to the safety of VTL operations.
(ii) The inspection of each interbox connector ((shall)) must include: A visual examination for obvious structural defects, such as cracks, a check of its physical operation to determine that the lock is fully functional with adequate spring tension on each head; and a check for excessive corrosion and deterioration.
(iii) The inspection of each container and each of its corner castings ((shall)) must include: A visual examination for obvious structural defects, such as cracks, a check for excessive corrosion and deterioration; and a visual examination to ensure that the opening to which an interbox connector will be connected has not been enlarged, that the welds are in good condition, and that it is free from ice, mud, or other debris.
(iv) ((The employer shall)) You must establish a system to ensure that each defective or damaged interbox connector is removed from service.
(v) An interbox connector that has been found to be defective or damaged ((shall)) must be removed from service and may not be used in VTL operations until repaired.
(vi) A container with a corner casting that exhibits any of the problems listed in subsection (9)(j)(iii) of this section may not be lifted in a VTL.
(k) No platform container may be lifted as part of a VTL unit.
(10) You must meet the following requirements for transporting vertically coupled containers((.)):
(a) Equipment other than cranes used to transport vertically connected containers ((shall)) must be either specifically designed for this application or evaluated by a qualified engineer and determined to be capable of operating safely in this mode of operation.
(b) ((The employer shall)) You must develop, implement, and maintain a written plan for transporting vertically connected containers. The written plan ((shall)) must establish procedures to ensure safe operating and turning speeds and ((shall)) must address all conditions in the terminal that could affect the safety of VTL-related operations, including communication and coordination among all employees involved in these operations.
(11) ((Safe work zone. The employer shall)) You must establish a safe work zone within which employees may not be present when vertically connected containers are in motion.
(a) The safe work zone ((shall)) must be sufficient to protect employees in the event that a container drops or overturns.
(b) The written transport plan required by subsection (10)(b) of this section ((shall)) must include the safe work zone and procedures to ensure that employees are not in this zone when a VTL is in motion.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-56-60107 Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish.
(1)(((a))) You must make sure tanks in terminal areas used for receiving or storing bailwater for recirculating into vessel holds in discharging operations ((shall be)) are opened or ventilated to minimize contamination of water circulated to the vessel.
(a) Bailwater tanks ((shall)) must be thoroughly drained upon completion of each day's operations and ((shall)) must be left open to the air. Drainage is unnecessary when bailwater has been treated to remove hydrogen sulfide-producing contaminants and the efficiency of such treatment has been established.
(b) Before employees enter a dock tank, it shall first be drained, rinsed and tested for hydrogen sulfide and oxygen deficiency. Employees ((shall)) must not enter the tank when the hydrogen sulfide level exceeds twenty ppm or oxygen content is less than nineteen and one-half percent, except in emergencies.
(c) Tests ((shall)) must be conducted by designated personnel with suitable test equipment and respiratory protective equipment complying with the provisions of this chapter and chapter 296-842 WAC.
(2) You must make sure pipelines and hoses on the dock or terminal used for receiving and circulating used bailwater ((shall be)) are completely drained upon completion of each day's operation and left open to the air.
(3) You must make sure at least four units of respiratory protective equipment consisting of supplied-air respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus complying with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC ((shall be)) are available in a suitably labeled cabinet for immediate use in case of an emergency caused by oxygen deficiency or hydrogen sulfide. Any employee entering a tank in an emergency ((shall)) must, in addition to respiratory protective equipment, wear a lifeline and safety harness to facilitate rescue. At least two other employees, similarly equipped, ((shall)) must be continuously stationed outside the tank to observe and to provide rescue services.
(4) You must make sure the plant superintendent and foremen ((shall be)) are trained and knowledgeable about the hazards of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen deficiency. They ((shall)) must be trained in the use of appropriate respiratory and other protective equipment, and in rescue procedures. Other supervisory plant personnel ((shall)) must be informed of these hazards and instructed in the necessary safety measures, including use of respiratory and rescue equipment.
(5) You must make sure supervisory personnel ((shall be)) are on hand at dockside to supervise discharging of bailwater from vessels.
((PART G—PERSONAL PROTECTION))
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-56-60108 Personal protection.
Summary
This section applies to all personal protection equipment in your workplace.
Your responsibility: To protect employees from hazards in your workplace.
You must meet the requirements …
in this section:
Eye protection
WAC 296-56-60109
Respiratory protection
WAC 296-56-60110
Head protection
WAC 296-56-60111
Foot protection
WAC 296-56-60113
Other protective measures
WAC 296-56-60115
Payment for protective equipment
WAC 296-56-60116
Maintenance and load limits
WAC 296-56-60117
Protection from falling
WAC 296-56-60119
Minimum safety requirements for docks and dock facilities
WAC 296-56-60121
Access to vessels
WAC 296-56-60122
Guarding of edges
WAC 296-56-60123
Clearance heights
WAC 296-56-60125
Cargo doors
WAC 296-56-60127
Platforms and skids
WAC 296-56-60129
Elevators and escalators
WAC 296-56-60131
Manlifts
WAC 296-56-60133
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 10-09-088, filed 4/20/10, effective 6/1/10)
WAC 296-56-60109 Eye protection.
(1)(((a) When employees perform work hazardous to the eyes, the employer shall)) You must provide eye protection equipment that complies with ANSI Z87.1, American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, edition 1989, revision 1998, or edition 2003 when employees perform work hazardous to the eyes.
((Employers)) (a) You may provide alternate eye and face protection if they can demonstrate such devices are at least as effective as those constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards.
(b) For employees wearing corrective spectacles, eye protection equipment required by (a) of this subsection ((shall)) must be of a type which can be worn over spectacles. Prescription ground safety lenses may be substituted if they provide equivalent protection.
(c) For additional requirements covering eye protection against radiant energy, see WAC 296-56-60235(8).
(2) You must maintain eye protection equipment ((shall be maintained)) in good condition.
(3) You must clean and disinfect used eye protection equipment ((shall be cleaned and disinfected)) before reissuance to another employee.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-03-013, filed 1/7/14, effective 2/10/14)
WAC 296-56-60111 Head protection.
(1) You must make sure employees exposed to impact, falling or flying objects, or electric shocks or burns ((shall)) wear protective hats.
(2) ((The employer)) You must ensure that all protective helmets comply with any of the following consensus standards:
(()) (a) ANSI Z89.1-2009, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection.
(()) (b) ANSI Z89.1-2003, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection.
(()) (c) ANSI Z89.1-1997, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection.
(()) (d) ANSI Z89.1-1986, American National Standard for Personnel ProtectionProtective Headwear for Industrial WorkersRequirements.
((Employers)) (e) You may use alternate head protection if ((they)) you can demonstrate such devices are at least as effective as those constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards.
(3) You must clean and disinfect protective hats previously worn ((shall be cleaned and disinfected)) before issuance by the employer to another employee.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 10-09-088, filed 4/20/10, effective 6/1/10)
WAC 296-56-60113 Foot protection.
(1) ((The employer shall)) You must ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects piercing the sole.
(2) ((The employer)) You must ensure that all protective footwear complies with one of the following consensus standards:
(()) (a) ASTM F-2412-2005, Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection, and ASTM F-2413-2005, Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Protective Footwear.
(()) (b) ANSI Z41-1999, American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear.
(()) (c) ANSI Z41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear.
((Employers)) (d) You may use alternate footwear if ((they)) you can demonstrate it is at least as effective as those constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards.
(3) ((The employer shall,)) You must make safety shoes readily available to all employees through means such as vendors or local stores((, make safety shoes readily available to all employees)).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-15-144, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)
WAC 296-56-60115 Other protective measures.
(1) You must meet the following requirements for protective clothing((.)):
(a) Employees performing work that requires special protective clothing ((shall)) must be directed by the employer to wear the necessary special protective clothing.
(b) When necessary, protective clothing previously worn ((shall)) must be cleaned and disinfected before reissuance.
(2) You must meet the following requirements for personal flotation devices((.)):
(a) ((The employer shall)) You must provide((,)) and ((shall)) direct the wearing of personal flotation devices for those employees, such as line handlers, who are engaged in work in which they may be pulled into the water:
(i) When such employees are working in isolation: or
(ii) Where physical limitations of available working space creates a hazard of falling into the water; or
(iii) Where the work area is obstructed by cargo or other obstacles so as to prevent employees from obtaining safe footing for their work.
(b) Employees working on, over or along water, where the danger of drowning exists, ((shall)) must be provided with and ((shall)) must wear approved personal flotation devices.
(i) Employees are not considered exposed to the danger of drowning when:
(A) Working behind standard height and strength guardrails;
(B) Working inside operating cabs or stations which eliminate the possibility of accidental falling into the water;
(C) Wearing approved safety belts with lifeline attached so as to preclude the possibility of falling into the water.
(ii) Prior to and after each use, personal flotation devices ((shall)) must be inspected for defects which would reduce their designed effectiveness. Defective personal flotation devices ((shall)) must not be used.
(iii) To meet the requirement of (b) of this subsection, a personal flotation device ((shall)) must be approved by the United States Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD, or Type V PFD, or equivalent, pursuant to 46 C.F.R. 160 (Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications) and 33 C.F.R. 175.23 (Coast Guard Table of Devices Equivalent to Personal Flotation Devices).
(c) You must meet the following requirements for life rings((.)):
(i) Along docks, walkways or other fixed installations on or adjacent to open water more than five feet deep, approved life rings with line attached ((shall)) must be provided. The life rings ((shall)) must be spaced at intervals not to exceed two hundred feet and ((shall)) must be kept in easily visible and readily accessible locations.
(ii) When employees are assigned work at other casual locations where exposure to drowning exists, at least one approved life ring with line attached ((shall)) must be provided in the immediate vicinity of the work.
(iii) Work assigned over water where the vertical drop from an accidental fall exceeds fifty feet, is subject to specific procedures approved by the department.
(iv) Lines attached to life rings ((shall)) must be at least ninety feet (27.43 m) in length, at least one-quarter inch in diameter and have a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds.
(v) Life rings must be United States Coast Guard approved thirty inch size (76.2 cm).
(vi) Life rings and attached lines must be maintained to retain at least seventy-five percent of their designed buoyancy and strength.
(3) ((Emergency facilities.)) You must provide emergency facilities and maintain them in good working order when employees are exposed to hazardous substances which may require emergency bathing, eye washing or other facilities((, the employer shall provide such facilities and maintain them in good working order)).
(4) ((Employers shall)) You must instruct employees to report every injury, regardless of severity, to ((the employer)) you.
(5) You must meet the following requirements for stretchers((.)):
(a) There ((shall)) must be available for each vessel being worked one Stokes basket stretcher, or its equivalent, permanently equipped with bridles for attaching to the hoisting gear.
(b) Stretchers ((shall)) must be kept close to vessels and ((shall)) must be positioned to avoid damage to the stretcher.
(c) A blanket or other suitable covering ((shall)) must be available.
(d) Stretchers ((shall)) must have at least four sets of effective patient restraints in operable condition.
(e) Lifting bridles ((shall)) must be of adequate strength, capable of lifting 1,000 pounds (454 kg) with a safety factor of five, and ((shall)) must be maintained in operable condition. Lifting bridles ((shall)) must be provided for making vertical patient lifts at container berths. Stretchers for vertical lifts ((shall)) must have foot plates.
(f) Stretchers ((shall)) must be maintained in operable condition. Struts and braces ((shall)) must be inspected for damage. Wire mesh ((shall)) must be secured and have no burrs. Damaged stretchers ((shall)) must not be used until repaired.
(g) Stretchers in permanent locations ((shall)) must be mounted to prevent damage and ((shall)) must be protected from the elements if located out-of-doors. If concealed from view, closures ((shall)) must be marked to indicate the location of the ((life saving)) lifesaving equipment.
(6) You must make sure telephone or equivalent means of communication ((shall be)) are readily available.
(7) You must make sure employees working on any bridge or structure leading to a detached vessel berthing installation ((shall)) must wear United States Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices except where protected by railings, nets, or safety belts and lifelines.
(8) ((Life ladders.)) You must make sure on all docks there ((shall be)) are substantial built-in-place ladders, spaced at intervals not to exceed four hundred feet, to reach the lowest water use. When portable ladders are to be used, ladders may be bolted to the bullrail or dock structure, or ladders can be secured to an embedded eye bolt in a concrete dock surface. The immediate area where such ladders or fastenings are located ((shall)) must be painted with a bright color or of a color which contrasts with the surrounding area. There ((shall)) must be a ladder at each end of the dock.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-05-071, filed 2/17/09, effective 4/1/09)
WAC 296-56-60116 Payment for protective equipment.
(1) ((Except as provided by subsections (2) through (6) of this section,)) You must provide the protective equipment, including personal protective equipment (PPE), used to comply with this part, ((shall be provided by the employer)) at no cost to your employees, except at provided by subsections (2) through (6) of this section.
(2) ((The employer is)) You are not required to pay for nonspecialty safety-toe protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and nonspecialty prescription safety eyewear, provided that ((the employer permits)) you permit such items to be worn off the job site.
(3) ((When the employer provides metatarsal guards and allows the employee, at his or her request, to use shoes or boots with built-in metatarsal protection, the employer is)) You are not required to reimburse the employee for ((the)) shoes or boots when you provide metatarsal guards and allow the employee, at their request, to use shoes or boots with built-in metatarsal protection.
(4) ((The employer is)) You are not required to pay for:
(a) Everyday clothing, such as long-sleeve shirts, long pants, street shoes, and normal work boots; or
(b) Ordinary clothing, skin creams, or other items, used solely for protection from the weather, such as winter coats, jackets, gloves, parkas, rubber boots, hats, raincoats, ordinary sunglasses, and sunscreen.
(5) ((The employer)) You must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee has lost or intentionally damaged the PPE.
(6) ((Where an employee provides adequate protective equipment he or she owns, the employer may allow the employee to use it and is not required to reimburse the employee for that equipment. The employer shall)) You may allow the employee to use protective equipment that they own if it is adequate, and you are not required to reimburse the employee for that equipment. You must not require an employee to provide or pay for ((his or her)) their own PPE, unless the PPE is excepted by subsections (2) through (6) of this section.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60117 Maintenance and load limits.
(1) You must maintain the structural integrity of docks, piers, wharves, terminals and working surfaces ((shall be maintained)).
(2) You must conspicuously post maximum safe load limits, in pounds per square foot (kilograms per square meter), of floors elevated above ground level, and pier structures over the water ((shall be conspicuously posted)) in all cargo areas.
Exception:
Pier structures used primarily for vehicle traffic may be posted in maximum pounds per axle weight.
(3) You must make sure maximum safe load limits ((shall not be)) are not exceeded.
(4) You must maintain all walking and working surfaces in the terminal area ((shall be maintained)) in good repair.
(5) You must secure all steel plates, boards, etc., used to temporarily cover small holes or weakened surfaces ((shall be secured)) in such a manner as to prevent movement.
(6) You must barricade all large openings or weakened surfaces ((shall be barricaded)) on all exposed sides with barricades equipped with blinkers, flashing lights, or reflectors.
(7) You must light areas around bitts or cleats where workers perform their duties ((shall be lighted)) as required in this section and have a nonslip surface around each bitt or cleat.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60119 Protection from falling.
You must make sure employees doing maintenance work on cranes, spouts or similar types of equipment, eight feet or more above the ground or surface and not in an area that is protected by any standard safeguards such as walkways with standard railings, or ladders with protective cages, ((shall)) wear a safety belt and lanyard which can be attached to the structure.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60121 Minimum safety requirements for docks and dock facilities.
Important: No provision of this section shall be construed to imply that an employer or employees are responsible for repair, construction or otherwise bringing into compliance facilities over which they have no control.
(1) ((Working prohibited on unsafe docks or dock facilities. Employers shall)) You must not allow employees to perform work on docks or dock facilities which ((the employer)) you should know do not meet the minimum safety requirements of this section.
(2) ((Known unsafe conditions by employees.)) Employees ((shall)) must not work on docks or dock facilities which they should know do not meet the minimum safety requirements of this section.
(3) ((Bulletin boards.)) You must install a safety bulletin board at each dock, pier, warehouse or designated area at the job site((, there shall be installed a safety bulletin board)).
(4) ((Posting of notices. It shall be the responsibility of the employer to)) You must post at prominent places in or adjacent to the work area, legible notices stating:
(a) The location of stretchers, blankets, first-aid equipment and telephones. (Where possible, directional arrows should point to locations.)
(b) The phone numbers of doctors, ambulance services and hospitals within the area and the phone numbers of the police department or other law enforcement agency. (Where possible these numbers ((shall)) must also be posted on or inside the cover of first-aid cabinets and kits.)
(5) ((Ventilation.)) You must ventilate all areas where employees are required to work ((shall be ventilated)) as required by the "general occupational health standards," chapter 296-62 WAC.
(6) ((Power outlets.)) You must locate power outlets installed to supply power to vessels ((shall be located)) in such a manner that the workers will not come into contact with supply lines. Unprotected power lines ((shall)) must not be driven over by equipment. If located on the underside or waterside of the bull rail, a well lighted walkway with hand rails ((shall)) must be provided to the power outlets.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60122 Access to vessels.
(1) ((Access to vessels. The employer shall)) You must not permit employees to board or leave any vessel, except a barge or river towboat, until the following requirements have been met:
(a) Whenever practical a gangway of not less than twenty inches wide walking surface of adequate strength, maintained and secured ((shall)) must be used. If a gangway is not practical a substantial straight ladder, extending at least thirty-six inches above the upper landing surface and adequately secured against shifting or slipping ((shall)) must be provided. When conditions are such that neither a gangway nor a straight ladder can be used, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of subsection (4) of this section may be used.
(b) Each side of such gangway, and the turn table if used, ((shall)) must have a railing with a minimum height of thirty-three inches measured perpendicularly from rail to walking surface at the stanchion((,)) and a mid rail. Rails ((shall)) must be of wood, pipe, chain, wire or rope and ((shall)) must be kept taut at all times.
(c) Gangways on vessels inspected and certified by the United States Coast Guard are deemed to meet the foregoing requirements, except in cases where the vessel's regular gangway is not being used.
(d) The gangway ((shall)) must be kept properly trimmed at all times.
(e) When a fixed tread accommodation ladder is used, and the angle is low enough to require employees to walk on the edge of the treads, cleated duckboards ((shall)) must be laid over and secured to the ladder.
(f) When the lower end of a gangway overhangs the water between the ship and the dock in such a manner that there is danger of employees falling between the ship and the dock, a net or other suitable protection ((shall)) must be rigged at the foot of the gangway in such a manner as to prevent employees from falling from the end of the gangway into the water or into the surface.
(g) If the foot of the gangway is more than one foot away from the edge of the apron, the space between them ((shall)) must be bridged by a firm walkway equipped with railings, with a minimum height of thirty-three inches with midrails on both sides.
(h) Supporting bridles ((shall)) must be kept clear so as to permit unobstructed passage for employees using the gangway.
(i) When the upper end of the means of access rests on or flush with the top of the bulwark, substantial steps properly secured and equipped with at least one substantial handrail approximately thirty-three inches in height ((shall)) must be provided between the top of the bulwark and the deck.
(j) Obstructions ((shall)) must not be laid on or across the gangway.
(k) The means of access ((shall)) must be illuminated for its full length.
(l) Unless construction of the vessel makes it impossible, the means of access ((shall)) must be so located that drafts of cargo do not pass over it. Loads ((shall)) must not be passed over the means of access while employees are on it.
(2) ((Access to vessels in drydock or between vessels.)) You must make sure gangways meeting the requirements of subsection (1)(a), (b), (i), (j) and (k) of this section ((shall be)) are provided for access from wingwall to vessel or, when two or more vessels other than barges or river towboats are lying abreast, from one vessel to another.
(3) You must meet the following requirements for access to barges and river towboats((.)):
(a) Ramps for access of vehicles to or between barges ((shall)) must be of adequate strength, provided with side boards, well maintained and properly secured.
(b) Unless employees can step safely to or from the wharf, float, barge, or river towboat, a ramp meeting the requirements of subsection (1)(a) of this section ((shall)) must be provided. When a walkway is impractical, a substantial straight ladder, extending at least thirty-six inches above the upper landing surface and adequately secured against shifting or slipping, ((shall)) must be provided. When conditions are such that neither a walkway nor a straight ladder can be used, a Jacob's ladder meeting the requirements of subsection (4) of this section may be used.
(c) The means of access ((shall)) must meet the requirements of subsection (1)(i), (j), and (k) of this section.
(4) Jacob's ladders.
(a) Jacob's ladders ((shall)) must be of the double rung or flat tread type. They ((shall)) must be well maintained and properly secured.
(b) A Jacob's ladder ((shall)) must either hang without slack from its lashings or be pulled up entirely.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 00-21-103, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01)
WAC 296-56-60123 Guarding of edges.
(1) You must meet the following requirements for vehicle protection((.)):
(a) Vehicle curbs, bull rails, or other effective barriers at least six inches (15.24 cm) in height and six inches in width, ((shall)) must be provided at the waterside edges of aprons and bulkheads, except where vehicles are prohibited. Curbs or bull rails installed after January 1, 1985, ((shall)) must be at least ten inches (22.9 cm) in height.
(b) The provisions of (a) of this subsection also apply at the edge of any fixed level above the common floor area from which vehicles may fall, except at loading docks, platforms and skids where cargo is moved by vehicles.
(2) You must meet the following requirements for employee protection((.)):
(a) Guardrails ((shall)) must be provided at locations where employees are exposed to falls of more than four feet from floor or wall openings or waterside edges, including bridges or gangway-like structures leading to pilings, vessel mooring or berthing installations.
(b) Guardrails are not required:
(i) At loading platforms and docks;
(ii) At waterside edges used for cargo or mooring line handling;
(iii) On the working sides of work platforms, skids, or similar workplaces which abut the work area; or
(iv) On railroad rolling stock, highway vehicles, intermodal containers, or similar equipment.
(c) Where guardrails are impractical due to machinery requirements or work processes, an alternate means of fall protection, such as nets, ((shall)) must be used.
(3) ((Criteria for guardrails.)) You must make sure guardrails ((shall)) meet the following criteria:
(a) ((They shall)) Guardrails must be capable of withstanding a force of at least two hundred pounds (890 N) applied in any direction at mid-span of the top rail (when used), or at the uppermost point if there is no guard rail.
(b) If not of solid baluster, grillwork, slatted, or similar construction, guardrails ((shall)) must consist of top rails and midrails. Midrails, when used, ((shall)) must be positioned at approximately half the height of the top rail.
(c) The top surface of guardrails installed before October 3, 1983, ((shall)) must be at least thirty-six inches (.091 m) high. Those installed after October 3, 1983, ((shall)) must be forty-two inches (1.07 m) high, plus or minus two inches (5.1 cm), high.
(d) Any nonrigid railing such as chain or wire rope ((shall)) must have a maximum sag, at the mid-point between posts, of not more than six inches (15.24 cm).
(e) Top rails ((shall)) must be free of sharp edges and maintained in good repair.
(f) Rail ends ((shall)) must not overhang. This does not prohibit scrollwork, boxed ends or similar nonhazardous projections.
(4) ((Toeboards.)) You must provide toeboards ((shall be provided)) when employees below could be exposed to falling objects such as tools. Toeboards ((shall)) must be at least three and one-half inches (8.9 cm) in height from top edge to floor level, and be capable of withstanding a force of fifty pounds (222 N) applied in any direction. Drainage clearance not in excess of one-eighth inch under toeboards is permitted.
(5) ((Stair railings.)) Stair railings ((shall)) must be capable of withstanding a force of at least two hundred pounds (890 N) applied in any direction, and ((shall)) must not be more than thirty-six inches (0.91 m) nor less than thirty-two inches (0.81 m) in height from the upper top rail surface to the tread surface in line with the leading edge of the tread. Railings and midrails ((shall)) must be provided at any stairway having four or more risers, as follows:
(a) For stairways less than forty-four inches (1.12 m) wide, at least one railing; and
(b) For stairways more than forty-four inches (1.12 m) but less than eighty-eight inches (2.24 m) wide, a stair rail or handrail on each side, and if eighty-eight or more inches wide, an additional intermediate handrail.
(6) ((Condition. Railings shall be maintained free of sharp edges and in good repair.)) You must maintain railings in good repair and free of sharp edges.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60125 Clearance heights.
You must prominently post clearance heights ((shall be prominently posted)) where the height is insufficient for vehicles or equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60127 Cargo doors.
(1) You must meet the following requirements for mechanically operated cargo doors((.)):
(a) You must guard cargo door counterweights ((shall be guarded)).
(b) Lift trucks and cranes ((shall)) must not be used to move mechanically operated doors except when necessary during repair to the doors. Ropes or other guarding ((shall)) must be provided to prevent entry into any area if the door may fall or slide.
(c) Vertically operated doors partially opened for work or ventilation ((shall)) must be secured to prevent accidental closing.
(2) You must meet the following requirements for tackle operated cargo doors((.)):
(a) ((Doors shall be connected)) You must connect doors to their lifting tackle with shackles or other secure means.
(b) Lifting bridles and tackles ((shall)) must have a safety factor of five, based upon maximum anticipated static loading conditions.
(c) Devices ((shall)) must be provided to hold overhead doors in the open position and to secure them when closed.
(d) Lifting gear and hardware ((shall)) must be maintained in safe condition.
(e) Lifting ropes ((shall)) must be placed out of the work area and off the floor.
(3) You must meet the following requirements for horizontal sliding((.)):
(a) Horizontal sliding door rollers ((shall)) must be constructed to prevent the door from disengaging from overhead tracks.
(b) Sliding doors ((shall)) must be secured to prevent them from swinging.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60129 Platforms and skids.
(1) You must provide guardrails meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123(3) on all open sides of platforms and skids extending from piers, transit sheds or lofts and used for landing or hooking drafts ((shall be provided with guardrails meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123(3) on all open sides)). Alternate means, such as nets or safety belts and lifelines, may be used if guardrails are impractical.
(2) You must protect any employee working below a second-story platform or skid ((shall be protected)) from falling objects.
(3) You must make sure platforms and skids ((shall be)) are strong enough to bear the loads handled and ((shall be)) are maintained in safe condition. Safe working loads, which ((shall)) must be posted or marked on or adjacent to platforms and skids, ((shall)) must have a minimum safety factor of five for all parts, based upon maximum anticipated static loading conditions and the ultimate strength of the construction material.
(4) ((The employer shall)) You must provide and maintain platform and skid attachments that will prevent accidental movement of the skid or platform.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 92-22-067, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)
WAC 296-56-60131 Elevators and escalators.
(1) (("Elevator" means a permanent hoisting and lowering mechanism with a car or platform moving vertically in guides and serving two or more floors of a structure. The term excludes such devices as conveyors, tiering or piling machines, material hoists, skip or furnace hoists, wharf ramps, lift bridges, car lifts, and dumpers.
(2) "Escalator" means a power-driven continuous moving stairway principally intended for the use of persons.
(3) No)) You must prohibit an elevator or escalator with a defect which affects safety ((shall be)) from being used.
(((4))) (2) You must make sure elevator safety devices shall not be overridden or made inoperable.
(((5))) (3) You must thoroughly inspect elevators and escalators ((shall be thoroughly inspected)) at intervals not exceeding one year. Additional monthly inspections for satisfactory operation ((shall)) must be conducted by designated persons. Records of the results of the latest annual elevator inspections ((shall)) must be posted in elevators. Records of annual escalator inspections ((shall)) must be posted in the vicinity of the escalator or be available at the terminal.
(((6))) (4) You must make sure elevator landing openings ((shall be)) are provided with doors, gates, or equivalent protection, which ((shall)) must be in place when the elevator is not at that landing, to prevent employees from falling into the shaft.
(((7))) (5) You must post and make sure the elevator or escalator maximum load limits ((shall be posted and shall not be)) are not exceeded. Elevator load limits ((shall)) must be posted conspicuously both inside and outside of the car.
(((8))) (6) You must make sure elevators ((shall be)) are operated only by designated persons except for automatic or door interlocking elevators which provide full shaft door closing and automatic car leveling.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 00-21-103, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01)
WAC 296-56-60133 Manlifts.
(1) ((Inspection.)) You must inspect manlifts ((shall be inspected)) monthly by a designated person. Safety switches ((shall)) must be checked weekly. Manlifts found to be unsafe ((shall)) must not be operated until repaired. Inspections ((shall)) must include at least the following:
(a) Step fastenings;
(b) Rails;
(c) Rail supports and fastenings;
(d) Roller and slides;
(e) Belt and belt tension;
(f) Handholds and fastenings;
(g) Floor landings;
(h) Guardrails;
(i) Lubrication;
(j) Safety switches;
(k) Warning signs and lights;
(l) Illumination;
(m) Drive pulley;
(n) Bottom (boot) pulley and clearance;
(o) Pulley supports;
(p) Motor;
(q) Drive mechanism;
(r) Brake;
(s) Electrical switches;
(t) Vibration and misalignment;
(u) "Skip" on up or down run when mounting the step (indicating worn gears); and
(v) Emergency exit ladders.
(2) ((Inspection records.)) You must keep inspection records ((shall be kept)) for at least one year. The record of the most recent inspection ((shall)) must be posted in the vicinity of the manlift or in the terminal.
(3) ((Emergency stop.)) You must make sure an emergency stop device ((shall be)) is available within easy reach from any position on the belt.
(4) ((Instructions.)) You must conspicuously post manlift use instructions ((shall be conspicuously posted)).
(5) ((Top floor warning sign and light.)) You must provide an illuminated sign and red light that are visible to the user ((shall be provided)) under the top floor opening of the manlift to warn the user to get off at that floor.
(6) ((Bottom floor warning sign.)) You must provide a sign visible to descending passengers ((shall be provided)) to warn them to get off at the bottom floor.
(7) ((Upper limit stop.)) You must provide an automatic stop device ((shall be provided)) to stop the manlift when a loaded step passes the top landing, except that manlifts installed after October 3, 1983, ((shall)) must have two such devices.
(8) ((Handholds and steps.)) You must provide each step ((shall be provided)) with a corresponding handhold.
(9) ((Emergency ladder.)) You must provide a fixed emergency ladder accessible from any position on the lift and meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60209 ((shall be provided)) for the entire run of the manlift.
(10) You must meet the following requirements for landings((.)):
(a) Clear and unobstructed landing spaces ((shall)) must be provided at each level. Manlifts constructed after October 3, 1983, that have a distance of fifty feet (15.24 m) or more between floor landings ((shall)) must have an emergency landing every twenty-five feet (7.62 m) or less of manlift travel.
(b) Open sides of emergency landings ((shall)) must be protected by guardrails.
(c) Floor landing entrances and exits ((shall)) must be guarded by mazes, self-closing gates, or equivalent protection.
(d) Landings ((shall)) must be of sufficient size and strength to support two hundred fifty pounds (1112 N).
(11) ((Floor opening guards.)) You must provide the ascending sides of manlift floor openings ((shall be provided)) with cones or bevel guards to direct the user through the openings.
(12) ((Maintenance.)) You must equip, maintain, and use manlifts ((shall be equipped, maintained, and used)) in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, which ((shall)) must be available at the terminal.
(13) You must meet the following requirements for bottom pulleys((.)):
(a) The lower pulley ((shall)) must be supported by the lowest landing.
(b) Sides of the bottom pulley support ((shall)) must be guarded to prevent contact with the pulley or the steps.
(14) ((Top clearance.)) You must provide a clearance of at least eleven feet (3.35 m) ((shall be provided)) between the top landing and the ceiling.
(15) ((Brakes.)) You must equip manlifts ((shall be equipped)) with brakes that are:
(a) Self-engaging;
(b) Electrically released; and
(c) Capable of stopping and holding the manlift when the descending side is loaded with the maximum rated load.
((PART H—MANLIFTS—ELECTRIC))
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 86-03-064, filed 1/17/86)
WAC 296-56-60135 ManliftsElectric.
Summary
This section applies to all electric manlifts in your workplace.
You must meet the requirements …
in this section:
ManliftsElectric
WAC 296-56-60135
Hoistway enclosures and landings
WAC 296-56-60139
Scope and application
WAC 296-56-60141
Hoistway gates
WAC 296-56-60143
Elevator car
WAC 296-56-60145
Elevator doors
WAC 296-56-60147
Counterweight, enclosures, and fastenings