WSR 15-18-118
PROPOSED RULES
DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed September 2, 2015, 10:53 a.m.]
Original Notice.
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 15-07-076.
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: eRules Phase IV; chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards.
Hearing Location(s): Department of Labor and Industries, 7273 Linderson Way S.W., Tumwater, WA 98501, on October 16, 2015, at 9:00 a.m.
Date of Intended Adoption: November 3, 2015.
Submit Written Comments to: Kevin Walder, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504, e-mail kevin.walder@lni.wa.gov, fax (360) 902-5619, by October 23, 2015.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Kevin Walder by October 9, 2015, at (360) 902-5401.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules:
No changes in requirements as a result of this rule making.
Consistent format for all division of occupational safety and health (DOSH) rules.
Easy to access rules for smart phone and table [tablet] users.
Easy navigation in PDF files provided through bookmarks in the rules.
Easier referencing by replacing bullets and dashes with numbers and letters.
Enhanced rule update efficiency for customers through electronic postings.
"Housekeeping" corrections such as correcting dead links and obsolete references.
Applying "plain talk" principles such as changing passive language to active for better clarity.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: When the agency updated its web site, template DOSH rules in HTML were broken and DOSH began forwarding rule users to the office of the code reviser web site, causing more confusion among customers. This rule package will resolve stakeholder issues that have caused confusion for rule users by bringing one clear and consistent format to all of our rules.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Name of Proponent: Department of labor and industries, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Chris Miller, Tumwater, (360) 902-5516; Implementation and Enforcement: Anne Soiza, Tumwater, (360) 902-5090.
No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. No change in requirements, so no economic impact.
A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. No change in requirements, so no change in costs or benefits.
September 2, 2015
Joel Sacks
Director
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-01-158, filed 12/23/08, effective 3/1/09)
WAC 296-24-012 Definitions applicable to all sections of this chapter.
Note:
Meaning of words. Unless the context indicates otherwise, words used in this chapter shall have the meaning given in this section.
(((1) "Approved" means)) Approved. Approved by the director of the department of labor and industries or ((his/her)) their authorized representative: Provided, however, That should a provision of this chapter state that approval by an agency or organization other than the department of labor and industries is required, such as Underwriters' Laboratories or the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the provisions of WAC 296-800-360 ((shall)) must apply.
(((2) "Authorized person" means)) Authorized person. A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site.
(((3) "Competent person" means)) Competent person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective action to eliminate them.
(((4) "Department" means)) Department. The department of labor and industries.
(((5) "Director" means)) Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, or ((his/her)) designated representative.
(((6) "Employer" means)) Employer. Any person, firm, corporation, partnership, business trust, legal representative, or other business entity which engages in any business, industry, profession, or activity in this state and employs one or more employees or who contracts with one or more persons, the essence of which is the personal labor of such person or persons and includes the state, counties, cities, and all municipal corporations, public corporations, political subdivisions of the state, and charitable organizations: Provided, That any person, partnership, or business entity not having employees, and who is covered by the industrial insurance act ((shall)) must be considered both an employer and an employee.
(((7) "First aid" means,)) First aid. For purposes of this section, the extent of treatment that could be expected to be given by a person trained in basic first aid, using supplies from a first-aid kit. Tests, such as X rays, ((shall)) must not be confused with treatment.
(((8) "Hazard" means)) Hazard. That condition, potential or inherent, which can cause injury, death, or occupational disease.
(((9) "Hospitalization" means)) Hospitalization. To be admitted to a hospital or an equivalent medical facility on an emergent in-patient basis requiring an overnight stay.
Must. Mandatory.
(((10) "Qualified" means)) Qualified. One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
(((11) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of a member or piece of material or equipment to the actual working stress or safe load when in use.
(12) "Safety and health standard" means)) Safety and health standard. A standard which requires the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, methods, operations, or processes reasonably necessary or appropriate to provide safe or healthful employment and places of employment.
(((13) "Shall" means mandatory.
(14) "Should" means)) Safety factor. The ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of a member or piece of material or equipment to the actual working stress or safe load when in use.
Should. Recommended.
(((15) "Standard safeguard" means)) Standard safeguard. A device designed and constructed with the object of removing the hazard of accident incidental to the machine, appliance, tool, building, or equipment to which it is attached.
Standard safeguards ((shall)) must be constructed of either metal or wood or other suitable material or a combination of these. The final determination of the sufficiency of any safeguard rests with the director of the department of labor and industries.
(((16) "Suitable" means)) Suitable. That which fits, or has the qualities or qualifications to meet a given purpose, occasion, condition, function, or circumstance.
(((17) "Working day" means a calendar day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays as set forth in RCW 1.16.050, as now or hereafter amended, and for the purposes of the computation of time within which an act is to be done under the provisions of this chapter, shall be computed by excluding the first working day and including the last working day.
(18) "Worker," "personnel," "person," "employee," and other terms of like meaning, unless the context of the provision containing such term indicates otherwise, mean an employee of an employer who is employed in the business of his/her employer whether by way of manual labor or otherwise and every person in this state who is engaged in the employment of or who is working under an independent contract the essence of which is his/her personal labor for an employer whether by manual labor or otherwise.
(19) "Work place" means any plant, yard, premises, room, or other place where an employee or employees are employed for the performance of labor or service over which the employer has the right of access or control, and includes, but is not limited to, all work places covered by industrial insurance under Title 51 RCW, as now or hereafter amended.
(20))) Work place. Any plant, yard, premises, room, or other place where an employee or employees are employed for the performance of labor or service over which the employer has the right of access or control, and includes, but is not limited to, all work places covered by industrial insurance under Title 51 RCW, as now or hereafter amended.
Worker, personnel, person, employee, (and other terms of like meaning, unless the context of the provision containing such term indicates otherwise). An employee of an employer who is employed in the business of their employer whether by way of manual labor or otherwise and every person in this state who is engaged in the employment of or who is working under an independent contract the essence of which is their personal labor for an employer whether by manual labor or otherwise.
Working day. A calendar day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays as set forth in RCW 1.16.050, as now or hereafter amended, and for the purposes of the computation of time within which an act is to be done under the provisions of this chapter, must be computed by excluding the first working day and including the last working day.
Abbreviations used in this chapter:
(((a) "ANSI" means)) ANSI. American National Standards Institute.
(((b) "API" means)) API. American Petroleum Institute.
(((c) "ASA" means)) ASA. American Standards Association.
(((d) "ASAE" means)) ASAE. American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
(((e) "ASHRE" means)) ASHRE. American Society of Heating and Refrigeration Engineers.
(((f) "ASME" means)) ASME. American Society for Mechanical Engineers.
(((g) "ASTM" means)) ASTM. American Society for Testing and Materials.
(((h) "AWS" means)) AWS. American Welding Society.
(((i) "BTU" means)) BTU. British thermal unit.
(((j) "BTUH" means)) BTUH. British thermal unit per hour.
(((k) "CFM" means)) CFM. Cubic feet per minute.
(((l) "C.F.R." means)) C.F.R. Code of Federal Regulations.
(((m) "CGA" means)) CGA. Compressed Gas Association.
(((n) "CIE" means)) CIE. Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage.
(((o) "DOT" means)) DOSH. Division of occupational safety and health.
DOT. Department of transportation.
(((p) "FRP" means)) FRP. Fiberglass reinforced plastic.
(((q) "GPM" means)) GPM. Gallons per minute.
(((r) "ICC" means)) ICC. Interstate Commerce Commission.
(((s) "ID" means)) ID. Inside diameter.
(((t) "LPG" means)) LPG. Liquefied petroleum gas.
(((u) "MCA" means)) MCA. Manufacturing Chemist Association. (New name: Chemical Manufacturers Association.)
(((v) "NBFU" means)) NBFU. National Board of Fire Underwriters.
(((w) "NEMA" means)) NEMA. National Electrical Manufacturing Association.
(((x) "NFPA" means)) NFPA. National Fire Protection Association.
(((y) "NTP" means)) NTP. Normal temperature and pressure.
(((z) "OD" means)) OD. Outside diameter.
(((aa) "PSI" means)) PSI. Pounds per square inch.
(((bb) "PSIA" means)) PSIA. Pounds per square inch atmospheric.
(((cc) "PSIG" means)) PSIG. Pounds per square inch gauge.
(((dd) "RMA" means)) RMA. Rubber Manufacturers Association.
(((ee) "SAE" means)) SAE. Society of Automotive Engineers.
(((ff) "TFI" means)) TFI. The Fertilizer Institute.
(((gg) "TSC" means)) TSC. Trailer Standard Code.
(((hh) "UL" means)) UL. Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.
(((ii) "USASI" means)) USASI. United States of America Standards Institute.
(((jj) "U.S.C." means)) U.S.C. United States Code.
(((kk) "USCG" means)) USCG. United States Coast Guard.
(((ll) "WAC" means)) WAC. Washington Administrative Code.
(((mm) "WISHA" means)) WISHA. Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973.
PART B-2
SAFETY COLOR CODE FOR MARKING PHYSICAL
HAZARDS, ETC., WINDOW WASHING
Note:
Safety color code for marking physical hazards, etc., window washing has been moved to WAC 296-800-11045 and chapter 296-878 WAC.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-21501 Use of mechanical equipment.
((Where mechanical handling equipment is used,)) You must allow sufficient safe clearances shall be allowed for aisles, at loading docks, through doorways and wherever turns or passage must be made((.)) where mechanical handling equipment is used. You must keep aisles and passageways ((shall be kept)) clear and in good repair, with no obstruction across or in aisles that could create a hazard. ((Permanent)) You must ensure that aisles and passageways ((shall be)) are appropriately marked.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-21509 Clearance limits.
You must provide clearance signs to warn of clearance limits ((shall be provided)).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 89-11-035, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89)
WAC 296-24-21511 Rolling railroad cars.
(1) You must ensure that derail and/or bumper blocks ((shall be)) are provided on spur railroad tracks where a rolling car could contact other cars being worked, enter a building, work or traffic area. This does not apply to cars being moved by a locomotive, switch engine, donkey engine, or a car puller, but only to cars which are "cut loose." The standard does not apply to "cut loose" cars in railroad yards where trains are made up using gravity feed arrangements.
(2) You must employ a clearly audible warning system ((shall be employed)) when cars are being moved by car pullers or locomotives, and when the person responsible for the moving does not have assurance that the area is clear, and it is safe to move the car or cars.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-21513 Guarding.
You must provide covers and/or guardrails ((shall be provided)) to protect personnel from the hazards of open pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-23501 Definitions.
(((1) A "crane" is a machine for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism and integral part of the machine. Cranes whether fixed or mobile are driven manually or by power.
(2) An "automatic crane" is a crane which when activated operates through a preset cycle or cycles.
(3) A "cab-operated crane" is a crane controlled by an operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley.
(4) "Cantilever gantry crane" means a gantry or semigantry crane in which the bridge girders or trusses extend transversely beyond the crane runway on one or both sides.
(5) "Floor-operated crane" means a crane which is pendant or nonconductive rope controlled by an operator on the floor or an independent platform.
(6) "Gantry crane" means a crane similar to an overhead crane except that the bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on fixed rails or other runway.
(7) "Hot metal handling crane" means an overhead crane used for transporting or pouring molten material.
(8) "Overhead crane" means a crane with a movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed runway structure.
(9) "Power-operated crane" means a crane whose mechanism is driven by electric, air, hydraulic, or internal combustion means.
(10) A "pulpit-operated crane" is a crane operated from a fixed operator station not attached to the crane.
(11) A "remote-operated crane" is a crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or in the cab attached to the crane, by any method other than pendant or rope control.
(12) A "semigantry crane" is a gantry crane with one end of the bridge rigidly supported on one or more legs that run on a fixed rail or runway, the other end of the bridge being supported by a truck running on an elevated rail or runway.
(13) "Storage bridge crane" means a gantry type crane of long span usually used for bulk storage of material; the bridge girders or trusses are rigidly or nonrigidly supported on one or more legs. It may have one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends.
(14) "Wall crane" means a crane having a jib with or without trolley and supported from a side wall or line of columns of a building. It is a traveling type and operates on a runway attached to the side wall or columns.
(15) "Appointed" means assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
(16) "ANSI" means the American National Standards Institute.
(17) An "auxiliary hoist" is a supplemental hoisting unit of lighter capacity and usually higher speed than provided for the main hoist.
(18) A "brake" is a device used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or power means.
(19) A "drag brake" is a brake which provides retarding force without external control.
(20) A "holding brake" is a brake that automatically prevents motion when power is off.
(21) "Bridge" means that part of a crane consisting of girders, trucks, end ties, footwalks, and drive mechanism which carries the trolley or trollies.
(22) "Bridge travel" means the crane movement in a direction parallel to the crane runway.
(23) A "bumper" (buffer) is an energy absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel; or when two moving cranes or trolleys come in contact.
(24) The "cab" is the operator's compartment on a crane.
(25) "Clearance" means the distance from any part of the crane to a point of the nearest obstruction.
(26) "Collectors" (current) are contacting devices for collecting current from runway or bridge conductors.
(27) "Conductors, bridge" are the electrical conductors located along the bridge structure of a crane to provide power to the trolley.
(28) "Conductors, runway" (main) are the electrical conductors located along a crane runway to provide power to the crane.
(29) The "control braking means" is a method of controlling crane motor speed when in an overhauling condition.
(30) "Countertorque" means a method of control by which the power to the motor is reversed to develop torque in the opposite direction.
(31) "Dynamic" means a method of controlling crane motor speeds when in the overhauling condition to provide a retarding force.
(32) "Regenerative" means a form of dynamic braking in which the electrical energy generated is fed back into the power system.
(33) "Mechanical" means a method of control by friction.
(34) "Controller, spring return" means a controller which when released will return automatically to a neutral position.
(35) "Designated" means selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
(36) A "drift point" means a point on a travel motion controller which releases the brake while the motor is not energized. This allows for coasting before the brake is set.
(37) The "drum" is the cylindrical member around which the ropes are wound for raising or lowering the load.
(38) An "equalizer" is a device which compensates for unequal length or stretch of a rope.
(39) "Exposed" means capable of being contacted inadvertently. Applied to hazardous objects not adequately guarded or isolated.
(40) "Fail-safe" means a provision designed to automatically stop or safely control any motion in which a malfunction occurs.
(41) "Footwalk" means the walkway with handrail, attached to the bridge or trolley for access purposes.
(42) A "hoist" is an apparatus which may be a part of a crane, exerting a force for lifting or lowering.
(43) "Hoist chain" means the load bearing chain in a hoist.
Note:
Chain properties do not conform to those shown in ANSI B30.9-1971, Safety Code for Slings.
(44) "Hoist motion" means that motion of a crane which raises and lowers a load.
(45) "Load" means the total superimposed weight on the load block or hook.
(46) The "load block" is the assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, bearing, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting rope.
(47) "Magnet" means an electromagnetic device carried on a crane hook to pick up loads magnetically.
(48) "Main hoist" means the hoist mechanism provided for lifting the maximum rated load.
(49) A "man trolley" is a trolley having an operator's cab attached thereto.
(50) "Rated load" means the maximum load for which a crane or individual hoist is designed and built by the manufacturer and shown on the equipment nameplate(s).
(51) "Rope" refers to wire rope, unless otherwise specified.
(52) "Running sheave" means a sheave which rotates as the load block is raised or lowered.
(53) "Runway" means an assembly of rails, beams, girders, brackets, and framework on which the crane or trolley travels.
(54) "Side pull" means that portion of the hoist pull acting horizontally when the hoist lines are not operated vertically.
(55) "Span" means the horizontal distance center to center of runway rails.
(56) "Standby crane" means a crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
(57) A "stop" is a device to limit travel of a trolley or crane bridge. This device normally is attached to a fixed structure and normally does not have energy absorbing ability.
(58) A "switch" is a device for making, breaking, or for changing the connections in an electric circuit.
(59) An "emergency stop switch" is a manually or automatically operated electric switch to cut off electric power independently of the regular operating controls.
(60) A "limit switch" is a switch which is operated by some part or motion of a power-driven machine or equipment to alter the electric circuit associated with the machine or equipment.
(61) A "main switch" is a switch controlling the entire power supply to the crane.
(62) A "master switch" is a switch which dominates the operation of contractors, relays, or other remotely operated devices.
(63) The "trolley" is the unit which travels on the bridge rails and carries the hoisting mechanism.
(64) "Trolley travel" means the trolley movement at right angles to the crane runway.
(65) "Truck" means the unit consisting of a frame, wheels, bearings, and axles which supports the bridge girders or trolleys.)) ANSI. The American National Standards Institute.
Appointed. Assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
Automatic crane. A crane which when activated operates through a preset cycle or cycles.
Auxiliary hoist. A supplemental hoisting unit of lighter capacity and usually higher speed than provided for the main hoist.
Brake. A device used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or power means.
Bridge. That part of a crane consisting of girders, trucks, end ties, footwalks, and drive mechanism which carries the trolley or trollies.
Bridge travel. The crane movement in a direction parallel to the crane runway.
Bumper (buffer). An energy absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel; or when two moving cranes or trolleys come in contact.
Cab. The operator's compartment on a crane.
Cab-operated crane. A crane controlled by an operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley.
Cantilever gantry crane. A gantry or semigantry crane in which the bridge girders or trusses extend transversely beyond the crane runway on one or both sides.
Clearance. The distance from any part of the crane to a point of the nearest obstruction.
Collectors (current). Contacting devices for collecting current from runway or bridge conductors.
Conductors, bridge. The electrical conductors located along the bridge structure of a crane to provide power to the trolley.
Conductors, runway (main). The electrical conductors located along a crane runway to provide power to the crane.
Control braking. A method of controlling crane motor speed when in an overhauling condition.
Controller, spring return. A controller which when released will return automatically to a neutral position.
Countertorque. A method of control by which the power to the motor is reversed to develop torque in the opposite direction.
Crane. A machine for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism and integral part of the machine. Cranes whether fixed or mobile are driven manually or by power.
Designated. Selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
Drag brake. A brake which provides retarding force without external control.
Drift point. A point on a travel motion controller which releases the brake while the motor is not energized. This allows for coasting before the brake is set.
Drum. The cylindrical member around which the ropes are wound for raising or lowering the load.
Dynamic. A method of controlling crane motor speeds when in the overhauling condition to provide a retarding force.
Emergency stop switch. A manually or automatically operated electric switch to cut off electric power independently of the regular operating controls.
Equalizer. A device which compensates for unequal length or stretch of a rope.
Exposed. Capable of being contacted inadvertently. Applied to hazardous objects not adequately guarded or isolated.
Fail-safe. A provision designed to automatically stop or safely control any motion in which a malfunction occurs.
Floor-operated crane. A crane which is pendant or nonconductive rope controlled by an operator on the floor or an independent platform.
Footwalk. The walkway with handrail, attached to the bridge or trolley for access purposes.
Gantry crane. A crane similar to an overhead crane except that the bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on fixed rails or other runway.
Hoist. An apparatus which may be a part of a crane, exerting a force for lifting or lowering.
Hoist chain. The load bearing chain in a hoist.
Note:
Chain properties do not conform to those shown in ANSI B30.9-1971, Safety Code for Slings.
Hoist motion. That motion of a crane which raises and lowers a load.
Holding brake. A brake that automatically prevents motion when power is off.
Hot metal handling crane. An overhead crane used for transporting or pouring molten material.
Limit switch. A switch which is operated by some part or motion of a power-driven machine or equipment to alter the electric circuit associated with the machine or equipment.
Load. The total superimposed weight on the load block or hook.
Load block. The assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, bearing, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting rope.
Magnet. An electromagnetic device carried on a crane hook to pick up loads magnetically.
Main hoist. The hoist mechanism provided for lifting the maximum rated load.
Main switch. A switch controlling the entire power supply to the crane.
Man trolley. A trolley having an operator's cab attached thereto.
Master switch. A switch which dominates the operation of contractors, relays, or other remotely operated devices.
Mechanical. A method of control by friction.
Overhead crane. A crane with a movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed runway structure.
Power-operated crane. A crane whose mechanism is driven by electric, air, hydraulic, or internal combustion means.
Pulpit-operated crane. A crane operated from a fixed operator station not attached to the crane.
Rated load. The maximum load for which a crane or individual hoist is designed and built by the manufacturer and shown on the equipment nameplate(s).
Regenerative. A form of dynamic braking in which the electrical energy generated is fed back into the power system.
Remote-operated crane. A crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or in the cab attached to the crane, by any method other than pendant or rope control.
Rope. Refers to wire rope, unless otherwise specified.
Running sheave. A sheave which rotates as the load block is raised or lowered.
Runway. An assembly of rails, beams, girders, brackets, and framework on which the crane or trolley travels.
Semigantry crane. A gantry crane with one end of the bridge rigidly supported on one or more legs that run on a fixed rail or runway, the other end of the bridge being supported by a truck running on an elevated rail or runway.
Side pull. That portion of the hoist pull acting horizontally when the hoist lines are not operated vertically.
Span. The horizontal distance center to center of runway rails.
Standby crane. A crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
Stop. A device to limit travel of a trolley or crane bridge. This device normally is attached to a fixed structure and normally does not have energy absorbing ability.
Storage bridge crane. A gantry type crane of long span usually used for bulk storage of material; the bridge girders or trusses are rigidly or nonrigidly supported on one or more legs. It may have one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends.
Switch. A device for making, breaking, or for changing the connections in an electric circuit.
Trolley. The unit which travels on the bridge rails and carries the hoisting mechanism.
Trolley travel. The trolley movement at right angles to the crane runway.
Truck. The unit consisting of a frame, wheels, bearings, and axles which supports the bridge girders or trolleys.
Wall crane. A crane having a jib with or without trolley and supported from a side wall or line of columns of a building. It is a traveling type and operates on a runway attached to the side wall or columns.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)
WAC 296-24-23503 General requirements.
(1) Application. This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same fundamental characteristics. These cranes are grouped because they all have trolleys and similar travel characteristics.
(2) New and existing equipment. You must ensure that all new overhead and gantry cranes constructed and installed on or after the effective date of these standards((, shall)) meet the design specifications of the American National Standards Institute, Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, ANSI B30.2.0-1967. Overhead and gantry cranes constructed before the effective date of these standards, should be modified to conform to those design specifications, unless it can be shown that the crane cannot feasibly or economically be altered and that the crane substantially complies with the requirements of this section. (See chapter 296-900 WAC, Administrative rules, for information on applying for a variance.)
(3) Modifications. Cranes may be modified and rerated provided such modifications and the supporting structure are checked thoroughly for the new rated load by a qualified engineer or the equipment manufacturer. You must test the crane ((shall be tested)) in accordance with WAC 296-24-23521(2). You must display new rated load shall be displayed in accordance with (5) of this section.
(4) Wind indicators and rail clamps.
(a) You must provide outdoor storage bridges ((shall be provided)) with automatic rail clamps. You must provide a wind-indicating device ((shall be provided)) which will give a visible or audible alarm to the bridge operator at a predetermined wind velocity. If the clamps act on the rail heads, you must ground off any beads or weld flash on the rail heads ((shall be ground off)).
(b) You must base calculations for wind pressure on outside overhead traveling cranes ((shall be based)) on not less than 30 pounds per square foot of exposed surface.
(5) Rated load marking. You must plainly mark the rated load of the crane ((shall be plainly marked)) on each side of the crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist ((shall)) must have its rated load marked on it or its load block ((and this)). You must ensure that the rated load marking ((shall be)) is clearly legible from the ground or floor.
(6) Clearance from obstruction.
(a) You must provide and maintain minimum clearance of 3 inches overhead and 2 inches laterally ((shall be provided and maintained)) between crane and obstructions in conformity with Specification No. 61 Crane Manufactures Association of America, Inc., 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201, Charlotte, NC 28217.
(b) Where passageways or walkways are provided you must not place obstructions ((shall not be placed)) so that safety of personnel will be jeopardized by movements of the crane.
(7) Clearance between parallel cranes. If the runways of two cranes are parallel, and there are no intervening walls or structure, you must ensure that there ((shall be)) is adequate clearance provided and maintained between the two bridges.
(8) Designated personnel. You must ensure that only designated personnel ((shall be)) permitted to operate a crane covered by this section.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-17-033, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-24-23505 Cabs.
(1) Cab location.
(a) You must ensure that the general arrangement of the cab and the location of control and protective equipment ((shall be)) is such that all operating handles are within convenient reach of the operator when facing the area to be served by the load hook, or while facing the direction of travel of the cab. The arrangement ((shall)) must allow the operator a full view of the load hook in all positions.
(b) You must locate the cab ((shall be located)) to afford a minimum of 3 inches clearance from all fixed structures within its area of possible movement.
(c) You must ensure that the clearance of the cab above the working floor or passageway ((should be)) is not less than seven feet.
(2) Access to crane. You must provide access to the cab and/or bridge walkway ((shall be)) by a conveniently placed fixed ladder, stairs, or platform, requiring no step over any gap exceeding 12 inches. You must ensure that fixed ladders ((shall be)) are in conformance with the American National Standards Institute, Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956.
(3) Fire extinguisher. A carbon dioxide, dry-chemical, or equivalent hand fire extinguisher should be kept in the cab. You must not use carbon tetrachloride extinguishers ((shall not be used)).
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
(4) Lighting. You must ensure that light in the cab ((shall be)) is sufficient to enable the operator to see clearly enough to perform the work.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 06-16-020, filed 7/24/06, effective 12/1/06)
WAC 296-24-23507 Footwalks and ladders.
(1) Location of footwalks.
(a) If sufficient headroom is available on cab-operated cranes, you must provide a footwalk ((shall be provided)) on the drive side along the entire length of the bridge of all cranes having the trolley running on the top of the girders. To give sufficient access to the opposite side of the trolley, ((there should be provided)) you should provide either a footwalk mounted on the trolley, a suitable footwalk or platform in the building, or a footwalk on the opposite side of the crane at least twice the length of the trolley.
(b) ((Footwalks should be)) You must ensure that footwalks are located to give a headroom not less than 78 inches. ((In no case shall less than 48 inches be provided.)) You must provide a minimum of 48 inches. If you cannot provide 48 inches of headroom ((cannot be provided)), you should omit footwalks ((should be omitted)) from the crane and build a stationary platform or landing stage ((built)) for workers making repairs.
(2) Construction of footwalks.
(a) ((Footwalks shall be)) You must ensure that footwalks are of rigid construction and designed to sustain a distributed load of at least 50 pounds per square foot.
(b) ((Footwalks shall)) You must ensure that footwalks have a walking surface of antislip type.
Note:
Wood will meet this requirement.
(c) ((Footwalks should be)) You must ensure that footwalks are continuous and permanently secured.
(d) Footwalks should have a clear passageway at least 18 inches wide except opposite the bridge motor, where they should be not less than 15 inches. The inner edge ((shall)) must extend at least to the line of the outside edge of the lower cover plate or flange of the girder.
(3) Toeboards and handrails for footwalks. Toeboards and handrails ((shall)) must be in compliance with WAC 296-24-750 through 296-24-75011 and WAC 296-800-260.
(4) Ladders and stairways.
(a) You must provide gantry cranes ((shall be provided)) with ladders or stairways extending from the ground to the footwalk or cab platform.
(b) ((Stairways shall be equipped)) You must equip stairways with rigid and substantial metal handrails. ((Walking surfaces shall be)) You must ensure that walking surfaces are of an antislip type.
(c) ((Ladders shall be permanently and securely fastened)) You must permanently and securely fasten ladders in place and ((shall be)) ensure that they are constructed in compliance with chapter 296-876 WAC, Ladders, portable and fixed.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 80-17-015, filed 11/13/80)
WAC 296-24-23509 Stops, bumpers, rail sweeps, and guards.
(1) Trolley stops.
(a) ((Stops shall be)) You must ensure that stops are provided at the limits of travel of the trolley.
(b) ((Stops shall be)) You must ensure that stops are fastened to resist forces applied when contacted.
(c) You must ensure that a stop engaging the tread of the wheel ((shall be)) is of a height at least equal to the radius of the wheel.
(2) Bridge bumpers.
(((a))) You must ensure that a crane ((shall be)) is provided with bumpers or other automatic means providing equivalent effect, unless the crane travels at a slow rate of speed and has a faster deceleration rate due to the use of sleeve bearings, or is not operated near the ends of bridge and trolley travel, or is restricted to a limited distance by the nature of the crane operation and there is no hazard of striking any object in this limited distance or is used in similar operating conditions. The bumpers ((shall)) must be capable of stopping the crane (not including the lifted load) at an average rate of deceleration not to exceed 3 ((ft/s/s)) feet per second squared when traveling in either direction at 20 ((percent)) % of the rated load speed.
(((i))) (a) The bumpers ((shall)) must have sufficient energy absorbing capacity to stop the crane when traveling at a speed of at least 40 ((percent)) % of rated load speed.
(((ii))) (b) The bumpers ((shall)) must be so mounted that there is no direct shear on bolts.
(((iii))) (c) Bumpers ((shall)) must be so designed and installed as to minimize parts falling from the crane in case of breakage.
(3) Trolley bumpers.
(a) ((A trolley shall be)) You must ensure that a trolley is provided with bumpers or other automatic means of equivalent effect, unless the trolley travels at a slow rate of speed, or is not operated near the ends of bridge and trolley travel, or is restricted to a limited distance of the runway and there is no hazard of striking any object in this limited distance, or is used in similar operating conditions. The bumpers ((shall)) must be capable of stopping the trolley (not including the lifted load) at an average rate of deceleration not to exceed 4.7 ((ft./s/s)) feet per second squared when traveling in either direction at one-third of the rated load speed.
(((i))) When more than one trolley is operated on the same bridge, each ((shall)) must be equipped with bumpers or equivalent on their adjacent ends.
(b) Bumpers or equivalent ((shall)) must be designed and installed to minimize parts falling from the trolley in case of age.
(4) Rail sweeps. You must ensure that bridge trucks ((shall be)) are equipped with sweeps which extend below the top of the rail and project in front of the truck wheels.
(5) Guards for hoisting ropes.
(a) If hoisting ropes run near enough to other parts to make fouling or chafing possible, you must install guards ((shall be installed)) to prevent this condition.
(b) You must provide a guard ((shall be provided)) to prevent contact between bridge conductors and hoisting ropes if they could come into contact.
(6) Guards for moving parts.
(a) You must ensure that exposed moving parts such as gears, set screws, projecting keys, chains, chain sprockets, and reciprocating components which might constitute a hazard under normal operating conditions ((shall be)) are guarded.
(b) ((Guards shall be)) You must ensure that guards are securely fastened.
(c) You must ensure that each guard ((shall be)) is capable of supporting without permanent distortion the weight of a 200-pound person unless the guard is located where it is impossible for a person to step on it.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-23511 Brakes.
(1) Brakes for hoists.
(a) You must ensure that each independent hoisting unit of a crane ((shall be)) is equipped with at least one self-setting brake, hereafter referred to as a holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or some part of the gear train.
(b) You must ensure that each independent hoisting unit of a crane, except worm-geared hoists, the angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the lowering direction ((shall)) is, in addition to a holding brake, ((be)) equipped with control braking means to prevent overspeeding.
(2) Holding brakes.
(a) Holding brakes for hoist motors ((shall)) must have not less than the following percentage of the full load hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied.
(i) 125 ((percent)) % when used with a control braking means other than mechanical.
(ii) 100 ((percent)) % when used in conjunction with a mechanical control braking means.
(iii) 100 ((percent)) % each if two holding brakes are provided.
(b) Holding brakes on hoists ((shall)) must have ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by the service.
(c) Holding brakes on hoists ((shall)) must be applied automatically when power is removed.
(d) Where necessary holding brakes ((shall)) must be provided with adjustment means to compensate for wear.
(e) The wearing surface of all holding-brake drums or discs ((shall)) must be smooth.
(f) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane handling hot metal and having power control braking means ((shall)) must be equipped with at least two holding brakes.
(3) Control braking means.
(a) You must ensure that a power control braking means such as regenerative, dynamic or countertorque braking, or a mechanically controlled braking means ((shall be)) is capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated loads.
(b) You must ensure that the control braking means ((shall have)) has ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by service.
(4) Brakes for trolleys and bridges.
(a) You must ensure that foot operated brakes ((shall)) do not require an applied force of more than 70 pounds to develop manufacturer's rated brake torque.
(b) Brakes may be applied by mechanical, electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, or gravity means.
(c) Where necessary you must provide brakes ((shall be provided)) with adjustment means to compensate for wear.
(d) You must ensure that the wearing surface of all brake drums or discs shall be smooth.
(e) All foot-brake pedals ((shall)) must be constructed so that the operator's foot will not easily slip off the pedal.
(f) Foot-operated brakes ((shall)) must be equipped with automatic means for positive release when pressure is released from the pedal.
(g) You must ensure that brakes for stopping the motion of the trolley or bridge ((shall be)) are of sufficient size to stop the trolley or bridge within a distance in feet equal to 10 ((percent)) % of full load speed in feet per minute when traveling at full speed with full load.
(h) If holding brakes are provided on the bridge or trolley(s), you must ensure that they ((shall)) do not prohibit the use of a drift point in the control circuit.
(i) You must ensure that brakes on trolleys and bridges ((shall)) have ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by the service to prevent impairment of functions from overheating.
(5) Application of trolley brakes.
(a) On cab-operated cranes with cab on trolley, a trolley brake ((shall be)) is required as specified under (4) of this section.
(b) A drag brake may be applied to hold the trolley in a desired position on the bridge and to eliminate creep with the power off.
(6) Application of bridge brakes.
(a) On cab-operated cranes with cab on bridge, a bridge brake is required as specified under (4) of this section.
(b) On cab-operated cranes with cab on trolley, you must use a bridge brake of the holding type ((shall be required)).
(c) On all floor, remote and pulpit-operated crane bridge drives, you must provide a brake or noncoasting mechanical drive ((shall be provided)).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-24-23513 Electric equipment.
(1) General.
(a) Wiring and equipment ((shall)) must comply with chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, and WAC 296-800-280.
(b) The control circuit voltage ((shall)) must not exceed 600 volts for a.c. or d.c. current.
(c) The voltage at pendant pushbuttons ((shall)) must not exceed 150 volts for a.c. and 300 volts for d.c.
(d) Where multiple conductor cable is used with a suspended pushbutton station, the station ((shall)) must be supported in a manner that will protect the electrical conductors against strain.
(e) Pendant control boxes ((shall)) must be constructed to prevent electrical shock and ((shall)) must be clearly marked for identification of functions.
(2) Equipment.
(a) You must ensure that electrical equipment ((shall be so)) is located or enclosed so that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact under normal operating conditions.
(b) You must ensure that electric equipment ((shall be)) is protected from dirt, grease, oil, and moisture.
(c) You must ensure that guards for live parts ((shall be)) are substantial and ((so)) located so that they cannot be accidentally deformed so as to make contact with the live parts.
(3) Controllers.
(a) You must provide cranes not equipped with spring-return controllers or momentary contact pushbuttons ((shall be provided)) with a device which will disconnect all motors from the line on failure of power and will not permit any motor to be restarted until the controller handle is brought to the "off" position, or a reset switch or button is operated.
(b) You must provide lever operated controllers ((shall be provided)) with a notch or latch which in the "off" position prevents the handle from being inadvertently moved to the "on" position. An "off" detent or spring return arrangement is acceptable.
(c) You must ensure that the controller operating handle ((shall be)) is located within convenient reach of the operator.
(d) You must ensure that as far as practicable, the movement of each controller handle ((shall be)) is in the same general directions as the resultant movements of the load.
(e) You must ensure that the control for the bridge and trolley travel ((shall be so)) is located so that the operator can readily face the direction of travel.
(f) For floor-operated cranes, you must ensure that the controller or controllers if rope operated, ((shall)) automatically returns to the "off" position when released by the operator.
(g) You must ensure that pushbuttons in pendant stations ((shall)) return to the off position when pressure is released by the crane operator.
(h) You must ensure that automatic cranes ((shall be so)) are designed so that all motions shall fail-safe if any malfunction of operation occurs.
(i) You must ensure that remote-operated cranes ((shall)) function so that if the control signal for any crane motion becomes ineffective the crane motion ((shall)) must stop.
(4) Resistors.
(a) You must ensure that enclosures for resistors ((shall)) have openings to provide adequate ventilation, and ((shall be)) are installed to prevent the accumulation of combustible matter near hot parts.
(b) You must ensure that resistor units ((shall be)) are supported so as to be free as possible from vibration.
(c) ((Provision shall be made)) You must put in place a provision to prevent broken parts or molten metal falling upon the operator or from the crane.
(5) Switches.
(a) You must ensure that the power supply to the runway conductors ((shall be)) is controlled by a switch or circuit breaker located on a fixed structure, accessible from the floor, and arranged to be locked in the open position.
(b) You must ensure that on cab-operated cranes a switch or circuit breaker of the enclosed type, with provision for locking in the open position ((shall be)) is provided in the leads from the runway conductors. A means of opening this switch or circuit breaker ((shall)) must be located within easy reach of the operator.
(c) You must ensure that on floor-operated cranes, a switch or circuit breaker of the enclosed type, with provision for locking in the open position, ((shall be)) is provided in the leads from the runway conductors. This disconnect ((shall)) must be mounted on the bridge or footwalk near the runway collectors. You must provide one of the following types of floor operated disconnects ((shall be provided)):
(i) Nonconductive rope attached to the main disconnect switch.
(ii) An undervoltage trip for the main circuit breaker operated by an emergency stop button in the pendant pushbutton station.
(iii) A main line contactor operated by a switch or pushbutton in the pendant pushbutton station.
(d) You must ensure that the hoisting motion of all electric traveling cranes ((shall be)) is provided with an overtravel limit switch in the hoisting direction.
(e) You must ensure that all cranes using a lifting magnet ((shall)) must have a magnet circuit switch of the enclosed type with provision for locking in the open position. You must provide means for discharging the inductive load of the magnet ((shall be provided)).
(6) Runway conductors. You must ensure that conductors of the open type mounted on the crane runway beams or overhead ((shall be so)) (sometimes known as "runway conductors") are located or ((so)) guarded so that persons entering or leaving the cab or crane footwalk normally could not come into contact with them.
(7) Extension lamps. If a service receptacle is provided in the cab or on the bridge of cab-operated cranes, it ((shall)) must be a grounded three-prong type permanent receptacle, not exceeding 300 volts.
(8) Floor operated cranes.
(a) You must maintain an unobstructed aisle not less than three feet wide ((shall be maintained)) for travel of the operator except in such cases where the control handles are hung from the trolleys of traveling cranes.
(b) You must ensure that the handles of control ropes ((shall be)) are distinctly different in contour so that, without looking, the operator will know which is the hoisting and which is the lowering handle. You must clearly indicate the direction of all movements of the crane ((shall be clearly indicated)) in some manner so that the operator can easily become familiar with them.
(c) When repairing runways, repairpersons ((shall)) must place rail stops and warning signs or signals so as to protect both ends of the section to be repaired.
(d) Repairpersons ((shall)) must take care to prevent loose parts from falling or being thrown upon the floor beneath.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 80-17-015, filed 11/13/80)
WAC 296-24-23515 Hoisting equipment.
(1) Sheaves.
(a) You must ensure that sheave grooves ((shall be)) are smooth and free from surface defects which could cause rope damage.
(b) You must provide sheaves carrying ropes which can be momentarily unloaded ((shall be provided)) with close-fitting guards or other suitable devices to guide the rope back into the groove when the load is applied again.
(c) You must ensure that the sheaves in the bottom block ((shall be)) are equipped with close-fitting guards that will prevent ropes from becoming fouled when the block is laying on the ground with ropes loose.
(d) You must ensure that pockets and flanges of sheaves used with hoist chains ((shall be)) are of such dimensions that the chain does not catch or bind during operation.
(e) You must ensure that all running sheaves ((shall be)) are equipped with means for lubrication. Permanently lubricated, sealed and/or shielded bearings meet this requirement.
(2) Ropes.
(a) In using hoisting ropes, you must follow the crane manufacturer's recommendation ((shall be followed)). The rated load divided by the number of parts of rope ((shall)) must not exceed 20 ((percent)) % of the nominal breaking strength of the rope.
(b) ((Socketing shall be)) You must ensure that socketing is done in the manner specified by the manufacturer of the assembly.
(c) ((Rope shall be secured)) You must secure rope to the drum as follows:
(i) No less than two wraps of rope ((shall)) must remain on the drum when the hook is in its extreme low position.
(ii) Rope end ((shall)) must be anchored by a clamp securely attached to the drum, or by a socket arrangement approved by the crane or rope manufacturer.
(d) You must ensure that rope clips attached with U-bolts ((shall)) have the U-bolts on the dead or short end of the rope. Spacing and number of all types of clips ((shall)) must be in accordance with (2)(e) of this section. Clips ((shall)) must be drop-forged steel in all sizes manufactured commercially. When a newly installed rope has been in operation for an hour, all nuts on the clip bolts ((shall)) must be retightened.
(e)
Diameter
of Rope
Number of Clips Required
Space Between Clips
1
1/2
 
inch
8
10
 
 
inches
1
3/8
 
inch
7
9
 
 
inches
1
1/4
 
inch
6
8
 
 
inches
1
1/8
 
inch
5
7
 
 
inches
1
 
 
inch
5
6
 
 
inches
 
7/8
 
inch
5
5
1/4
 
inches
 
3/4
 
inch
5
4
1/2
 
inches
3/8 to 5/8
 
inch
4
3
 
 
inches
(f) You must apply swaged or compressed fittings ((shall be applied)) as recommended by the rope or crane manufacturer.
(g) Wherever exposed to temperatures, at which fiber cores would be damaged, you must use rope having an independent wire-rope or wire-strand core, or other temperature-damage resistant core ((shall be used)).
(h) You must ensure that replacement rope ((shall be)) is the same size, grade, and construction as the original rope furnished by the crane manufacturer, unless otherwise recommended by a wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements.
(3) Equalizers. ((If a load is supported by more than one part of rope,)) You must ensure that the tension in the parts ((shall be)) is equalized if a load is supported by more than one part of rope.
(4) Hooks. ((Hooks shall)) You must ensure that hooks meet the manufacturer's recommendations and ((shall)) are not ((be)) overloaded. Safety latch-type hooks ((shall)) must be used or the hook ((shall)) must be moused.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-23517 Warning device.
((Except for floor operated cranes)) You must provide a gong or other effective warning signal ((shall be provided)) for each crane equipped with a powered traveling mechanism except for floor operated cranes.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-23519 Inspection.
(1) Inspection classification.
(a) Initial inspection. You must perform an initial inspection prior to initial use all new and altered cranes ((shall be inspected to insure)) to ensure compliance with the provisions of these standards.
(b) Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two general classifications are herein designated as "frequent" and "periodic" with respective intervals between inspections as defined below:
(i) Frequent inspection - Daily to monthly intervals.
(ii) Periodic inspection - 1 to 12 month intervals.
(2) Frequent inspection. You must inspect the following items ((shall be inspected)) for defects at intervals as defined in (1)(b) of this section or as specifically indicated, including observation during operation for any defects which might appear between regular inspections. All deficiencies such as listed ((shall)) must be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(a) All functional operating mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation. Daily.
(b) Deterioration or leakage in lines, tanks, valves, drain pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems. Daily.
(c) Hooks with deformation or cracks. Visual inspection daily; monthly inspection with signed reports. For hooks with cracks or having more than 15 ((percent)) % in excess of normal throat opening or more than 10° twist from the plane of the unbent hook refer to WAC 296-24-23523 (3)(c)(i).
(d) Hoist or load attachment chains, including end connections, for excessive wear, twist, distorted links interfering with proper function, or stretch beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Visual inspection daily; monthly inspection with signed report.
(e) Rope slings, including end connections, for excessive wear, broken wires, stretch, kinking, or twisting. Visual inspection daily; monthly inspection with signed report.
(f) All functional operating mechanisms for excessive wear of components.
(g) Rope reeving for noncompliance with manufacturer's recommendations.
(3) Periodic inspection. You must complete inspections of the crane ((shall be performed)) at intervals as generally defined in (l)(b)(ii) of this section, depending upon its activity, severity of service, and environment, or as specifically indicated below. These inspections ((shall)) must include the requirements of (2) of this section and in addition, the following items. Any deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(a) Deformed, cracked, or corroded members.
(b) Loose bolts or rivets.
(c) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.
(d) Worn, cracked or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and clamping devices.
(e) Excessive wear on brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.
(f) Load, wind, and other indicators over their full range, for any significant inaccuracies.
(g) Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other powerplants for improper performance or noncompliance with applicable safety requirements.
(h) Excessive wear of chain drive sprockets and excessive chain stretch.
(i) Crane hooks. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection should be performed at least once each year.
(j) Electrical apparatus, for signs of pitting or any deterioration of controller contactors, limit switches and pushbutton stations.
(4) Cranes not in regular use.
(a) You must inspect a crane which has been idle for a period of 1 month or more, but less than 6 months, ((shall be given an inspection conforming)) in conformance with requirements of (2) of this section and WAC 296-24-23525(2), before placing in service.
(b) You must completely inspect a crane which has been idle for a period of over 6 months ((shall be given a complete inspection conforming)) in conformance with requirements of (2) and (3) of this section and WAC 296-24-23525(2) before placing in service.
(c) You must inspect standby cranes ((shall be inspected)) at least semi-annually in accordance with requirements of (2) of this section and WAC 296-24-23525(2). Standby cranes exposed to adverse environment should be inspected more frequently.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-23521 Testing.
(1) Operational tests.
(a) Prior to initial use you must test all new and altered cranes ((shall be tested)) to insure compliance with this section including the following functions:
(i) Hoisting and lowering.
(ii) Trolley travel.
(iii) Bridge travel.
(iv) Limit switches, locking and safety devices.
(b) You must determine the trip setting of hoist limit switches ((shall be determined)) by tests with an empty hook traveling in increasing speeds up to the maximum speed. You must ensure that the actuating mechanism of the limit switch ((shall be)) is located so that it will trip the switch, under all conditions, in sufficient time to prevent contact of the hook or hook block with any part of the trolley.
(2) Rated load test. Prior to initial use all new, extensively repaired, and altered cranes should be tested by or under the direction of an appointed or authorized person, confirming the load rating of the crane. The load rating should not be more than 80 ((percent)) % of the maximum load sustained during the test. Test loads ((shall)) must not be more than 125 ((percent)) % of the rated load unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. You must place the tests reports ((shall be placed)) on file where readily available to appointed personnel.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-23523 Maintenance.
(1) Preventive maintenance. You must establish a preventive maintenance program based on the crane manufacturer's recommendations ((shall be established)).
(2) Maintenance procedure.
(a) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a crane you must take the following precautions ((shall be taken)):
(i) The crane to be repaired ((shall)) must be run to a location where it will cause the least interference with other cranes and operations in the area.
(ii) All controllers ((shall)) must be at the off position.
(iii) The main or emergency switch ((shall)) must be open and locked in the open position.
(iv) Warning or "out of order" signs ((shall)) must be placed on the crane, also on the floor beneath or on the hook where visible from the floor.
(v) Where other cranes are in operation on the same runway, rail stops or other suitable means ((shall)) must be provided to prevent interference with the idle crane.
(vi) Where temporary protective rail stops are not available, or practical, a signalperson should be placed at a visual vantage point for observing the approach of an active crane and warning its operator when reaching the limit of safe distance from the idle crane.
(b) After adjustments and repairs have been made you must not operate the crane ((shall not be operated)) until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated and maintenance equipment removed.
(3) Adjustments and repairs.
(a) You must correct any unsafe conditions disclosed by the inspection requirements of WAC 296-24-23519 ((shall be corrected)) before operation of the crane is resumed. You must ensure that adjustments and repairs ((shall be)) are done only by designated personnel.
(b) ((Adjustments shall be maintained)) You must maintain adjustments to assure correct functioning of components. The following are examples:
(i) All functional operating mechanisms.
(ii) Limit switches.
(iii) Control systems.
(iv) Brakes.
(v) Power plants.
(c) You must provide repairs or replacements ((shall be provided)) promptly as needed for safe operation. The following are examples:
(i) You must carefully examine accessory components, such as hooks, ((shall be carefully examined)) periodically and at the time of annual examination and inspection. You must discard cracked or deformed hooks ((shall be discarded)) immediately and not reused on any equipment subject to the provisions of this code.
(ii) Load attachment chains and rope slings showing defects described in WAC 296-24-23519 (2)(d) and (e) respectively.
(iii) All critical parts which are cracked, broken, bent, or excessively worn.
(iv) You must keep pendant control stations ((shall be kept)) clean and function labels kept legible.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 80-17-015, filed 11/13/80)
WAC 296-24-23525 Rope inspection.
(1) Running ropes. You must perform a thorough inspection of all ropes ((shall be made)) at least once a month and keep a full written, dated, and signed report of rope condition ((kept)) on file where readily available to appointed personnel. You must carefully note any deterioration, resulting in appreciable loss of original strength, such as described below, ((shall be carefully noted and determination made as to)) and determine whether further use of the rope would constitute a safety hazard:
(a) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires.
(b) A number of broken outside wires and the degree of distribution or concentration of such broken wires.
(c) Worn outside wires.
(d) Corroded or broken wires at end connections.
(e) Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end connections.
(f) Severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.
(2) Other ropes. You must thoroughly inspect all rope which has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed ((shall be given a thorough inspection)) before it is placed in service. ((This inspection shall be)) You must inspect for all types of deterioration and ((shall be)) you must ensure that the inspection is performed by an appointed person whose approval ((shall)) must be required for further use of the rope. You must make available for inspection a written and dated report of the rope condition ((shall be available for inspection)).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-23527 Handling the load.
(1) Size of load. You must ensure that the crane ((shall)) is not ((be)) loaded beyond its rated load except for test purposes as provided in WAC 296-24-23521.
(2) Attaching the load.
(a) You must ensure that the hoist chain or hoist rope ((shall be)) is free from kinks or twists and ((shall)) is not be wrapped around the load.
(b) The load ((shall)) must be attached to the load block hook by means of slings or other approved devices.
(c) ((Care shall be taken)) You must take care to make certain that the sling clears all obstacles.
(3) Moving the load.
(a) You must ensure that the load ((shall be)) is well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
(b) Before starting to hoist you must note the following conditions ((shall be noted)):
(i) Hoist rope ((shall)) must not be kinked.
(ii) Multiple part lines ((shall)) must not be twisted around each other.
(iii) The hook ((shall)) must be brought over the load in such a manner as to prevent swinging.
(c) During hoisting you must take care ((shall be taken)) that:
(i) There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
(ii) The load does not contact any obstructions.
(d) ((Cranes shall not be)) You must ensure that cranes are not used for side pulls except when specifically authorized by a responsible person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not thereby endangered and that various parts of the crane will not be overstressed.
(e) While any employee is on the load or hook, you must ensure that there ((shall be)) is no hoisting, lowering, or traveling.
(f) The employer ((shall)) must require that the operator avoid carrying loads over people.
(g) The operator ((shall)) must test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled. You must test the brakes ((shall be tested)) by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes.
(h) The load ((shall)) must not be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum.
(i) When two or more cranes are used to lift a load one qualified responsible person ((shall)) must be in charge of the operation. The qualified person ((shall)) must analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be made.
(j) The employer ((shall)) must assure that the operator does not leave the control position while the load is suspended.
(k) When starting the bridge and when the load or hook approaches near or over personnel, you must sound the warning signal ((shall be sounded)).
(4) Hoist limit switch.
(a) At the beginning of each operator's shift, the operator must try out the upper limit switch of each hoist ((shall be tried out)) under no load. Extreme care ((shall)) must be exercised; the block ((shall)) must be "inched" into the limit or run in at slow speed. If the switch does not operate properly, the appointed person ((shall)) must be immediately notified.
(b) You must never use the hoist limit switch which controls the upper limit of travel of the load block ((shall never be used)) as an operating control.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-17-094, filed 8/17/99, effective 12/1/99)
WAC 296-24-23529 Operators.
(1) ((Cranes shall be)) You must ensure that cranes are operated only by regular crane operators, authorized substitutes who have had adequate experience and training under the supervision of a competent operator, or by crane repairmen or inspectors.
(2) You must ensure that crane operators ((must be)) are able to communicate with others at the worksite sufficiently to understand the signs, notices, operation instructions, and the signal code in use to ensure safe operation of the crane.
(3) You must ensure that no minor under eighteen years of age ((shall be)) is employed in occupations involving the operation of any power-driven hoisting apparatus or assisting in such operations by work such as hooking on, loading slings, rigging gear, etc.
(4) You must ensure that no person ((shall be)) is permitted to operate a crane whose hearing or eye-sight is impaired, or who may be suffering from heart disease or similar ailments. The following physical qualifications ((shall)) must be minimum requirements for overhead and gantry crane operators and trainees:
(a) They ((shall)) must have vision of at least 20/30 in one eye, and 20/50 in the other, with or without corrective lenses.
(b) They ((shall)) must be able to distinguish colors, regardless of position of colors, if color differential is required for operation.
(c) Their hearing, with or without hearing aid, must be adequate for a specific operation.
(d) They ((shall)) must have sufficient strength, endurance, agility, coordination, and speed of reaction to meet the demands of equipment operation.
(e) They ((shall)) must have normal depth perception, field of vision, reaction time, manual dexterity, coordination and no tendencies to dizziness or similar undesirable characteristics.
(f) Evidence of physical defects, or emotional instability which could render the operator or trainee a hazard to their self or others, or could interfere with their safe performance may be sufficient cause for disqualification. In such cases, you must require specialized clinical or medical judgments or tests ((shall be required)) (which include annual medical certification for recovered heart attack patients).
(g) Evidence that an operator or trainee is subject to seizures or loss of physical control ((shall)) must be sufficient reason for disqualification. You must require specialized medical tests ((shall be required)) to substantiate these conditions.
(5) Persons who have recovered from a heart attack ((shall)) must be exempted from the provisions of subsection (4) of this section, as it pertains to their heart condition, provided:
(a) A medical release is obtained from their attending medical doctor.
(b) The release ((shall)) must state that the operation of a crane will not present a hazard to their self or others.
(c) An examination by a medical doctor, and renewal of the work release certification is required annually.
(6) The operator ((shall)) must be fully familiar with all crane rules and with the crane mechanism and its proper care. Needed adjustments or repairs ((shall)) must be reported at once to the proper authority.
(7) The operator ((shall)) must not eat, smoke or read while actually engaged in the operation of the crane, or operate the crane when physically unfit.
(8) The operator or someone especially designated ((shall)) must properly lubricate all working parts of the crane.
(9) ((Cranes shall be kept)) You must keep cranes clean.
(10) You must ensure that whenever the operator finds the main or emergency switch open, it ((shall)) is not ((be)) closed, even when starting on regular duty, until it is determined that no one is on or about the crane. ((The crane shall not be oiled or repaired)) You must not oil or repair the crane unless the main switch is open.
(11) ((If the power goes off,)) The operator ((shall)) must immediately throw all controllers to "off" position until the power is again available if the power goes off.
(12) ((Before closing the main switch)) The operator ((shall)) must make sure that all controllers are in "off" position until the power is again available before closing the main switch.
(13) You must ensure that the operator ((shall)) recognizes signals only from the employee who is supervising the lift. Operating signals ((shall)) must follow an established standard. Whistle signals may be used where only one crane ((only)) is in operation.
(14) You must ensure that bumping into runway stops or other cranes ((shall be)) is avoided. When the operator is ordered to engage with or push other cranes, it ((shall)) must be done with special care for the safety of persons on or below cranes.
(15) You must ensure that when lowering a load, the operator ((shall)) proceeds carefully and makes sure the load is under safe control.
(16) You must ensure that when leaving the cage the operator ((shall)) throws all controllers to "off" position and open the main switch.
(17) You must ensure that if the crane is located out-of-doors the operator ((shall)) locks the crane in a secure position to prevent it from being blown along or off the track by a severe wind.
(18) Operators ((shall)) must not permit anyone to ride on the load or hooks, unless using a lifeline or safety device approved by the department.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-23531 Other requirementsGeneral.
(1) Ladders.
(a) The employer ((shall insure)) must ensure that hands are free from encumbrances while personnel are using ladders.
(b) You must lift and lower articles which are too large to be carried in pockets or belts ((shall be lifted and lowered)) by hand line.
(2) Cabs.
(a) You must store necessary clothing and personal belongings ((shall be stored)) in such a manner as not to interfere with access or operation.
(b) You must store tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary articles ((shall be stored)) in the tool box, and ((shall not be permitted)) you must not permit them to lie loose in or about the cab.
(3) Fire extinguishers. ((The employer shall insure)) You must ensure that operators are familiar with the operation and care of fire extinguishers provided.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 00-08-078, filed 4/4/00, effective 7/1/00)
WAC 296-24-23533 Crane and derrick suspended personnel (work) platforms.
(1) Scope and application. This standard applies to the design, construction, testing, use and maintenance of personnel platforms, and the hoisting of personnel platforms on the load lines of cranes or derricks.
(2) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:
(((a) "))Failure((" means)). Load refusal, breakage, or separation of components.
(((b) "))Hoist((")) (or hoisting) ((means)). All crane or derrick functions such as lowering, lifting, swinging, booming in and out or up and down, or suspending a personnel platform.
(((c) "))Load refusal((" means)). The point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.
(((d) "))Maximum intended load((" means)). The total load of all employees tools, materials, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a personnel platform or personnel platform component at any one time.
(((e) "))Runway((" means)). A firm, level surface designed, prepared, and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the crane being used to lift and travel with the crane suspended platform. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.
(3) General requirements. The use of a crane or derrick to hoist employees on a personnel platform is prohibited, except when the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of structural design or worksite conditions.
(4) Operational criteria.
(a) You must perform hoisting of the personnel platform ((shall be performed)) in a slow, controlled, cautious manner with no sudden movements of the crane or derrick, or the platform.
(b) You must ensure that load lines ((shall be)) are capable of supporting, without failure, at least ((seven)) 7 times the maximum intended load, except that where rotation resistant rope is used, the lines ((shall)) must be capable of supporting without failure, at least ((ten)) 10 times the maximum intended load. The required design factor is achieved by taking the current safety factor of 3.5 and applying the ((fifty percent)) 50% derating of the crane capacity.
(c) You must engage load and boom hoist drum brakes, swing brakes, and locking devices such as pawls or dogs ((shall be engaged)) when the occupied personnel platform is in a stationary working position.
(d) You must equip cranes and derricks with variable angle booms ((shall be equipped)) with a boom angle indicator, readily visible to the operator.
(e) You must equip cranes with telescoping booms ((shall be equipped)) with a device to indicate clearly to the operator, at all times, the boom's extended length, or you must make an accurate determination of the load radius to be used during the lift ((shall be made)) prior to hoisting personnel.
(f) You must use a positive acting device ((shall be used)) which prevents contact between the load block or overhaul ball and the boom tip (anti-two-blocking device), or you must use a system ((shall be used)) which deactivates the hoisting action before damage occurs in the event of a two-blocking situation (two block damage prevention feature).
(g) You must ensure that the load line hoist drum ((shall have)) has a system or device on the power train, other than the load hoist brake, which regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist mechanism (controlled load lowering). Free fall is prohibited.
(h) You must ensure that the crane ((shall be)) is uniformly level within one percent of level grade and located on firm footing. You must ensure that cranes equipped with outriggers ((shall)) have them all fully deployed following manufacturer's specifications, insofar as applicable, when hoisting employees.
(i) You must ensure that the total weight of the loaded personnel platform and related rigging ((shall)) does not exceed ((fifty percent)) 50% of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the crane or derrick.
(j) The use of machines having live booms (booms in which lowering is controlled by a brake without aid from other devices which slow the lowering speeds) is prohibited.
(k) Multiple-part line block: When a multiple-part line block is in use, you must use a substantial strap ((shall be used)) between the crane hook and common ring, shackle, or other equivalent device, to eliminate employee exposure to the lines running through the block, and to the block itself.
(5) Rigging.
(a) Lifting bridles on box-type platforms ((shall)) must consist of four legs of equal length, with one end securely shackled to each corner of the platform and the other end securely attached to a common ring, shackle, or other equivalent device to accommodate the crane hook, or a strap to the crane hook.
(b) You must secure shackle bolts used for rigging of personnel platforms ((shall be secured)) against displacement.
(c) A substantial safety line ((shall)) must pass through the eye of each leg of the bridle adjacent to the common ring, shackle, or equivalent device and be securely fastened with a minimum amount of slack to the lift line above the headache ball or to the crane hook itself.
(d) All eyes in wire rope sling ((shall)) must be fabricated with thimbles.
(e) Wire rope, shackles, rings, master links, and other rigging hardware must be capable of supporting, without failure, at least ((five)) 5 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component. Where rotation resistant wire rope is used for slings, they ((shall)) must be capable of supporting without failure at least ((ten)) 10 times the maximum intended load.
(f) Hooks on headache ball assemblies, lower load blocks, or other attachment assemblies ((shall)) must be of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating the hook throat opening. Alternatively, an alloy anchor type shackle with a bolt, nut, and retaining pin ((shall)) must be used.
(g) You must only use bridles and associated rigging for attaching the personnel platform to the hoist line ((shall be used only)) for the platform and the necessary employees, their tools and the materials necessary to do their work, and ((shall not be used)) you must not use them for any other purpose when not hoisting personnel.
(6) Personnel platforms - Design criteria.
(a) The personnel platform and suspension system ((shall)) must be designed by a qualified engineer or a qualified person competent in structural design.
(b) The suspension system ((shall)) must be designed to minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform.
(c) The personnel platform itself, except the guardrail system and body belt/harness anchorages, ((shall)) must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least ((five)) 5 times the maximum intended load based on a minimum allowance of ((five hundred)) 500 pounds for the first person with light tools, and an additional ((two hundred fifty)) 250 pounds for each additional person.
(d) ((Criteria for guardrail systems and body belt/harness anchorages are contained in Parts J-1 and J-2 of this chapter.
(e))) The personnel platform ((shall)) must be conspicuously posted with a plate or other permanent marking which indicates the weight of the platform and its rated load capacity or maximum intended load.
(7) Platform specifications.
(a) You must equip each personnel platform ((shall be equipped)) with a guardrail system which meets the requirements of WAC ((296-24-75007)) 296-24-75011, and ((shall be)) is enclosed at least from the toeboard to mid-rail with either solid construction or expanded metal having openings no greater than ((one-half)) 1/2 inch (1.27cm).
(b) You must install a grab rail ((shall be installed)) inside the entire perimeter of the personnel platform.
(c) You must ensure that access gates, if installed, ((shall)) do not swing outward during hoisting.
(d) You must equip access gates, including sliding or folding gates, ((shall be equipped)) with a restraining device to prevent accidental opening.
(e) ((Headroom shall be provided)) You must provide headroom which allows employees to stand upright in the platform.
(f) In addition to the use of hard hats, you must protect employees ((shall be protected)) by overhead protection on the personnel platform when employees are exposed to falling objects.
(g) You must surface or smooth all rough edges exposed to contact by employees ((shall be surfaced or smoothed)) in order to prevent injury to employees from punctures or lacerations.
(h) You must ensure that all welding of the personnel platform and its components ((shall be)) is performed by a qualified welder familiar with the weld grades, types, and material specified in the platform design.
(i) Occupants of all personnel platforms ((shall)) must wear a safety belt or harness and lanyard which meets the requirements of ANSI A10.14-1975.
(j) Box-type platform: The workers lanyard ((shall)) must be secured to the work platform or guardrail of the work platform.
(k) Rescue platform:
(i) If the platform is used as a rescue vehicle, the injured worker ((shall)) must be strapped into the stretcher or basket.
(ii) The basket ((shall)) must then be secured by lanyard to an anchorage within the platform.
(l) Boatswains chair: You must ensure that the workers lanyard ((shall be)) is secured to the lift line above the headache ball or to the crane hook itself.
(m) Barrel-type platform:
(i) The workers lanyard ((shall)) must be secured to the lift line above the headache ball or to the crane hook itself.
(ii) A solid bar or rod ((shall)) must be substantially attached in a rigid position to the bottom or side of the platform.
(iii) The side bar or rod ((shall)) must extend a minimum of ((eight)) 8 feet above the floor of the work platform.
(iv) The bottom of the barrel-type platform ((shall)) must be of a convex shape to cause the platform to lay on its side when lowered to the ground or floor.
(v) Workers ((shall)) must enter and exit from barrel-type platforms only when they are in an upright position, stable, and securely attached to the load line.
(vi) The employer ((shall)) must use methods or devices which allow employees to safely enter or exit barrel-type platforms.
(8) Personnel platform loading.
(a) You must ensure that the personnel platform ((shall)) is not ((be)) loaded in excess of its rated load capacity.
(b) You must ensure that the number of employees occupying the personnel platform ((shall)) does not exceed the number required for the work being performed.
(c) You must ensure that the personnel platforms ((shall be)) are used only for employees, their tools, and the materials necessary to do their work, and ((shall)) are not ((be)) used to hoist only materials or tools when not hoisting personnel.
(d) You must secure materials and tools for use during a personnel lift ((shall be secured)) to prevent displacement.
(e) You must evenly distribute materials and tools for use during a personnel lift ((shall be evenly distributed)) within the confines of the platform while the platform is suspended.
(9) Trial lift, inspection, and prooftesting.
(a) You must make a trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least to the anticipated liftweight ((shall be made)) from ground level, or any other location where employees will enter the platform, to each location at which the personnel platform is to be hoisted and positioned. You must perform this trial lift ((shall be performed)) immediately prior to placing personnel on the platform. The operator ((shall)) must determine that all systems, controls, and safety devices are activated and functioning properly; that no interferences exist; and that all configurations necessary to reach those work locations will allow the operator to remain under the ((fifty percent)) 50% limit of the hoist's rated capacity. Materials and tools to be used during the actual lift can be loaded in the platform, as provided in subsection (8)(d) and (e) of this section for the trial lift. A single trial lift may be performed at one time for all locations that are to be reached from a single set-up position.
(b) You must repeat the trial lift ((shall be repeated)) prior to hoisting employees whenever the crane or derrick is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location. Additionally, you must repeat the trial lift ((shall be repeated)) when the lift route is changed unless the operator determines that the route change is not significant (i.e., the route change would not affect the safety of hoisted employees).
(c) After the trial lift, and just prior to hoisting personnel, you must hoist the platform ((shall be hoisted)) a few inches and ((inspected)) inspect it to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced. ((Employees shall not be hoisted)) You must not hoist employees unless the following conditions are determined to exist:
(i) Hoist ropes ((shall)) must be free of kinks;
(ii) Multiple part lines ((shall)) must not be twisted around each other;
(iii) The primary attachment ((shall)) must be centered over the platform; and
(iv) The hoisting system ((shall)) must be inspected if the load rope is slack to ensure all ropes are properly stated on drums and in sheaves.
(d) A competent person must conduct a visual inspection of the crane or derrick, rigging, personnel platform, and the crane or derrick base support or ground ((shall be conducted by a competent person)) immediately after the trial lift to determine whether the testing has exposed any defect or produced any adverse effect upon any component or structure.
(e) You must correct any defects found during inspections which create a safety hazard ((shall be corrected)) before hoisting personnel.
(f) At each job site, prior to hoisting employees on the personnel platform, and after any repair or modification, you must prooftest the platform and rigging ((shall be prooftested to one hundred twenty-five percent)) to 125% of the platform's rated capacity by holding it in a suspended position for ((five)) 5 minutes with the test load evenly distributed on the platform (this may be done concurrently with the trial lift). After prooftesting, a competent person ((shall)) must inspect the platform and rigging. You must correct any deficiencies found ((shall be corrected)) and conduct another prooftest ((shall be conducted)). You must not conduct personnel hoisting ((shall not be conducted)) until the prooftesting requirements are satisfied.
(g) The employer ((shall)) must retain at the ((jobsite)) job site and produce when requested, documentation such as lift capacity information, verifying that the requirements of this standard have been met.
(10) Work practices.
(a) Employees ((shall)) must keep all parts of the body inside the platform during raising, lowering, and positioning. This provision does not apply to an occupant of the platform performing the duties of a signal person.
(b) Before employees exit or enter a hoisted personnel platform that is not landed, you must secure the platform ((shall be secured)) to the structure where the work is to be performed, unless securing to the structure creates an unsafe situation.
(c) You must use tag lines ((shall be used)) unless their use creates an unsafe condition.
(d) The crane or derrick operator ((shall)) must remain at the controls at all times when the crane engine is running and the platform is occupied.
(e) You must promptly discontinue hoisting of employees ((shall be promptly discontinued)) upon indication of any dangerous weather conditions or other impending danger.
(f) Employees being hoisted ((shall)) must remain in continuous sight of and in direct communication with the operator or signal person. In those situations where direct visual contact with the operator is not possible, and the use of a signal person would create a greater hazard for that person, direct communication alone such as by radio may be used.
(g) Hand signals to the operator ((shall)) must be in accordance with those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane or lift in use unless voice communication equipment is utilized. Signals ((shall)) must be discernable or audible at all times.
(h) Except over water, employees occupying the personnel platform ((shall)) must use a body belt/harness system with lanyard appropriately attached to the lower load block or overhaul ball, or to a structural member within the personnel platform capable of supporting a fall impact for employees using the anchorage.
(i) ((No lifts shall)) Lifts must not be made on another of the crane's or derrick's load lines while personnel are suspended on a platform.
(11) Traveling.
(a) Hoisting of employees while the crane is traveling is prohibited except for portal, tower and locomotive cranes, or where the employer demonstrates that there is no less hazardous way to perform the work.
(b) Under any circumstances where a crane would travel while hoisting personnel, the employer ((shall)) must implement the following procedures to safeguard employees:
(i) Crane travel ((shall)) must be restricted to a fixed track or runway;
(ii) Travel ((shall)) must be limited to the load radius of the boom used during the lift; and
(iii) The boom must be parallel to the direction of travel.
(c) You must perform a complete trial run ((shall be performed)) to test the route of travel before employees are allowed to occupy the platform. This trial run can be performed at the same time as the trial lift required by subsection (9)(a) of this section which tests the route of the lift.
(d) If travel is done with a rubber tired-carrier, you must check the condition and air pressure of the tires ((shall be checked)). You must use the chart capacity for lifts on rubber ((shall be used)) for application of the ((fifty percent)) 50% reduction of rated capacity. Notwithstanding subsection (4)(i) of this section, outriggers may be partially retracted as necessary for travel.
(12) Prelift meeting.
(a) You must hold a meeting attended by the crane or derrick operator, signal person(s) (if necessary for the lift), employee(s) to be lifted, and the person responsible for the task to be performed ((shall be held)) to review the appropriate requirements of this section and the procedures to be followed.
(b) You must hold this meeting ((shall be held)) prior to the trial lift at each new location, and ((shall be repeated)) repeat it for any employees newly assigned to the operation.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-237 Construction, operation and maintenanceChain and electric hoists.
(1) You must ensure that chain and electric hoists ((shall be)) are of what is known as "all steel construction." No cast iron ((shall)) may be used in parts subject to tension except drums, bearings or brake shoes.
(2) You must ensure that the chains ((shall be)) are made of the best quality steel or iron with welded links.
(3) You must ensure that chain and electric hoists ((shall)) have a factor of safety of at least ((five)) 5.
(4) You must ensure that chain and electric hoists ((shall be)) are equipped with an approved device which will automatically lock the load when hoisting is stopped.
(5) You must ensure that electric hoists ((shall be)) are provided with an approved limit stop to prevent the hoist block from traveling too far in case the operating handle is not released in time.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-238 Air hoists.
(1) ((To prevent piston rod lock nuts from becoming loose and allowing rod to drop when supporting a load, lock nut shall be secured to piston rod by a castellated nut and cotter-pin.)) You must prevent piston rod lock nuts from becoming loose and allowing rod to drop when supporting a load. A lock nut shall be secured to piston rod by a castellated nut and cotter-pin.
(2) You must use a clevis or other means ((shall be used)) to prevent hoists cylinder becoming detached from hanger.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24001 Definitions.
(((1) A "crawler crane" consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery, and boom, mounted on a base, equipped with crawler treads for travel. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
(2) A "locomotive crane" consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on railroad track. It may be self-propelled or propelled by an outside source. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
(3) A "truck crane" consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on an automotive truck equipped with a power plant for travel. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
(4) A "wheel mounted crane" (wagon crane) consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base or platform equipped with axles and rubber-tired wheels for travel. The base is usually propelled by the engine in the superstructure, but it may be equipped with a separate engine controlled from the superstructure. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
(5) An "accessory" is a secondary part or assembly of parts which contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a machine.
(6) "Appointed" means assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
(7) "ANSI" means the American National Standards Institute.
(8) An "angle indicator" (boom) is an accessory which measures the angle of the boom to the horizontal.
(9) The "axis of rotation" is the vertical axis around which the crane superstructure rotates.
(10) "Axle" means the shaft or spindle with which or about which a wheel rotates. On truck- and wheel-mounted cranes it refers to an automotive type of axle assembly including housings, gearing, differential, bearings, and mounting appurtenances.
(11) "Axle" (bogie) means two or more automotive-type axles mounted in tandem in a frame so as to divide the load between the axles and permit vertical oscillation of the wheels.
(12) The "base" (mounting) is the traveling base or carrier on which the rotating superstructure is mounted such as a car, truck, crawlers, or wheel platform.
(13) The "boom" (crane) is a member hinged to the front of the rotating superstructure with the outer end supported by ropes leading to a gantry or "A" frame and used for supporting the hoisting tackle.
(14) The "boom angle" is the angle between the longitudinal centerline of the boom and the horizontal. The boom longitudinal centerline is a straight line between the boom foot pin (heel pin) centerline and boom point sheave pin centerline.
(15) The "boom hoist" is a hoist drum and rope reeving system used to raise and lower the boom. The rope system may be all live reeving or a combination of live reeving and pendants.
(16) The "boom stop" is a device used to limit the angle of the boom at the highest position.
(17) A "brake" is a device used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or power means.
(18) A "cab" is housing which covers the rotating superstructure machinery and/or operator's station. On truck crane trucks a separate cab covers the driver's station.
(19) The "clutch" is a friction, electromagnetic, hydraulic, pneumatic, or positive mechanical device for engagement or disengagement of power.
(20) The "counterweight" is a weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads.
(21) "Designated" means selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
(22) The "drum" is the cylindrical members around which ropes are wound for raising and lowering the load or boom.
(23) "Dynamic" (loading) means loads introduced into the machine or its components by forces in motion.
(24) The "gantry" (A-frame) is a structural frame, extending above the superstructure, to which the boom supports ropes are reeved.
(25) A "jib" is an extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads. The jib may be in line with the boom or offset to various angles.
(26) "Load" (working) means the external load, in pounds, applied to the crane, including the weight of load-attaching equipment such as load blocks, shackles, and slings.
(27) "Load block" (upper) means the assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom point.
(28) "Load block" (lower) means the assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting ropes.
(29) A "load hoist" is a hoist drum and rope reeving system used for hoisting and lowering loads.
(30) "Load ratings" are crane ratings in pounds established by the manufacturer in accordance with WAC 296-24-24005.
(31) "Outriggers" are extendable or fixed metal arms, attached to the mounting base, which rest on supports at the outer ends.
(32) "Rail clamp" means a tong-like metal device, mounted on a locomotive crane car, which can be connected to the track.
(33) "Reeving" means a rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves.
(34) "Rope" refers to a wire rope unless otherwise specified.
(35) "Side loading" means a load applied at an angle to the vertical plane of the boom.
(36) A "standby crane" is a crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
(37) A "standing (guy) rope" is a supporting rope which maintains a constant distance between the points of attachment to the two components connected by the rope.
(38) "Structural competence" means the ability of the machine and its components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads.
(39) "Superstructure" means the rotating upper frame structure of the machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon.
(40) "Swing" means the rotation of the superstructure for movement of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.
(41) "Swing mechanism" means the machinery involved in providing rotation of the superstructure.
(42) "Tackle" is an assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for hoisting and pulling.
(43) "Transit" means the moving or transporting of a crane from one jobsite to another.
(44) "Travel" means the functions of the machine moving from one location to another, on a job site.
(45) The "travel mechanism" is the machinery involved in providing travel.
(46) "Wheelbase" means the distance between centers of front and rear axles. For a multiple axle assembly the axle center for wheelbase measurement is taken as the midpoint of the assembly.
(47) The "whipline" (auxiliary hoist) is a separate hoist rope system of lighter load capacity and higher speed than provided by the main hoist.
(48) A "winch head" is a power driven spool for handling of loads by means of friction between fiber or wire rope and spool.)) Accessory. A secondary part or assembly of parts which contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a machine.
Angle indicator (boom). An accessory which measures the angle of the boom to the horizontal.
ANSI. The American National Standards Institute.
Appointed. Assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
Axis of rotation. The vertical axis around which the crane superstructure rotates.
Axle. The shaft or spindle with which or about which a wheel rotates. On truck- and wheel-mounted cranes it refers to an automotive type of axle assembly including housings, gearing, differential, bearings, and mounting appurtenances.
Axle (bogie). Two or more automotive-type axles mounted in tandem in a frame so as to divide the load between the axles and permit vertical oscillation of the wheels.
Base (mounting). The traveling base or carrier on which the rotating superstructure is mounted such as a car, truck, crawlers, or wheel platform.
Boom (crane). A member hinged to the front of the rotating superstructure with the outer end supported by ropes leading to a gantry or "A" frame and used for supporting the hoisting tackle.
Boom angle. The angle between the longitudinal centerline of the boom and the horizontal. The boom longitudinal centerline is a straight line between the boom foot pin (heel pin) centerline and boom point sheave pin centerline.
Boom hoist. A hoist drum and rope reeving system used to raise and lower the boom. The rope system may be all live reeving or a combination of live reeving and pendants.
Boom stop. A device used to limit the angle of the boom at the highest position.
Brake. A device used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or power means.
Cab. Housing which covers the rotating superstructure machinery and/or operator's station. On truck crane trucks a separate cab covers the driver's station.
Clutch. A friction, electromagnetic, hydraulic, pneumatic, or positive mechanical device for engagement or disengagement of power.
Counterweight. A weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads.
Crawler crane. A rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery, and boom, mounted on a base, equipped with crawler treads for travel. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
Designated. Selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
Drum. The cylindrical members around which ropes are wound for raising and lowering the load or boom.
Dynamic (loading). Loads introduced into the machine or its components by forces in motion.
Gantry (A-frame). A structural frame, extending above the superstructure, to which the boom supports ropes are reeved.
Jib. An extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads. The jib may be in line with the boom or offset to various angles.
Load (working). The external load, in pounds, applied to the crane, including the weight of load-attaching equipment such as load blocks, shackles, and slings.
Load block (lower). The assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting ropes.
Load block (upper). The assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom point.
Load hoist. A hoist drum and rope reeving system used for hoisting and lowering loads.
Load ratings. Crane ratings in pounds established by the manufacturer in accordance with WAC 296-24-24005.
Locomotive crane. A rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on railroad track. It may be self-propelled or propelled by an outside source. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
Outriggers. Extendable or fixed metal arms, attached to the mounting base, which rest on supports at the outer ends.
Rail clamp. A tong-like metal device, mounted on a locomotive crane car, which can be connected to the track.
Reeving. A rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves.
Rope. Refers to a wire rope unless otherwise specified.
Side loading. A load applied at an angle to the vertical plane of the boom.
Standby crane. A crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
Standing (guy) rope. A supporting rope which maintains a constant distance between the points of attachment to the two components connected by the rope.
Structural competence. The ability of the machine and its components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads.
Superstructure. The rotating upper frame structure of the machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon.
Swing. The rotation of the superstructure for movement of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.
Swing mechanism. The machinery involved in providing rotation of the superstructure.
Tackle. An assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for hoisting and pulling.
Transit. The moving or transporting of a crane from one job site to another.
Travel. The functions of the machine moving from one location to another, on a job site.
Travel mechanism. The machinery involved in providing travel.
Truck crane. A rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on an automotive truck equipped with a power plant for travel. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
Wheel mounted crane (wagon crane). A rotating superstructure with power plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base or platform equipped with axles and rubber-tired wheels for travel. The base is usually propelled by the engine in the superstructure, but it may be equipped with a separate engine controlled from the superstructure. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
Wheelbase. The distance between centers of front and rear axles. For a multiple axle assembly the axle center for wheelbase measurement is taken as the midpoint of the assembly.
Whipline (auxiliary hoist). A separate hoist rope system of lighter load capacity and higher speed than provided by the main hoist.
Winch head. A power driven spool for handling of loads by means of friction between fiber or wire rope and spool.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 74-27, filed 5/7/74)
WAC 296-24-24003 General requirements.
(1) Application. This section applies to crawler cranes, locomotive cranes, wheel mounted cranes of both truck and self-propelled wheel type, and any variations thereof which retain the same fundamental characteristics. This section includes only cranes of the above types, which are basically powered by internal combustion engines or electric motors and which utilize drums and ropes. Cranes designed for railway and automobile wreck clearances are excepted. The requirements of these standards are applicable only to machines when used as lifting cranes.
(2) New and existing equipment. All new crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes constructed and utilized on or after the effective date of these standards, ((shall)) must meet the design specifications of the American National Standard Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes, ANSI B 30.5-1968. Crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes constructed prior to the effective date of these standards should be modified to conform to those design specifications by December 31, 1973, unless it can be shown that the crane cannot feasibly or economically be altered and that the crane substantially complies with the requirements of this section. Replacement parts ((shall)) must be of equal or better quality than the original equipment and suitable for the purpose. Repairs or modifications ((shall)) must be such as to render the equipment equal to or better than the original construction or design.
(3) Designated personnel. You must ensure that only designated personnel ((shall be)) are permitted to operate a crane covered by this section.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-24005 Load ratings.
(1) Load ratingsWhere stability governs lifting performance.
(a) The margin of stability for determination of load ratings, with booms of stipulated lengths at stipulated working radii for the various types of crane mountings is established by taking a percentage of the loads which will produce a condition of tipping or balance with the boom in the least stable direction, relative to the mounting. The load ratings ((shall)) must not exceed the following percentages for cranes, with the indicated types of mounting under conditions stipulated in (1)(b) and (c) of this section.
 
Type of crane mounting:
Maximum load ratings (((percent)) % of tipping loads)
Locomotive, without outriggers;
 
 
Booms 60 feet or less . . . .
85
 
Booms over 60 feet . . . .
851
Locomotive, using outriggers fully extended
80
Crawler, without outriggers . . . .
75
Crawler, using outriggers fully extended . . . .
85
Truck and wheel mounted without outriggers
 
 
or using outriggers fully extended . . . .
85
1
Unless this results in less than 30,000 pound-feet net stabilizing moment about the rail, which ((shall)) must be minimum with such booms.
(b) The following stipulation ((shall)) must govern the application of the values in (1)(a) of this section for locomotive cranes:
(i) Tipping with or without the use of outriggers occurs when half of the wheels farthest from the load leave the rail.
(ii) The crane ((shall)) must be standing on track which is level within 1 ((percent)) % grade.
(iii) Radius of the load is the horizontal distance from a projection of the axis of rotation to the rail support surface, before loading, to the center of vertical hoist line or tackle with load applied.
(iv) Tipping loads from which ratings are determined ((shall)) must be applied under static conditions only, i.e., without dynamic effect of hoisting, lowering, or swinging.
(v) The weight of all auxiliary handling devices such as hoist blocks, hooks, and slings ((shall)) must be considered a part of the load rating.
(c) Stipulations governing the application of the values in (1)(a) of this section for crawler, truck, and wheel-mounted cranes ((shall)) must be in accordance with Crane Load-Stability Test Code. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J765.
Note:
The effectiveness of these preceding stability factors will be influenced by such additional factors as freely suspended loads, track, wind, or ground conditions, condition and inflation of rubber tires, boom lengths, proper operating speeds for existing conditions, and, in general, careful and competent operation. All of these ((shall)) must be taken into account by the user.
(2) Rated capacity chart. You must post a chart indicating the manufacturer's rated capacity at all operating radii for all permissible boom lengths and jib lengths with alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such ratings ((shall be posted)) in all mobile type cranes ((and shall)). Rated capacity charts must be readily visible to the operator in the normal operating position.
(3) Inspection classification. Initial inspection. You must inspect all new and altered cranes prior to initial use ((all new and altered cranes shall be inspected to insure)) to ensure compliance with provisions of these standards.
(4) You must ensure that all hooks ((shall be)) are of the safety latch-type or the hook ((shall)) must be moused.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24007 Inspection classification.
(1) Regular inspection. Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two general classifications are herein designated as "frequent" and "periodic" with respective intervals between inspections as defined below:
(a) Frequent inspection: Daily to monthly intervals.
(b) Periodic inspection: One- to 12-month intervals, or as specifically recommended by the manufacturer.
(2) Frequent inspection. You must inspect items such as the following ((shall be inspected)) for defects at intervals as defined in (2)(a) of this section or as specifically indicated including observation during operation for any defects which might appear between regular inspection. Any deficiencies such as listed ((shall)) must be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(a) All control mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation: Daily.
(b) All control mechanisms for excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter.
(c) All safety devices for malfunction.
(d) Deterioration or leakage in air or hydraulic systems: Daily.
(e) Crane hooks with deformations or cracks. For hooks with cracks or having more than 15 ((percent)) % in excess of normal throat opening or more than 10° twist from the plane of the unbent hook.
(f) Rope reeving for noncompliance with manufacturer's recommendations.
(g) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt, and moisture accumulation.
(3) Periodic inspection. You must perform complete inspections of the crane ((shall be performed)) at intervals as generally defined in (2)(b) of this section depending upon its activity, severity of service, and environment, or as specifically indicated below. These inspections ((shall)) must include the requirements of (3) of this section and in addition, items such as the following. You must carefully examine any deficiencies such as listed ((shall be carefully examined and determination made as to)) and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(a) Deformed, cracked, or corroded members, in the crane structure and boom.
(b) Loose bolts or rivets.
(c) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.
(d) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers and locking devices.
(e) Excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.
(f) Load, boom angle, and other indicators over their full range, for any significant inaccuracies.
(g) Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants for improper performance or noncompliance with safety requirements.
(h) Excessive wear of chain-drive sprockets and excessive chain stretch.
(i) Travel steering, braking, and locking devices, for malfunction.
(j) Excessively worn or damaged tires.
(4) Cranes not in regular use.
(a) A crane which has been idle for a period of one month or more, but less than 6 months, ((shall)) must be given an inspection conforming with requirements of (3) of this section and WAC 296-24-24013 (2)(b) before placing in service.
(b) A crane which has been idle for a period of ((six)) 6 months ((shall)) must be given a complete inspection conforming with requirements of (3) and (4) of this section and WAC 296-24-24013 (2)(b) before placing in service.
(c) You must inspect standby cranes ((shall be inspected)) at least semi-annually in accordance with requirements of (3) of this section and WAC 296-24-24013 (2)(b). Such cranes which are exposed to adverse environment should be inspected more frequently.
(5) Inspection records. You must make written, dated, and signed inspection reports and records ((shall be made)) monthly on critical items in use such as brakes, crane hooks, and ropes. ((Records shall be kept)) You must keep records readily available.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-24009 Testing.
(1) Operational tests.
(a) In addition to prototype tests and quality-control measures, the user of each new production crane ((shall)) must require that it be tested and related data supplied by the manufacturer to the extent necessary to assure compliance with the operational requirements of this subsection including functions such as the following:
(i) Load hoisting and lowering mechanisms
(ii) Boom hoisting and lower mechanisms
(iii) Swinging mechanism
(iv) Travel mechanism
(v) Safety devices
(b) ((Where the complete production crane is not supplied by one manufacturer)) You must conduct such tests ((shall be conducted)) at final assembly where the complete production crane is not supplied by one manufacturer.
(c) You must make certified production-crane test results ((shall be made)) available.
(2) Rated load test.
(a) You must make written reports ((shall be)) available showing test procedures and confirming the adequacy of repairs or alterations.
(b) Test loads ((shall)) must not exceed 110 ((percent)) % of the rated load at any selected working radius.
(c) Where rerating is necessary:
(i) You must test crawler, truck, and wheel-mounted cranes ((shall be tested)) in accordance with SAE Recommended Practice, Crane Load Stability Test Code J765 (April 1961).
(ii) ((Locomotive)) You must locate test crawler cranes ((shall be tested)) in accordance with WAC 296-24-24005 (1)(a) and (b).
(iii) You must make rerating test report ((shall be)) readily available.
(d) ((No cranes shall be rerated)) You must not rerate cranes in excess of the original load ratings unless such rating changes are approved by the crane manufacturer or final assembler.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24011 Maintenance procedure.
(1) You must correct any unsafe conditions disclosed by the inspection requirements of this section ((shall be corrected)) before operation of the crane is resumed. Adjustments and repairs ((shall)) must be done only by designated personnel.
(2) ((After adjustments and repairs have been made)) You must not operate the crane ((shall not be operated)) until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment removed after adjustments and repairs have been made.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24013 Rope inspection.
(1) Running ropes. You must perform a thorough inspection of all ropes in use ((shall be made)) at least once a month and keep a full written, dated, and signed report of rope condition ((kept)) on file where readily available. All inspections ((shall)) must be performed by an appointed or authorized person. You must carefully note any deterioration, resulting in appreciable loss of original strength, such as described below, ((shall be carefully noted)) and make a determination ((made)) as to whether further use of the rope would constitute a safety hazard:
(a) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support, internal, or external corrosion or wear of outside wires.
(b) A number of broken outside wires and the degree of distribution of concentration of such broken wires.
(c) Worn outside wires.
(d) Corroded or broken wires at end connections.
(e) Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end connections.
(f) Severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.
(2) Other ropes.
(a) Heavy wear and/or broken wires may occur in sections in contact with equalizer sheaves or other sheaves where rope travel is limited, or with saddles. You must take particular care ((shall be taken)) to inspect ropes at these locations.
(b) You must give a thorough inspection of all rope which has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shut down or storage of a crane on which it is installed ((shall be given a thorough inspection)) before it is placed in service. This inspection ((shall)) must be for all types of deterioration and ((shall)) must be performed by an appointed or authorized person whose approval ((shall be)) is required for further use of the rope. You must make a written and dated report of the rope condition ((shall be)) available.
(c) You must take particular care ((shall be taken)) in the inspection of nonrotating rope.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-24015 Handling the load.
(1) Size of load.
(a) ((No crane shall be loaded)) You must not load any crane beyond the rated load, except for test purposes as provided in WAC 296-24-24009.
(b) When loads which are limited by structural competence rather than by stability are to be handled, ((it shall be ascertained)) you must ascertain that the weight of the load has been determined within plus or minus 10 ((percent)) % before it is lifted.
(2) Attaching the load.
(a) You must ensure that the hoist rope ((shall)) is not ((be)) wrapped around the load.
(b) You must ensure that the load ((shall be)) is attached to the hook by means of slings or other approved devices.
(3) Moving the load.
(a) The employer ((shall assure)) must ensure that:
(i) The crane is level and where necessary blocked properly.
(ii) The load is well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
(b) Before starting to hoist, you must note the following conditions ((shall be noted)):
(i) Hoist rope ((shall)) must not be kinked.
(ii) Multiple part lines ((shall)) must not be twisted around each other.
(iii) The hook ((shall)) must be brought over the load in such a manner as to prevent swinging.
(iv) If there is a slack rope condition, it should be determined that the rope is properly seated on the drum and in the sheaves.
(c) During hoisting you must take care ((shall be taken)) that:
(i) There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
(ii) The load does not contact any obstructions.
(d) You must ensure that side loading of booms ((shall be)) is limited to freely suspended loads. ((Cranes shall not be used)) You must not use cranes for dragging loads sideways.
(e) ((No)) You must not do any hoisting, lowering, swinging, or traveling ((shall be done)) while anyone is on the load or hook.
(f) The operator should avoid carrying loads over people.
(g) On truck mounted cranes, ((no)) you must not lift any loads ((shall be lifted)) over the front area except as approved by the crane manufacturer.
(h) The operator ((shall)) must test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled by raising it a few inches and applying the brakes.
(i) ((Outriggers shall be used)) You must use outriggers when the load to be handled at that particular radius exceeds the rated load without outriggers as given by the manufacturer for that crane. Where floats are used they ((shall)) must be securely attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks used to support outriggers ((shall)) must:
(i) Be strong enough to prevent crushing.
(ii) Be free from defects.
(iii) Be of sufficient width and length to prevent shifting or toppling under load.
(j) ((Neither)) You must not lower either the load ((nor)) or the boom ((shall be lowered)) below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on their respective drums.
(k) Before lifting loads with locomotive cranes without using outriggers, you must apply means ((shall be applied)) to prevent the load from being carried by the truck springs.
(l) When two or more cranes are used to lift one load, one designated person ((shall)) must be responsible for the operation. ((They shall)) The designated person must be required to analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be made.
(m) In transit you must exercise the following additional precautions ((shall be exercised)).
(i) The boom ((shall)) must be carried in line with the direction of motion.
(ii) The superstructure ((shall)) must be secured against rotation, except when negotiating turns when there is an operator in the cab or the boom is supported on a dolly.
(iii) The empty hook ((shall)) must be lashed or otherwise restrained so that it cannot swing freely.
(n) Before traveling a crane with load, a designated person ((shall)) must be responsible for determining and controlling safety. Decisions such as position of load, boom location, ground support, travel route, and speed of movement ((shall)) must be in accord with their determinations.
(o) You must not travel a crane with or without load ((shall not be traveled)) with the boom so high that it may bounce back over the cab.
(p) When rotating the crane, you must avoid sudden starts and stops ((shall be avoided)). You must ensure that rotational speed ((shall be)) is such that the load does not swing out beyond the radii at which it can be controlled. You must use a tag or restraint line ((shall be used)) when rotation of the load is hazardous.
(q) When a crane is to be operated at a fixed radius, you must engage the boom-hoist pawl or other positive locking device ((shall be engaged)).
(r) ((Ropes shall)) You must ensure that ropes are not be handled on a winch head without the knowledge of the operator.
(s) While a winch head is being used, the operator ((shall)) must be within convenient reach of the power unit control lever.
(4) Holding the load.
(a) The operator ((shall)) must not be permitted to leave the control position while the load is suspended.
(b) No person should be permitted to stand or pass under a load on the hook.
(c) If the load must remain suspended for any considerable length of time, the operator ((shall)) must hold the drum from rotating in the lowering direction by activating the positive controllable means of the operator's station.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 88-23-054, filed 11/14/88)
WAC 296-24-24017 Other requirements.
(1) Rail clamps. You must ensure that rail clamps ((shall)) are not ((be)) used as a means of restraining tipping of a locomotive crane.
(2) Ballast or counterweight. ((Cranes shall not be)) You must ensure that cranes are not operated without the full amount of any ballast or counterweight in place as specified by the maker, but truck cranes that have dropped the ballast or counterweight may be operated temporarily with special care and only for light loads without full ballast or counterweight in place. The ballast or counterweight in place specified by the manufacturer ((shall)) must not be exceeded.
(3) Cabs.
(a) You must store necessary clothing and personal belongings ((shall be stored)) in such a manner as to not interfere with access or operation.
(b) You must store tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary articles ((shall be stored)) in the tool box, and ((shall)) they must not be permitted to lie loose in or about the cab.
(4) Refueling.
(a) You must ensure that refueling with small portable containers ((shall be)) is done with an approved safety type can equipped with an automatic closing cap and flame arrester. Refer to WAC 296-24-58501(((19))) for definition of approved.
(b) ((Machines shall not be refueled)) You must not refuel machines with the engine running.
(5) Fire extinguishers.
(a) You must keep a carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or equivalent fire extinguisher ((shall be kept)) in the cab or vicinity of the crane.
(b) You must familiarize operating and maintenance personnel ((shall be made familiar)) with the use and care of the fire extinguishers provided.
(6) Swinging locomotive cranes. You must ensure that a locomotive crane ((shall)) is not ((be)) swung into a position where railway cars on an adjacent track might strike it, until it has been ascertained that cars are not being moved on the adjacent track and proper flag protection has been established.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-24-017, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)
WAC 296-24-24019 Operating near overhead electric power lines.
(1) For operations near overhead electric lines see chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(2) Boom guards. Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but the use of such devices ((shall)) must not operate to alter the requirements of (1) of this section.
(3) Notification. Before the commencement of operations near electrical lines, you must notify the owners of the lines or their authorized representative ((shall be notified and provided)) and provide them with all pertinent information. You must request the cooperation of the owner ((shall be requested)).
(4) Overhead wires. You must consider any overhead wire ((shall be considered)) to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24501 Definitions.
(((1) A "derrick" is an apparatus consisting of a mast or equivalent member held at the head by guys or braces, with or without a boom, for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes.
(2) "A-frame derrick" means a derrick in which the boom is hinged from a cross member between the bottom ends of two upright members spread apart at the lower ends and joined at the top; the boom point secured to the junction of the side members, and the side members are braced or guyed from this junction point.
 
A-FRAME
(3) A "basket derrick" is a derrick without a boom, similar to a gin pole with its base supported by ropes attached to corner posts or other parts of the structure. The base is at a lower elevation than its supports. The location of the base of a basket derrick can be changed by varying the length of the rope supports. The top of the pole is secured with multiple reeved guys to position the top of the pole to the desired location by varying the length of the upper guy lines. The load is raised and lowered by ropes through a sheave or block secured to the top of the pole.
 
BASKET
(4) "Breast derrick" means a derrick without boom. The mast consists of two side members spread farther apart at the base than at the top and tied together at top and bottom by rigid members. The mast is prevented from tipping forward by guys connected to its top. The load is raised and lowered by ropes through a sheave or block secured to the top crosspiece.
 
BREAST
(5) "Chicago boom derrick" means a boom which is attached to a structure, and outside upright member of the structure serving as the mast, and the boom being stepped in a fixed socket clamped to the upright. The derrick is complete with load, boom, and boom point swing line falls.
 
CHICAGO BOOM
(6) A "gin pole derrick" is a derrick without a boom. Its guys are so arranged from its top as to permit leaning the mast in any direction. The load is raised and lowered by ropes reeved through sheaves or blocks at the top of the mast.
 
GIN POLE
(7) "Guy derrick" means a fixed derrick consisting of a mast capable of being rotated, supported in a vertical position by guys, and a boom whose bottom end is hinged or pivoted to move in a vertical plane with a reeved rope between the head of the mast and the boom point for raising and lowering the boom, and a reeved rope from the boom point for raising and lowering the load.
 
GUY
(8) "Shearleg derrick" means a derrick without a boom and similar to a breast derrick. The mast, wide at the bottom and narrow at the top, is hinged at the bottom and has its top secured by a multiple reeved guy to permit handling loads at various radii by means of load tackle suspended from the mast top.
(9) A "stiffleg derrick" is a derrick similar to a guy derrick except that the mast is supported or held in place by two or more stiff members, called stifflegs, which are capable of resisting either tensile or compressive forces. Sills are generally provided to connect the lower ends of the stifflegs to the foot of the mast.
 
STIFF LEG
(10) "Appointed" means assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
(11) "ANSI" means the American National Standards Institute.
(12) A boom is a timber or metal section or strut, pivoted or hinged at the heel (lower end) at a location fixed in height on a frame or mast or vertical member, and with its point (upper end) supported by chains, ropes, or rods to the upper end of the frame mast, or vertical member. A rope for raising and lowering the load is reeved through sheaves or a block at the boom point. The length of the boom shall be taken as the straight line distance between the axis of the foot pin and the axis of the boom point sheave pin, or where used, the axis of the upper load block attachment pin.
(13) "Boom harness" means the block and sheave arrangement on the boom point to which the topping lift cable is reeved for lowering and raising the boom.
(14) The "boom point" is the outward end of the top section of the boom.
(15) "Derrick bullwheel" means a horizontal ring or wheel, fastened to the foot of a derrick, for the purpose of turning the derrick by means of ropes leading from this wheel to a powered drum.
(16) "Designated" means selected or assigned by the employer or employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
(17) "Eye" means a loop formed at the end of a rope by securing the dead end to the live end at the base of the loop.
(18) A "fiddle block" is a block consisting of two sheaves in the same plane held in place by the same cheek plates.
(19) The "foot bearing" or "foot block" (sill block) is the lower support on which the mast rotates.
(20) A "gudgeon pin" is a pin connecting the mast cap to the mast allowing rotation of the mast.
(21) A "guy" is a rope used to steady or secure the mast or other member in the desired position.
(22) "Load, working" means the external load, in pounds, applied to the derrick, including the weight of load attaching equipment such as load blocks, shackles, and slings.
(23) "Load block, lower" means the assembly of sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting rope.
(24) "Load block, upper" means the assembly of sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom.
(25) "Mast" means the upright member of the derrick.
(26) "Mast cap (spider)" means the fitting at the top of the mast to which the guys are connected.
(27) "Reeving" means a rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves.
(28) "Rope" refers to wire rope unless otherwise specified.
(29) "Safety hook" means a hook with a latch to prevent slings or load from accidentally slipping off the hook.
(30) "Side loading" is a load applied at an angle to the vertical plane of the boom.
(31) The "sill" is a member connecting the foot block and stiffleg or a member connecting the lower ends of a double member mast.
(32) A "standby derrick" is a derrick not in regular service which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
(33) "Stiff leg" means a rigid member supporting the mast at the head.
(34) "Swing" means rotation of the mast and/or boom for movements of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.)) A-frame derrick. A derrick in which the boom is hinged from a cross member between the bottom ends of two upright members spread apart at the lower ends and joined at the top; the boom point secured to the junction of the side members, and the side members are braced or guyed from this junction point.
 
A-FRAME
ANSI. The American National Standards Institute.
Appointed. Assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
Basket derrick. A derrick without a boom, similar to a gin pole with its base supported by ropes attached to corner posts or other parts of the structure. The base is at a lower elevation than its supports. The location of the base of a basket derrick can be changed by varying the length of the rope supports. The top of the pole is secured with multiple reeved guys to position the top of the pole to the desired location by varying the length of the upper guy lines. The load is raised and lowered by ropes through a sheave or block secured to the top of the pole.
 
BASKET
Boom. A timber or metal section or strut, pivoted or hinged at the heel (lower end) at a location fixed in height on a frame or mast or vertical member, and with its point (upper end) supported by chains, ropes, or rods to the upper end of the frame mast, or vertical member. A rope for raising and lowering the load is reeved through sheaves or a block at the boom point. The length of the boom shall be taken as the straight line distance between the axis of the foot pin and the axis of the boom point sheave pin, or where used, the axis of the upper load block attachment pin.
Boom harness. The block and sheave arrangement on the boom point to which the topping lift cable is reeved for lowering and raising the boom.
Boom point. Is outward end of the top section of the boom.
Breast derrick. A derrick without boom. The mast consists of two side members spread farther apart at the base than at the top and tied together at top and bottom by rigid members. The mast is prevented from tipping forward by guys connected to its top. The load is raised and lowered by ropes through a sheave or block secured to the top crosspiece.
 
BREAST
Chicago boom derrick. A boom which is attached to a structure, and outside upright member of the structure serving as the mast, and the boom being stepped in a fixed socket clamped to the upright. The derrick is complete with load, boom, and boom point swing line falls.
 
CHICAGO BOOM
Derrick. An apparatus consisting of a mast or equivalent member held at the head by guys or braces, with or without a boom, for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes.
Derrick bullwheel. A horizontal ring or wheel, fastened to the foot of a derrick, for the purpose of turning the derrick by means of ropes leading from this wheel to a powered drum.
Designated. Selected or assigned by the employer or employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
Eye. A loop formed at the end of a rope by securing the dead end to the live end at the base of the loop.
Fiddle block. A block consisting of two sheaves in the same plane held in place by the same cheek plates.
Foot bearing or foot block (sill block). The lower support on which the mast rotates.
Gin pole derrick. A derrick without a boom. Its guys are so arranged from its top as to permit leaning the mast in any direction. The load is raised and lowered by ropes reeved through sheaves or blocks at the top of the mast.
 
GIN POLE
Gudgeon pin. A pin connecting the mast cap to the mast allowing rotation of the mast.
Guy. A rope used to steady or secure the mast or other member in the desired position.
Guy derrick. A fixed derrick consisting of a mast capable of being rotated, supported in a vertical position by guys, and a boom whose bottom end is hinged or pivoted to move in a vertical plane with a reeved rope between the head of the mast and the boom point for raising and lowering the boom, and a reeved rope from the boom point for raising and lowering the load.
 
GUY
Load block, lower. The assembly of sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting rope.
Load block, upper. The assembly of sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom.
Load, working. The external load, in pounds, applied to the derrick, including the weight of load attaching equipment such as load blocks, shackles, and slings.
Mast. The upright member of the derrick.
Mast cap (spider). The fitting at the top of the mast to which the guys are connected.
Reeving. A rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves.
Rope. Refers to wire rope unless otherwise specified.
Safety hook. A hook with a latch to prevent slings or load from accidentally slipping off the hook.
Shearleg derrick. A derrick without a boom and similar to a breast derrick. The mast, wide at the bottom and narrow at the top, is hinged at the bottom and has its top secured by a multiple reeved guy to permit handling loads at various radii by means of load tackle suspended from the mast top.
Side loading. A load applied at an angle to the vertical plane of the boom.
Sill. A member connecting the foot block and stiffleg or a member connecting the lower ends of a double member mast.
Standby derrick. A derrick not in regular service which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
Stiff leg. A rigid member supporting the mast at the head.
Stiffleg derrick. A derrick similar to a guy derrick except that the mast is supported or held in place by two or more stiff members, called stifflegs, which are capable of resisting either tensile or compressive forces. Sills are generally provided to connect the lower ends of the stifflegs to the foot of the mast.
 
STIFF LEG
Swing. Rotation of the mast and/or boom for movements of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-24503 General requirements.
(1) Application. This section applies to guy, stiffleg, basket, breast, gin pole, Chicago boom and A-frame derricks of the stationary type, capable of handling loads at variable reaches and powered by hoists through systems of rope reeving, used to perform lifting hook work, single or multiple line bucket work, grab, grapple, and magnet work. Derricks may be permanently installed for temporary use as in construction work. The requirements of this section also apply to any modification of these types which retain their fundamental features, except for floating derricks.
(2) New and existing equipment. You must ensure that all new derricks constructed and installed on or after the effective date of these standards ((shall)) meet the design specifications of the "American National Standards Institute, Safety Code for Derricks, ANSI B30.6-1969." Derricks constructed prior to the effective date of these standards should be modified to conform to these design specifications by December 31, 1973 unless it can be shown that the derrick cannot feasibly or economically be altered and that the derrick substantially complies with the requirements of this section.
(a) You must mark operating controls ((shall be marked)) or post an explanation of the controls ((shall be posted)) in full view of the operator.
(b) You must ensure that the radius or boom angle indicator has been installed on all cranes or derricks having a movable working boom ((shall have a radius or boom angle indicator installed)). This ((shall)) must be located where the operator can readily read it from the normal operating position.
(c) Top of boom painted. You must ensure that the top six feet of the boom or jib ((shall be)) are painted bright yellow.
(3) Designated personnel. You must ensure that only designated personnel ((shall be)) are permitted to operate a derrick covered by this section.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24505 Load ratings.
(1) Rated load marking. ((For permanently installed derricks with fixed lengths of boom, guy, and mast,)) You must provide a substantial, durable, and clearly legible rating chart shall be provided with each derrick and securely affixed where it is visible to personnel responsible for the safe operation of the equipment for permanently installed derricks with fixed lengths of boom, guy, and mast. The chart ((shall)) must include the following data:
(a) Manufacturer's approved load ratings at corresponding ranges of boom angle or operating radii.
(b) Specific lengths of components on which the load ratings are based.
(c) Required parts for hoist reeving. Size and construction of rope may be shown either on the rating chart or in the operating manual.
(2) Nonpermanent installations. ((For nonpermanent installations, the employer shall)) You must provide sufficient information from which capacity charts can be prepared for the particular installation for nonpermanent installations. The capacity charts ((shall)) must be located at the derricks or the ((jobsite)) job site office.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24507 Inspection.
(1) Inspection classification.
(a) Prior to initial use you must inspect all new and altered derricks ((shall be inspected)) to insure compliance with the provisions of these standards.
(b) Inspection procedure for derricks in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the derrick and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two general classifications are herein designated as frequent and periodic with respective intervals between inspections as defined below:
(i) Frequent inspection - Daily to monthly intervals.
(ii) Periodic inspection - ((1)) One- to 12-month intervals, or as specified by the manufacturer.
(2) Frequent inspection. You must inspect items such as the following ((shall be inspected)) for defects at intervals as defined in (1)(b)(i) of this section or as specifically indicated, including observation during operation for any defects which might appear between regular inspections. ((Deficiencies shall be carefully examined)) You must carefully examine deficiencies for any safety hazard.
(a) All control mechanisms: Inspect daily for adjustment, wear, and lubrication.
(b) All chords and lacing: Inspect daily, visually.
(c) Tension in guys: Daily.
(d) Plumb of the mast.
(e) Deterioration or leakage in air or hydraulic systems: Daily.
(f) Derrick hooks for deformations or cracks; for hooks with cracks or having more than 15 ((percent)) % in excess of normal throat opening or more than 10° twist from the plane of the unbent hook, refer to WAC 296-24-24511 (3)(c).
(g) Rope reeving; visual inspection for noncompliance with derrick manufacturer's recommendations.
(h) Hoist brakes, clutches, and operating levers: Check daily for proper functioning before beginning operations.
(i) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt, and moisture accumulation.
(3) Periodic inspection.
(a) You must perform complete inspections of the derrick ((shall be performed)) at intervals as generally defined in (1)(b)(ii) of this section depending upon its activity, severity of service, and environment, or as specifically indicated below. These inspections ((shall)) must include the requirements of (2) of this section and in addition, items such as the following. ((Deficiencies shall be carefully examined and a determination made as to)) You must carefully examine deficiencies and determine whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(i) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion.
(ii) Bolts or rivets for tightness.
(iii) Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, sheaves, drums, rollers, locking and clamping devices, for wear, cracks, and distortion.
(iv) Gudgeon pin for cracks, wear, and distortion each time the derrick is to be erected.
(v) Power plants for proper performance and compliance with applicable safety requirements.
(vi) Hooks: Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection should be performed at least once each year.
(b) Foundation or supports ((shall)) must be inspected for continued ability to sustain the imposed loads.
(4) Derricks not in regular use.
(a) You must inspect a derrick which has been idle for a period of ((1)) one month or more, but less than 6 months, ((shall be given an inspection conforming)) in conformance with requirements of (2) of this section and WAC 296-24-24513(2) before placing in service.
(b) You must completely inspect a derrick which has been idle for a period of over 6 months ((shall be given a complete inspection conforming)) in conformance with requirements of (2) and (3) of this section and WAC 296-24-24513(3) before placing in service.
(c) Standby derricks ((shall)) must be inspected at least semiannually in accordance with requirements of (2) of this section and WAC 296-24-24513(3). Those exposed to adverse environment should be inspected more frequently.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24509 Testing.
(1) Operational tests. Prior to initial use you must test all new and altered derricks ((shall be tested)) to ensure compliance with this section including the following functions:
(a) Load hoisting and lowering.
(b) Boom up and down.
(c) Swing.
(d) Operation of clutches and brakes of hoist.
(2) Anchorages. The appointed person must approve all anchorages ((shall be approved)) by the appointed person. Rock and hairpin anchorages may require special testing.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24511 Maintenance.
(1) Preventive maintenance. You must establish a preventive maintenance program based on the derrick manufacturer's recommendations ((shall be established)).
(2) Maintenance procedure.
(a) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a derrick you must take the following precautions ((shall be taken)):
(i) You must arrange the derrick to be repaired ((shall be arranged)) so it will cause the least interference with other equipment and operations in the area.
(ii) You must engage all hoist drum dogs ((shall be engaged)).
(iii) You must lock the main or emergency switch ((shall be locked)) in the open position, if an electric hoist is used.
(iv) You must place warning or out of order signs ((shall be placed)) on the derrick and hoist.
(v) You must make the repairs of booms or derricks ((shall)) either ((be made)) when the booms are lowered and adequately supported or safely tied off.
(vi) You must set up a good communication system ((shall be set up)) between the hoist operator and the appointed individual in charge of the derrick operations before any work on the equipment is started.
(vii) Welding repairs ((shall)) must be approved by an appointed person.
(b) After adjustments and repairs have been made you must not operate the derrick ((shall not be operated)) until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment removed.
(3) Adjustments and repairs.
(a) You must correct any unsafe conditions disclosed by inspection ((shall be corrected)) before operation of the derrick is resumed.
(b) ((Adjustments shall be maintained)) You must maintain adjustments to assure correct functioning of components.
(c) You must provide repairs or replacements ((shall be provided)) promptly as needed for safe operation. The following are examples of conditions requiring prompt repair or replacement:
(i) Hooks showing defects described in WAC 296-24-24507 (2)(f) ((shall)) must be discarded.
(ii) All critical parts which are cracked, broken, bent, or excessively worn.
(iii) Pitted or burned electrical contacts should be corrected only by replacement and in sets. Controller parts should be lubricated as recommended by the manufacturer.
(iv) All replacement and repaired parts ((shall)) must have at least the original safety factor.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24513 Rope inspection.
(1) Running ropes. You must make a thorough inspection of all ropes in use ((shall be made)) at least once a month and a full written, dated, and signed report of rope condition kept on file where readily available. You must carefully note any deterioration, resulting in appreciable loss of original strength, such as described below, ((shall be carefully noted)) and make a determination ((made)) as to whether further use of the rope would constitute a safety hazard:
(a) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires.
(b) A number of broken outside wires and the degree of distribution or concentration of such broken wires.
(c) Worn outside wires.
(d) Corroded or broken wires at end connections.
(e) Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end connections.
(f) Severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.
(2) Idle ropes. You must ensure that all rope which has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shutdown or storage of derrick on which it is installed ((shall be)) is given a thorough inspection before it is placed in service. This inspection ((shall)) must be for all types of deterioration. You must make a written and dated report of the rope condition ((shall be)) available.
(3) Nonrotating ropes. You must ensure that particular care ((shall be)) is taken in the inspection of nonrotating rope.
Note:
Limited travel ropes. Heavy wear and/or broken wires may occur in sections in contact with equalizer sheaves or other sheaves where rope travel is limited, or with saddles. You must take particular care ((shall be taken)) to inspect ropes at these locations.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-24515 Operations of derricks.
You must ensure that derrick operation ((shall be)) is directed only by the individual specifically designated for that purpose.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-24517 Handling the load.
(1) Size of load.
(a) ((No derrick shall be loaded)) You must not load any derrick beyond the rated load.
(b) When loads approach the maximum rating of the derrick, ((it shall be ascertained)) you must ascertain that the weight of the load has been determined within plus or minus 10 ((percent)) % before it is lifted.
(2) Attaching the load.
(a) You must ensure that the hoist rope ((shall)) is not ((be)) wrapped around the load.
(b) You must attach the load ((shall be attached)) to the hook by means of slings or other suitable devices.
(3) Moving the load.
(a) You must secure the load ((shall be)) well ((secured)) and properly ((balanced)) balance it in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
(b) Before starting to hoist, you must note the following conditions ((shall be noted)):
(i) You must ensure that the hoist rope shall not be kinked.
(ii) You must ensure that multiple part lines ((shall)) are not ((be)) twisted around each other.
(iii) You must bring the hook ((shall be brought)) over the load in such a manner as to prevent swinging.
(iv) If there is a slack rope condition, ((it)) you should be ((determined)) determine that the rope is properly seated on the drum and in the sheaves.
(c) During hoisting, ((care shall be taken)) you must take care that:
(i) There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
(ii) Load does not contact any obstructions.
(d) ((A derrick shall not be used)) You must not use a derrick for side loading except when specifically authorized by a responsible person who has determined that the various structural components will not be overstressed.
(e) ((No)) You must not do any hoisting, lowering, or swinging ((shall be done)) while anyone is on the load or hook.
(f) The operator ((shall)) must avoid carrying loads over people.
(g) The operator ((shall)) must test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled by raising it a few inches and applying the brakes.
(h) ((Neither)) You must not lower either the load ((nor)) or boom ((shall be lowered)) below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on their respective drums.
(i) When rotating a derrick, you must avoid sudden starts and stops ((shall be avoided)). You must ensure that rotational speed ((shall be)) is such that the load does not swing out beyond the radius at which it can be controlled.
(j) You must ensure that boom and hoisting rope systems ((shall)) are not ((be)) twisted.
(4) Holding the load.
(a) You must not allow the operator ((shall not be allowed)) to leave the control position while the load is suspended.
(b) ((People should not be permitted)) You should not permit people to stand or pass under a load on the hook.
(c) If the load must remain suspended for any considerable length of time, you must use a dog, or pawl and ratchet, or other equivalent means, rather than the brake alone, ((shall be used)) to hold the load.
(5) Use of winch heads.
(a) ((Ropes shall not be handled)) You must not handle ropes on a winch head without the knowledge of the operator.
(b) While a winch head is being used, the operator ((shall)) must be within convenient reach of the power unit control lever.
(6) Securing boom. You must ensure that dogs, pawls, or other positive holding mechanism on the hoist ((shall be)) are engaged. When not in use, ((the derrick boom shall)) you must:
(a) ((Be laid)) Lay the derrick boom down;
(b) ((Be secured)) Secure the derrick boom to a stationary member, as nearly under the head as possible, by attachment of a sling to the load block; or
(c) ((Be hoisted)) Hoist the derrick boom to a vertical position and secured to the mast.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-24-017, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)
WAC 296-24-24519 Other requirements.
(1) Guards.
(a) You must ensure that exposed moving parts, such as gears, ropes, setscrews, projecting keys, chains, chain sprockets, and reciprocating components, which constitute a hazard under normal operating conditions ((shall be)) are guarded.
(b) ((Guards shall be)) You must ensure that guards are securely fastened.
(c) You must ensure that each guard ((shall be)) is capable of supporting without permanent distortion, the weight of a two hundred-pound person unless the guard is located where it is impossible for a person to step on it.
(2) Hooks.
(a) ((Hooks shall)) You must ensure that hooks meet the manufacturer's recommendations and shall not be overloaded.
(b) You must use safety latch type hooks ((shall be used)) or you must mouse the hooks ((shall be moused)).
(3) Fire extinguishers.
(a) You must keep a carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or equivalent fire extinguisher ((shall be kept)) in the immediate vicinity of the derrick.
(b) Operating and maintenance personnel ((shall)) must be familiar with the use and care of the fire extinguishers proved.
(4) Refueling.
(a) You must do refueling with portable containers ((shall be done with)) using approved safety type containers equipped with automatic closing spout and flame arrester. Refer to WAC 296-24-58501(19) for definition of approved.
(b) ((Machines shall not be refueled)) You must not refuel machines with the engine running.
(5) Operating near electric powerlines. For operations near overhead electric lines see chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(6) Cab or operating enclosure.
(a) You must store necessary clothing and personnel belongings ((shall be stored)) in such a manner as to not interfere with access or operation.
(b) You must store tools, oilcans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary articles ((shall be stored)) in the toolbox, and ((shall)) you must not ((be permitted)) permit them to lie loose in or about the cab or operating enclosure.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-293 "A" frames.
(1) You must ensure that all timbers for "A" frames ((shall be)) are of correct size, length, and condition to sustain the maximum contemplated loads.
(2) You must ensure that "A" frame timbers ((shall be)) are braced with two spreaders spaced one-quarter the length of the "A" frame from each end. Cross bracing ((shall)) must cross between the two spreaders. Bracing material ((shall)) must be not less than ((two-thirds)) 2/3rds of the rated strength of the "A" frame timbers.
(3) You must use tie rods (staybolts) of not less than ((one-twelfth)) 1/12th the diameter of the main "A" frame timbers ((shall be used. Tie rods shall be placed)). You must place tie rods directly above the upper spreader and directly below the lower spreader. Ends of bolts ((shall)) must be secured at each end with malleable washers and nuts.
(4) You must securely anchor the base of the "A" frame ((shall be securely anchored)). You must set elevating type "A" frames ((shall be set)) in pinion-type sockets. You must securely anchor pinion bases ((shall be securely anchored)).
(5) You must ensure that guy lines ((shall be)) are of sufficient strength to carry the load imposed upon them and ((shall)) they must be securely fastened in place.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-29401 Wire rope.
(1) Safe loads. Whenever used in connection with work, employment, occupations or uses to which these standards are applicable, you must not subject wire rope ((shall not be subjected)) to loads in excess of ((one-fifth)) 1/5th the breaking load as given in the schedule of the cable manufacturer. Except as required in standard for material hoists.
(2) Condemned. ((When cables)) You must discontinue use of cables when they deteriorate through rust, wear, broken wires, undue strain or other conditions to the extent of ((fifteen percent)) 15% of their original strength((, use of cables shall be discontinued)).
(3) Straps and ribbons. You must not use the strap or steel ribbon type of cable ((shall not be used)) in the suspension of scaffolding.
(4) Inspections. ((There shall be not less than monthly)) You must perform inspection of all wire rope in use at least monthly, and all wire rope must be inspected before put into use.
(5) Fastening. You must adhere to the following methods of fastening and attaching wire rope ((shall be adhered to)):
(a) Sockets. The end of wire rope to be set into socket fittings held securely with molten babbitt or zinc (not lead). The wires of the cable ((shall)) must be frayed out and each wire bent toward the outside of socket, so that the end of each wire projects well into the depth of the socket. This method of fastening cables should be left in the hands of ((an)) experienced workers in this kind of work.
(b) Wrapping. Thimbles spliced into rope and the splice securely wrapped.
(c) Bolted. Thimbles inserted and held in place by at least a ((three)) 3 bolt clamp or three U-bolt clips. Clamps ((shall)) must be of standard size for the sizes of the cable in use.
(d) Lashing. For temporary work, by-passing rope at least twice around large object such as a post, avoiding sharp points and carrying the end back several feet and securing it by clamps, clips or lashing to the cable.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-29403 Hemp rope.
(1) Quality. Whenever hemp rope is used it ((shall)) must be first grade long fiber Manila hemp rope.
(2) Strength. ((Rope shall not be)) You must ensure that rope is not used to support loads in excess of those given in table for hemp and Manila rope.
(3) Lashed. You must ensure that supporting ropes ((shall be)) are double lashed at each point of suspension.
(4) Pads. You must ensure that where supporting ropes are brought over sharp corners of steel, stone, or other material liable to cut the rope, or are in any other way subject to abrasion, they ((shall be)) are protected at such points by the use of bagging, wooden blocks or other protective padding.
(5) Knot ends. You must ensure that rope knots ((shall)) have their loose and free ends lashed to the standing part in order to prevent their becoming untied.
(6) Inspection. You must inspect all ropes shall be inspected before used.
(7) Defective rope. ((Rope)) You must condemn and destroy rope that is badly frayed, rotted, exposed to the action of acid or caustic, or otherwise defective and unsafe, ((shall be condemned and destroyed)) to avoid all possibility of future use by mistake.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-29405 Hemp and wire rope slings.
(1) Inspection. You must inspect all rope slings ((shall be inspected)) thoroughly and regularly at intervals of not more than one month, and when not in use, ((shall)) must be stored in a dry place.
(2) Pads. You must protect rope slings ((shall be protected)) with pads or blocks when wrapped around sharp edges of structural shapes, casting, etc.
(3) Slip-noose. ((Slings shall not be used)) You must not use slings in single strand slip-noose form.
(4) Acids. You must not use hemp rope ((shall not be used)) as slings for handling objects contaminated with acid.
(5) How attached. You must ensure that hand-ropes (guide-ropes) ((shall not be)) are not attached to slings but to hoisting tackle, or (only when necessary) attached to the object handled.
(6) Strength. You must ensure that all slings ((shall be)) are of sufficient strength for handling the imposed loads. See tables given for hemp and wire ropes.
(7) Double slings. You must use double slings ((shall be used)) on all horizontal loads over twelve feet in length, and the distance between the points where slings are attached ((shall)) must be sufficient to prevent the load from tipping up endwise.
(8) Spreaders. ((Spreaders shall be used)) You must use spreaders where there is a danger of sling ends or "hitches" slipping together.
(9) Defective—Destroyed. You must destroy defective and unsafe slings ((shall be destroyed)) in order to avoid possibility of their being used by mistake.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-29407 Guys.
You must ensure that guy wires and ropes ((shall be)) are of sufficient strength to carry the load imposed upon them and ((shall be)) that they are securely fastened in place.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-29409 Thimbles.
Wherever rope is permanently fastened by a single wrap to a metal object less in diameter or shortest measurement than three times the diameter of the rope, you must insert a galvanized thimble (of size intended for the rope) ((shall be inserted)) between the object and the loop of the rope.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-29411 Blocks and falls.
You must carefully inspect blocks and falls ((shall be carefully inspected)) before being used. ((Blocks shall be)) You must ensure that blocks are of substantial construction and maintained in good condition while in use. ((Blocks shall)) You must ensure that blocks fit the sizes of ropes they carry and ((shall)) do not chafe or abrade the ropes running through them.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 80-17-015, filed 11/13/80)
WAC 296-24-29413 Chains and cables.
(1) ((If at any time)) You must discard any three foot length of chain if at any time it is found to have stretched ((one-third)) 1/3rd the length of a link ((it shall be discarded)).
(2) ((The practice of placing)) You must not place bolts or nails between two links to shorten chains ((is prohibited)).
(3) ((Splicing)) You must not splice broken chains by inserting a bolt between two links with the heads of the bolt and the nut sustaining the load, or ((passing)) pass one link through another and ((inserting)) insert a bolt or nail to hold it((, is prohibited)).
(4) ((Wherever annealing of chains is attempted, it shall be)) You must ensure that annealing of chains is done in properly equipped annealing furnaces and under the direct supervision of a competent person thoroughly versed in heat treating wherever annealing of chains is attempted.
(5) ((Cables shall be periodically inspected.)) You must periodically inspect cables. You must file a copy of the report of the inspections of each running cable ((shall be filed)) in a place readily accessible to the department, or authorized representative.
 
CRANE SIGNALS
1.
((Do)) You must not remove the load or the crane unless you understand the floor signal clearly.
2.
You must be careful that the load does not swing to injure your hook-on man/woman or other floorpersons; make certain they are in the clear.
3.
When raising or lowering the load, you must see that it will safely clear adjacent stockpiles or machinery.
4.
You must never pick up a load greater than the capacity of your crane. In case of doubt, call your foreperson.
5.
You must never do ANYTHING that is not safe.
6.
((Co-operate)) You must cooperate with your hook-on or floorperson. You and he/she are a team handling a valuable piece of equipment—Never let it become a hazard.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)
WAC 296-24-29417 Definitions.
(((1))) Angle of loading. ((Means)) The inclination of a leg or branch of a sling measured from the horizontal or vertical plane as shown in Fig. D-5: Provided, That an angle of loading of five degrees or less from the vertical may be considered a vertical angle of loading.
(((2))) Basket hitch. ((Means)) A sling configuration whereby the sling is passed under the load and has both ends, end attachments, eyes or handles on the hook or a single master link.
(((3))) Braided wire rope. ((Means)) A wire rope formed by plaiting component wire ropes.
(((4))) Bridle wire rope sling. ((Means)) A sling composed of multiple wire rope legs with the top ends gathered in a fitting that goes over the lifting hook.
(((5))) Cable laid endless sling-mechanical joint. ((Means)) A wire rope sling made endless by joining the ends of a single length of cable laid rope with one or more metallic fittings.
(((6))) Cable laid grommet-hand tucked. ((Means)) An endless wire rope sling made from one length of rope wrapped six times around a core formed by hand tucking the ends of the rope inside the six wraps.
(((7))) Cable laid rope. ((Means)) A wire rope composed of six wire ropes wrapped around a fiber or wire rope core.
(((8))) Cable laid rope sling-mechanical joint. ((Means)) A wire rope sling made from a cable laid rope with eyes fabricated by pressing or swagging one or more metal sleeves over the rope junction.
(((9))) Choker hitch. ((Means)) A sling configuration with one end of the sling passing under the load and through an end attachment, handle or eye on the other end of the sling.
(((10))) Coating. ((Means)) An elastomer or other suitable material applied to a sling or to a sling component to impart desirable properties.
(((11))) Cross rod. ((Means)) A wire used to join spirals of metal mesh to form a complete fabric. (See Fig. D-2.)
(((12))) Designated. ((Means)) Selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
(((13))) Equivalent entity. ((Means)) A person or organization (including an employer) which, by possession of equipment, technical knowledge and skills, can perform with equal competence the same repairs and tests as the person or organization with which it is equated.
(((14))) Fabric (metal mesh). ((Means)) The flexible portion of a metal mesh sling consisting of a series of transverse coils and cross rods.
(((15))) Female handle (choker). ((Means)) A handle with a handle eye and a slot of such dimension as to permit passage of a male handle thereby allowing the use of a metal mesh sling in a choker hitch. (See Fig. D-1.)
(((16))) Handle. ((Means)) A terminal fitting to which metal mesh fabric is attached. (See Fig. D-1.)
(((17))) Handle eye. ((Means)) An opening in a handle of a metal mesh sling shaped to accept a hook, shackle or other lifting device. (See Fig. D-1.)
(((18))) Hitch. ((Means)) A sling configuration whereby the sling is fastened to an object or load, either directly to it or around it.
(((19))) Link. ((Means)) A single ring of a chain.
(((20))) Male handle (triangle). ((Means)) A handle with a handle eye.
(((21))) Master coupling link. ((Means)) An alloy steel welded coupling link used as an intermediate link to join alloy steel chain to master links. (See Fig. D-3.)
(((22))) Master link or gathering ring. ((Means)) A forged or welded steel link used to support all members (legs) of an alloy steel chain sling or wire rope sling. (See Fig. D-3.)
(((23))) Mechanical coupling link. ((Means)) A nonwelded, mechanically closed steel link used to attach master links, hooks, etc., to alloy steel chain.
(((24))) Proof load. ((Means)) The load applied in performance of a proof test.
(((25))) Proof test. ((Means)) A nondestructive tension test performed by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity to verify construction and workmanship of a sling.
(((26))) Rated capacity or working load limit. ((Means)) The maximum working load permitted by the provisions of this section.
(((27))) Reach. ((Means)) The effective length of an alloy steel chain sling measured from the top bearing surface of the upper terminal component to the bottom bearing surface of the lower terminal component.
(((28))) Selvage edge. ((Means)) The finished edge of synthetic webbing designed to prevent unraveling.
(((29))) Sling. ((Means)) An assembly which connects the load to the material handling equipment.
(((30))) Sling manufacturer. ((Means)) A person or organization that assembles sling components into their final form for sale to users.
(((31))) Spiral. ((Means)) A single transverse coil that is the basic element from which metal mesh is fabricated. (See Fig. D-2.)
(((32))) Strand laid endless sling-mechanical joint. ((Means)) A wire rope sling made endless from one length of rope with the ends joined by one or more metallic fittings.
(((33))) Strand laid grommet-hand tucked. ((Means)) An endless wire rope sling made from one length of strand wrapped six times around a core formed by hand tucking the ends of the strand inside the six wraps.
(((34))) Strand laid rope. ((Means)) A wire rope made with strands (usually six or eight) wrapped around a fiber core, wire strand core, or independent wire rope core (IWRC).
(((35))) Vertical hitch. ((Means)) A method of supporting a load by a single, vertical part or leg of the sling. (See Fig. D-4.)
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-24-29419 Safe operating practices.
Whenever any sling is used, you must observe the following practices ((shall be observed)):
(1) You must not use slings that are damaged or defective ((shall not be used)).
(2) ((Slings shall not be)) You must ensure that slings are not shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices.
(3) ((Sling legs shall not be)) You must ensure that sling legs are not kinked.
(4) Employers must not load a sling in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed by the sling manufacturer on the identification markings permanently affixed to the sling.
(5) You must balance the loads of slings used in a basket hitch ((shall have the loads balanced)) to prevent slippage.
(6) ((Slings shall be securely attached)) You must securely attach slings to their loads.
(7) ((Slings shall be)) You must ensure that slings are padded or protected from the sharp edges of their loads.
(8) You must keep suspended loads ((shall be kept)) clear of all obstructions.
(9) You must ensure that all employees ((shall be)) are kept clear of loads about to be lifted and of suspended loads.
(10) You must ensure that hands or fingers ((shall)) are not ((be)) placed between the sling and its load while the sling is being tightened around the load.
(11) ((Shock loading is prohibited)) You must not engage shock loading.
(12) ((A sling shall not be pulled)) You must not pull a sling from under a load when the load is resting on the sling.
(13) ((Employers)) You must not use slings without affixed and legible identification markings.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 76-6, filed 3/1/76)
WAC 296-24-29421 Inspections.
Each day before being used, you must ensure that the sling and all fastenings and attachments ((shall be)) are inspected for damage or defects by a competent person designated by the employer. Additional inspections ((shall)) must be performed during sling use, where service conditions warrant. You must immediately remove damaged or defective slings ((shall be immediately removed)) from service.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-24-29423 Alloy steel chain slings.
(1) Sling identification. You must ensure that alloy steel chain slings ((shall)) have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity and reach.
(2) Attachments.
(a) You must ensure that hooks, rings, oblong links, pear shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links or other attachments ((shall)) have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the alloy steel chain with which they are used or you must not use the sling ((shall not be used)) in excess of the rated capacity of the weakest component.
(b) You must not use the makeshift links or fasteners formed from bolts or rods, or other such attachments((, shall not be used)).
(3) Inspections.
(a) In addition to the inspection required by WAC 296-24-29421, you must perform a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use ((shall be made)) on a regular basis, to be determined on the basis of:
(i) Frequency of sling use;
(ii) Severity of service conditions;
(iii) Nature of lifts being made; and
(iv) Experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. Such inspections ((shall)) must in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 months.
(b) ((The employer shall)) You must make and maintain a record of the most recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and ((shall)) you must make such record available for examination.
(c) The thorough inspection of alloy steel chain slings ((shall)) must be performed by a competent person designated by the employer, and ((shall)) must include a thorough inspection for wear, defective welds, deformation and increase in length. Where such defects or deterioration are present, you must immediately remove the sling ((shall be immediately removed)) from service.
(4) Proof testing. ((The employer shall)) You must ensure that before use, each new, repaired, or reconditioned alloy steel chain sling, including all welded components in the sling assembly, ((shall be)) is proof tested by the sling manufacturer or equivalent entity, in accordance with paragraph 5.2 of the American Society of Testing and Materials Specification A391-65 (ANSI G61.1-1968). ((The employer shall)) You must retain a certificate of the proof test and shall make it available for examination.
(5) Safe operating temperatures. ((Employers)) You must permanently remove an alloy steel-chain sling from service if it is heated above 1000°F. When exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600°F, employers must reduce the maximum working load limits permitted by the chain manufacturer in accordance with the chain or sling manufacturer's recommendations.
(6) Repairing and reconditioning alloy steel chain slings.
(a) You must not use worn or damaged alloy steel chain slings or attachments ((shall not be used)) until repaired. When welding or heat testing is performed, you must not use slings ((shall not be used)) unless repaired, reconditioned and proof tested by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.
(b) You must not use mechanical coupling links or low carbon steel repair links ((shall not be used)) to repair broken lengths of chain.
(7) Effects of wear. If the chain size at any point of any links is less than that stated in Table D-1, you must ensure the sling ((shall be)) is removed from service.
(8) Deformed attachments.
(a) You must remove alloy steel chain sling with cracked or deformed master links, coupling links or other components ((shall be removed)) from service.
(b) ((Slings shall be removed)) You must remove slings from service if hooks are cracked, have been opened more than 15 percent of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-24-29425 Wire rope slings.
(1) Sling use. ((Employers)) You must use only wire rope slings that have permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer, and that indicate the recommended safe working load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used, the angle upon which it is based, and the number of legs if more than one.
(2) Minimum sling lengths.
(a) You must ensure that cable laid and 6x19 and 6x37 slings ((shall)) have a minimum clear length of wire rope 10 times the component rope diameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings.
(b) You must ensure that braided slings ((shall)) have a minimum clear length of wire rope 40 times the component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.
(c) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings ((shall)) must have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body diameter.
(3) Safe operating temperatures. You must permanently remove fiber core wire rope slings of all grades ((shall be permanently removed)) from service if they are exposed to temperatures in excess of 200°F. When nonfiber core wire rope slings of any grade are used at temperatures above 400°F or below minus 60°F, recommendations of the sling manufacturer regarding use at that temperature ((shall)) must be followed.
(4) End attachments.
(a) You must perform welding of end attachments, except covers to thimbles, ((shall be performed)) prior to the assembly of the sling.
(b) You must not use all welded end attachments ((shall not be used)) unless proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at twice their rated capacity prior to initial use. ((The employer shall)) You must retain a certificate of the proof test, and make it available for examination.
(5) Removal from service. You must immediately remove wire rope slings ((shall be immediately removed)) from service if any of the following conditions are present:
(a) Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay, or five broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.
(b) Wear or scraping of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires.
(c) Kinking, crushing, bird caging or any other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure.
(d) Evidence of heat damage.
(e) End attachments that are cracked, deformed or worn.
(f) Hooks that have been opened more than 15 percent of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.
(g) Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-24-29427 Metal mesh slings.
(1) Sling marking. You must ensure that each metal mesh ((sling shall have)) has permanently affixed to it a durable marking that states the rated capacity for vertical basket hitch and choker hitch loadings.
(2) Handles. ((Handles shall)) You must ensure that handles have a rated capacity at least equal to the metal fabric and exhibit no deformation after proof testing.
(3) Attachments of handles to fabric. You must ensure that the fabric and handles ((shall be)) are joined so that:
(a) The rated capacity of the sling is not reduced.
(b) The load is evenly distributed across the width of the fabric.
(c) Sharp edges will not damage the fabric.
(4) Sling coatings. You must not apply coatings which diminish the rated capacity of a sling ((shall not be applied)).
(5) Sling testing. ((All new and)) You must not use any new or repaired metal mesh slings, including handles, ((shall not be used)) unless proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at a minimum of 1-1/2 times their rated capacity. You must proof test elastomer impregnated slings ((shall be proof tested)) before coating.
(6) Safe operating temperatures. ((Metal)) You may use mesh slings which are not impregnated with elastomers ((may be used)) in a temperature range from minus 20°F to plus 550°F without decreasing the working load limit. You may use metal mesh slings impregnated with polyvinyl chloride or neoprene ((may be used)) only in a temperature range from zero degrees to plus 200°F. For operations outside these temperature ranges or for metal mesh slings impregnated with other materials, you must follow the sling manufacturer's recommendations ((shall be followed)).
(7) Repairs.
(a) You must not use metal mesh slings which are repaired ((shall not be used)) unless repaired by a metal mesh sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.
(b) Once repaired, you must permanently mark or tag each sling ((shall be permanently marked or tagged)), or a written record maintained, to indicate the date and nature of the repairs and the person or organization that performed the repairs. You must make records of repairs ((shall be made)) available for examination.
(8) Removal from service. You must immediately remove metal mesh slings ((shall be immediately removed)) from service if any of the following conditions are present:
(a) A broken weld or broken brazed joint along the sling edge.
(b) Reduction in wire diameter of 25 ((percent)) % due to abrasion or 15 ((percent)) % due to corrosion.
(c) Lack of flexibility due to distortion of the fabric.
(d) Distortion of the female handle so that the depth of the slot is increased more than 10 ((percent)) %.
(e) Distortion of either handle so that the width of the eye is decreased more than 10 ((percent)) %.
(f) A 15 ((percent)) % reduction of the original cross sectional area of metal at any point around the handle eye.
(g) Distortion of either handle out of its plane.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-24-29429 Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings.
(1) Sling use.
(a) ((Employers)) You must use natural and synthetic fiber rope slings that have permanently affixed and legible identification markings stating the rated capacity for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle upon which it is based, type of fiber material, and the number of legs if more than one.
(b) You must ensure that fiber rope slings ((shall)) have a diameter of curvature meeting at least the minimums specified in Figs. D-4 and D-5.
(c) You must use slings not included in these tables ((shall be used)) only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(2) Safe operating temperatures. You may use natural and synthetic fiber rope slings, except for wet frozen slings, ((may be used)) in a temperature range from minus 20°F to plus 180°F without decreasing the working load limit. For operations outside this temperature range and for wet frozen slings, you must follow the sling manufacturer's recommendations ((shall be followed)).
(3) Splicing. You must not use spliced fiber rope slings ((shall not be used)) unless they have been spliced in accordance with the following minimum requirements and in accordance with any additional recommendations of the manufacturer:
(a) In manila rope, eye splices ((shall)) must consist of at least three full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the splice center line.
(b) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices ((shall)) must consist of at least four full tucks, and short splices ((shall)) must consist of at least eight full tucks, four on each side of the center line.
(c) You must not trim strand end tails ((shall not be trimmed)) flush with the surface of the rope immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This applies to all types of fiber rope and both eye and short splices. For fiber rope under one inch in diameter, the tail ((shall)) must project at least six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber rope one inch in diameter and larger, the tail ((shall)) must project at least six inches beyond the last full tuck. Where a projecting tail interferes with the use of the sling, you must taper and splice the tail ((shall be tapered and spliced)) into the body of the rope using at least two additional tucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).
(d) You must ensure that fiber rope slings ((shall)) have a minimum clear length of rope between eye splices equal to 10 times the rope diameter.
(e) ((Knots shall not be used)) You must not use knots in lieu of splices.
(f) You must not use clamps not designed specifically for fiber ropes ((shall not be used)) for splicing.
(g) For all eye splices, you must ensure that the eye ((shall be)) is of such size to provide an included angle of not greater than 60 degrees at the splice when the eye is placed over the load or support.
(4) End attachments. You must not use fiber rope slings ((shall not be used)) if end attachments in contact with the rope have sharp edges or projections.
(5) Removal from service. You must immediately remove natural and synthetic fiber rope slings ((shall be immediately removed)) from service if any of the following conditions are present:
(a) Abnormal wear.
(b) Powdered fiber between strands.
(c) Broken or cut fibers.
(d) Variations in the size or roundness of strands.
(e) Discoloration or rotting.
(f) Distortion of hardware in the sling.
(6) Repairs. ((Only)) You must only use fiber rope slings made from new rope ((shall be used)). Use of repaired or reconditioned fiber rope slings is prohibited.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-24-29431 Synthetic web slings.
(1) Sling identification. ((Each sling shall be marked or coded)) You must mark or code each sling to show the rated capacities for each type of hitch and type of synthetic web material.
(2) Webbing. You must ensure that synthetic webbing ((shall be)) is of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges ((shall)) are not ((be)) split from the webbing's width.
(3) Fittings. Fittings ((shall)) must be:
(a) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and
(b) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the webbing.
(4) Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of eyes. Stitching ((shall)) must be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form eyes. You must ensure that the thread ((shall be)) is in an even pattern and contains a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the sling.
(5) Environmental conditions. When synthetic web slings are used, you must take the following precautions ((shall be taken)):
(a) You must not use nylon web slings ((shall not be used)) where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present.
(b) You must not use polyester and polypropylene web slings ((shall not be used)) where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.
(c) You must not use web slings with aluminum fittings ((shall not be used)) where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.
(6) Safe operating temperatures. You must not use synthetic web slings of polyester and nylon ((shall not be used)) at temperatures in excess of 180°F. You must not use polypropylene web slings ((shall not be used)) at temperatures in excess of 200°F.
(7) Repairs.
(a) You must not use synthetic web slings which are repaired ((shall not be used)) unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.
(b) Each repaired sling ((shall)) must be proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity to twice the rated capacity prior to its return to service. ((The employer shall)) You must retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.
(c) You must not use slings, including webbing and fittings, which have been repaired in a temporary manner ((shall not be used)).
(8) Removal from service. You must immediately remove synthetic web slings ((shall be immediately removed)) from service if any of the following conditions are present:
(a) Acid or caustic burns;
(b) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
(c) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
(d) Broken or worn stitches; or
(e) Distortion of fittings.
 
Figure D-1
Metal Mesh Sling (Typical)
 
Figure D-2
Metal Mesh Construction
 
Figure D-3
Major Components of a Quadruple Sling
TABLE D-1
MINIMUM ALLOWABLE CHAIN SIZE
AT ANY POINT OF LINK
Chain Size,
Inches
 
 
 
Minimum Allowable
Chain Size, Inches
 
1/4
. . . . 
13/64
 
 
3/8
. . . . 
19/64
 
 
1/2
. . . . 
25/64
 
 
5/8
. . . . 
31/64
 
 
3/4
. . . . 
19/32
 
 
7/8
. . . . 
45/64
 
 
  1 . . . .
13/16
 
 
1- 1/8
. . . . 
29/32
 
 
1- 1/4
. . . . 
1          
 
 
1- 3/8
. . . . 
1- 3/32
 
 
1- 1/2
. . . . 
1- 3/16
 
 
1- 3/4
. . . . 
1-13/32
 
 
Notes:
Angles of 5° or less from the vertical may be considered vertical angles.
 
For slings with legs more than 5° off vertical, the actual angle as shown in Figure D-5 must be considered.
EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS: Minimum diameter of curvature
Represents a contact surface which ((shall)) must have a diameter of curvature at least double the diameter of the rope.
Represents a contact surface which ((shall)) must have a diameter of curvature at least double the diameter of the rope.
Represents a load in a choker hitch and illustration the rotary force on the load and/or the slippage of the rope in contact with the load. Diameter of curvature of load surface ((shall)) must be at least double the diameter of the rope.
Figure D-4
Basic Sling Configurations with Vertical Legs
 
Notes:
For vertical angles of 5° or less, refer to Figure D-4 "basic sling configuration with vertical legs."
See Figure D-4 for explanation of symbols.
Figure D-5
Sling Configurations with Angled Legs
 
Figure D-6
Basic Synthetic Web Sling Constructions
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-29501 Inspection of compressed gas cylinders.
((Each employer shall)) You must determine that compressed gas cylinders under ((the employer's)) your control are in a safe condition to the extent that this can be determined by visual inspection. You must conduct visual and other inspections ((shall be conducted)) as prescribed in the hazardous materials regulations of the department of transportation (49 C.F.R. Parts 171-179 and 14 C.F.R. Part 103). Where those regulations are not applicable, you must conduct visual and other inspections ((shall be conducted)) in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets C-6-1968 and C-8-1962.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-29503 Compressed gases.
You must ensure that the in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks ((shall be)) is in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P-1-1965.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-29505 Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers.
You must ensure that compressed gas cylinders, portable tanks, and cargo tanks ((shall)) have pressure relief devices installed and maintained in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets S-1.1-1963 and 1965 addenda and S-1.2-1963.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 12-16-063, filed 7/31/12, effective 9/1/12)
WAC 296-24-31001 Cylinders.
((Employers)) You must ensure that the in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and use of acetylene in cylinders comply with the provisions of CGA Pamphlet G-1-2009 (Acetylene) (Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 12th ed., 2009).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 10-09-089, filed 4/20/10, effective 7/1/10)
WAC 296-24-31003 Piped systems.
(1) ((Employers)) You must comply with Chapter 9 (Acetylene Piping) of NFPA 51A-2006 (Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants) (National Fire Protection Association, 2006 ed., 2006).
(2) When employers can demonstrate that the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders were installed prior to February 16, 2006, these employers may comply with the provisions of Chapter 7 (Acetylene Piping) of NFPA 51A-2001 (Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants) (National Fire Protection Association, 2001 ed., 2001).
(3) The provisions of subsection (2) of this section also apply when the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders were approved for construction or installation prior to February 16, 2006, but constructed and installed on or after that date.
Note:
For additional information on acetylene piping systems, see CGA G-1.2-2006, Part 3 (Acetylene Piping) (Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 3rd ed., 2006).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 10-09-089, filed 4/20/10, effective 7/1/10)
WAC 296-24-31005 Generators and filling cylinders.
(1) ((Employers)) You must ensure that facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders comply with the provisions of NFPA 51A-2006 (Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants) (National Fire Protection Association, 2006 ed., 2006).
(2) When employers can demonstrate that the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders were constructed or installed prior to February 16, 2006, these employers may comply with the provisions of NFPA 51A-2001 (Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants) (National Fire Protection Association, 2001 ed., 2001).
(3) The provisions of subsection (2) of this section also apply when the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations were approved for construction or installation prior to February 16, 2006, but constructed and installed on or after that date.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 94-15-096, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
WAC 296-24-31501 General.
(1) Definitions as used in this section.
(((a) Gaseous hydrogen system is one in which the hydrogen is delivered, stored and discharged in the gaseous form to consumer's piping. The system includes stationary or movable containers, pressure regulators, safety relief devices, manifolds, interconnecting piping and controls. The system terminates at the point where hydrogen at service pressure first enters the consumer's distribution piping.
(b) ApprovedMeans unless otherwise indicated, listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to federal regulation 29 C.F.R. 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(c) ListedSee "approved."
(d) ASMEAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers.
(e) DOT specificationsRegulations of the department of transportation published in 49 C.F.R. Chapter I.
(f) DOT regulationsSee WAC 296-24-315.)) Approved. Unless otherwise indicated, listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to federal regulation 29 C.F.R. 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
DOT regulations. See WAC 296-24-315.
DOT specifications. Regulations of the department of transportation published in 49 C.F.R. Chapter I.
Gaseous hydrogen system. One in which the hydrogen is delivered, stored and discharged in the gaseous form to consumer's piping. The system includes stationary or movable containers, pressure regulators, safety relief devices, manifolds, interconnecting piping and controls. The system terminates at the point where hydrogen at service pressure first enters the consumer's distribution piping.
Listed. See "approved."
(2) Scope.
(a) Gaseous hydrogen systems.
(i) WAC 296-24-31503 applies to the installation of gaseous hydrogen systems on consumer premises where the hydrogen supply to the consumer premises originates outside the consumer premises and is delivered by mobile equipment.
(ii) WAC 296-24-31503 does not apply to gaseous hydrogen systems having a total hydrogen content of less than ((four hundred)) 400 cubic feet, nor to hydrogen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the hydrogen supplier or their agent for the purpose of storing hydrogen and refilling portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks, or tank cars.
(b) Liquefied hydrogen systems.
(i) WAC 296-24-31505 applies to the installation of liquefied hydrogen systems on consumer premises.
(ii) WAC 296-24-31505 does not apply to liquefied hydrogen portable containers of less than ((one hundred fifty)) 150 liters (39.63 gallons) capacity; nor to liquefied hydrogen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the hydrogen supplier or supplier's agent for the sole purpose of storing liquefied hydrogen and refilling portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks or tank cars.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-24-017, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)
WAC 296-24-31503 Gaseous hydrogen systems.
(1) Design.
(a) Containers.
(i) You must ensure that hydrogen containers ((shall)) comply with one of the following:
(A) Designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968.
(B) Designed, constructed, tested and maintained in accordance with U.S. Department of Transportation specifications and regulations.
(ii) You must provide permanently installed containers ((shall be provided)) with substantial noncombustible supports on firm noncombustible foundations.
(iii) You must legibly mark each portable container ((shall be legibly marked)) with the name "hydrogen" in accordance with "marking compressed gas containers to identify the material contained" ANSI Z48.1-1954. You must legibly mark each manifolded hydrogen supply unit ((shall be legibly marked)) with the name hydrogen or a legend such as "this unit contains hydrogen."
(b) Safety relief devices.
(i) You must ensure that hydrogen containers ((shall be)) are equipped with safety relief devices as required by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII Unfired Pressure Vessels, 1968 or the DOT specifications and regulations under which the container is fabricated.
(ii) You must arrange safety relief devices ((shall be arranged)) to discharge upward and unobstructed to the open air in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container, adjacent structure of personnel. This requirement does not apply to DOT specification containers having an internal volume of 2 cubic feet or less.
(iii) You must design or locate safety relief devices or vent piping ((shall be designed or located)) so that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner which would interfere with proper operation of the device.
(c) Piping, tubing, and fittings.
(i) You must ensure that piping, tubing, and fittings ((shall be)) are suitable for hydrogen service and for the pressures and temperatures involved. You must not use case iron pipe and fittings ((shall not be used)).
(ii) You must ensure that piping and tubing ((shall)) conforms to Section 2"Industrial Gas and Air Piping"Code for Pressure Piping, ANSI B31.1-1967 with addenda B31.1-1969.
(iii) Joints in piping and tubing may be made by welding or brazing or by use of flanged, threaded, socket, or compression fittings. You must ensure that gaskets and thread sealants ((shall be)) are suitable for hydrogen service.
(d) Equipment assembly.
(i) You must ensure that valves, gauges, regulators, and other accessories ((shall be)) are suitable for hydrogen service.
(ii) Installation of hydrogen systems ((shall)) must be supervised by personnel familiar with proper practices with reference to their construction and use.
(iii) You must make storage containers, piping, valves, regulating equipment, and other accessories ((shall be)) readily accessible, and ((shall be)) ensure they are protected against physical damage and against tampering.
(iv) You must adequately ventilate cabinets or housings containing hydrogen control or operating equipment ((shall be adequately ventilated)).
(v) You must adequately secure each mobile hydrogen supply unit used as part of a hydrogen system ((shall be adequately secured)) to prevent movement.
(vi) You must electrically bond mobile hydrogen supply units ((shall be electrically bonded)) to the system before discharging hydrogen.
(e) Marking. ((The)) You must permanently placard hydrogen storage location ((shall be permanently placarded)) as follows: "HYDROGEN," or equivalent.
(f) Testing. After installations, You must test all piping, tubing, and fittings ((shall be tested and proved)) and prove it to be hydrogen gas tight at maximum operating pressure.
(2) Location.
(a) General.
(i) You must locate the system ((shall be located)) so that it is readily accessible to delivery equipment and to authorized personnel.
(ii) ((Systems shall be located)) You must locate the systems above ground.
(iii) ((Systems shall not be located)) You must not locate the systems beneath electric power lines.
(iv) ((Systems shall not be located)) You must not locate the systems close to flammable liquid piping or piping of other flammable gases.
(v) You must locate the systems near aboveground flammable liquid storage ((shall be located)) on ground higher than the flammable liquid storage except when dikes, diversion curbs, grading, or separating solid walls are used to prevent accumulation of flammable liquids under the system.
(b) Specific requirements.
(i) You must ensure that the location of a system, as determined by the maximum total contained volume of hydrogen, ((shall be)) is in the order of preference as indicated by Roman numerals in Table H-1.
TABLE H-1
Nature of location
Size of
hydrogen system
 
Less
than
3,000
CF
3,000
CF to 15,000
CF
 
In
excess of
15,000
CF
Outdoors ————————––
I
————
I
————
I.
In a separate building ————
II
————
II
————
II.
In a special room ——————
III
————
III
————
Not
per-
mitted.
Inside buildings not in
a special room and
exposed to other
 
 
Not
per-
mitted.
———
Not
per-
mitted.
occupancies —————–
IV
———
(ii) The minimum distance in feet from a hydrogen system of indicated capacity located outdoors, in separate buildings or in special rooms to any specified outdoor exposure ((shall)) must be in accordance with Table H-2.
(iii) The distances in Table H-2 Items 1, 14, and 3 to 10 inclusive do not apply where protective structures such as adequate fire walls are located between the system and the exposure.
(iv) Hydrogen systems of less than 3,000 CF when located inside buildings and exposed to other occupancies ((shall)) must be situated in the building so that the system will be as follows:
(A) In an adequately ventilated area as in (3)(b)(ii) of this section.
(B) Twenty feet from stored flammable materials or oxidizing gases.
(C) Twenty-five feet from open flames, ordinary electrical equipment or other sources of ignition.
(D) Twenty-five feet from concentrations of people.
(E) Fifty feet from intakes of ventilation or air-conditioning equipment and air compressors.
(F) Fifty feet from other flammable gas storage.
(G) Protected against damage or injury due to falling objects or working activity in the area.
(H) More than one system of 3,000 CF or less may be installed in the same room, provided the systems are separated by at least 50 feet. Each such system shall meet all of the requirements of this section.
(3) Design consideration at specific locations.
(a) Outdoor locations.
(i) Where protective walls or roofs are provided, you must ensure that they ((shall be)) are constructed of noncombustible materials.
(ii) Where the enclosing sides adjoin each other, you must ensure that the area ((shall be)) is properly ventilated.
(iii) You must ensure that electrical equipment ((shall)) meets the requirements for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations of WAC 296-24-95613.
(b) Separate buildings.
(i) Separate buildings ((shall)) must be built of at least noncombustible construction. Windows and doors ((shall)) must be located so as to be readily accessible in case of emergency. Windows ((shall)) must be of glass or plastic in metal frames.
(ii) Adequate ventilation to the outdoors ((shall)) must be provided. Inlet openings ((shall)) must be located near the floor in exterior walls only. Outlet openings ((shall)) must be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or roof. Inlet and outlet openings ((shall)) must each have minimum total area of one square foot per 1,000 cubic feet of room volume. Discharge from outlet openings ((shall)) must be directed or conducted to a safe location.
(iii) Explosion venting ((shall)) must be provided in exterior walls or roof only. The venting area ((shall)) must be equal to not less than 1 square foot per 30 cubic feet of room volume and may consist of any one or any combination of the following: Walls of light noncombustible material, preferably single thickness, single strength glass; lightly fastened hatch covers; lightly fastened swinging doors in exterior walls opening outward; lightly fastened walls or roof designed to relieve at a maximum pressure of 25 pounds per square foot.
(iv) There ((shall)) must be no sources of ignition from open flames, electrical equipment, or heating equipment.
(v) Electrical equipment ((shall)) must meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(vi) Heating, if provided, ((shall)) must be by steam, hot water, or other indirect means.
(c) Special rooms.
(i) Floor, walls, and ceiling ((shall)) must have a fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours. Walls or partitions ((shall)) must be continuous from floor to ceiling and ((shall)) must be securely anchored. At least one wall ((shall)) must be an exterior wall. Openings to other parts of the building ((shall)) must not be permitted. Windows and doors ((shall)) must be in exterior walls and ((shall)) must be located so as to be readily accessible in case of emergency. Windows ((shall)) must be of glass or plastic in metal frames.
(ii) Ventilation ((shall)) must be as provided in (3)(b)(ii) of this section.
(iii) Explosion venting ((shall)) must be as provided in (3)(b)(iii) of this section.
(iv) There ((shall)) must be no sources of ignition from open flames, electrical equipment or heating equipment.
(v) Electrical equipment ((shall)) must meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(vi) Heating, if provided, ((shall)) must be by steam, hot water, or indirect means.
(4) Operating instructions. For installations which require any operation of equipment by the user, you must maintain legible instructions ((shall be maintained)) at operating locations.
(5) Maintenance.
(((a))) The equipment and functioning of each charged gaseous hydrogen system ((shall)) must be maintained in a safe operating condition in accordance with the requirements of this section. You must keep the area within 15 feet of any hydrogen container shall be kept free of dry vegetation and combustible material.
TABLE H-2
 
 
Size of
hydrogen system
 
Type of outdoor exposure
Less
than
3,000
CF
3,000
CF
to
15,000
CF
In
excess
of
15,000
CF
1.
Building or
structure ———–
 
Wood frame construction*
Heavy timber, noncombustible or ordinary construction*
Fire-resistive construction*
 
 
- 10
 
 
 
- 0
 
- 0
 
 
 
25
 
 
 
10
 
0
 
 
 
50
 
 
 
**25
 
0
 
2.
Wall openings
-
Not above any part of a system —–––
Above any part of a system ———
 
10
 
25
 
 
10
 
25
 
 
10
 
25
 
3.
Flammable liq-
uids above
ground ————
 
 
0 to 1,000 gallons
In excess of 1,000 gallons ———
 
 
- 10
 
- 25
 
 
 
25
 
50
 
 
 
25
 
50
 
4.
Flammable
liquids below
ground──0 to
1,000 gallons
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
Tank ——————
Vent or fill opening of tank ———
 
 
 
- 10
 
25
 
 
 
 
10
 
25
 
 
 
 
10
 
25
 
5.
Flammable
liquids below
ground──in
excess of
1,000 gallons
 
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
Tank ——————
Vent or fill opening of tank ———
 
 
 
 
- 20
 
25
 
 
 
 
 
20
 
25
 
 
 
 
 
20
 
25
 
6.
Flammable gas
storage, either
high pressure or
low pressure ——
 
 
 
0 to 15,000 CF capacity ——–
In excess of 15,000 CF capacity —
 
 
 
 
- 10
 
25
 
 
 
 
 
25
 
50
 
 
 
 
 
25
 
50
 
7.
Oxygen storage
-
12,000 CF or less
-
Refer to NFPA No. 51, gas systems for welding and cutting (1969).
 
 
 
More than 12,000 CF
-
 
 
 
Refer to NFPA No. 566, bulk oxygen systems at consumer sites (1969).
8.
Fast burning
solids such as
ordinary lumber,
excelsior or paper ————————–
50
 
50
 
25
 
9.
Slow burning solids
such as heavy timber
or coal ————————————––
25
 
25
 
25
 
10.
Open flames and other
sources of ignition ————————–
25
 
25
 
50
 
11.
Air compressor intakes
or inlets to ventilating
or air-condition
equipment ———————————–
50
 
50
 
50
 
12.
Concentration of people*** ————–
25
 
50
 
50
 
13.
Public sidewalks —————————
15
 
15
 
15
 
14.
Line of adjoining
property which may be
built upon ———————————–
5
 
5
 
5
 
*
Refer to NFPA No. 220 standard types of building construction for definitions of various types of construction. (1969 Ed.)
**
But not less than one-half the height of adjacent side wall of the structure.
***
In congested areas such as offices, lunchrooms, locker rooms, time-clock areas, and places of public assembly.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 91-24-017, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)
WAC 296-24-31505 Liquefied hydrogen systems.
(1) Design.
(a) Containers.
(i) You must ensure that hydrogen containers ((shall)) comply with the following: Storage containers ((shall)) be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels (1968) or applicable provisions of API Standard 620, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Second Edition (June 1963) and Appendix R (April 1965).
(ii) You must ensure that portable containers ((shall be)) are designed, constructed and tested in accordance with DOT specifications and regulations.
(b) Supports. You must provide permanently installed containers ((shall be provided)) with substantial noncombustible supports securely anchored on firm noncombustible foundations. You must ensure that steel supports in excess of 18 inches in height ((shall be)) are protected with a protective coating having a 2-hour fire-resistance rating.
(c) Marking. You must legibly mark each container ((shall be legibly marked)) to indicate "LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN—FLAMMABLE GAS."
(d) Safety relief devices.
(i) You must equip stationary liquefied hydrogen containers ((shall be equipped)) with safety relief devices sized in accordance with CGA Pamphlet S-1-1966, Part 3, Safety Relief Device Standards for Compressed Gas Storage Containers.
(A) Portable liquefied hydrogen containers complying with the U.S. Department of Transportation regulations ((shall)) must be equipped with safety relief devices as required in the U.S. Department of Transportation specifications and regulations. Safety relief devices ((shall)) must be sized in accordance with the requirements of CGA Pamphlet S-1-1966, Safety Relief Device Standards, Part 1, Compressed Gas Cylinders and Part 2, Cargo and Portable Tank Containers.
(ii) You must ensure that safety relief devices ((shall be)) are arranged to discharge unobstructed to the outdoors and in such a manner as to prevent impingement of escaping liquid or gas upon the container, adjacent structures or personnel. See (2)(a)(vi) of this section for venting of safety relief devices in special locations.
(iii) ((Safety)) You must design or locate relief devices or vent piping ((shall be designed or located)) so that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner which would interfere with proper operation of the device.
(iv) You must provide safety relief devices ((shall be provided)) in piping wherever liquefied hydrogen could be trapped between closures
(e) Piping, tubing, and fittings.
(i) Piping, tubing, and fittings and gasket and thread sealants ((shall)) must be suitable for hydrogen service at the pressures and temperatures involved. ((Consideration shall be given)) You must give consideration to the thermal expansion and contraction of piping systems when exposed to temperature fluctuations of ambient to liquefied hydrogen temperatures.
(ii) Gaseous hydrogen piping and tubing (above20°F) ((shall)) must conform to the applicable sections of Pressure Piping Section 2Industrial Gas and Air Piping, ANSI B31.1-1967 with addenda B31.1-1969. Design of liquefied hydrogen or cold (-20°F or below) gas piping ((shall)) must use Petroleum Refinery Piping ANSI B31.3-1966 or Refrigeration Piping ANSI B31.5-1966 with addenda B31.5a-1968 as a guide.
(iii) Joints in piping and tubing ((shall)) must preferably be made by welding or brazing; flanged, threaded, socket, or suitable compression fittings may be used.
(iv) ((Means shall be provided)) You must provide means to minimize exposure of personnel to piping operating at low temperatures and to prevent air condensate from contacting piping, structural members, and surfaces not suitable for cryogenic temperatures. Only those insulating materials which are rated nonburning in accordance with ASTM Procedures D1692-68 may be used. Other protective means may be used to protect personnel. The insulation ((shall)) must be designed to have a vapor-tight seal in the outer covering to prevent the condensation of air and subsequent oxygen enrichment within the insulation. The insulation material and outside shield ((shall)) must also be of adequate design to prevent attrition of the insulation due to normal operating conditions.
(v) You must not install uninsulated piping and equipment which operate at liquefied-hydrogen temperature ((shall not be installed)) above asphalt surfaces or other combustible materials in order to prevent contact of liquid air with such materials. Drip pans may be installed under uninsulated piping and equipment to retain and vaporize condensed liquid air.
(f) Equipment assembly.
(i) Valves, gauges, regulators, and other accessories ((shall)) must be suitable for liquefied hydrogen service and for the pressures and temperatures involved.
(ii) Installation of liquefied hydrogen systems ((shall)) must be supervised by personnel familiar with proper practices and with reference to their construction and use.
(iii) You must ensure that storage containers, piping, valves, regulating equipment, and other accessories ((shall be)) are readily accessible and ((shall be)) protected against physical damage and against tampering. A shutoff valve ((shall)) must be located in liquid product withdrawal lines as close to the container as practical. On containers of over 2,000 gallons capacity, this shutoff valve shall be of the remote control type with no connections, flanges, or other appurtenances (other than a welded manual shutoff valve) allowed in the piping between the shutoff valve and its connection to the inner container.
(iv) Cabinets or housings containing hydrogen control equipment ((shall)) must be ventilated to prevent any accumulation of hydrogen gas.
(g) Testing.
(i) After installation, you must test all field-erected piping ((shall be tested and proved)) and prove it to be hydrogen gas-tight at operating pressure and temperature.
(ii) Containers if out of service in excess of ((1)) one year ((shall)) must be inspected and tested as outlined in (1) of this section. You must check the safety relief devices ((shall be checked)) to determine if they are operable and properly set.
(h) Liquefied hydrogen vaporizers.
(i) You must anchor the vaporizer ((shall be anchored)) and ensure that its connecting piping ((shall be)) is sufficiently flexible to provide for the effect of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes.
(ii) You must ensure that the vaporizer and its piping ((shall be)) are adequately protected on the hydrogen and heating media sections with safety relief devices.
(iii) You must indirectly supply heat used in a liquefied hydrogen vaporizer ((shall be indirectly supplied)) utilizing media such as air, steam, water, or water solutions.
(iv) You must provide a low temperature shutoff switch ((shall be provided)) in the vaporizer discharge piping to prevent flow of liquefied hydrogen in the event of the loss of the heat source.
(i) Electrical systems.
(i) You must ensure that electrical wiring and equipment located within 3 feet of a point where connections are regularly made and disconnected, ((shall)) meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L for Class I, Division 1 locations.
(ii) You must ensure that except as provided in (l) of this section, electrical wiring, and equipment located within 25 feet of a point where connections are regularly made and disconnected or within 25 feet of a liquid hydrogen storage container, ((shall)) must meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L for Class I, Division 2 locations. When equipment approved for Class I, environments is not commercially available, the equipment may be:
(A) Purged or ventilated in accordance with NFPA No. 496-1967, Standard for Purged Enclosures for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations,
(B) Intrinsically safe, or
(C) Approved for Class I, Group C atmospheres. This requirement does not apply to electrical equipment which is installed on mobile supply trucks or tank cars from which the storage container is filled.
(j) Bonding and grounding. You must electrically bond and ground the liquefied hydrogen container and associated piping ((shall be electrically bonded and grounded)).
(2) Location of liquefied hydrogen storage.
(a) General requirements.
(i) You must locate the storage containers ((shall be located)) so that they are readily accessible to mobile supply equipment at ground level and to authorized personnel.
(ii) You must ensure that the containers ((shall not be)) are not exposed by electric power lines, flammable liquid lines, flammable gas lines, or lines carrying oxidizing materials.
(iii) When locating liquefied hydrogen storage containers near above-ground flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage, locate the liquefied hydrogen container on ground higher than flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage.
(iv) Where it is necessary to locate the liquefied hydrogen container on ground that is level with or lower than adjacent flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage, you must take suitable protective means ((shall be taken)) (such as by diking, diversion, curbs, grading), with respect to the adjacent flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage, to prevent accumulation of liquids within 50 feet of the liquefied hydrogen container.
(v) You must fence and post storage sites ((shall be fenced and posted)) to prevent entrance by unauthorized personnel. ((Sites shall also be placarded)) You must also placard sites as follows: "Liquefied hydrogenFlammable gasNo smokingNo open flames."
(vi) If liquefied hydrogen is located in (as specified in Table H-3) a separate building, in a special room, or inside buildings when not in a special room and exposed to other occupancies, you must ensure that containers ((shall)) have the safety relief devices vented unobstructed to the outdoors at a minimum elevation of 25 feet above grade to a safe location as required in (l)(d)(ii) of this section.
(b) Specific requirements.
(i) You must ensure that the location of liquefied hydrogen storage, as determined by the maximum total quantity of liquefied hydrogen, ((shall be)) is in the order of preference as indicated by Roman numerals in the following Table H-3.
TABLE H-3
MAXIMUM TOTAL QUANTITY OF LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN STORAGE PERMITTED
 
Size of
hydrogen storage
(capacity in
gallons)
 
Nature of location
 
 
39.63
(150 liters)
to 50
51 to
300
301 to
600
In excess
of 600
Outdoors
 
I
 
I
 
I
 
I
 
In a separate building
 
II
 
II
 
II
 
Not
per-
mitted.
 
In a special room
 
III
 
III
 
Not
per-
mitted
Not
per-
mitted.
 
Inside buildings not in a
 
 
No
per-
mitted
Not
per-
mitted
Not
per-
mitted.
special room and exposed to
 
other occupancies
 
IV
 
Note:
This table does not apply to the storage in dewars of the type generally used in laboratories for experimental purposes.
(ii) You must ensure that the minimum distance in feet from liquefied hydrogen systems of indicated storage capacity located outdoors, in a separate building, or in a special room to any specified exposure ((shall be)) is in accordance with Table H-4.
TABLE H-4
MINIMUM DISTANCE (FEET) FROM LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN SYSTEMS TO EXPOSURE
 
Liquefied hydrogen
storage (capacity in gallons)
Type of
exposure
39.63
(150 liters)
to 3,500
3,501
to
15,000
15,001
to
30,000
1. Fire-resistive building
 
and fire walls*
 
 
5
 
5
 
5
2. Noncombustible
 
building*
 
 
25
 
50
 
75
3. Other buildings*
 
 
50
 
75
 
100
4. Wall openings, air-com-
 
pressor intakes, inlets
 
for air-conditioning or
 
ventilating equipment -
75
 
75
 
75
5. Flammable liquids (above
 
ground and vent or fill
 
openings if below
 
ground) (see 513 and
 
514)
 
 
50
 
75
 
100
6. Between stationary
 
liquefied hydrogen
 
containers
 
 
5
 
5
 
5
7. Flammable gas storage -
50
 
75
 
100
8. Liquid oxygen storage and
 
other oxidizers (see
 
513 and 514)
 
 
100
 
100
 
100
9. Combustible solids
 
 
50
 
75
 
100
10. Open flames, smoking,
 
and welding
 
 
50
 
50
 
50
11. Concentrations of
 
people**
 
 
75
 
75
 
75
12. Public ways, railroads,
 
and property lines
 
 
25
 
50
 
75
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*
Refer to standard types of building construction, NFPA No. 220-1969 for definitions of various types of construction.
**
In congested areas such as offices, lunchrooms, locker rooms, time-clock areas, and places of public assembly.
Note 1:
The distance in Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 in Table H-4 may be reduced where protective structures, such as firewalls equal to height of top of the container, to safeguard the liquefied hydrogen storage system, are located between the liquefied hydrogen storage installation and the exposure.
Note 2:
Where protective structures are provided, ventilation and confinement of product should be considered. The 5-foot distance in Nos. 1 and 6 facilitates maintenance and enhances ventilation.
(c) Handling of liquefied hydrogen inside buildings other than separate buildings and special rooms. You must ensure that portable liquefied hydrogen containers of 50 gallons or less capacity as permitted in Table H-3 and in compliance with (2)(a)(vi) of this section when housed inside buildings not located in a special room and exposed to other occupancies ((shall)) comply with the following minimum requirements:
(i) Be located 20 feet from flammable liquids and readily combustible materials such as excelsior or paper.
(ii) Be located 25 feet from ordinary electrical equipment and other sources of ignition including process or analytical equipment.
(iii) Be located 25 feet from concentrations of people.
(iv) Be located 50 feet from intakes of ventilation and air-conditioning equipment or intakes of compressors.
(v) Be located 50 feet from storage of other flammable-gases or storage of oxidizing gases.
(vi) Containers ((shall)) must be protected against damage or injury due to falling objects or work activity in the area.
(vii) Containers ((shall)) must be firmly secured and stored in an upright position.
(viii) Welding or cutting operations, and smoking ((shall)) must be prohibited while hydrogen is in the room.
(ix) The area ((shall)) must be adequately ventilated. Safety relief devices on the containers ((shall)) must be vented directly outdoors or to a suitable hood. See (1)(d)(ii) of this section and (2)(a)(vi) of this section.
(3) Design ((considerations)) at specific locations.
(a) Outdoor locations.
(i) Outdoor location ((shall)) means outside of any building or structure, and includes locations under a weather shelter or canopy provided such locations are not enclosed by more than two walls set at right angles and are provided with vent-space between the walls and vented roof or canopy.
(ii) Roadways and yard surfaces located below liquefied hydrogen piping, from which liquid air may drop, ((shall)) must be constructed of noncombustible materials.
(iii) If protective walls are provided, they ((shall)) must be constructed of noncombustible materials and in accordance with the provisions of (3)(a)(i) of this section as applicable.
(iv) Electrical wiring and equipment ((shall)) must comply with chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(v) You must provide adequate lighting ((shall be provided)) for nighttime transfer operation.
(b) Separate buildings.
(i) Separate buildings ((shall)) must be of light noncombustible construction on a substantial frame. Walls and roofs ((shall)) must be lightly fastened and designed to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 25 pounds per square foot. Windows ((shall)) must be of shatterproof glass or plastic in metal frames. Doors ((shall)) must be located in such a manner that they will be readily accessible to personnel in an emergency.
(ii) You must provide adequate ventilation to the outdoors ((shall be provided)). Inlet openings ((shall)) must be located near the floor level in exterior walls only. Outlet openings ((shall)) must be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or roof. Both the inlet and outlet vent openings ((shall)) must have a minimum total area of 1 square foot per 1,000 cubic feet of room volume. Discharge from outlet openings ((shall)) must be directed or conducted to a safe location.
(iii) ((There shall be)) You must ensure that there are no sources of ignition.
(iv) Electrical wiring and equipment ((shall)) must comply with chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(v) Heating, if provided, ((shall)) must be by steam, hot water, or other indirect means.
(c) Special rooms.
(i) Floors, walls, and ceilings ((shall)) must have a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours. Walls or partitions ((shall)) must be continuous from floor to ceiling and ((shall)) must be securely anchored. At least one wall ((shall)) must be an exterior wall. Openings to other parts of the building ((shall)) must not be permitted. Windows and doors ((shall)) must be in exterior walls and doors shall be located in such a manner that they will be accessible in an emergency. Windows ((shall)) must be of shatterproof glass or plastic in metal frames.
(ii) ((Ventilation shall be)) You must ensure that ventilation is as provided in (3)(b)(ii) of this section.
(iii) You must provide explosion venting ((shall be provided)) in exterior walls or roof only. The venting area ((shall)) must be equal to not less than 1 square foot per 30 cubic feet of room volume and may consist of any one or any combination of the following: Walls of light noncombustible material; lightly fastened hatch covers; lightly fastened swinging doors opening outward in exterior walls; lightly fastened walls or roofs designed to relieve at a maximum pressure of 25 pounds per square foot.
(iv) ((There shall be)) You must ensure that there are no sources of ignition.
(v) Electrical wiring and equipment ((shall)) must comply with chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(vi) Heating, if provided, ((shall)) must be steam, hot water, or by other indirect means.
(4) Operating instructions.
(a) Written instructions. For installation which require any operation of equipment by the user, you must maintain legible instructions ((shall be maintained)) at operating locations.
(b) Attendant. A qualified person ((shall)) must be in attendance at all times while the mobile hydrogen supply unit is being unloaded.
(c) Security. You must adequately secure each mobile liquefied hydrogen supply unit used as part of a hydrogen system ((shall be adequately secured)) to prevent movement.
(d) Grounding. You must ground the mobile liquefied hydrogen supply unit ((shall be grounded)) for static electricity.
(5) Maintenance. (((a))) The equipment and functioning of each charged liquefied hydrogen system shall be maintained in a safe operating condition in accordance with the requirements of this section. You must not permit weeds or similar combustibles ((shall not be permitted)) within 25 feet of any ((liquified)) liquefied hydrogen equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-24-32003 Bulk oxygen systems.
(1) Definitions. As used in this section: A bulk oxygen system is an assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds, and interconnecting piping, which has storage capacity of more than 13,000 cubic feet of oxygen, normal temperature and pressure (NTP), connected in service or ready for service, or more than 25,000 cubic feet of oxygen (NTP) including unconnected reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers may be stationary or movable, and the oxygen may be stored as gas or liquid.
(2) Location.
(a) General. You must locate bulk oxygen storage systems shall be located above ground out of doors, or ((shall be installed)) in a building of noncombustible construction, adequately vented, and used for that purpose exclusively. The location selected ((shall)) must be such that containers and associated equipment ((shall)) must not be exposed by electric power lines, flammable liquid or gas lines.
(b) Accessibility. The system shall be located so that it is readily accessible to mobile supply equipment at ground level and to authorized personnel.
(c) Leakage. Where oxygen is stored as a liquid, you must provide noncombustible surfacing ((shall be provided)) in an area in which any leakage of liquid oxygen might fall during operation of the system and filling of a storage container. For purposes of these standards, asphaltic or bituminous paving is considered to be combustible.
(d) Elevation. When locating bulk oxygen systems near above ground flammable liquid storage which may be either indoors or outdoors, it is advisable to locate the system on ground higher than the flammable liquid storage.
(e) Dikes. Where it is necessary to locate a bulk oxygen system on ground lower than adjacent flammable liquid storage you must take suitable means ((shall be taken)) (such as by diking, diversion curbs, or grading) with respect to the adjacent flammable liquid storage to prevent accumulation of liquids under the bulk oxygen system.
(3) Distance between systems and exposures.
(a) General. You must ensure that the minimum distance from any bulk oxygen storage container to exposures, measured in the most direct line except as indicated in (f) and (g) of this subsection ((shall be)) are as indicated in (b) through (r) of this subsection inclusive.
(b) Combustible structures. ((Fifty)) 50 feet from any combustible structures.
(c) Fire resistive structures. ((Twenty-five)) 25 feet from any structures with fire-resistive exterior walls or sprinklered buildings or other construction, but not less than one-half the height of adjacent side wall of the structure.
(d) Openings. At least ((ten)) 10 feet from any opening in adjacent walls of fire resistive structures. You must ensure that spacing from such structures ((shall be)) is adequate to permit maintenance, but ((shall not be)) not less than one foot.
(e) Flammable liquid storage above ground.
Distance
(feet)
Capacity
(gallons)
 
50
_____ 
0-1000
 
90
_____ 
1001 or more
(f) Flammable liquid storage below ground.
Distance
measured
horizontally
from oxygen
storage
container to
flammable
liquid tank
(feet)
Distance
from oxygen
storage
container to
filling and
vent connections or openings to flammable
liquid tank
(feet)
Capacity
gallons
 
15
_____ 
50
_____ 
0-1000
 
30
_____ 
50
_____ 
1001 or more
(g) Flammable liquid storage above ground.
Distance
(feet)
 
Capacity
(gallons)
 
25
_____ 
0-1000
 
50
_____ 
1001 or more
(h) Flammable liquid storage below ground.
Distance measured
horizontally from
oxygen storage
container to
flammable liquid
tank (feet)
Distance from oxygen
storage container to
filling and vent
connections or
openings to
flammable liquid
tank (feet)
 
15
_____ 
 
40
(i) Flammable gas storage. (Such as compressed flammable gases, liquefied flammable gases and flammable gases in low pressure gas holders):
Distance
(feet)
Capacity
(cu. ft. NTP)
50
 
_____ 
 
Less than 5000
90
 
_____ 
 
5000 or more
(j) Highly combustible materials. ((Fifty)) 50 feet from solid materials which burn rapidly, such as excelsior or paper.
(k) Slow-burning materials. ((Twenty-five)) 25 feet from solid materials which burn slowly, such as coal and heavy timber.
(l) Ventilation. ((Seventy-five)) 75 feet in one direction and ((thirty-five)) 35 feet in approximately 90° direction from confining walls (not including firewalls less than twenty feet high) to provide adequate ventilation in courtyards and similar confining areas.
(m) Congested areas. ((Twenty-five)) 25 feet from congested areas such as offices, lunchrooms, locker rooms, time clock areas, and similar locations where people may congregate.
(n) Public areas. ((Fifty)) 50 feet from places of public assembly.
(o) Patients. ((Fifty)) 50 feet from areas occupied by nonambulatory patients.
(p) Sidewalks. ((Ten)) 10 feet from any public sidewalk.
(q) Adjacent property. ((Five)) 5 feet from any line of adjoining property.
(r) Exceptions. The distances in (b), (c), (e) through (k) inclusive, and (p) and (q) of this subsection do not apply where protective structures such as firewalls of adequate height to safeguard the oxygen storage systems are located between the bulk oxygen storage installation and the exposure. In such cases, the bulk oxygen storage installation may be a minimum distance of one foot from the firewall.
(4) Storage containers.
(a) Foundations and supports. You must provide permanently installed containers ((shall be provided)) with substantial noncombustible supports on firm noncombustible foundations.
(b) ConstructionLiquid. Liquid oxygen storage containers ((shall)) must be fabricated from materials meeting the impact test requirements of paragraph UG-84 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968. Containers operating at pressures above fifteen pounds per square inch gage (p.s.i.g.) ((shall)) must be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968. Insulation surrounding the liquid oxygen container ((shall)) must be noncombustible.
(c) ConstructionGaseous. High-pressure gaseous oxygen containers ((shall)) must comply with one of the following:
(i) Designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968.
(ii) Designed, constructed, tested, and maintained in accordance with DOT specifications and regulations.
(5) Piping, tubing, and fittings.
(a) Selection. You must ensure that piping, tubing, and fittings ((shall be)) are suitable for oxygen service and for the pressures and temperatures involved.
(b) Specification. Piping and tubing ((shall)) must conform to Section 2Gas and Air Piping Systems of Code for Pressure Piping, ANSI, B31.1-1967 with addenda B31.10a-1969.
(c) Fabrication. Piping or tubing for operating temperatures below -20°F ((shall)) must be fabricated from materials meeting the impact test requirements of paragraph UG-84 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968, when tested at the minimum operating temperature to which the piping may be subjected in service.
(6) Safety relief devices.
(a) General. Bulk oxygen storage containers, regardless of design pressure ((shall)) must be equipped with safety relief devices as required by the ASME code or the DOT specifications and regulations.
(b) DOT containers. Bulk oxygen storage containers designed and constructed in accordance with DOT specification ((shall)) must be equipped with safety relief devices as required thereby.
(c) ASME containers. Bulk oxygen storage containers designed and constructed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIIIUnfired Pressure Vessel1968 ((shall)) must be equipped with safety relief devices meeting the provisions of the Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet "Safety Relief Device Standards for Compressed Gas Storage Containers," S-1, Part 3.
(d) Insulation. Insulation casings on liquid oxygen containers ((shall)) must be equipped with suitable safety relief devices.
(e) Reliability. You must ensure that all safety relief devices ((shall be so)) are designed or located so that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner which would interfere with proper operation of the device.
(7) Liquid oxygen vaporizers.
(a) Mounts and couplings. You must anchor the vaporizer ((shall be anchored)) and its connecting piping ((be)) is sufficiently flexible to provide for the effect of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes.
(b) Relief devices. You must adequately protect the vaporizer and its piping ((shall be adequately protected)) on the oxygen and heating medium sections with safety relief devices.
(c) Heating. You must indirectly supply heat used in an oxygen vaporizer ((shall be indirectly supplied)) only through media such as steam, air, water, or water solutions which do not react with oxygen.
(d) Grounding. If electric heaters are used to provide the primary source of heat, you must electrically ground the vaporizing system ((shall be electrically grounded)).
(8) Equipment assembly and installation.
(a) Cleaning. You must clean equipment making up a bulk oxygen system ((shall be cleaned)) in order to remove oil, grease or other readily oxidizable materials before placing the system in service.
(b) Joints. Joints in piping and tubing may be made by welding or by use of flanged, threaded, slip, or compression fittings. Gaskets or thread sealants ((shall)) must be suitable for oxygen service.
(c) Accessories. Valves, gages, regulators, and other accessories ((shall)) must be suitable for oxygen service.
(d) Installation. Installation of bulk oxygen systems shall be supervised by personnel familiar with proper practices with reference to their construction and use.
(e) Testing. After installation all field erected piping ((shall)) must be tested and proved gas tight at maximum operating pressure. Any medium used for testing shall be oil free and nonflammable.
(f) Security. You must protect storage containers, piping, valves, regulating equipment, and other accessories ((shall be protected)) against physical damage and against tampering.
(g) Venting. Any enclosure containing oxygen control or operating equipment ((shall)) must be adequately vented.
(h) Placarding. You must permanently placard the bulk oxygen storage location ((shall be permanently placarded)) to indicate: "OXYGEN—NO SMOKING—NO OPEN FLAMES," or an equivalent warning.
(i) Electrical wiring. Bulk oxygen installations are not hazardous locations as defined and covered by chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. Therefore, general purpose or weatherproof types of electrical wiring and equipment are acceptable depending upon whether the installation is indoors or outdoors. You must install such equipment ((shall be installed)) according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
(9) Operating instructions. For installations which require any operation of equipment by the user, you must maintain legible instructions ((shall be maintained)) at operating locations.
(10) Maintenance. You must maintain the equipment and functioning of each charged bulk oxygen system ((shall be maintained)) in a safe operating condition in accordance with the requirements of this section. You must cut back wood and long dry grass ((shall be cut back)) within fifteen feet of any bulk oxygen storage container.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-24-325 Nitrous oxide.
You must ensure that the piped systems for the in-plant transfer and distribution of nitrous oxide ((shall be)) are designed, installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet G8.1-1964.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-24-33001 Definitions.
The following definitions are applicable to all sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-24-330 in the section number.
(((1) Aerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure.
(2) Atmospheric tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g.
(3) Automotive service station shall mean that portion of property where flammable liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles and shall include any facilities available for the sale and service of tires, batteries, and accessories, and for minor automotive maintenance work. Major automotive repairs, painting, body and fender work are excluded.
(4) Basement shall mean a story of a building or structure having one-half or more of its height below ground level and to which access for firefighting purposes is unduly restricted.
(5) Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for purposes of this section the ten percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, may be used as the boiling point of the liquid.
(6) Boilover shall mean the expulsion of crude oil (or certain other liquids) from a burning tank. The light fractions of the crude oil burnoff producing a heat wave in the residue, which on reaching a water strata may result in the expulsion of a portion of the contents of the tank in the form of froth.
(7) Bulk plant shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car, or tank vehicle, and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, or container.
(8) Chemical plant shall mean a large integrated plant or that portion of such a plant other than a refinery or distillery where flammable liquids are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemical reactions.
(9) Closed container shall mean a container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.
(10) Crude petroleum shall mean hydrocarbon mixtures that have a flash point below 150°F and which have not been processed in a refinery.
(11) Distillery shall mean a plant or that portion of a plant where flammable liquids produced by fermentation are concentrated, and where the concentrated products may also be mixed, stored, or packaged.
(12) Fire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least one hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour.
(13) Fire resistance or fire resistive construction shall mean construction to resist the spread of fire.
(14) Flammable aerosol shall mean a flammable aerosol as defined under WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria. For the purposes of WAC 296-24-33009, such aerosols are considered Category 1 flammable liquids.
(15) "Flashpoint" means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid, and shall be determined as follows:
(a) For a liquid which has a viscosity of less than 45 SUS at 100°F (37.8°C), does not contain suspended solids, and does not have a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the procedure specified in the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Tag Closed Tester (ASTM D-56-70), WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria, shall be used.
(b) For a liquid which has a viscosity of 45 SUS or more at 100°F (37.8°C), or contains suspended solids, or has a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (ASTM D-93-71) or an equivalent method as defined by WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria, shall be used, except that the methods specified in Note 1 to section 1.1 of ASTM D-93-71 may be used for the respective materials specified in the note.
(c) For a liquid that is a mixture of compounds that have different volatilities and flashpoints, its flashpoint shall be determined by using the procedure specified in (a) or (b) of this subsection on the liquid in the form it is shipped.
(d) Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified in this section.
(16) Hotel shall mean buildings or groups of buildings under the same management in which there are sleeping accommodations for hire primarily used by transients who are lodged with or without meals including but not limited to inns, clubs, motels, and apartment hotels.
(17) Institutional occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof by persons harbored or detained to receive medical, charitable or other care or treatment, or by persons involuntarily detained.
(18) Liquid shall mean, for the purpose of these standards, any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials, D-5-65. When not otherwise identified, the term liquid shall include both flammable liquids.
(19) "Combustible liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C). Combustible liquids shall be divided into two classes as follows:
(a) "Class II liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F (93.3°C) or higher, the volume of which make up ninety-nine percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(b) "Class III liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F (60°C). Class III liquids are subdivided into two subclasses:
(i) "Class IIIA liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C) except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F (93.3°C) or higher, the total volume of which make up ninety-nine percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(ii) "Class IIIB liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 200°F (93.3°C). This section does not cover Class IIIB liquids. Where the term "Class III liquids" is used in this section, it shall mean only Class IIIA liquids.
(c) When a combustible liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids.
(20) "Flammable liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint at or below 199.4°F (93°C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:
(a) Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or below 95°F (35°C).
(b) Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point above 95°F (35°C).
(c) Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4°F (23°C) and at or below 140°F (60°C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C).
(d) Category 4 must include liquids having flashpoints above 140°F (60°C) and at or below 199.4°F (93°C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C).
(e) When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.
(21) Unstable (reactive) liquid shall mean a liquid which in the pure state or as commercially produced or transported will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.
(22) Low-pressure tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures above 0.5 p.s.i.g. but not more than 15 p.s.i.g.
(23) Marine service station shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks or self-propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection therewith.
(24) Mercantile occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the displaying, selling, or buying of goods, wares, or merchandise.
(25) Office occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the transaction of business, or the rendering or receiving of professional services.
(26) Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over sixty United States gallons and not intended for fixed installation.
(27) Pressure vessel shall mean a storage tank or vessel which has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g.
(28) Protection for exposure shall mean adequate fire protection for structures on property adjacent to tanks, where there are employees of the establishment.
(29) Refinery shall mean a plant in which flammable liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources.
(30) Safety can shall mean an approved container, of not more than five gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.
(31) Vapor pressure shall mean the pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute) exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the "Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)," American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D323-68.
(32) Ventilation as specified in these standards is for the prevention of fire and explosion. It is considered adequate if it is sufficient to prevent accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit.
(33) Storage: Flammable liquids shall be stored in a tank or in a container that complies with WAC 296-24-33009(2).
(34) Barrel shall mean a volume of forty-two United States gallons.
(35) Container shall mean any can, barrel, or drum.
(36) Approved unless otherwise indicated, approved, or listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to federal regulation 29 C.F.R. 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(37) Listed see subsection (36) of this section.
(38) "SUS" means Saybolt Universal Seconds as determined by the Standard Method of Test for Saybolt Viscosity (ASTM D-88-56), and may be determined by use of the SUS conversion tables specified in ASTM Method D2161-66 following determination of viscosity in accordance with the procedures specified in the Standard Method of Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (ASTM D445-65).
(39) "Viscous" means a viscosity of 45 SUS or more.
Note:
The volatility of liquids is increased when artificially heated to temperatures equal to or higher than their flashpoints. When so heated Class II and III liquids shall be subject to the applicable requirements for Class I or II liquids. These standards may also be applied to high flashpoint liquids when so heated even though these same liquids when not heated are outside of its scope.))
Aerosol. A material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure.
Approved. Unless otherwise indicated, approved, or listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to federal regulation 29 C.F.R. 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Atmospheric tank. A storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g.
Automotive service station. That portion of property where flammable liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles and shall include any facilities available for the sale and service of tires, batteries, and accessories, and for minor automotive maintenance work. Major automotive repairs, painting, body and fender work are excluded.
Barrel. A volume of forty-two United States gallons.
Basement. A story of a building or structure having one-half or more of its height below ground level and to which access for firefighting purposes is unduly restricted.
Boiling point. The boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for purposes of this section the ten percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, may be used as the boiling point of the liquid.
Boilover. The expulsion of crude oil (or certain other liquids) from a burning tank. The light fractions of the crude oil burnoff producing a heat wave in the residue, which on reaching a water strata may result in the expulsion of a portion of the contents of the tank in the form of froth.
Bulk plant. That portion of a property where flammable liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car, or tank vehicle, and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, or container.
Chemical plant. A large integrated plant or that portion of such a plant other than a refinery or distillery where flammable liquids are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemical reactions.
Closed container. A container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.
Combustible liquid. Any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C). Combustible liquids must be divided into two classes as follows:
(a) Class II liquids. Include those with flashpoints at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F (93.3°C) or higher, the volume of which make up ninety-nine percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(b) Class III liquids. Include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F (60°C). Class III liquids are subdivided into two subclasses:
(i) Class IIIA liquids. Include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C) except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F (93.3°C) or higher, the total volume of which make up ninety-nine percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.
(ii) Class IIIB liquids. Include those with flashpoints at or above 200°F (93.3°C). This section does not cover Class IIIB liquids. Where the term "Class III liquids" is used in this section, it means only Class IIIA liquids.
(c) When a combustible liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids.
Container. Any can, barrel, or drum.
Crude petroleum. Hydrocarbon mixtures that have a flash point below 150°F and which have not been processed in a refinery.
Distillery. A plant or that portion of a plant where flammable liquids produced by fermentation are concentrated, and where the concentrated products may also be mixed, stored, or packaged.
Fire area. An area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least one hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour.
Fire resistance or fire resistive construction. Construction to resist the spread of fire.
Flammable aerosol. A flammable aerosol as defined under WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix BPhysical hazard criteria. For the purposes of WAC 296-24-33009, such aerosols are considered Category 1 flammable liquids.
Flammable liquid. Any liquid having a flashpoint at or below 199.4°F (93°C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:
(a) Category 1 includes liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or below 95°F (35°C).
(b) Category 2 includes liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point above 95°F (35°C).
(c) Category 3 includes liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4°F (23°C) and at or below 140°F (60°C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C).
(d) Category 4 must include liquids having flashpoints above 140°F (60°C) and at or below 199.4°F (93°C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C).
(e) When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.
Flashpoint. The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid, and shall be determined as follows:
(a) For a liquid which has a viscosity of less than 45 SUS at 100°F (37.8°C), does not contain suspended solids, and does not have a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the procedure specified in the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Tag Closed Tester (ASTM D-56-70), WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria, shall be used.
(b) For a liquid which has a viscosity of 45 SUS or more at 100°F (37.8°C), or contains suspended solids, or has a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (ASTM D-93-71) or an equivalent method as defined by WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B—Physical hazard criteria, shall be used, except that the methods specified in Note 1 to section 1.1 of ASTM D-93-71 may be used for the respective materials specified in the note.
(c) For a liquid that is a mixture of compounds that have different volatilities and flashpoints, its flashpoint shall be determined by using the procedure specified in (a) or (b) of this subsection on the liquid in the form it is shipped.
(d) Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified in this section.
Hotel. Buildings or groups of buildings under the same management in which there are sleeping accommodations for hire primarily used by transients who are lodged with or without meals including but not limited to inns, clubs, motels, and apartment hotels.
Institutional occupancy. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof by persons harbored or detained to receive medical, charitable or other care or treatment, or by persons involuntarily detained.
Liquid. For the purpose of these standards, any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials, D-5-65. When not otherwise identified, the term liquid shall include both flammable liquids.
Listed. See "Approved."
Low-pressure tank. A storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures above 0.5 p.s.i.g. but not more than 15 p.s.i.g.
Marine service station. That portion of a property where flammable liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks or self-propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection therewith.
Mercantile occupancy. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the displaying, selling, or buying of goods, wares, or merchandise.
Office occupancy. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the transaction of business, or the rendering or receiving of professional services.
Portable tank. A closed container having a liquid capacity over sixty United States gallons and not intended for fixed installation.
Pressure vessel. A storage tank or vessel which has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g.
Protection for exposure. Adequate fire protection for structures on property adjacent to tanks, where there are employees of the establishment.
Refinery. A plant in which flammable liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources.
Safety can. An approved container, of not more than five gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.
Storage. Flammable liquids must be stored in a tank or in a container that complies with WAC 296-24-33009(2).
SUS. Saybolt Universal Seconds as determined by the Standard Method of Test for Saybolt Viscosity (ASTM D-88-56), and may be determined by use of the SUS conversion tables specified in ASTM Method D2161-66 following determination of viscosity in accordance with the procedures specified in the Standard Method of Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (ASTM D445-65).
Unstable (reactive) liquid. A liquid which in the pure state or as commercially produced or transported will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.
Vapor pressure. The pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute) exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the "Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)," American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D323-68.
Ventilation. As specified in these standards is for the prevention of fire and explosion. It is considered adequate if it is sufficient to prevent accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit.
Viscous. A viscosity of 45 SUS or more.
Note:
The volatility of liquids is increased when artificially heated to temperatures equal to or higher than their flashpoints. When so heated Class II and III liquids shall be subject to the applicable requirements for Class I or II liquids. These standards may also be applied to high flashpoint liquids when so heated even though these same liquids when not heated are outside of its scope.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-24-33005 Tank storage.
(1) Design and construction of tanks.
(a) Materials.
(i) Tanks ((shall)) must be built of steel except as provided in (a)(ii) through (v) of this subsection.
(ii) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for installation underground or if required by the properties of the liquid stored. Tanks located above ground or inside buildings ((shall)) must be of noncombustible construction.
(iii) Tanks built of materials other than steel ((shall)) must be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering design for the material used.
(iv) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable liquids having a gravity of 40°API or heavier. Concrete tanks with special lining may be used for other services provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice.
(v) Tanks may have combustible or noncombustible linings.
(vi) You must require special engineering consideration ((shall be required)) if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of water or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable liquids at a liquid temperature below 0°F.
(b) Fabrication.
(i) Tanks may be of any shape or type consistent with sound engineering design.
(ii) Metal tanks ((shall)) must be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods. Filler metal used in brazing ((shall)) must be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000°F and below that of the metal joined.
(c) Atmospheric tanks.
(i) Atmospheric tanks ((shall)) must be built in accordance with acceptable good standards of design. Atmospheric tanks may be built in accordance with:
(A) Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 58, Standards for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and COMBUSTIBLE Liquids, Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.
(B) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 1966.
(C) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 1, March 1962; No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, Seventh Edition, August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, Fifth Edition, March 1961. Tanks built in accordance with these standards ((shall)) must be used only as production tanks for storage of crude petroleum in oil-producing areas.
(ii) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons capacity may be used aboveground.
(iii) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.
(iv) You must not use atmospheric tanks ((shall not be used)) for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.
(d) Low pressure tanks.
(i) The normal operating pressure of the tank ((shall)) must not exceed the design pressure of the tank.
(ii) Low-pressure tanks ((shall)) must be built in accordance with acceptable standards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with:
(A) American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620, Recommended Rules for the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Third Edition, 1966.
(B) The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.
(iii) Atmospheric tanks built according to the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., requirements in (c)(i) of this subsection may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g. and ((shall)) must be limited to 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions. Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.
(e) Pressure vessels.
(i) The normal operating pressure of the vessel ((shall)) must not exceed the design pressure of the vessel.
(ii) Pressure vessels ((shall)) must be built in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1968.
(f) Provisions for internal corrosion. When tanks are not designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s standards, or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design formulas used, you must provide additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings or linings ((shall be provided)) to compensate for the corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank.
(2) Installation of outside aboveground tanks.
(a) Location with respect to property lines and public ways.
(i) Every aboveground tank for the storage of flammable liquids, except those liquids with boil-over characteristics and unstable liquids, operating at pressures not in excess of 2.5 p.s.i.g. and equipped with emergency venting which will not permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. ((shall)) must be located in accordance with Table H-5.
(ii) Every aboveground tank for the storage of flammable liquids, except those liquids with boil-over characteristics and unstable flammable or combustible liquids, operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting which will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. ((shall)) must be located in accordance with Table H-6.
(iii) Every aboveground tank for the storage of flammable liquids with boil-over characteristics ((shall)) must be located in accordance with Table H-7.
(iv) Every aboveground tank for the storage of unstable liquids ((shall)) must be located in accordance with Table H-8.
(v) Reference minimum distances for use in Tables H-5 to H-8 inclusive.
(vi) Where end failure or horizontal pressure tanks and vessels may expose property, you must place the tank ((shall be placed)) with the longitudinal axis parallel to the nearest important exposure.
TABLE H-5
Type of tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from nearest side of any public way or from
nearest important building and ((shall)) must be not less than 5 feet.
 
Floating
roof ———
Protection for exposures.
 
1/2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 90 ft.
 
1/6 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 30 ft.
 
 
 
None ———––
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/6 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 30 ft.
 
Vertical with weak roof to shell seam
 
 
Approved foam or inerting system on the tank.
 
1/2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 90 ft. and ((shall)) must not be less than 5 ft.
 
1/6 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 30 ft.
 
 
 
Protection for exposures.
 
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
 
 
None ———––
2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
Horizontal and vertical, with emergency relief venting to limit pressures to 2.5 p.s.i.g.
 
Approved inerting system on the tank or approved foam system on vertical tanks.
 
1/2 times Table H-9 but shall not be less than 5 ft.
 
1/2 times Table H-9.
 
 
 
Protection for exposures.
 
Table H-9 ———–
Table H-9
 
 
 
None ———–
2 times table ——
Table H-9
 
TABLE H-6
Type of
tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance
in feet from
nearest side of
any public way or from nearest
important building.
 
Any type
-
Protection for exposures.
 
1 1/2 times Table H-9 but ((shall)) must not be less than 25 ft.
 
1 1/2 times Table H-9 but ((shall)) must not be less than 25 ft.
 
 
 
None ————–
3 times Table H-9 but ((shall)) must not be less than 50 ft.
 
1 1/2 times Table H-9 but ((shall)) must not be less than 25 ft.
 
TABLE H-7
Type of tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from nearest side of any public way or from
nearest important building.
 
Floating
roof ———
Protection for exposures.
 
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
None ————
2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
Fixed
roof ———
Approved foam or inerting system.
 
Diameter of tank but need not exceed 175 ft.
 
1/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 60 ft.
 
Protection
for exposures.
 
2 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
2/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 120 ft.
 
None ————
4 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 350 ft.
 
2/3 times diameter of tank but need not exceed 120 ft.
 
TABLE H-8
Type of tank
 
Protection
 
Minimum distance in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from nearest side of any public way or from
nearest important building.
 
Horizontal and vertical tanks with emergency relief venting to permit pressure not in excess of 2.5 p.s.i.g.
 
Tank protected with any of the following:
Approved water spray, approved inerting, approved insulation and refrigeration, approved barricade.
 
See Table H-9, but the distance may be not less than 25 ft.
 
Not less than 25 ft.
 
Protection for exposures.
 
2 1/2 times Table H-9 but not less than 50 ft.
 
Not less than 50 ft.
 
None ———
 
5 times Table H-9 but not less than 100 ft.
 
Not less than 100 ft.
Horizontal and vertical tanks with emergency relief venting to permit pressure over 2.5 p.s.i.g.
 
Tank protected with any one of the following:
Approved water spray, approved inerting, approved insulation and refrigeration, approved barricade.
 
2 times Table H-9 but not less than 50 ft.
 
Not less than 50 ft.
 
Protection for exposures.
 
4 times Table H-9 but not less than 100 ft.
 
Not less than 100 ft.
None ————
8 times Table H-9 but not less than 150 ft.
 
Not less than 150 ft.
TABLE H-9
Capacity tank gallons
 
Minimum distance
in feet from
property line which may be built upon, including the
opposite side of a public way.
 
Minimum distance in feet from
nearest side of any public way or from nearest important building.
 
275
 
or less
—–—–——— 5
 
5
 
276
 
to
750
–——— 10
 
5
 
751
 
to
12,000
–——— 15
 
5
 
12,001
 
to
30,000
–——— 20