WSR 16-10-082
PERMANENT RULES
DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed May 3, 2016, 10:57 a.m., effective July 1, 2016]
Effective Date of Rule: July 1, 2016.
Purpose: This rule making was federally initiated. The department responded to a Federal Register notice where the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published their final rule relating to Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; and Electrical Protective Equipment (29 C.F.R. 1910 and 1926). This was published on April 11, 2014, and effective July 11, 2014. The department is required to update our rules to be at-least-as-effective-as OSHA. The department has a few provisions that may differ but is at-least-as-effective-as the OSHA rule. In addition, the rule changes incorporated the most recent national standards or best industry practices, including adoption of various 2014 ANSI standards, updating internal references and making minor housekeeping changes throughout the chapter.
AMENDED CHAPTER:
Renamed the title of this chapter from "Safety Standards for Electrical Workers" to "Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution."
AMENDED SECTIONS:
WAC 296-45-015 Scope and application.
Added the word "construction" in subsection (1). Added the word electrical to qualified employees in subsections (1)(a), (e)(i), (ii) and (7).
Changed "qualified persons" to "qualified electrical employees" in the notes after subsection (2).
Added a reference to chapter 296-27 WAC in subsection (4).
Created a new subsection (12) with current language.
WAC 296-45-035 Definitions.
Added definitions for contract employer, entry, fall restraint system, first-aid training, host employer, may, must, network system, personal fall arrest system, roadway or public highway, shall, should, statistical sparkover voltage, statistical withstand voltage, and work-positioning equipment.
Modified the definitions for automatic circuit recloser, designated employee, enclosed space, line-clearance tree trimmer, line-clearance tree trimming, qualified person or qualified employee, and system operator or power dispatcher.
Deleted the definitions of electric utility, public highway, and underground network.
WAC 296-45-045 NESC applicable.
Updated the NESC references to 2012.
WAC 296-45-055 Employer's responsibility.
Updated a reference in subsection (2).
WAC 296-45-065 Training.
Made housekeeping changes in subsections (1), (4), (5), (6) and (8).
Added a new subsection (2) relating to the degree of training, using OSHA language. Renumbered the rest of this section.
Added the word "electrical" to qualified employees in subsections (3) and (3)(c). Added language in subsection (3)(c) using OSHA language. Added a new subsection (3)(e), using OSHA language. Added the word "electrical" to qualified employees in the note after subsection (3)(e).
Added notes after subsection (8) using OSHA language.
Added a new subsection (9) relating to line-clearance tree trimmers using OSHA language.
WAC 296-45-075 Employer's safety program.
Updated a reference in subsection (5).
WAC 296-45-105 Work required of leadworkers.
Changed "lineworkers" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-125 Medical services and first aid.
Added OSHA language in subsections (1)(a) and (3).
WAC 296-45-135 Job briefing.
Reformatted part of the language in subsection (1) and moved to subsection (3).
Added a new subsection (2) using OSHA language. Renumbered the rest of this section.
WAC 296-45-17505 Lockout/tagout (hazardous control) program.
Added the word "designated" after "authorized" throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-17510 Retraining.
Added the word "designated" after "authorized" in subsection (1).
WAC 296-45-17515 Protective materials and hardware.
Updated a reference in the note at the end of this section.
WAC 296-45-17520 Energy isolation and 296-45-17525 Notification.
Added the word "designated" after "authorized" in these sections.
WAC 296-45-17530 Lockout/tagout application.
Added the word "designated" after "authorized" throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-17535 Releasing stored energy.
Added the word "designated" after "authorized" in subsection (2).
WAC 296-45-17540 Release from lockout/tagout, 296-45-17550 Group lockout/tagout, and 296-45-17565 Central system operator.
Added the word "designated" after "authorized" throughout these sections.
WAC 296-45-205 Enclosed spaces.
Updated this section using OSHA language. Also updated references throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-215 Underground electrical installations.
Changed "qualified persons" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
Updated a reference in the note.
WAC 296-45-225 Underground residential distribution (URD).
Updated the table reference in subsection (1)(b).
Changed "qualified employees" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
Changed "qualified employee" to "designated employee" in subsection (1)(c).
WAC 296-45-255 Protective equipment.
Updated the table reference in subsection (15).
WAC 296-45-25505 Personal protective equipment.
Updated the ANSI reference in subsection (2).
Made housekeeping change in subsection (3).
WAC 296-45-25510 Fall protection.
Updated this entire section with OSHA language.
Added a reference to Appendix E.
WAC 296-45-275 Ladders, platforms, and manhole steps.
Updated references in subsections (1), (2) and the note.
WAC 296-45-295 Gasoline engine power chain saws.
Updated the ANSI reference in subsection (1).
Updated a reference in subsection (2).
Added a note after subsection (15).
WAC 296-45-305 Live-line tools.
Updated the ASTM reference in the note.
Made housekeeping change in subsection (2)(c).
Updated the IEEE reference in the note.
WAC 296-45-315 Materials handling and storage.
Changed "qualified employees" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-325 Working on or near exposed energized parts.
Changed "qualified employees" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
Made housekeeping change in subsection (3).
Updated the table reference in subsections (4) and (11). Renumbered subsections (a) and (b).
Replaced Minimum Approach Distance table with a more current table.
Added Table 3, Altitude correction factors using OSHA language. This table was in Appendix A.
Added a reference to Appendix A.
Added a new subsection (13) relating to protection from arcs and flames using OSHA language. Deleted subsection (12)(b) and (c) and the note, now redundant with the new subsection (13). Renumbered section.
Updated language referencing Appendix D.
WAC 296-45-335 Deenergizing lines and equipment for employee protection.
Changed "designated employees" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
Added a new subsection (15) relating to network protectors using OSHA language. Renumbered the rest of this section.
Made housekeeping change in subsection (18).
WAC 296-45-345 Grounding for the protection of employees.
Added "and bonding jumpers" to subsection (3). Also, added a note relating to bonding jumpers.
Updated ASTM reference in the note.
Added language to subsection (6) relating to the order of connection using OSHA language.
Updated language referencing Appendix B.
WAC 296-45-355 Underground grounding.
Made housekeeping change in subsection (3).
WAC 296-45-365 Testing and test facilities.
Changed "qualified employees" to "qualified electrical employees" in the note.
Updated language referencing Appendix B.
WAC 296-45-375 Mechanical equipment, including aerial manlift equipment.
Added references in subsections (1)(a) using OSHA language. Renumbered subsection.
Made housekeeping change in subsection (1)(d).
Updated the table reference in subsection (10)(a). Changed "qualified employee" to "qualified electrical employee."
Updated the table reference in subsection (10)(c)(ii).
Added the word "mechanical" to subsection (10)(c)(iii)(B) to match OSHA.
Updated language referencing Appendix B.
WAC 296-45-385 Overhead lines.
Made housekeeping change in the note, subsections (1)(c), (13)(d) and (16).
Updated language referencing Appendix B and C.
Added language relating to temporary protective grounds to subsection (2)(e) using OSHA language.
Deleted subsections (2)(e)(i) through (v) since covered by new OSHA language. Added notes using OSHA language.
Changed "qualified employees" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-455 Line-clearance tree-trimming operations.
Changed "qualified employees" to "qualified electrical employees" in this section.
Made housekeeping change in subsection (2) and (2)(c).
Updated the table references in subsections (2)(b), (3), (4) and (5).
WAC 296-45-45505 Brush chippers.
Added a reference in subsection (2) and updated a reference in subsection (5).
WAC 296-45-475 Substations.
Updated ANSI references throughout this section.
Changed "qualified persons" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
Updated the table references in subsection (6).
WAC 296-45-48515 Access and working space.
Updated ANSI references throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-48525 Guarding of energized parts.
Updated ANSI references throughout this section.
Changed "qualified persons" to "qualified electrical employees" in subsection (2).
WAC 296-45-545 Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing.
Changed "lineworkers" to "qualified electrical employees" throughout this section.
WAC 296-45-903 Appendix BProtection from step and touch potentialsNonmandatory.
Updated this appendix to match OSHA.
WAC 296-45-905 Appendix CMethods of inspecting and testing wood polesNonmandatory.
Updated this appendix to match OSHA.
NEW SECTIONS:
WAC 296-45-067 Information transfer.
Created this section relating to host and contract employers using OSHA language.
WAC 296-45-902 Appendix AWorking on exposed energized parts.
Added this appendix from 29 C.F.R. 1910.269.
WAC 296-45-906 Appendix DProtection from flames and arcsNonmandatory.
Added this appendix from 29 C.F.R. 1910.269 and add applicable WAC numbers.
WAC 296-45-907 Appendix EWork-positioning equipment inspection guidelinesNonmandatory.
Added this appendix from 29 C.F.R. 1910.269.
WAC 296-45-908 Appendix FOther applicable safety and health Washington administrative codes.
Added this appendix as a resource.
WAC 296-45-909 Appendix GFlow chartNonmandatory.
Added this appendix from 29 C.F.R. 1910.269.
WAC 296-45-910 Appendix HReference documents.
Added this appendix from 29 C.F.R. 1910.269.
REPEALED SECTION:
WAC 296-45-901 Appendix ANonmandatory.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: See Purpose above.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Other Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 16-01-030 on December 8, 2015.
Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: As a result of written and oral comments received, the following sections are being changed as indicated below:
CHANGES TO THE RULES (Proposed rule versus rule actually adopted):
WAC 296-45-25510 Fall protection.
Changed "qualified employee" to "qualified electrical employee" in subsection (4)(c)(iii) to be consistent in the use of this terminology throughout the rule.
WAC 296-45-905 Appendix CMethods of inspecting and testing wood polesNonmandatory.
II. "Inspection of wood poles." Changed "qualified employee" to "qualified electrical employee" to be consistent in the use of this terminology throughout the rule.
A final cost-benefit analysis is available by contacting Cynthia Ireland, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, phone (360) 902-5522, fax (360) 902-5619, e-mail cynthia.ireland@lni.wa.gov.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 7, Amended 44, Repealed 1; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 7, Amended 44, Repealed 1.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 7, Amended 44, Repealed 1.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Date Adopted: May 3, 2016.
Joel Sacks
Director
Chapter  296-45  WAC
((SAFETY STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL WORKERS)) ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, AND DISTRIBUTION
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-45-015 Scope and application.
(1) This chapter covers the operation ((and)), maintenance, and construction of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment. These provisions apply to:
(a) Power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified electrical employees;
Note:
The types of installations covered by this chapter include the generation, transmission, and distribution installations of electric utilities, as well as equivalent installations of industrial establishments. Trolley maintenance, jumpering, and bypass is also covered by this chapter. Supplementary electric generating equipment that is used to supply a workplace for emergency, standby, or similar purposes only is covered under Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC and WAC 296-800-280.
(b) Other installations at an electric power generating station, as follows:
(i) Fuel and ash handling and processing installations, such as coal conveyors;
(ii) Water and steam installations, such as penstocks, pipelines, and tanks, providing a source of energy for electric generators; and
(iii) Chlorine and hydrogen systems.
(c) Test sites where electrical testing involving temporary measurements associated with electric power generation, transmission, and distribution is performed in laboratories, in the field, in substations, and on lines, as opposed to metering, relaying, and routine line work;
(d) Work on or directly associated with the installations covered in subsections (1)(a) through (c) of this section; and
(e) Line-clearance tree-trimming operations, as follows:
(i) This chapter except WAC 296-45-455, applies to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by qualified electrical employees (those who are knowledgeable in the construction and operation of electric power generation, transmission, or distribution equipment involved, along with the associated hazards).
(ii) WAC 296-45-065, 296-45-125, 296-45-135, 296-45-255, 296-45-315, 296-45-375, and 296-45-455 through 296-45-45530 apply to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by line-clearance tree trimmers who are not qualified electrical employees.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) of this section, this chapter does not apply to electrical installations, electrical safety-related work practices, or electrical maintenance considerations covered by Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC and WAC 296-800-280.
Note 1:
Work practices conforming to WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985 are considered as complying with the electrical safety-related work practice requirements of this chapter, provided the work is being performed on a generation or distribution installation meeting WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699. This chapter also applies to work by qualified ((persons)) electrical employees directly on or associated with installations of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines or equipment, regardless of compliance with WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985.
Note 2:
Work practices performed by qualified ((persons)) electrical employees and conforming to this chapter are considered as complying with WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699.
(3) This section applies in addition to all other applicable safety and health standards administered by the department. Specific references in this section to other standards are provided for emphasis only.
(4) Operation, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities not specifically covered by this chapter are subject to the rules and regulations of chapter 296-24 WAC((,)) General safety and health standards; chapter 296-27 WAC Recordkeeping and reporting; chapter 296-62 WAC((,)) General occupational health standards; chapter 296-155 WAC((,)) Safety standards for construction work; chapter 296-800 WAC((,)) Safety and health core rules; and, insofar as applicable to employee safety and health, chapter 19.29 RCW. Additionally, operations, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities may be subject to additional rules and regulations depending upon the nature of the work being performed.
(5) These rules shall not apply to the use of existing electrical installations during their lifetime, provided they are maintained in good condition and in accordance with the applicable safety factor requirements and the rules in effect at the time they were installed, and provided that reconstruction shall conform to the rules as herein provided.
(6) Any rule, regulation or standard contained within this chapter, if subject to interpretation, shall be interpreted so as to achieve employee safety, which is the ultimate purpose of this chapter.
(7) Should a rule or standard contained within this chapter conflict, in any manner, with a standard or rule contained within any other chapter of Title 296 WAC the standard or rule contained herein shall apply so long as the work being done is power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified electrical employees. If there are rules within this chapter that conflict, the rule that provides the greatest employee safety will apply.
(8) Neither the promulgation of these rules, nor anything contained in these rules shall be construed as affecting the relative status or civil rights or liabilities between employers and their employees and/or the employees of others and/or the public generally; nor shall the use herein of the words "duty" and "responsibility" or either, import or imply liability other than provided for in the industrial insurance and safety laws of the state of Washington, to any person for injuries due to negligence predicated upon failure to perform or discharge any such "duty" or "responsibility," but failure on the part of the employees, leadworker, or employer to comply with any compulsory rule may be cause for the department of labor and industries to take action in accordance with the industrial insurance and safety laws.
(9) "Shall" and "must" as used in this chapter make the provisions mandatory. "Should," "may," or "it is recommended" are used to indicate the provisions are not mandatory but are recommended.
(10) If any section, subsection, phrase, or provisions of this chapter or part thereof should be held invalid by any court for any reason, such invalidity shall not in any way affect the validity of the remainder of this chapter, unless such decision renders the remainder of the provision unintelligible, or changes the meaning of such other provision or provisions.
(11) When the language used in this chapter indicates that it is the responsibility, duty, or obligation of the leadworker or other employee, it shall also be the employer's responsibility, obligation, and duty.
(12) Whenever this chapter refers to the provisions of another safety and health standard or statute affecting safety and health, such reference refers to the statute or code in effect at the time the work is being performed.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-45-035 Definitions.
These definitions apply to chapter 296-45 WAC.
"Aerial manlift equipment" - Equipment such as extended towers, boom-mounted cages or baskets, and truck-mounted ladders, that is primarily designed to place personnel and equipment aloft to work on elevated structures and equipment.
"Affected employee" - An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
"Apprentice" - An employee who is being trained to be journey level.
"Approved" - Meets or exceeds the recognized standards of safety within the industry.
"Approved protectors" - Gloves worn over rubber insulating gloves which are of such material or substance and so constructed as to protect the rubber gloves from abrasions, lacerations, or other physical damage which might otherwise occur to rubber gloves. Approved protectors must conform to the standards which are recognized by the industry.
"Attendant" - An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.
"Authorized employee" - An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.
"Automatic ((circuit recloser)) reclosing device" - A self-controlled device for interrupting and reclosing an alternating current circuit with a predetermined sequence of opening and reclosing followed by resetting, hold-closed, or lockout operation.
"Barricade" - A physical obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame type wood or metal structures intended to provide a warning about and to limit access to a hazardous area.
"Barrier" - A physical obstruction which is intended to prevent contact with energized lines or equipment or to prevent unauthorized access to a work area.
"Bond" - The electrical interconnection of conductive parts designed to maintain a common electrical potential.
"Bus" - A conductor or a group of conductors that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits.
"Bushing" - An insulating structure, including a through conductor or providing a passageway for such a conductor, with provision for mounting on a barrier, conducting or otherwise, for the purposes of insulating the conductor from the barrier and conducting current from one side of the barrier to the other.
"Cable" - A conductor with insulation, or a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).
"Cable sheath" - A conductive protective covering applied to cables.
Note:
A cable sheath may consist of multiple layers of which one or more is conductive.
"Circuit" - A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow.
"Clearance" (between objects) - The clear distance between two objects measured surface to surface.
"Clearance" (for work) - Authorization to perform specified work or permission to enter a restricted area.
"Communication lines." (See "Lines, communication.")
"Conductor" - A material, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or bus bar, used for carrying an electric current.
"Contract employer" - An employer, other than a host employer, that performs work covered by this chapter under contract.
"Covered conductor" - A conductor covered with a dielectric having no rated insulating strength or having a rated insulating strength less than the voltage of the circuit in which the conductor is used.
"Current-carrying part" - A conducting part intended to be connected in an electric circuit to a source of voltage. Noncurrent-carrying parts are those not intended to be so connected.
"Deenergized" - Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential difference and from electric charge; not having a potential difference from that of the earth.
Note:
The term is used only with reference to current-carrying parts, which are sometimes energized (alive).
"Designated employee((/person))" - ((An employee/)) A person who is designated by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this ((section)) chapter and who is knowledgeable in the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved.
Note:
Considering an employee to be a designated employee will depend on various circumstances in the workplace, on the level of training they have received, and the proficiency demonstrated by the employee with the tasks required of the job.
"Electric line truck" - Any vehicle used to transport employees, tools, and material, which serves as a traveling workshop for electric power line construction and maintenance work. It may be equipped with a boom and auxiliary equipment for setting poles, digging holes, and elevating material and/or workers.
"Electric supply equipment" - Equipment that produces, modifies, regulates, controls, or safeguards a supply of electric energy.
"Electric supply lines." (See "Lines, electric supply.")
(("Electric utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of an electric supply system.))
"Emergency" - An unforeseen occurrence endangering life, limb, or property.
"Enclosed" - Surrounded by a case, cage, fence or otherwise which will protect the contained equipment and prevent accidental contact of a person with live parts.
"Enclosed space" - A working space, such as a manhole, vault, tunnel, or shaft, that has a limited means of egress or entry, that is designed for periodic employee entry under normal operating conditions, and that under normal conditions does not contain a hazardous atmosphere, but that may contain a hazardous atmosphere under abnormal conditions.
Note:
Spaces that are enclosed but not designed for employee entry under normal operating conditions are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Similarly, spaces that are enclosed and that are expected to contain a hazardous atmosphere are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Such spaces meet the definition of permit spaces in ((WAC 296-62-145)) chapter 296-809 WAC, Confined spaces, and entry into them must be performed in accordance with that standard.
"Energized" (alive, live) - Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity.
"Energy isolating device" - A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including, but not limited to, the following: A manually operated electric circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line valve, blocks, and any similar device with a visible indication of the position of the device. (Push buttons, selector switches, and other control-circuit-type devices are not energy isolating devices.)
"Energy source" - Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy source that could cause injury to personnel.
"Entry" (as used in WAC 296-45-205 of this chapter) - The action by which a person passes through an opening into an enclosed space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.
"Equipment" (electric) - A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like used as part of or in connection with an electrical installation.
"Exposed" - Not isolated or guarded.
"Fall restraint system" - A fall protection system that prevents the user from falling any distance.
"Fault current" - The current that flows in an electrical system because of a defect in the circuit induced accidentally or otherwise.
"First-aid training" - Training in the initial care, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (which includes chest compressions, rescue breathing, and, as appropriate, other heart and lung resuscitation techniques), performed by a person who is not a medical practitioner, of a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be administered.
"Fixed ladder" - A ladder that is permanently secured to a structure.
"Ground" - A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electric circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded" - Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded system" - A system of conductors in which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire, or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded either solidly or through a current-limiting device (not a current-interrupting device).
"Groundperson" - A member of crew working on ground under direction of a leadworker.
"Guarded" - Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to prevent the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or accidental contact by persons or objects.
Note:
Wires which are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not considered as guarded.
"Hazardous atmosphere" - An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from an enclosed space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
• Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
• Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;
Note:
This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less;
• Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
• Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part L, or in chapter 296-62 WAC, toxic and hazardous substances, and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;
Note:
An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.
• Any other atmospheric condition that is "immediately dangerous to life or health" (IDLH).
(("IDLH" - Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
Note:
Some materials (hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example) may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.
Note:
For air contaminants for which WISHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Safety Data Sheets that comply with the hazard communication program, WAC 296-901-140, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.))
"High-power tests" - Tests in which fault currents, load currents, magnetizing currents, and line-dropping currents are used to test equipment, either at the equipment's rated voltage or at lower voltages.
"High-voltage tests" - Tests in which voltages of approximately 1000 volts are used as a practical minimum and in which the voltage source has sufficient energy to cause injury.
"High wind" - A wind of such velocity that the following hazards would be present:
• An employee would be exposed to being blown from elevated locations; or
• An employee or material handling equipment could lose control of material being handled; or
• An employee would be exposed to other hazards not controlled by the standard involved.
Note:
Winds exceeding 40 miles per hour (64.4 kilometers per hour), or 30 miles per hour (48.3 kilometers per hour) if material handling is involved, are normally considered as meeting this criteria unless precautions are taken to protect employees from the hazardous effects of the wind.
"Host employer" - An employer that operates, or that controls the operating procedures for, an electric power generation, transmission, or distribution installation on which a contract employer is performing work covered by this chapter.
Note:
The division of occupational safety and health (DOSH) will treat the electric utility or the owner of the installation as the host employer if it operates or controls operating procedures for the installation. If the electric utility or installation owner neither operates nor controls operating procedures for the installation, DOSH will treat the employer that the utility or owner has contracted with to operate or control the operating procedures for the installation as the host employer. In no case will there be more than one host employer.
"IDLH" - Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
Note:
Some materials (hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example) may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse twelve to seventy-two hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.
Note:
For air contaminants for which WISHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as safety data sheets that comply with the hazard communication program, WAC 296-901-140, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
"Insulated" - Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current.
Note:
When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the conditions to which it is normally subjected. Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of this section, uninsulated.
"Insulation" (cable) - That which is relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from ground.
"Insulation shielding" - An envelope which encloses the insulation of a cable and provides an equipotential surface in contact with cable insulation.
"Isolated" - An object that is not readily accessible to persons unless special means of access are used.
"Leadworker" - The person directly in charge of workers doing the work, regardless of title.
"Line-clearance tree trimmer" - An employee who, through related training or on-the-job experience or both, is familiar with the special techniques and hazards involved in line-clearance tree trimming.
Note 1:
An employee who is regularly assigned to a line-clearance tree-trimming crew and who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a line-clearance tree trimmer.
Note 2:
A line-clearance tree trimmer is not considered to be a "qualified electrical employee" under this section unless ((he or she has)) they have the training required for a qualified electrical employee under WAC 296-45-065. However, under the electrical safety-related work practices standard, a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a "qualified employee." Tree trimming performed by such "qualified employees" is not subject to the electrical safety-related work practice requirements contained in WAC 296-24-970. (See also the note following WAC 296-24-970 for information regarding the training an employee must have to be considered a qualified employee.)
"Line-clearance tree trimming" - The pruning, trimming, repairing, maintaining, removing, or clearing of trees or the cutting of brush that is within ((10 feet (305 cm))) the following distance of electric supply lines and equipment:
• For voltages to ground of 50 kilovolts or less - 3.05 meters (10 feet);
• For voltages to ground of more than 50 kilovolts - 3.05 meters (10 feet) plus 0.10 meters (4 inches) for every 10 kilovolts over 50 kilovolts.
"Lines" - 
"Communication lines" - The conductors and their supporting or containing structures which are used for public or private signal or communication service, and which operate at potentials not exceeding 400 volts to ground or 750 volts between any two points of the circuit, and the transmitted power of which does not exceed 150 watts. If the lines are operating at less than 150 volts, no limit is placed on the transmitted power of the system. Under certain conditions, communication cables may include communication circuits exceeding these limitations where such circuits are also used to supply power solely to communication equipment.
Note:
Telephone, telegraph, railroad signal, data, clock, fire, police alarm, cable television, and other systems conforming with this definition are included. Lines used for signaling purposes, but not included under this definition, are considered as electric supply lines of the same voltage.
"Electric supply lines" - Conductors used to transmit electric energy and their necessary supporting or containing structures. Signal lines of more than 400 volts are always supply lines within this section, and those of less than 400 volts are considered as supply lines, if so run and operated throughout.
"Live-line tools and ropes" - Tools and ropes specifically designed for work on energized high voltage lines and equipment.
"Load-break elbow" - A connector designed to close and interrupt current on energized circuits within the design current and voltage rating.
"Manhole" - A subsurface enclosure which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, and maintaining submersible equipment or cable.
"Manhole steps" - A series of steps individually attached to or set into the walls of a manhole structure.
"May" and "should" or "it is recommended" are used to indicate the provisions are not mandatory but are recommended.
"Minimum approach distance" - The closest distance an employee is permitted to approach an energized or a grounded object.
"Must" and "shall" as used in this chapter make the provisions mandatory.
"Network system" - An electrical installation fed from multiple primary sources directly associated with area-wide secondary network connected into a common grid.
"Neutral" - A system in which one conductor is used as the neutral for one or more circuits; one conductor may be used as the neutral for both primary and secondary circuits of a distribution system.
"Personal fall arrest system" - A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level.
"Pole" - Any device used to support a power distribution or transmission line. The pole may be made of any substance including wood, concrete, metal, is usually cylindrical in shape and comparatively slender. It is the upright standard to which is affixed part of the power distribution and transmission line system as defined in this chapter.
"Power dispatcher" (load dispatcher or system operator) - A person who has been designated by the employer as having authority over switching and clearances of high voltage lines and station equipment.
"Protective devices" - Devices such as rubber gloves, rubber blankets, line hose, rubber boots, or other insulating devices, which are specifically designed for the protection of employees.
(("Public highway" - Every way, land, road, street, boulevard, and every other way or place in the state open as a matter of right to public vehicular travel, both inside and outside the limits of cities and towns, regardless of ownership.))
"Qualified ((person or qualified)) electrical employee" - A person who is familiar ((with)) and knowledgeable in the construction ((of, or)) and operation of the electric power generation, transmission, and distribution equipment involved, and such lines and/or equipment that concerns his/her position and who is fully aware of the hazards connected therewith, or, one who has passed a journey status examination for the particular branch of the electrical trades with which he/she may be connected.
((Note 1:))
Notes:
An employee must have the training required by WAC 296-45-065(((1))) in order to be considered a qualified electrical employee.
((Note 2:))
(((Apprentice) Except under WAC 296-45-25510(12),)) • An employee who is undergoing on-the-job training ((and)) (an apprentice) who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified ((person)) electrical employee is considered to be a qualified ((person)) electrical employee for the performance of those duties.
 
• An employee having experience and training comparable to journey level would be considered a qualified electrical employee.
"Roadway or public highway" - Every way, land, road, street, boulevard, and every other way or place in the state open as a matter of right to public vehicular travel, both inside and outside the limits of cities and towns, regardless of ownership.
"Rubber" - Any goods, equipment, or tool made out of either natural or synthetic rubber.
"Secured ladder" - A ladder which is not capable of being dislodged from the top by lateral, or jerking motion(s).
"Shall" and "must" as used in this chapter make the provisions mandatory.
"Sheath" - As applied to tools carried in a lineman's tool belt, a sheath that effectively covers the tool and prevents such tool from falling from the belt.
"Should" and "may" or "it is recommended" are used to indicate the provisions are not mandatory but are recommended.
"Statistical sparkover voltage" - A transient overvoltage level that produces a 97.72 percent probability of sparkover (that is, two standard deviations above the voltage at which there is a 50 percent probability of sparkover).
"Statistical withstand voltage" - A transient overvoltage level that produces a 0.14 percent probability of sparkover (that is, three standard deviations below the voltage at which there is a 50 percent probability of sparkover).
"Step bolt" - A bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member and used for foot placement during climbing or standing.
"Supporting structure" - The main supporting unit (usually a pole or tower).
"Switch" - A device for opening and closing or for changing the connection of a circuit. In these rules, a switch is understood to be manually operable, unless otherwise stated.
"System operator or power dispatcher" - A qualified ((person)) electrical employee who has been designated by the employer and having authority over switching, clearances, and operation of the system and its parts.
"Tag" - A system or method of identifying circuits, systems, or equipment for the purpose of alerting employees and others that the circuit, system, or equipment is being worked on.
(("Underground network" - An underground electrical installation fed from multiple primary sources directly associated with area-wide secondary network connected into a common grid.))
"Underground residential distribution system" (URD) - An electrical installation normally fed from a single primary source which may feed one or more transformers with secondaries not connected to a common grid.
"Utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of electric supply or communications systems.
"Vault" - An enclosure, above or below ground, which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, or maintaining equipment or cable.
"Vented vault" - A vault that has provision for air changes using exhaust flue stacks and low level air intakes operating on differentials of pressure and temperature providing for airflow which precludes a hazardous atmosphere from developing.
"Voltage" - The effective (rms) potential difference between any two conductors or between a conductor and ground. Voltages are expressed in nominal values unless otherwise indicated. The nominal voltage of a system or circuit is the value assigned to a system or circuit of a given voltage class for the purpose of convenient designation. The operating voltage of the system may vary above or below this value.
Note:
Low voltage includes voltages from 50 to 600 volts. High voltage shall mean those voltages of 601 volts to 230,000. Extra high voltage means any voltage over 230,000 volts. Where the words "high voltage" are used in this chapter it shall include extra high voltage, unless otherwise specified.
"Work-positioning equipment" - A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a utility pole or tower leg, and work with both hands free while leaning.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 03-17-071, filed 8/19/03, effective 11/1/03)
WAC 296-45-045 NESC applicable.
(1) All electric utilities and entities operating transmission and distribution facilities within the state of Washington must design, construct, operate, and maintain their lines and equipment according to the requirements of the ((2002)) 2012 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), parts (1), (2), and (3).
Note:
The department has copies of the NESC available for review at each service location across the state. To purchase a copy, write to:
 
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE, Inc.)
445 Hoes Lane
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
(2) The employer must ensure that climbing space is provided on all poles and structures. The climbing space must meet the requirements of the ((2002)) 2012 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), except that Rule 236H does not apply.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-45-055 Employer's responsibility.
(1) The employer shall provide and maintain the necessary protective devices specified in these rules and require the employees to use them properly.
(2) The employer shall develop and maintain a hazard communication program as required by ((WAC 296-901-140)) chapter 296-901 WAC, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.
(3) There shall be installed and maintained in every fixed establishment employing eight or more persons a safety bulletin board of a size to display and post safety bulletins, newsletters, posters, accident statistics and other safety educational material. It is recommended that safety bulletin boards be painted green and white.
(4) The employer shall require the leadworker to observe and enforce all safety rules and shall furnish a copy of the electrical workers' safety rules to each employee who is covered by these rules.
(5) The employer shall appoint only competent workers to supervise other employees and those appointed shall be responsible for the safety of the employees under their supervision.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-065 Training.
(1) Each employee((s)) shall be trained and proficient in the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other safety requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job assignments. Employees shall also be trained in and proficient with any other safety practices, including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole top, aerial, manhole, and tree rescue), that are not specifically addressed by this section but that are related to their work and are necessary for their safety.
(((1))) (2) The degree of training shall be determined by the risk of the employee for the hazard involved.
(3) Qualified electrical employees shall also be trained and competent in:
(a) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment;
(b) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts;
(c) The minimum approach distances specified in this ((section)) chapter corresponding to the voltages to which the qualified electrical employee will be exposed((;)) and the skills and techniques necessary to maintain those distances;
(d) The proper use of the special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools for working on or near exposed energized parts of electric equipment; and
(e) The recognition of electrical hazards to which the employee may be exposed and the skills and techniques necessary to control or avoid these hazards.
Note:
For the purposes of this section, a person must have this training in order to be considered a qualified ((person)) electrical employee.
(((2))) (4) The employer shall determine, through regular supervision and through inspections conducted on at least an annual basis, that each employee is complying with the safety-related work practices required by this ((section.
(3))) chapter.
(5) An employee shall receive additional training (or retraining) under any of the following conditions:
(a) If the supervision and annual inspections required by subsection (((2))) (4) of this section indicate that the employee is not complying with the safety-related work practices required by this ((section)) chapter; or
(b) If new technology, new types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related work practices that are different from those which the employee would normally use; or
(c) If ((he or she)) the employee must employ safety related work practices that are not normally used during ((his or her)) their regular job duties.
Note:
((WISHA)) DOSH would consider tasks that are performed less often than once per year to necessitate retraining before the performance of the work practices involved.
(((4))) (6) The training required by ((WAC 296-45-065)) this section shall be of the classroom or on-the-job type.
(((5))) (7) The training shall establish employee proficiency in the work practices required by this section and shall introduce the procedures necessary for compliance with this section.
(((6))) (8) The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by ((WAC 296-45-065)) this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment.
Notes:
Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.
 
• For an employee with previous training, an employer may determine that the employee has demonstrated the proficiency required by this subsection using the following process:
- Confirm that the employee has the training required by this section;
- Use an examination or interview to make an initial determination that the employee understands the relevant safety related work practices before he or she performs any work covered by this chapter; and
 
• Supervise the employee closely until that employee has demonstrated proficiency as required by this section.
(9) Each line-clearance tree trimmer who is not a qualified electrical employee shall also be trained and competent in:
(a) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment;
(b) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts; and
(c) The minimum approach distances specified in this chapter corresponding to the voltages to which the employee will be exposed and the skills and techniques necessary to maintain those distances.
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-45-067 Information transfer.
(1) Host employer responsibilities. Before work begins, the host employer shall inform contract employers of:
(a) The characteristics of the host employer's installation that are related to the safety of the work to be performed and are listed in subsection (4)(a) through (e) of this section;
Note:
This subsection requires the host employer to obtain information listed in subsection (4)(a) through (e) of this section if it does not have this information in existing records.
(b) Conditions that are related to the safety of the work to be performed, that are listed in subsection (4)(f) through (h) of this section, and that are known to the host employer;
Note:
For the purposes of this subsection, the host employer need only provide information to contract employers that the host employer can obtain from its existing records through the exercise of reasonable diligence. This subsection does not require the host employer to make inspections of worksite conditions to obtain this information.
(c) Information about the design and operation of the host employer's installation that the contract employer needs to make the assessments required by this chapter; and
Note:
This subsection requires the host employer to obtain information about the design and operation of its installation that contract employers need to make required assessments if it does not have this information in existing records.
(d) Any other information about the design and operation of the host employer's installation that is known by the host employer, that the contract employer requests, and that is related to the protection of the contract employer's employees.
Note:
For the purposes of this subsection, the host employer need only provide information to contract employers that the host employer can obtain from its existing records through the exercise of reasonable diligence. This subsection does not require the host employer to make inspections of worksite conditions to obtain this information.
(2) Contract employer responsibilities.
(a) The contract employer shall ensure that each of its employees is instructed in the hazardous conditions relevant to the employee's work that the contract employer is aware of as a result of information communicated to the contract employer by the host employer under subsection (1) of this section.
(b) Before work begins, the contract employer shall advise the host employer of any unique hazardous conditions presented by the contract employer's work.
(c) The contract employer shall advise the host employer of any unanticipated hazardous conditions found during the contract employer's work that the host employer did not mention under subsection (1) of this section. The contract employer shall provide this information to the host employer within two working days after discovering the hazardous condition.
(3) Joint host- and contract-employer responsibilities. The contract employer and the host employer shall coordinate their work rules and procedures so that each employee of the contract employer and the host employer is protected as required by this section.
(4) Existing characteristics and conditions. Existing characteristics and conditions of electric lines and equipment that are related to the safety of the work to be performed shall be determined before work on or near the lines or equipment is started. Such characteristics and conditions include, but are not limited to:
(a) The nominal voltages of lines and equipment;
(b) The maximum switching-transient voltages;
(c) The presence of hazardous induced voltages;
(d) The presence of protective grounds and equipment grounding conductors;
(e) The locations of circuits and equipment, including electric supply lines, communication lines, and fire protective signaling circuits;
(f) The condition of protective grounds and equipment grounding conductors;
(g) The condition of poles; and
(h) Environmental conditions relating to safety.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-45-075 Employer's safety program.
(1) The employer shall hold safety meetings at least once a month, which meetings shall be held at a reasonable time and place as selected by the employer. The employer shall require all employees subject to provisions of this chapter to attend said meetings: Provided, That employees whose presence is otherwise required by reason of an emergency or whose function is such that they cannot leave their station or cease their work without serious detriment to the service provided, such as dispatcher, may be excused from such meeting under those circumstances. Minutes shall be kept of each safety meeting and retained for a period of one year.
(2) The employer or a representative(s) designated shall investigate all accidents or injuries of a serious nature and, where possible, take the proper remedial steps to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.
(3) The employer shall furnish instructions stating the proper procedure in event of an emergency, which shall include the names of those individuals to be notified and methods of contacting them.
(4) The employer shall provide and make available to all employees accident report and safety suggestion forms or other approved methods. Safety suggestion forms should, where possible, be used for suggesting the elimination of hazardous conditions and such reported suggestions shall be retained (for one year) by the employer or an authorized representative.
(5) ((The employer must notify the department of employee fatalities or catastrophes according to the requirements of WAC 296-800-320.)) For work-related injuries and illnesses involving any employee that resulted in death, inpatient hospitalization, amputation or loss of an eye, the employer must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting regulations located in chapter 296-27 WAC.
(6) Nothing contained within this chapter shall prohibit an employer or an authorized representative from disciplining employees for failure to comply with the provisions of this or any other safety code.
(7) Existing conditions related to the safety of the work to be performed shall be determined before work on or near electric lines or equipment is started. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, the nominal voltages of lines and equipment, the maximum switching transient voltages, the presence of hazardous induced voltages, the presence and condition of protective grounds and equipment grounding conductors, the condition of poles, environmental conditions relative to safety, and the locations of circuits and equipment, including power and communication lines and fire protective signaling circuits.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-105 Work required of leadworkers.
(1) A leadworker cannot properly supervise the work and look out for the safety of employees under their direction if required to work as a leadworker and a ((lineworker)) qualified electrical employee at the same time.
(2) Leadworkers should be constantly alert and shall not be required to serve in such dual capacity, except in crews of not more than two ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees, in which case they may work as one of the ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees.
(3) In crews of two ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees or less, each ((lineworker)) qualified electrical employee may have a groundworker but, if additional ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees or groundworkers are added to the crew, the leadworker shall confine his/her activities to supervising the work, as exhibited below:
Type of Crew
Minimum Requirements
2 ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees
One ((lineworker)) qualified electrical employee as person-in-charge.
2 ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees plus 1 groundworker
One ((lineworker)) qualified electrical employee as person-in-charge or climbing leadworker.
2 ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees plus 2 groundworkers
One ((lineworker)) qualified electrical employee as person-in-charge or climbing leadworker.
2 ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees plus any combination of 3 ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees or groundworkers
One nonclimbing leadworker.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 04-07-160, filed 3/23/04, effective 5/1/04)
WAC 296-45-125 Medical services and first aid.
The employer shall provide medical services and first aid as required in WAC 296-800-150. The following requirements also apply:
(1) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first-aid training. When employees are performing work on or associated with exposed lines or equipment energized at 50 volts or more, persons trained in first aid including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) shall be available as follows:
(a) For field work involving two or more employees at a work location, at least two trained persons shall be available. However, for line-clearance tree trimming operations performed by line-clearance tree trimmers who are not qualified electrical employees, only one trained person need be available if all new employees are trained in first aid, including CPR, within 3 months of their hiring dates.
(b) For fixed work locations such as generating stations, the number of trained persons available shall be sufficient to ensure that each employee exposed to electric shock can be reached within 4 minutes by a trained person. However, where the existing number of employees is insufficient to meet this requirement (at a remote substation, for example), all employees at the work location shall be trained.
(2) First-aid supplies. First-aid supplies required by WAC 296-800-150 shall be placed in weatherproof containers if the supplies could be exposed to the weather.
(3) First-aid kits. ((Each first-aid kit)) The employer shall ((be maintained)) maintain each first-aid kit, shall ((be)) ensure that it is readily available for use, and shall ((be inspected)) inspect it frequently enough to ensure that expended items are replaced ((but)). The employer also shall inspect each first-aid kit at least once per year.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-135 Job briefing.
(1) The employer shall ensure that the leadworker conducts a job briefing with the employees involved before they start each job. ((The briefing shall cover at least the following subjects: Hazards associated with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy source controls, and personal protective equipment requirements.
(1))) (2) The employer shall provide the employee in charge of the job with all available information that relates to the determination of existing characteristics and conditions required by WAC 296-45-067(4) of this chapter.
(3) The briefing shall also cover at the least the following subjects:
(a) Hazards associated with the job;
(b) Work procedures involved;
(c) Special precautions;
(d) Energy source controls; and
(e) Personal protective equipment requirements.
(4) Number of briefings. If the work or operations to be performed during the work day or shift are repetitive and similar, at least one job briefing shall be conducted before the start of the first job of each day or shift. Additional job briefings shall be held if significant changes, which might affect the safety of the employees, occur during the course of the work.
(((2))) (5) Extent of briefing. A brief discussion is satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employee, by virtue of training and experience, can reasonably be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job. A more extensive discussion shall be conducted:
(a) If the work is complicated or particularly hazardous; or
(b) If the employee cannot be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job.
Note:
The briefing is always required to touch on all the subjects listed in the introductory text to this section.
(((3))) (6) Working alone. An employee working alone need not conduct a job briefing. However, the employer shall ensure that the tasks to be performed are planned as if a briefing were required.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17505 Lockout/tagout (hazardous control) program.
(1) The employer shall establish a program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic inspections to ensure that, before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up, or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
(2) The employer's energy control program under this section shall meet the following requirements:
(a) If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use a tagout system.
(b) If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use lockout, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of a tagout system will provide full employee protection as follows:
(i) When a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device which is capable of being locked out, the tagout device shall be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and the employer shall demonstrate that the tagout program will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lockout program.
(ii) In demonstrating that a level of safety is achieved in the tagout program equivalent to the level of safety obtained by the use of a lockout program, the employer shall demonstrate full compliance with all tagout-related provisions of this standard together with such additional elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the demonstration of full employee protection shall include the implementation of additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energizing.
(3) Whenever replacement or major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machines or equipment shall be designed to accept a lockout device.
(4) Procedures shall be developed, documented, and used for the control of potentially hazardous energy covered by this section.
(5) The procedure shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, responsibility, authorization, rules, and techniques to be applied to the control of hazardous energy, and the measures to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) A specific statement of the intended use of this procedure;
(b) Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy;
(c) Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them; and
(d) Specific requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures.
(6) The employer shall conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the provisions of this section are being followed.
(a) The periodic inspection shall be performed by an authorized/designated employee who is not using the energy control procedure being inspected.
(b) The periodic inspection shall be designed to identify and correct any deviations or inadequacies.
(c) If lockout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized/designated employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
(d) Where tagout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized/designated and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected, and the elements set forth in this section.
(e) The employer shall certify that the inspections required by this section have been accomplished. The certification shall identify the machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being used, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.
Note:
If normal work schedule and operation records demonstrate adequate inspection activity and contain the required information, no additional certification is required.
(7) The employer shall provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of energy controls are acquired by employees. The training shall include the following:
(a) Each authorized/designated employee shall receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of energy available in the workplace, and in the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
(b) Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
(c) All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be used shall be instructed about the procedures and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out or tagged out.
(8) When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the following limitations of tags:
(a) Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
(b) When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without authorization of the authorized/designated person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
(c) Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized/designated employees, affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are or may be in the area, in order to be effective.
(d) Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials which will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
(e) Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
(f) Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17510 Retraining.
(1) Retraining shall be provided for all authorized/designated and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a change in machines, equipment, or processes that present a new hazard or whenever there is a change in the energy control procedures.
(2) Retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or whenever the employer has reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in an employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures.
(3) The retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and shall introduce new or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary.
(4) The employer shall certify that employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date. The certification shall contain each employee's name and dates of training.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17515 Protective materials and hardware.
(1) Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing, or blocking of machines or equipment from energy sources.
(2) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be singularly identified; shall be the only devices used for controlling energy; may not be used for other purposes; and shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
(b) Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
(c) Tagout devices shall be so constructed as not to deteriorate when used in corrosive environments.
(3) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be standardized within the facility in at least one of the following criteria: Color, shape, size. Additionally, in the case of tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.
(4) Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or metal cutting tools.
(5) Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means shall be of a nonreusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking, and nonreleasable with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than fifty pounds and shall have the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
(6) Each lockout device or tagout device shall include provisions for the identification of the employee applying the device.
(7) Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and shall include a legend such as the following: Do Not Start, Do Not Open, Do Not Close, Do Not Energize, Do Not Operate.
Note:
((For specific provisions covering accident prevention tags, see chapter 296-24 WAC.)) See ANSI Z535.5, 2011 for the format and design criteria of danger/warning tags.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17520 Energy isolation.
Lockout and tagout device application and removal may only be performed by the authorized/designated employees who are performing the servicing or maintenance.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17525 Notification.
Affected employees shall be notified by the employer or authorized/designated employee of the application and removal of lockout or tagout devices. Notification shall be given before the controls are applied and after they are removed from the machine or equipment.
Note:
This section requires that the second notification take place before the machine or equipment is reenergized.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17530 Lockout/tagout application.
The established procedures for the application of energy control (the lockout or tagout procedures) shall include the following elements and actions, and these procedures shall be performed in the following sequence:
(1) Before an authorized/designated or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized/designated employee shall have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.
(2) The machine or equipment shall be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine or equipment. An orderly shutdown shall be used to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of the equipment stoppage.
(3) All energy isolating devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or equipment shall be physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate the machine or equipment from energy sources.
(4) Lockout or tagout devices shall be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized/designated employees.
(a) Lockout devices shall be attached in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe" or "off" position.
(b) Tagout devices shall be affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited.
(5) Where tagout devices are used with energy isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked out, the tag attachment shall be fastened at the same point at which the lock would have been attached.
(6) Where a tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag shall be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17535 Releasing stored energy.
Following the application of lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy shall be relieved, disconnected, restrained, or otherwise rendered safe.
(1) If there is a possibility of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation shall be continued until the servicing or maintenance is completed or until the possibility of such accumulation no longer exists.
(2) Before starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, the authorized/designated employee shall verify that isolation and deenergizing of the machine or equipment have been accomplished. If normally energized parts will be exposed to contact by an employee while the machine or equipment is deenergized, a test shall be performed to ensure that these parts are deenergized.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17540 Release from lockout/tagout.
Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the machine or equipment, procedures shall be followed and actions taken by the authorized/designated employees to ensure the following:
(1) The work area shall be inspected to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
(2) The work area shall be checked to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
(3) After lockout or tagout devices have been removed and before a machine or equipment is started, affected employees shall be notified that the lockout or tagout devices have been removed.
(4) Each lockout or tagout device shall be removed from each energy isolating device by the authorized/designated employee who applied the lockout or tagout device. However, if that employee is not available to remove it, the device may be removed under the direction of the employer, provided that specific procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented, and incorporated into the employer's energy control program. The employer shall demonstrate that the specific procedure provides a degree of safety equivalent to that provided by the removal of the device by the authorized/designated employee who applied it. The specific procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(a) Verification by the employer that the authorized/designated employee who applied the device is not at the facility;
(b) Making all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized/designated employee to inform him or her that his or her lockout or tagout device has been removed; and
(c) Ensuring that the authorized/designated employee has this knowledge before he or she resumes work at that facility.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-09-080, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99)
WAC 296-45-17550 Group lockout/tagout.
When servicing or maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department, or other group, they shall use a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device. Group lockout or tagout devices shall be used in accordance with the procedures required by the following specific requirements:
(1) Primary responsibility shall be vested in an authorized/designated employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);
(2) Provision shall be made for the authorized/designated employee to ascertain the exposure status of all individual group members with regard to the lockout or tagout of the machine or equipment;
(3) When more than one crew, craft, department, or other group is involved, assignment of overall job-associated lockout or tagout control responsibility shall be given to an authorized/designated employee designated to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection; and
(4) Each authorized/designated employee shall affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work and shall remove those devices when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-17565 Central system operator.
If energy isolating devices are installed in a central location under the exclusive control of a system operator, the following requirements apply:
(1) The employer shall use a procedure that affords employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.
(2) The system operator shall place and remove lockout and tagout devices in place of the authorized/designated employee.
(3) Provisions shall be made to identify the authorized/designated employee who is responsible for (that is, being protected by) the lockout or tagout device, to transfer responsibility for lockout and tagout devices, and to ensure that an authorized/designated employee requesting removal or transfer of a lockout or tagout device is the one responsible for it before the device is removed or transferred.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-205 Enclosed spaces.
This section covers enclosed spaces that may be entered by employees. It does not apply to vented vaults if the employer makes a determination ((is made)) that the ventilation system is operating to protect employees before they enter the space. This ((paragraph)) section applies to routine entry into enclosed spaces in lieu of the permit-space entry requirements contained in chapter 296-809 WAC ((296-62-145)). If, after the employer takes the precautions given in WAC 296-45-205, 296-45-215, and 296-45-225 ((are taken)), the hazards remaining in the enclosed space endanger the life of an entrant or could interfere with an entrant's escape from the space, then entry into the enclosed space shall meet the permit-space entry requirements of chapter 296-809 WAC ((296-62-145)).
Note:
Entries into enclosed spaces conducted in accordance with the permit-space entry requirements of chapter 296-809 WAC ((296-62-145)) are considered as complying with this section.
(1) "Safe work practices." The employer shall ensure the use of safe work practices for entry into, and work in, enclosed spaces and for rescue of employees from such spaces.
(2) "Training." Each employee((s)) who enters an enclosed space((s)) or who serves as an attendant((s)) shall be trained in the hazards of enclosed space entry, in enclosed space entry procedures, and in enclosed space rescue procedures.
(3) "Rescue equipment." Employers shall provide equipment to ensure the prompt and safe rescue of employees from the enclosed space.
(4) "((Evaluation)) Evaluating of potential hazards." Before any entrance cover to an enclosed space is removed, the employer shall determine whether it is safe to do so by checking for the presence of any atmospheric pressure or temperature differences and by evaluating whether there might be a hazardous atmosphere in the space. Any conditions making it unsafe to remove the cover shall be eliminated before the cover is removed.
Note:
The ((evaluation)) determination called for in this subsection may ((take the form)) consist of a check of the conditions ((expected to)) that might foreseeably be in the enclosed space. For example, the cover could be checked to see if it is hot and, if it is fastened in place, could be loosened gradually to release any residual pressure. ((A determination must)) An evaluation also needs to be made of whether conditions at the site could cause a hazardous atmosphere, such as an oxygen deficient or flammable atmosphere, to develop within the space.
(5) "((Removal of)) Removing covers." When covers are removed from enclosed spaces, the opening shall be promptly guarded by a railing, temporary cover, or other barrier ((intended)) designed to prevent an accidental fall through the opening and to protect employees working in the space from objects entering the space.
(6) "Hazardous atmosphere." Employees may not enter any enclosed space while it contains a hazardous atmosphere, unless the entry conforms to the ((generic)) permit-required confined spaces standard in chapter 296-809 WAC ((296-62-145 through 296-62-14543)).
Note:
The term "entry" is defined in chapter 296-809 WAC ((296-62-14501)).
(7) "Attendants." While work is being performed in the enclosed space, ((a person)) an attendant with first-aid training ((meeting WAC 296-45-125)) shall be immediately available outside the enclosed space to ((render emergency)) provide assistance if ((there is reason to believe that)) a hazard ((may)) exists ((in the space or if a hazard exists)) because of traffic patterns in the area of the opening used for entry. ((That person)) The attendant is not precluded from performing other duties outside the enclosed space if these duties do not distract the attendant from monitoring employees within the space or ensuring that it is safe for employees to enter and exit the space.
Note:
See WAC 296-45-215(12) for additional requirements on attendants for work in manholes.
(8) "Calibration of test instruments." Test instruments used to monitor atmospheres in enclosed spaces shall be kept in calibration((, with)) and shall have a minimum accuracy of + or - 10 percent.
(9) "Testing for oxygen deficiency." Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the ((internal)) atmosphere in the enclosed space shall be tested for oxygen deficiency with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument, capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for off-site evaluation. If continuous forced air ventilation is provided, testing is not required provided that the procedures used ensure that employees are not exposed to the hazards posed by oxygen deficiency.
(10) "Testing for flammable gases and vapors." Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested for flammable gases and vapors with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for off-site evaluation. This test shall be performed after the oxygen testing and ventilation required by subsection (9) of this section demonstrate that there is sufficient oxygen to ensure the accuracy of the test for flammability.
(11) "Ventilation and monitoring for flammable gases or vapors." If flammable gases or vapors are detected or if an oxygen deficiency is found, forced air ventilation shall be used to maintain oxygen at a safe level and to prevent a hazardous concentration of flammable gases and vapors from accumulating. A continuous monitoring program to ensure that no increase in flammable gas or vapor concentration above safe levels occurs may be followed in lieu of ventilation((,)) if flammable gases or vapors are initially detected at safe levels.
Note:
See the definition of hazardous atmosphere for guidance in determining whether ((or not a given)) a specific concentration of a substance is ((considered to be)) hazardous.
(12) "Specific ventilation requirements." If continuous forced air ventilation is used, it shall begin before entry is made and shall be maintained long enough for the employer to ((ensure)) be able to demonstrate that a safe atmosphere exists before employees are allowed to enter the work area. The forced air ventilation shall be so directed as to ventilate the immediate area where employees are present within the enclosed space and shall continue until all employees leave the enclosed space.
(13) "Air supply." The air supply for the continuous forced air ventilation shall be from a clean source and may not increase the hazards in the enclosed space.
(14) "Open flames." If open flames are used in enclosed spaces, a test for flammable gases and vapors shall be made immediately before the open flame device is used and at least once per hour while the device is used in the space. Testing shall be conducted more frequently if conditions present in the enclosed space indicate that once per hour is insufficient to detect hazardous accumulations of flammable gases or vapors.
Note:
See the definition of hazardous atmosphere for guidance in determining whether ((or not a given)) a specific concentration of a substance is ((considered to be)) hazardous.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-09-080, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99)
WAC 296-45-215 Underground electrical installations.
This section provides additional requirements for work on underground electrical installations.
(1) Protective barriers, or approved guards and warning signs must be erected before removing manhole covers or making excavations in places accessible to vehicular or pedestrian traffic.
(2) Whenever an opening is made in the street, it shall be properly guarded or covered until same is closed and whenever an obstruction is left in the roadway after dark, it shall be marked with approved lights, flares or similar devices.
(3) Access. A ladder or other climbing device shall be used to enter and exit a manhole or subsurface vault exceeding 4 feet (122 cm) in depth. No employee may climb into or out of a manhole or vault by stepping on cables or hangers.
(4) When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault:
(a) No entry shall be permitted unless the atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for the presence of explosive or potentially hazardous gases or fumes.
(b) No entry shall be permitted unless the atmosphere has been found safe by testing for oxygen deficiency or forced ventilation is provided.
(c) When unsafe conditions are detected, by testing or other means, the work area shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry.
(d) Provisions shall be made for a continuous supply of air as provided for in Part L, chapter 296-62 WAC.
(e) When forced ventilation is not used a method of monitoring said manhole or vault so as to prevent the occurrence of oxygen deficiency due to work being performed in said manhole or vault, and to detect the presence of any explosive gases or fumes which may occur while the employees are working in said manhole or vault.
(5) When open flames are used or smoking is permitted in manholes, adequate mechanical forced air ventilation shall be used.
(6) Before using open flames in a manhole or excavation in an area where combustible gases or liquids may be present, such as near a gasoline service station, the atmosphere of the manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the combustible gases or liquids prior to the entry.
(7) When work is to be performed in manholes containing any wires or appliances carrying electrical current, they shall be in a sanitary condition.
(8) Care shall be taken to prevent the possibility of vehicles or pedestrians coming in contact with the wires and equipment.
(9) Lowering equipment into manholes. Equipment used to lower materials and tools into manholes or vaults shall be capable of supporting the weight to be lowered and shall be checked for defects before use. Before tools or materials are lowered into the opening for a manhole or vault, each employee working in the manhole or vault shall be clear of the area directly under the opening.
(10) Materials shall not be thrown into or out of manholes but shall be placed in the proper receptacle and hoisted in and out by means of a rope.
(11) Tools and materials shall not be left on the ground around or near the manhole opening where they might be pushed or otherwise fall into the hole.
(12) Attendants for manholes.
(a) An attendant shall be kept at the surface when there is any hazard to the employees in the manhole and the attendant should not leave the manhole unwatched until such time as all employees are out and the cover has been replaced.
(b) While work is being performed in a manhole containing energized electric equipment, an employee with first aid and CPR training meeting WAC 296-45-125(1) shall be available on the surface in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance.
((Note 1:))
Notes:
An attendant may also be required under WAC 296-45-205(7). One person may serve to fulfill both requirements. However, attendants required under WAC 296-45-205(7) are not permitted to enter the manhole.
((Note 2:))
Employees entering manholes containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more are required to be qualified electrical employees under WAC ((296-45-325 (1) through (4))) 296-45-065.
(c) No work shall be permitted to be done in any manhole or subway on any energized wire, cable or appliance carrying more than 300 volts of electricity by less than two qualified ((persons)) electrical employees who shall at all times, while performing such work, be in the same manhole or subway in which work is being done. This rule shall not apply to work on telephone, telegraph or signal wires or cables.
(d) For the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work, an employee working alone may enter, for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, if the employer can demonstrate that the employee will be protected from all electrical hazards.
(e) Reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, shall be maintained among all employees involved in the job.
(13) Cable in manholes or underground vaults shall be accessible to employees and a clear working space shall be maintained at all times; and/or approved protective guards, barriers, etc., when installed shall be considered as providing adequate working clearance for cables over 5 k.v. If a manhole and/or underground vault is determined to have an electrical or structural hazard, no work shall be done in the manhole and/or vault until the unsafe condition is corrected or deenergized.
(14) No work shall be performed on cables or equipment unless they have been properly identified by an approved method.
(15) Duct rods. If duct rods are used, they shall be installed in the direction presenting the least hazard to employees. An employee shall be stationed at the far end of the duct line being rodded to ensure that the required minimum approach distances are maintained.
(16) Multiple cables. When multiple cables are present in a work area, the cable to be worked shall be identified by electrical means, unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance or location or by other readily apparent means of identification. Cables other than the one being worked shall be protected from damage.
(17) Before cutting into a high voltage cable or opening a high voltage splice, the cable shall be deenergized then clearance obtained, tested and then grounded in an approved manner. The cable to be worked on shall be identified by tags or equivalent means.
(18) Moving cables. Energized cables that are to be moved shall be inspected for defects.
(19) Insulated platforms or other protective devices shall be provided when work is to be done on energized wires or equipment in manholes.
(20) Furnaces shall always be placed in a secure, level position on the downhill side of the manhole to avoid spillage of hot metals or compounds into the manhole.
(21) Pulling underground cable. When pulling cable(s) all employees shall be made aware of the hazard of being caught in the sheaves, lashings or winch gears. All employees shall stand clear of the pulling line when the pull is begun or when the line is under tension. This rule applies to all work performed by means of a winch.
(22) Fishing conduit or ducts. When fishing conduit or ducts, it shall first be determined that the fish tape or wires will not contact any energized line or equipment.
(23) WAC 296-45-335 on clearances shall be complied with. Also WAC 296-45-345 and/or WAC 296-45-355 on grounding shall be complied with.
(24) Defective cables. Where a cable in a manhole has one or more abnormalities that could lead to or be an indication of an impending fault, the defective cable shall be deenergized before any employee may work in the manhole, except when service load conditions and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the cable remain energized. In that case, employees may enter the manhole provided they are protected from the possible effects of a failure by shields or other devices that are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault in the joint.
Note:
Abnormalities such as oil or compound leaking from cables or joints, broken cable sheaths or joint sleeves, hot localized surface temperatures of cables or joints, or joints that are swollen beyond normal tolerance are presumed to lead to or be an indication of an impending fault.
(25) Sheath continuity. When work is performed on buried cable or on cable in manholes, metallic sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening (or by equivalent means), or the cable sheath shall be treated as energized.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-225 Underground residential distribution (URD).
(1) General.
(a) Each employee shall be knowledgeable of the equipment provided for their use and shall at all times use this equipment only for the purpose intended.
(b) U.R.D. cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized shall be considered as an effective barrier to protect the employees and table ((one)) two need not apply.
(i) Workers will take adequate precautions to avoid physical contact with energized U.R.D. cable by using approved procedures and/or protective devices.
(ii) When handling energized U.R.D. primary cables, the work shall be done with approved tools and/or procedures by two qualified electrical employees. Switching is exempt from this rule.
(iii) When energized terminators or load-break elbows are handled by a hot stick, there shall be two qualified electrical employees at the scene.
(c) When energized pad-mounted transformers or similar equipment are to be left unlocked and open, they shall be attended by a ((qualified)) designated employee.
(d) Approved tools and procedures shall be used to remove any debris, vines, weeds, etc., from an underground system.
(e) A primary and secondary system neutral on any energized circuit shall not be opened under any circumstances except for testing.
(f) Primary and secondary neutrals shall be firmly connected and grounded before the circuit or equipment is energized.
(g) Where different phases are in the same vault, enclosures, or parked in some manner that they could be looped, these phases shall be marked or identified.
(h) Bayonet fuses:
(i) Bayonet fuses shall not be closed into suspected faults or overloads.
(ii) Submersible U.G. transformer installations will require other methods of energizing or deenergizing and bayonet fuses shall not be used for this purpose.
(iii) Bayonet fuses shall only be operated after pad-mount transformers have been properly vented.
(iv) Bayonet fuses shall only be operated in accordance with manufacturing design and rating capabilities.
(2) Working on cables.
(a) Before any work is to be performed on underground cables and apparatus carrying high voltage, they shall be deenergized with the following exceptions:
(i) Replacing fuses, operating switches, closing or opening load-break elbows, when approved protective devices are used.
(ii) Work in the high-voltage compartment of pad-mounted transformers and similar equipment installed above ground, provided the work is done by approved methods.
(b) Only one energized conductor shall be worked on at any one time, and protective means shall be used to insulate or isolate it from all others.
(c) When work is to be performed in manholes containing any wires or appliances carrying electrical current, they shall be in a sanitary condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 03-17-071, filed 8/19/03, effective 11/1/03)
WAC 296-45-255 Protective equipment.
(1) Rubber protective equipment must be in accordance with and tested as follows:
Item
Standard
Rubber Insulating Gloves
(ASTM) D 120-2002
Rubber Matting for Use
(ASTM) D 178-2001
Around Electrical Apparatus
 
Rubber Insulating Blankets
(ASTM) D 1048-1999
Rubber Insulating Hoods
(ASTM) D 1049-2002
Rubber Insulating Line Hose
(ASTM) D 1050-1999
Rubber Insulating Sleeves
(ASTM) D 1051-2002
(2) No protective equipment or material other than rubber shall be used: Provided, That such other nonconductive equipment may be used if it provides equal or better (dielectric) electrical and mechanical protection than rubber protective equipment: Provided, That the employer obtain before placing in service, manufacturer's data or other data to demonstrate that such nonrubber protective equipment provided equal or better electrical and mechanical protection than approved rubber equipment.
(3) Protective equipment shall not be used at voltages in excess of that for which the manufacturer has supplied data to the employer demonstrating that it is fit for such voltages.
(4) No protective equipment shall be modified, altered, or used for purposes other than those for which it is designed unless and until the manufacturer has, in writing, agreed or suggested that there be such modification, alteration, or use.
(5) Each rubber glove before it is used shall be inspected for defects and an approved air test performed. If, upon inspection, rubber gloves are either defective or appear to be defective, they shall not be used.
(6) Before being placed in service, all rubber protective equipment shall be numbered and records kept for test purposes and assignment.
(7) Rubber protective equipment shall not be used unless it has been dielectrically tested within six months and bears marking or identification of the date of the test or the expiration date.
(8) Protector gloves must be worn over insulating gloves.
Exception:
Protector gloves need not be used with Class 0 gloves, under limited-use conditions, where small equipment and parts manipulation necessitate unusually high finger dexterity.
Note:
Extra care is needed in the visual examination of the glove and in the avoidance of handling sharp objects.
(9) Rubber gloves when not in use shall be carried in an approved bag provided and designed for that purpose. It shall be provided by the employer and made available to the employees.
(10) Approved rubber gloves and carrying bag shall be assigned to each employee who works with, or is exposed to energized parts.
(11) Rubber protective equipment shall not be vulcanized or patched.
(12) A compartment or box shall be provided on each electric line truck, which box or compartment shall be used for storing rubber protective equipment. No equipment shall be stored in said compartment or box which can or could cause damage to the rubber equipment or goods placed in the compartment or box. Additionally, a separate container or compartment shall be provided for rubber blankets.
(13) Line hose shall not be doubled on themselves at any time. All blankets before storage must be wiped clean and rolled, not folded, before being placed in the container or box.
(14) Protective line equipment of material other than rubber shall be kept clean and visually inspected before each use.
(15) If protective line equipment of material other than rubber is found to be substantially defective or unsuitable for the purpose for which it is designed and intended, said protective line equipment shall not be used for personal protection of employees as may be required in Table ((1)) 2 of this chapter. Said protective line equipment shall be marked defective but may be otherwise used unless the defect or damage to said protective line equipment creates additional safety hazards.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-05-071, filed 2/17/09, effective 4/1/09)
WAC 296-45-25505 Personal protective equipment.
(1) General. Personal protective equipment (PPE) shall meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L and the PPE requirements in chapter 296-800 WAC. PPE required by these chapters or a hazard assessment will be provided by the employer at no cost to the employee.
(2) All protective hats shall be in accordance with the specifications of ANSI ((Z89.2-1971 Edition Industrial Protective Helmets for Electrical Workers)) Z89.1-2014, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection Type II, Class ((B)) E, and shall be worn at the job site by employees who are exposed to overhead or electrical hazards.
(3) ((Wearing apparel.)) Goggles, hearing protection, respirators, rubber gloves, and other such personal protective devices shall not be interchanged among employees unless they have been sanitized.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13)
WAC 296-45-25510 Fall protection.
(1) Personal fall arrest ((equipment)) systems shall meet the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, Fall protection requirements for construction.
(2) ((Specific requirements for lineman's belts, safety straps and lanyards.
(a) All fabric used for safety straps must withstand an A.C. dielectric test of not less than 25,000 volts per foot "dry" for 3 minutes, without visible deterioration.
(b) All fabric and leather used must be tested for leakage current and must not exceed 1 milliampere when a potention of 3,000 volts is applied to the electrodes positioned 12 inches apart.
(c) Direct current tests may be permitted in lieu of alternating current tests.
(d) The cushion part of the body belt must:
(i) Contain no exposed rivets on the inside;
(ii) Be at least three (3) inches in width;
(iii) Be at least five thirty-seconds (5/32) inch thick, if made of leather; and
(iv) Have pocket tabs that extended at least 1 1/2 inches down and three (3) inches back of the inside of circle of each D ring for riveting on plier or tool pockets. On shifting D belts, this measurement for pocket tabs must be taken when the D ring section is centered.
(e) A maximum of four (4) tool loops must be so situated on the body belt that four (4) inches of the body belt in the center of the back, measuring from D ring to D ring, must be free of tool loops, and any other attachments.
(f) Suitable copper, steel, or equivalent liners must be used around bar of D rings to prevent wear between these members and the leather or fabric enclosing them.
(g) All stitching must be of a minimum 42-pound weight nylon or equivalent thread and must be lock stitched. Stitching parallel to an edge must not be less than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch from edge of narrowest member caught by the thread. The use of cross stitching on leather is prohibited.
(h) The keeper of snaphooks must have a spring tension that will not allow the keeper to begin to open with a weight of 2 1/2 pounds or less, but the keeper of snaphooks must begin to open with a weight of four (4) pounds, when the weight is supported on the keeper against the end of the nose.
(i) Testing of lineman's safety straps, body belts and lanyards must be in accordance with the following procedure:
(i) Attach one end of the safety strap or lanyard to a rigid support, the other end must be attached to a 250-pound canvas bag of sand;
(ii) Allow the 250-pound canvas bag of sand to free fall 4 feet for (safety strap test) and 6 feet for (lanyard test); in each case stopping the fall of the 250-pound bag;
(iii) Failure of the strap or lanyard must be indicated by any breakage, or slippage sufficient to permit the bag to fall free of the strap or lanyard. The entire "body belt assembly" must be tested using one D ring. A safety strap or lanyard must be used that is capable of passing the "impact loading test" and attached as required in (i)(i) of this subsection. The body belt must be secured to the 250-pound bag of sand at a point to simulate the waist of a man and allowed to drop as stated in (i)(ii) of this subsection. Failure of the body belt must be indicated by any breakage, or slippage sufficient to permit the bag to fall free of the body belt.
(3) Body belts, safety straps, lanyards, lifelines, and body harnesses shall be inspected before use each day to determine that the equipment is in safe working condition. Defective equipment may not be used.
(4) Employees shall not wear climbers while doing work where they are not required. Employees shall not continue to wear their climbers while working on the ground; except for momentary or short periods of time on the ground.
(5) Employees, when working from a hook ladder, must either belt themselves securely to the ladder, attach themselves to the structures by means of a safety line, or belt themselves to ladder safety equipment, which shall consist of a safety rope or belting threaded through the rungs or secured to the ladder at intervals of not more than three feet.
(6) Before an employee throws his/her weight on a belt, the employee shall determine that the snap or fasteners are properly engaged.
(7) Safety straps shall not be placed around poles above the cross-arm except where it is not possible for the strap to slide or be slipped over the top of the pole by inadvertence of the employee. Neither end of the strap shall be allowed to hang loose or dangle while the employee is ascending or descending poles or other structures.
(8) Body belts and safety straps shall not be stored with sharp-edged tools or near sharp objects. When a body belt, safety strap and climbers are kept in the same container, they shall be stored in such a manner as to avoid cutting or puncturing the material of the body belt or safety strap with the gaffs or climbers.
(9) Employees shall not attach metal hooks or other metal devices to body belts. Leather straps or rawhide thongs shall have hardwood or fibre crossbars. Leather straps and rawhide thongs shall not have metal or other conductive crossbars on them.
(10) Climbing gaffs shall be kept properly sharpened and shall be at least 1-1/8 inches in length.
(11) Lifelines shall be protected against being cut or abraded.
(12) Fall arrest equipment, work positioning equipment, or travel restricting equipment shall be used by employees working at elevated locations more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground on poles, towers, or similar structures if other fall protection has not been provided. Fall protection equipment is not required to be used by a qualified employee climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures, unless conditions, such as, but not limited to, ice, high winds, the design of the structure (for example, no provision for holding on with hands), or the presence of contaminants on the structure, could cause the employee to lose his or her grip or footing.
Note 1:
This subsection applies to structures that support overhead electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment. It does not apply to portions of buildings, such as loading docks, to electric equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, nor to aerial lifts. Requirements for fall protection associated with walking and working surfaces are contained in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, Fall protection requirements for construction requirements for fall protection associated with aerial lifts are contained in chapter 296-869 WAC, Elevating work platforms.
Note 2:
Employees undergoing training are not considered "qualified employees" for the purposes of this provision. Unqualified employees (including trainees) are required to use fall protection any time they are more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground.
(13) The following requirements apply to personal fall arrest systems:
(a) When stopping or arresting a fall, personal fall arrest systems shall limit the maximum arresting force on an employee to 1800 pounds (8 kN) if used with a body harness.
(b) Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor contact any lower level.
(14) If vertical lifelines or droplines are used, not more than one employee may be attached to any one lifeline.
(15) Snaphooks may not be connected to loops made in webbing-type lanyards.
(16) Snaphooks may not be connected to each other.)) Personal fall arrest equipment used by employees who are exposed to hazards from flames or electric arcs, as determined by the employer under WAC 296-45-325(13), shall be capable of passing a drop test equivalent to that required by subsection (3)(l) of this section after exposure to an electric arc with a heat energy of 40±5 cal/cm2.
(3) Body belts and positioning straps for work-positioning equipment shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Hardware for body belts and positioning straps shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Hardware shall be made of drop-forged steel, pressed steel, formed steel, or equivalent material.
(ii) Hardware shall have a corrosion-resistant finish.
(iii) Hardware surfaces shall be smooth and free of sharp edges.
(b) Buckles shall be capable of withstanding an 8.9 kilonewton (2,000 pound-force) tension test with a maximum permanent deformation no greater than 0.4 millimeters (0.0156 inches).
(c) D-rings shall be capable of withstanding a 22 kilonewton (5,000 pound-force) tensile test without cracking or breaking.
(d) Snaphooks shall be capable of withstanding a 22 kilonewton (5,000 pound-force) tension test without failure.
Note:
Distortion of the snaphook sufficient to release the keeper is considered to be tensile failure of a snaphook.
(e) Top grain leather or leather substitute may be used in the manufacture of body belts and positioning straps; however, leather and leather substitutes may not be used alone as a load-bearing component of the assembly.
(f) Plied fabric used in positioning straps and in load-bearing parts of body belts shall be constructed in such a way that no raw edges are exposed and the plies do not separate.
(g) Positioning straps shall be capable of withstanding the following tests:
(i) A dielectric test of 819.7 volts, AC, per centimeter (25,000 volts per foot) for three minutes without visible deterioration;
(ii) A leakage test of 98.4 volts, AC, per centimeter (3,000 volts per foot) with a leakage current of no more than 1 mA;
Note:
Positioning straps that pass direct-current tests at equivalent voltages are considered as meeting this requirement.
(iii) Tension tests of 20 kilonewtons (4,500 pounds-force) for sections free of buckle holes and of 15 kilonewtons (3,500 pounds-force) for sections with buckle holes;
(iv) A buckle-tear test with a load of 4.4 kilonewtons (1,000 pounds-force); and
(v) A flammability test in accordance with Table 1.
Table 1 – Flammability Test
Test Method
Criteria for Passing the Test
Vertically suspend a 500 mm (19.7 inch) length of strapping supporting a 100 kg (220.5 lb) weight.
Any flames on the positioning strap shall self extinguish.
The positioning strap shall continue to support the 100 kg (220.5 lb) mass.
Use a butane or propane burner with a 76 mm (3 inch) flame.
Direct the flame to an edge of the strapping at a distance of 25 mm (1 inch).
Remove the flame after 5 seconds.
Wait for any flames on the positioning strap to stop burning.
(h) The cushion part of the body belt shall contain no exposed rivets on the inside and shall be at least 76 millimeters (3 inches) in width.
(i) Tool loops shall be situated on the body of a body belt so that the 100 millimeters (4 inches) of the body belt that is in the center of the back, measuring from D-ring to D-ring, is free of tool loops and any other attachments.
(j) Copper, steel, or equivalent liners shall be used around the bars of D-rings to prevent wear between these members and the leather or fabric enclosing them.
(k) Snaphooks shall be of the locking type meeting the following requirements:
(i) The locking mechanism shall first be released, or a destructive force shall be placed on the keeper, before the keeper will open.
(ii) A force in the range of 6.7 N (1.5 lbf) to 17.8 N (4 lbf) shall be required to release the locking mechanism.
(iii) With the locking mechanism released and with a force applied on the keeper against the face of the nose, the keeper may not begin to open with a force of 11.2 N (2.5 lbf) or less and shall begin to open with a maximum force of 17.8 N (4 lbf).
(l) Body belts and positioning straps shall be capable of withstanding a drop test as follows:
(i) The test mass shall be rigidly constructed of steel or equivalent material with a mass of 100 kg (220.5 lbm). For work-positioning equipment used by employees weighing more than 140 kg (310 lbm) fully equipped, the test mass shall be increased proportionately (that is, the test mass must equal the mass of the equipped worker divided by 1.4).
(ii) For body belts, the body belt shall be fitted snugly around the test mass and shall be attached to the test-structure anchorage point by means of a wire rope.
(iii) For positioning straps, the strap shall be adjusted to its shortest length possible to accommodate the test and connected to the test-structure anchorage point at one end and to the test mass on the other end.
(iv) The test mass shall be dropped an unobstructed distance of 1 meter (39.4 inches) from a supporting structure that will sustain minimal deflection during the test.
(v) Body belts shall successfully arrest the fall of the test mass and shall be capable of supporting the mass after the test.
(vi) Positioning straps shall successfully arrest the fall of the test mass without breaking, and the arrest force may not exceed 17.8 kilonewtons (4,000 pounds-force). Additionally, snaphooks on positioning straps may not distort to such an extent that the keeper would release.
Note:
When used by employees weighing no more than 140 kg (310 lbm) fully equipped, body belts and positioning straps that conform to American Society of Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Personal Climbing Equipment, ASTM F887-12e1, are deemed to be in compliance with (l) of this subsection.
(4) The following requirements apply to the care and use of personal fall protection equipment.
(a) Work-positioning equipment shall be inspected before use each day to determine that the equipment is in safe working condition. Work-positioning equipment that is not in safe working condition may not be used.
Note:
Work-Positioning Equipment Inspection Guidelines are located in Appendix E of this chapter.
(b) Personal fall arrest systems shall be used in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.
Note:
Fall protection equipment rigged to arrest falls is considered a fall arrest system and must meet the applicable requirements for the design and use of those systems. Fall protection equipment rigged for work positioning is considered work-positioning equipment and must meet the applicable requirements for the design and use of that equipment.
(c) The employer shall ensure that employees use fall protection systems as follows:
(i) Each employee working from an aerial lift shall use a fall restraint system or a personal fall arrest system.
(ii) Except as provided in (c)(iii) of this subsection, each employee in elevated locations more than 1.2 meters (4 feet) above the ground on poles, towers, or similar structures shall use a personal fall arrest system, work-positioning equipment, or fall restraint system, as appropriate, if the employer has not provided other fall protection meeting chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.
(iii) Each qualified electrical employee climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures must use fall protection equipment unless the employer can demonstrate that climbing or changing location with fall protection is infeasible or creates a greater hazard than climbing or changing location without it.
Notes:
• These subsections apply to structures that support overhead electric power transmission and distribution lines and equipment. They do not apply to portions of buildings, such as loading docks, or to electric equipment, such as transformers and capacitors. Chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 contains the duty to provide fall protection associated with walking and working surfaces.
 
• Until the employer ensures that employees are proficient in climbing and the use of fall protection under WAC 296-45-065(8), the employees are not considered "qualified electrical employees" for the purposes of (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection. These subsections require unqualified employees (including trainees) to use fall protection any time they are more than 1.2 meters (4 feet) above the ground.
(d) Work-positioning systems shall be rigged so that an employee can free fall no more than 0.6 meters (2 feet).
(e) Anchorages for work-positioning equipment shall be capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall, or 13.3 kilonewtons (3,000 pounds-force), whichever is greater.
Note:
Wood-pole fall-restriction devices meeting American Society of Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Personal Climbing Equipment, ASTM F887-12e1, are deemed to meet the anchorage-strength requirement when they are used in accordance with manufacturers' instructions.
(f) Unless the snaphook is a locking type and designed specifically for the following connections, snaphooks on work-positioning equipment may not be engaged:
(i) Directly to webbing, rope, or wire rope;
(ii) To each other;
(iii) To a D-ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached;
(iv) To a horizontal lifeline; or
(v) To any object that is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snaphook such that accidental disengagement could occur should the connected object sufficiently depress the snaphook keeper to allow release of the object.
(5) Employees shall not wear climbers while doing work where they are not required. Employees shall not continue to wear their climbers while working on the ground; except for momentary or short periods of time on the ground.
(6) Employees, when working from a hook ladder, must either belt themselves securely to the ladder, attach themselves to the structures by means of a safety line, or belt themselves to ladder safety equipment, which shall consist of a safety rope or belting threaded through the rungs or secured to the ladder at intervals of not more than three feet.
(7) Before an employee throws their weight on a belt, the employee shall determine that the snap or fasteners are properly engaged.
(8) Safety straps shall not be placed around poles above the cross-arm except where it is not possible for the strap to slide or be slipped over the top of the pole by inadvertence of the employee. Neither end of the strap shall be allowed to hang loose or dangle while the employee is ascending or descending poles or other structures.
(9) Body belts and safety straps shall not be stored with sharp-edged tools or near sharp objects. When a body belt, safety strap and climbers are kept in the same container, they shall be stored in such a manner as to avoid cutting or puncturing the material of the body belt or safety strap with the gaffs or climbers.
(10) Employees shall not attach metal hooks or other metal devices to body belts. Leather straps or rawhide thongs shall have hardwood or fibre crossbars. Leather straps and rawhide thongs shall not have metal or other conductive crossbars on them.
(11) Climbing gaffs shall be kept properly sharpened and shall be at least 1-1/8 inches in length.
(12) Lifelines shall be protected against being cut or abraded.
(13) Fall arrest equipment, work positioning equipment, or travel restricting equipment shall be used by employees working at elevated locations more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground on poles, towers, or similar structures if other fall protection has not been provided.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-45-275 Ladders, platforms, and manhole steps.
(1) General. Requirements for ladders contained in chapter ((296-24)) 296-876 WAC((, Part J-1, and WAC 296-800-290)) apply, except as specifically noted in subsection (2) of this section.
(2) Special ladders and platforms. Portable ladders and platforms used on structures or conductors in conjunction with overhead line work need not meet chapter ((296-24)) 296-876 WAC((, Part J-1, chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J or WAC 296-800-290)). However, these ladders and platforms shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Ladders and platforms shall be secured to prevent their becoming accidentally dislodged.
(b) Ladders and platforms may not be loaded in excess of the working loads for which they are designed.
(c) Ladders and platforms may be used only in applications for which they were designed.
(d) In the configurations in which they are used, ladders and platforms shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 2.5 times the maximum intended load.
(e) All ladders shall be handled and stored in such a manner as to prevent damage to the ladder.
(f) When ascending or descending a ladder, the employee shall face the ladder and have free use of both hands.
(g) All defective ladders shall be taken out of service and labeled as defective.
(h) When a ladder is being used which is not fixed or otherwise secured, there shall be an attendant to hold the ladder and watch traffic when the work is being done on streets, alleys, sidewalks, or in industrial plants or other places where there exists the possibility of accidental contact with the ladder by third persons or vehicles.
(i) When working on the ladder, employees shall, where possible, tie the top of the ladder to a substantial object to prevent falling unless the ladder is equipped with approved hooks which may be used for the same purpose.
(j) Portable ladders shall not be moved with employees on the ladder.
(k) No employee shall ascend or descend a rolling ladder while it is moving.
(l) No employee shall stand on the top two steps of a step ladder.
(m) No employee shall use a step ladder as a straight ladder.
(n) Ladders shall always be placed on a secure footing with both legs resting firmly on the lower surface.
(o) Ladders made by fastening cleats or similar devices across a single rail shall not be used.
(3) Conductive ladders. Portable metal ladders and other portable conductive ladders may not be used near exposed energized lines or equipment. However, in specialized high-voltage work, conductive ladders shall be used where the employer can demonstrate that nonconductive ladders would present a greater hazard than conductive ladders.
Note:
A greater electrical hazard would be static electricity such as might be found in extra high voltage substations.
(4) All conductive or metal ladders shall be prominently marked and identified as being conductive and shall be grounded when used near energized lines or equipment.
Note:
See chapter ((296-24)) 296-876 WAC for additional ladder requirements.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-295 Gasoline engine power chain saws.
(1) Each chain saw placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a chain brake and shall otherwise meet the requirements of the ANSI ((B175.1-1991)) B175.1-2012 "Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws." Each chain saw placed into service before February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a protective device that minimizes chain saw kickback, i.e., reduced kickback bar, chains, bar tip guard or chain brake. No chain-saw kickback device shall be removed or otherwise disabled.
(2) Gasoline-engine power saw operations shall meet the requirements of WAC ((296-54-515)) 296-54-537(10).
(3) The chain saw shall be operated and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
(4) The employer must ensure that each chain saw, including any chain saw provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift. At a minimum, the inspection shall include the following:
(a) Chain-saw chains, to assure proper adjustment;
(b) Chain-saw mufflers, to assure that they are operational and in place;
(c) Chain brakes and nose shielding devices, to assure that they are in place and function properly;
(5) The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (3 m) from any open flame or other source of ignition.
(6) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.
(7) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported. Drop-starting a chain saw is prohibited.
(8) The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake engaged.
(9) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation.
(10) The chain-saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.
(11) Prior to felling any tree, the chain saw operator shall clear away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path.
(12) The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead.
(13) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.
(14) The chain saw shall be shut off or at idle before the feller starts their retreat.
(15) The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged whenever a saw is carried further than 50 feet (15.2 m). The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged when a saw is carried less than 50 feet if conditions such as, but not limited to, the terrain, underbrush and slippery surfaces, may create a hazard for an employee.
Note:
When an employee working aloft in trees or on poles when supported by climbing spurs and climbing belt, or when an employee is working from a vehicle mounted elevating and rotating work platform meeting the requirements of chapter 296-869 WAC, Elevating work platforms, leg protection covering the full length of the thigh to the top of the boot on each leg to protect against contact with a moving chain saw is not required.
(16) Each power saw weighing more than 15 pounds (6.8 kilograms, service weight) that is used in trees shall be supported by a separate line, except when work is performed from an aerial lift and except during topping or removing operations where no supporting limb will be available, and the following:
(a) Each power saw shall be equipped with a control that will return the saw to idling speed when released;
(b) Each power saw shall be equipped with a clutch and shall be so adjusted that the clutch will not engage the chain drive at idling speed;
(c) Drop starting of saws over 15 pounds (6.8 kg) is permitted outside of the bucket of an aerial lift only if the area below the lift is clear of personnel;
(d) A power saw engine may be started and operated only when all employees other than the operator are clear of the saw;
(e) A power saw may not be running when the saw is being carried up into a tree by an employee; and
(f) Power saw engines shall be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-305 Live-line tools.
(1) Design of tools. Live-line tool rods, tubes, and poles shall be designed and constructed to withstand the following minimum tests:
(a) 100,000 volts per foot (3281 volts per centimeter) of length for 5 minutes if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP); or
(b) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per centimeter) of length for 3 minutes if the tool is made of wood; or
(c) Other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
Note:
Live-line tools using rod and tube that meet ASTM ((F711-89)) F711-02 (2013), Standard Specification for Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube Used in Live-Line Tools, conform to subsection (1)(a) of this section.
(2) Condition of tools.
(a) Each live-line tool shall be wiped clean and visually inspected for defects before use each day.
(b) If any defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is present after wiping, the tool shall be removed from service and examined and tested according to this section before being returned to service.
(c) Live-line tools used for primary employee protection shall be removed from service every two years and whenever required under this ((subsection)) section for examination, cleaning, repair, and testing as follows:
(i) Each tool shall be thoroughly examined for defects.
(ii) If a defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is found, the tool shall be repaired and refinished or shall be permanently removed from service. If no such defect or contamination is found, the tool shall be cleaned and waxed.
(iii) The tool shall be tested in accordance with this section under the following conditions:
(A) After the tool has been repaired or refinished; and
(B) After the examination if repair or refinishing is not performed, unless the tool is made of FRP rod or foam-filled FRP tube and the employer can demonstrate that the tool has no defects that could cause it to fail in use.
(iv) The test method used shall be designed to verify the tool's integrity along its entire working length and, if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic, its integrity under wet conditions.
(v) The voltage applied during the tests shall be as follows:
(A) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per centimeter) of length for one minute if the tool is made of fiberglass; or
(B) 50,000 volts per foot (1640 volts per centimeter) of length for one minute if the tool is made of wood; or
(C) Other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
Note:
Guidelines for the examination, cleaning, repairing, and in-service testing of live-line tools are contained in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Guide for In-Service Maintenance and Electrical Testing of Live-Line Tools, IEEE Std. ((978-1984)) 516-2009.
(d) Live-line tools and rope shall be stored and maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent damage. Live-line tools and ropes shall not be used for purposes other than line work.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 05-17-038, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05)
WAC 296-45-315 Materials handling and storage.
(1) General. Material handling and storage shall conform to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D.
(2) Materials storage near energized lines or equipment. In areas not restricted to qualified ((persons)) electrical employees only, materials or equipment may not be stored closer to energized lines or exposed energized parts of equipment than the following distances plus an amount providing for the maximum sag and side swing of all conductors and providing for the height and movement of material handling equipment:
(a) For lines and equipment energized at 50 kV or less, the distance is 10 feet (305 cm).
(b) For lines and equipment energized at more than 50 kV, the distance is 10 feet (305 cm) plus 4 inches (10 cm) for every 10 kV over 50 kV.
(c) In areas restricted to qualified electrical employees, material may not be stored within the working space about energized lines or equipment.
Note:
Requirements for the size of the working space are contained in WAC 296-45-475(1) and 296-45-48515.
(3) Prior to unloading steel, poles, crossarms and similar materials, the load shall be thoroughly examined to determine if the load has shifted, binders or stakes have broken or the load is otherwise hazardous to employees. The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load. This provision shall not apply to electric construction crews when setting or removing poles.
(4) Pole handling.
(a) During pole hauling operations, all loads shall be secured to prevent displacement, and a red flag shall be displayed at the trailing end of the longest pole.
(b) While loading and unloading materials, roadways shall not be blocked unless approved traffic control is used.
(c) When hauling poles during darkness, illuminated warning devices shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole in accordance with the state of Washington motor vehicle code.
(d) Framing. During framing operations, employees must not work under a pole or a structure suspended by a crane, A-frame or similar equipment unless the pole or structure is adequately supported.
(5) Tag lines. When necessary to control loads, tag lines or other approved devices shall be used.
(6) Oil filled equipment. During construction or repair of oil filled equipment, the oil may be stored in temporary containers other than those required by WAC 296-155-270, such as pillow tanks.
(7) Storage of tools and materials. All tools and materials shall be stored in a safe and orderly manner in yards for equipment and other areas.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 05-17-038, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05)
WAC 296-45-325 Working on or near exposed energized parts.
This section applies to work on exposed live parts, or near enough to them, to expose the employee to any hazard they present.
(1) General. Only qualified electrical employees may work on or with exposed energized lines or parts of equipment. Only qualified electrical employees may work in areas containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of equipment operating at 50 volts or more. Electric lines and equipment shall be considered and treated as energized unless the provisions of WAC 296-45-175 through 296-45-17565 or 296-45-335 have been followed.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, at least two qualified electrical employees shall be present while the following types of work are being performed:
(a) Installation, removal, or repair of lines that are energized at more than 600 volts;
(b) Installation, removal, or repair of deenergized lines if an employee is exposed to contact with other parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(c) Installation, removal, or repair of equipment, such as transformers, capacitors, and regulators, if an employee is exposed to contact with parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(d) Work involving the use of mechanical equipment, other than insulated aerial lifts, near parts energized at more than 600 volts; and
(e) Other work that exposes an employee to electrical hazards greater than or equal to those posed by operations that are specifically listed in subsection (2)(a) through (d) of this section.
((Note 1:))
Notes:
One qualified electrical employee will serve principally as a standby person who must be so located that they may physically reach the other qualified electrical employee in the event of an accident either with their hand or with a hot stick twelve feet or less in length. The standby person will be so positioned as to be able to observe the other employee, their bodily movements, and verbally warn of any impending dangers. In no case when working in pairs will qualified electrical employees work simultaneously on energized wires or parts of different phases or polarity;
((Note 2:))
When installing or removing a hot line clamp connection on a multiphase system, it is permissible for the second qualified electrical employee to stand by at the lower controls of the aerial lift provided the connection or disconnection does not interrupt or pick up the load. The hot line clamp and connecting jumper must be constructed so it cannot make contact with any other energized parts. The work must not be performed above lines or apparatus energized at more than 600 V.
((Note 3:))
In cases of necessity the standby person may temporarily assist the other qualified electrical employee provided that they both work on wires or parts of the same phase or polarity. Both qualified electrical employees shall so position themselves so that the presence of the second person does not increase the hazard.
(3) The provisions of WAC 296-45-325(2) do not apply to (a) through (e) of this subsection. In addition to the requirements of subsection (4) of this section, a qualified electrical employee working under this subsection (3), must position themselves so that ((he/she is)) they are neither within reach of nor otherwise exposed to contact with energized parts.
(a) When re-fusing circuits or equipment with a hot stick.
(b) When operating switches by means of operating handle or switch sticks.
(c) When installing or removing a hot line clamp connection with an approved hot stick on a single-phase line or apparatus, providing that the connection or disconnection does not interrupt or pick up a load.
((Note 1:))
Notes:
The hot line clamp and connecting jumper must be constructed so that it cannot make contact with any other energized parts.
((Note 2:))
On a multiphase feed this applies only when one single-phase line or apparatus is present on the load side.
(d) When installing or removing by hot stick simple load metering devices provided the connection does not interrupt or pickup load.
(e) Emergency repairs to the extent necessary to safeguard the general public.
(4) "Minimum approach distances." The employer shall ensure that no employee approaches or takes any conductive object closer to exposed energized parts than set forth in Table ((1 through Table 4)) 2, unless:
(a) The employee is insulated from the energized part (insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves worn in accordance with subsection (6) of this section are considered insulation of the employee only with regard to the energized part upon which work is being performed); or
(b) The energized part is insulated from the employee and from any other conductive object at a different potential.
Table 2
AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance
 
 
Distance to Employee
Voltage in Kilovolts Phase to Phase*
Phase to Ground
Phase to Phase
 
(m)
(ft-1/10)
(ft-in)
(m)
(ft-1/10)
(ft-in)
Table 2-A For Voltages of 72.5 KV and Less (1,2,3,4)
 
 
 
 
 
 
0
to   0.050
not specified
not specified
0.051
to   0.300
avoid contact
avoid contact
0.301
to   0.750
0.33
1.09
(1'-2")
0.33
1.09
(1'-2")
0.751
to   5
0.63
2.07
(2'-1")
0.63
2.07
(2'-1")
5.1
to   15.0
0.65
2.14
(2'-2")
0.68
2.24
(2'-3")
15.1
to   36
0.77
2.53
(2'-7")
0.89
2.92
(3'-0")
36.1
to   46.0
0.84
2.76
(2'-10")
0.98
3.22
(3'-3")
46.1
to   72.5
1.00**
3.29**
(3'-3")
1.20
3.94
(4'-0")
1Employers may use the minimum approach distances in this table provided the worksite is at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) or less. If employees will be working at elevations greater than 900 meters (3,000 feet) above mean sea level, the employer shall determine minimum approach distances by multiplying the distances in this table by the correction factor in Table 3 below. A corresponding to the altitude of the work.
2For single-phase systems, use voltage-to-ground.
3For single-phase lines off three phase systems, use the phase-to-phase voltage of the system.
4The 46.1 to 72.5 kV phase-to-ground 3-3 distance contains a 1-3 electrical component and a 2-0 inadvertent movement component.
Table 2-B For Voltages of 72.6 KV (1,2,3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
72.6
to   121
1.13**
3.71**
(3'-9")
1.42
4.66
(4'-8")
121.1
to   145.0
1.30
4.27
(4'-4")
1.64
5.38
(5'-5")
145.1
to   169.0
1.46
4.79
(4'-10")
1.94
6.36
(6'-5")
169.1
to   242.0
2.01
6.59
(6'-8")
3.08
10.10
(10'-2")
242.1
to   362.0
3.41
11.19
(11'-3")
5.52
18.11
(18'-2")
362.1
to   420.0
4.25
13.94
(14'-0")
6.81
22.34
(22'-5")
420.1
to   550.0
5.07
16.63
(16'-8")
8.24
27.03
(27'-1")
550.1
to   800.0
6.88
22.57
(22'-7")
11.38
37.34
(37'-5")
1Employers may use the minimum approach distances in this table provided the worksite is at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) or less. If employees will be working at elevations greater than 900 meters (3,000 feet) above mean sea level, the employer shall determine minimum approach distances by multiplying the distances in this table by the correction factor in Table 3 below. A corresponding to the altitude of the work.
2Employers may use the phase-to-phase minimum approach distances in this table provided that no insulated tool spans the gap and no large conductive object is in the gap.
3The 72.6 to 121 kV phase-to-ground 3-2 distance contains a 2-2 electrical component and a 1-0 inadvertent movement component.
Note: The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
Table 3 – Altitude Correction Factors
Altitude above sea
level (m)
 
A
0 to 900 . . . .
1.00
901 to 1,200 . . . .
1.02
1,201 to 1,500 . . . .
1.05
1,501 to 1,800 . . . .
1.08
1,801 to 2,100 . . . .
1.11
2,101 to 2,400 . . . .
1.14
2,401 to 2,700 . . . .
1.17
2,701 to 3,000 . . . .
1.20
3,001 to 3,600 . . . .
1.25
3,601 to 4,200 . . . .
1.30
4,201 to 4,800 . . . .
1.35
4,801 to 5,400 . . . .
1.39
5,401 to 6,000 . . . .
1.44
((Note 1:))
Notes:
WAC 296-45-475 (5)(a) and 296-45-48525(1) contain requirements for the guarding and isolation of live parts. Parts of electric circuits that meet these two provisions are not considered as "exposed" unless a guard is removed or an employee enters the space intended to provide isolation from the live parts.
((Note 2:))
When an employee is required to work on or within reach of any unprotected conductors that are or may become energized at more than 50 volts and less than 600 volts between phases, they shall take the following precautions:
((1:))
- They shall wear approved insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves during the time they are working on such conductor((,)); or
((2:))
- They shall cover, with approved devices, any adjacent unprotected conductor that could be touched by any part of their body, and use insulated tools.
((3:))
- Cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized, shall be considered as an effective barrier to protect the employees and Table ((1)) 2 need not apply.
 
• Appendix A of this chapter contains additional information relating to working on exposed energized parts.
(5) Initial determination.
(a) Before any work is performed, the location of energized lines and their condition, the location and condition of energized equipment, the condition of the poles, the location of circuits and equipment including power communication lines, CATV and fire alarm circuits, shall be determined as shall any other particular hazard of a particular work site.
(b) No work shall be performed on energized lines or parts until the voltage of such equipment and lines is determined.
(6) Type of insulation. If the employee is to be insulated from energized parts by the use of insulating gloves (under subsection (4) of this section), insulating sleeves shall also be used. However, insulating sleeves need not be used under the following conditions:
(a) If exposed energized parts on which work is not being performed are insulated from the employee; and
(b) If such insulation is placed from a position not exposing the employee's upper arm to contact with other energized parts.
(7) Working position. The employer shall ensure that each employee, to the extent that other safety-related conditions at the worksite permit, works in a position from which a slip or shock will not bring the employee's body into contact with exposed, uninsulated parts energized at a potential different from the employee.
(8) Making connections. The employer shall ensure that connections are made as follows:
(a) In connecting deenergized equipment or lines to an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall first attach the wire to the deenergized part;
(b) When disconnecting equipment or lines from an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall remove the source end first; and
(c) When lines or equipment are connected to or disconnected from energized circuits, loose conductors shall be kept away from exposed energized parts.
(9) Rubber gloves can only be used on 5,000 volts or less between phases.
(10) It shall not be permissible to consider one part of a high voltage switch or disconnect as deenergized for the purpose of doing work on it if the remainder of the switch or disconnect remains energized unless approved barriers are erected which will prevent employees who are doing the work on such equipment from coming in direct contact with the energized parts.
(11) Conductor support tools such as link sticks, strain carriers, and insulator cradles may be used: Provided, That the clear insulation is at least as long as the insulator string or the minimum distance specified in Table ((1)) 2 for the operating voltage.
(12) Apparel.
(a) When work is performed within reaching distance of exposed energized parts of equipment, the employer shall ensure that each employee removes or renders nonconductive all exposed conductive articles, such as key or watch chains, rings, or wrist watches or bands, unless such articles do not increase the hazards associated with contact with the energized parts.
(b) ((The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs in the hazards involved.
(c) The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of injury that would be sustained by the employee.
Note:
Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibited by this subsection, unless the employer can demonstrate that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered or that the clothing is worn in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved: Acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon.
(d))) Workers shall wear clothing appropriate to the season and the kind of work being performed. Shirts or jumpers must have full length sleeves that are rolled down. Protective hard hats and eye protection shall be worn when working on or near live parts or while climbing poles.
(13) Protection from flames and electric arcs.
(a) The employer shall assess the workplace to identify employees exposed to hazards from flames or from electric arcs.
(b) For each employee exposed to hazards from electric arcs, the employer shall make a reasonable estimate of the incident heat energy to which the employee would be exposed.
Notes:
• Appendix D of this chapter provides guidance on estimating available heat energy. The department will deem employers following the guidance in Appendix D to be in compliance with (b) of this subsection. An employer may choose a method of calculating incident heat energy not included in Appendix D if the chosen method reasonably predicts the incident energy to which the employee would be exposed.
 
• This subsection does not require the employer to estimate the incident heat energy exposure for every job task performed by each employee. The employer may make broad estimates that cover multiple system areas provided the employer uses reasonable assumptions about the energy-exposure distribution throughout the system and provided the estimates represent the maximum employee exposure for those areas. For example, the employer could estimate the heat energy just outside a substation feeding a radial distribution system and use that estimate for all jobs performed on that radial system.
(c) The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to hazards from flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that could melt onto their skin or that could ignite and continue to burn when exposed to flames or the heat energy estimated under (b) of this subsection.
Note:
This subsection prohibits clothing made from acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon and polypropylene, either alone or in blends, unless the employer demonstrates that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered by the employee or that the employee wears the clothing in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved.
(d) The employer shall ensure that the outer layer of clothing worn by an employee, except for clothing not required to be arc rated under (e)(i) through (v) of this subsection, is flame resistant under any of the following conditions:
(i) The employee is exposed to contact with energized circuit parts operating at more than 600 volts;
(ii) An electric arc could ignite flammable material in the work area that, in turn, could ignite the employee's clothing;
(iii) Molten metal or electric arcs from faulted conductors in the work area could ignite the employee's clothing; or
Note:
This subsection does not apply to conductors that are capable of carrying, without failure, the maximum available fault current for the time the circuit protective devices take to interrupt the fault.
(iv) The incident heat energy estimated under (b) of this subsection exceeds 2.0 cal/cm2.
(e) The employer shall ensure that each employee exposed to hazards from electric arcs wears protective clothing and other protective equipment with an arc rating greater than or equal to the heat energy estimated under (b) of this subsection whenever that estimate exceeds 2.0 cal/cm2. This protective equipment shall cover the employee's entire body, except as follows:
(i) Arc-rated protection is not necessary for the employee's hands when the employee is wearing rubber insulating gloves with protectors or, if the estimated incident energy is no more than 14 cal/cm2, heavy-duty leather work gloves with a weight of at least 407 gm/m2(12 oz/yd2);
(ii) Arc-rated protection is not necessary for the employee's feet when the employee is wearing heavy-duty work shoes or boots;
(iii) Arc-rated protection is not necessary for the employee's head when the employee is wearing head protection meeting WAC 296-800-16055 if the estimated incident energy is less than 9 cal/cm2 for exposures involving single-phase arcs in open air or 5 cal/cm2 for other exposures;
(iv) The protection for the employee's head may consist of head protection meeting WAC 296-800-16055 and a faceshield with a minimum arc rating of 8 cal/cm2 if the estimated incident-energy exposure is less than 13 cal/cm2 for exposures involving single-phase arcs in open air or 9 cal/cm2 for other exposures; and
(v) For exposures involving singlephase arcs in open air, the arc rating for the employee's head and face protection may be 4 cal/cm2 less than the estimated incident energy.
Note:
See Appendix D of this chapter for further information on the selection of appropriate protection.
(14) Fuse handling. When fuses must be installed or removed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts or with exposed parts energized at more than 50 volts, the employer shall ensure that tools or gloves rated for the voltage are used. When expulsion-type fuses are installed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears eye protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-45-25505(1), uses a tool rated for the voltage, and is clear of the exhaust path of the fuse barrel.
(((14))) (15) Covered (noninsulated) conductors. The requirements of this section which pertain to the hazards of exposed live parts also apply when work is performed in the proximity of covered (noninsulated) wires.
(((15))) (16) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts. Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment or devices, such as transformer cases and circuit breaker housings, shall be treated as energized at the highest voltage to which they are exposed, unless the employer inspects the installation and determines that these parts are grounded before work is performed.
(((16))) (17) Opening circuits under load. Devices used to open circuits under load conditions shall be designed to interrupt the current involved.
((Table 1: AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance
 
Distance to employee
Voltage in kilovolts phase to phase*
Phase to ground
Phase to Phase
 
(m)
(ft-in)
(m)
(ft-in)
 
0 to 0.050
not specified
not specified
 
0.051 to 0.300
avoid contact
avoid contact
 
0.301 to 0.750
0.31
1-0
0.31
1-0
 
0.751 to 15
0.65
2-2
0.67
2-3
 
15.1 to 36.0
0.77
2-7
0.86
2-10
 
36.1 to 46.0
0.84
2-9
0.96
3-2
 
46.1 to 72.5
1.00**
3-3**
1.20
3-11
 
72.6 to 121
0.95**
3-2**
1.29
4-3
 
138 to 145
1.09
3-7
1.50
4-11
 
161 to 169
1.22
4-0
1.71
5-8
 
230 to 242
1.59
5-3
2.27
7-6
 
345 to 362
2.59
8-6
3.80
12-6
 
500 to 550
3.42
11-3
5.50
18-1
 
765 to 800
4.53
14-11
7.91
26-0
 
*For single-phase systems, use the highest voltage available.
 
For single-phase lines off three phase systems, use the phase-to-phase voltage of the system.
 
**The 46.1 to 72.5 kV phase-to-ground 3-3 distance contains a 1-3 electrical component and a 2-0 inadvertent movement component while the 72.6 to 121 kV phase-to-ground 3-2 distance contains a 2-2 electrical component and a 1-0 inadvertent movement component.
Note 1:
These distances take into consideration the highest switching surge an employee will be exposed to on any system with air as the insulating medium and the maximum voltages shown.
Note 2:
The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
Note 3:
See Appendix B to this section for information on how the minimum approach distances listed in the tables were derived.))
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-335 Deenergizing lines and equipment for employee protection.
(1) Application. This section applies to the deenergizing of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Control of hazardous energy sources used in the generation of electric energy is covered in WAC 296-45-175. Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been deenergized under procedures other than those required by WAC 296-45-175 or 296-45-335, as applicable, shall be treated as energized.
(2) "General."
(a) If a system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, all of the requirements of subsection (3) of this section shall be observed, in the order given.
(b) If no system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, one employee in the crew shall be designated as being in charge of the clearance. All of the requirements of subsection (3) of this section apply, in the order given, except as provided in subsection (2)(c) of this section. The employee in charge of the clearance shall take the place of the system operator, as necessary.
(c) If only one crew will be working on the lines or equipment and if the means of disconnection is accessible and visible to and under the sole control of the employee in charge of the clearance, subsection (3)(a), (c), and (d) of this section do not apply. Additionally, tags required by the remaining provisions of subsection (3) of this section need not be used.
(d) Any disconnecting means that are accessible to persons outside the employer's control (for example, the general public) shall be rendered inoperable while they are open for the purpose of protecting employees.
(3) Deenergizing lines and equipment.
(a) In all cases, switching orders must be given directly to the employees in charge of operating the switches by the system operator who has jurisdiction and such communications must be repeated back word for word to the speaker. When requesting clearance on lines under the control of the system operator, a person requesting the clearance shall obtain the name of the system operator to whom the request was made and the system operator shall obtain the name of the person requesting the clearance; and assure that the person is qualified to receive such a clearance. A ((designated)) qualified electrical employee shall make a request of the system operator to have the particular section of line or equipment deenergized. The ((designated)) qualified electrical employee becomes the employee in charge (as this term is used in subsection (2)(b) of this section) and is responsible for the clearance. In giving a clearance, the system operator shall make certain that the person to whom the clearance is given is fully aware of the extent or the limits of the clearance.
(b) All switches, disconnectors, jumpers, taps, and other means through which known sources of electric energy may be supplied to the particular lines and equipment to be deenergized shall be opened. Such means shall be rendered inoperable, unless its design does not so permit, and tagged to indicate that employees are at work.
(c) Automatically and remotely controlled switches that could cause the opened disconnecting means to close shall also be tagged at the point of control. The automatic or remote control feature shall be rendered inoperable, unless its design does not so permit.
(d) Tags shall prohibit operation of the disconnecting means and shall indicate that employees are at work.
(e) After the applicable requirements in subsection (3)(a) through (d) of this section have been followed and the employee in charge of the work has been given a clearance by the system operator, the lines and equipment to be worked shall be tested to ensure that they are deenergized.
(4) The system operator shall order clearance tags printed on red cardboard, or equivalent, not less than 2-1/4 inches by 4-1/2 inches, attached to all switches opened or checked open to provide clearance on any line or equipment for employees to work thereon.
(5) Clearance tags attached to substation control devices and to line switches beyond the switchyard of any substation; indicating the limits of the clearance involved; shall state the designation of the switch opened or checked open and tagged; the name of the person to whom the clearance is to be issued; the date and time the switch was opened or checked open; the name of the dispatcher ordering the switching and tagging; and the name of the person doing the switching and tagging.
(6) Protective grounds shall be installed as required by WAC 296-45-345.
(7) After the applicable requirements of subsection (3)(a) through (d) of this section have been followed, the lines and equipment involved may be worked as deenergized.
(8) If two or more independent crews will be working on the same lines or equipment, each crew shall independently comply with the requirements in subsection (3) of this section.
(9) To transfer the clearance, the employee in charge (or, if the employee in charge is forced to leave the worksite due to illness or other emergency, the employee's supervisor) shall inform the system operator; employees in the crew shall be informed of the transfer; and the new employee in charge shall be responsible for the clearance.
(10) To release a clearance, the employee in charge shall:
(a) Notify employees under his or her direction that the clearance is to be released;
(b) Determine that all employees in the crew are clear of the lines and equipment;
(c) Determine that all protective grounds installed by the crew have been removed; and
(d) Report this information to the system operator and release the clearance.
(11) The person releasing a clearance shall be the same person that requested the clearance, unless responsibility has been transferred under subsection (9) of this section.
(12) Tags may not be removed unless the associated clearance has been released under subsection (10) of this section.
(13) Only after all protective grounds have been removed, after all crews working on the lines or equipment have released their clearances, after all employees are clear of the lines and equipment, and after all protective tags have been removed from a given point of disconnection, may action be initiated to reenergize the lines or equipment at that point of disconnection.
(14) To meet unforeseen conditions, it will be permissible to tag isolated switches for the system operator and issue clearances against this tag. In tagging out inter-utility tie lines, the open switches on the foreign end of the line shall be tagged for the foreign system operator requesting the outage who will issue clearances to individuals of the organization against this tag.
(15) Network protectors. The employer need not use the tags mentioned in subsection (3)(d) and (e) of this section on a network protector for work on the primary feeder for the network protector's associated network transformer when the employer can demonstrate all of the following conditions:
(a) Every network protector is maintained so that it will immediately trip open if closed when a primary conductor is deenergized;
(b) Employees cannot manually place any network protector in a closed position without the use of tools, and any manual override position is blocked, locked, or otherwise disabled; and
(c) The employer has procedures for manually overriding any network protector that incorporate provisions for determining, before anyone places a network protector in a closed position, that: The line connected to the network protector is not deenergized for the protection of any employee working on the line; and (if the line connected to the network protector is not deenergized for the protection of any employee working on the line) the primary conductors for the network protector are energized.
(16) Metal-clad, draw-out switchgear of over 600 volts in which the physical separation of the disconnecting parts is not visible may be used to clear a line or equipment, provided the switchgear is equipped with:
(a) A positive positioning means to insure that the disconnecting contacts are separated;
(b) An isolating shutter which moves into place between the separated contact for circuit isolation; and
(c) A mechanically((-)) connected indicating means to show that the shutter is in place.
(((16))) (17) In all other cases, only a visible break of all phases shall be regarded as clearing a line or equipment.
(((17))) (18) No person shall make contact with a circuit or equipment that has not been taken out of service to be worked on until ((he/she has)) they have the circuit or equipment cleared and tagged for themselves or is working directly under the supervision of one who has the circuit or equipment cleared and tagged for themselves.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-345 Grounding for the protection of employees.
(1) Application. This section applies to the grounding of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Subsection (4) of this section also applies to the protective grounding of other equipment as required elsewhere in this section.
(2) General. For the employee to work lines or equipment as deenergized, the lines or equipment shall be deenergized under the provisions of WAC 296-45-335 and shall be grounded as specified in subsections (3) through (9) of this section. However, if the employer can demonstrate that installation of a ground is impracticable or that the conditions resulting from the installation of a ground would present greater hazards than working without grounds, the lines and equipment may be treated as deenergized provided all of the following conditions are met:
(a) The lines and equipment have been deenergized under the provisions of WAC 296-45-335.
(b) There is no possibility of contact with another energized source.
(c) The hazard of induced voltage is not present.
(3) Equipotential zone. Temporary protective grounds and bonding jumpers shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner as to prevent each employee from being exposed to hazardous differences in electrical potential.
Note:
This may require bonding equipment together.
(4) Protective grounding equipment.
(a) Protective grounding equipment shall be capable of conducting the maximum fault current that could flow at the point of grounding for the time necessary to clear the fault. This equipment shall have an ampacity greater than or equal to that of No. 2 AWG copper.
(b) Grounding jumpers shall have approved ferrules and grounding clamps that provide mechanical support for jumper cables independent of the electrical connection.
Note:
Guidelines for protective grounding equipment are contained in American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Temporary Grounding Systems to be Used on Deenergized Electric Power Lines and Equipment, ASTM ((F855-1990)) F855-2015.
(c) Protective grounds shall have an impedance low enough to cause immediate operation of protective devices in case of accidental energizing of the lines or equipment.
(5) Testing. Before any ground is installed, lines and equipment shall be tested and found absent of nominal voltage, unless a previously installed ground is present.
(a) Inspection before use: Grounding equipment shall be given a visual inspection and all mechanical connections shall be checked for tightness before each use.
(b) Ground surface cleaning: The surface to which the ground is to be attached shall be clean before the grounding clamp is installed; otherwise, a self-cleaning clamp shall be used.
(6) Order of connection. ((When a ground is to be attached to a line or to equipment, the ground-end connection shall be attached first, and then the other end shall be attached by means of a live-line tool.)) The employer shall ensure that, when an employee attaches a ground to a line or to equipment, the employee attaches the ground-end connection first and then attaches the other end by means of a live-line tool. For lines or equipment operating at 600 volts or less, the employer may permit the employee to use insulating equipment other than a live-line tool if the employer ensures that the line or equipment is not energized at the time the ground is connected or if the employer can demonstrate that each employee is protected from hazards that may develop if the line or equipment is energized.
(7) "Order of removal." When a ground is to be removed, the grounding device shall be removed from the line or equipment using a live-line tool before the ground-end connection is removed.
(8) "Additional precautions." When work is performed on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable may not be grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
(9) Removal of grounds for test. Grounds may be removed temporarily during tests. During the test procedure, the employer shall ensure that each employee uses insulating equipment and is isolated from any hazards involved, and the employer shall institute any additional measures as may be necessary to protect each exposed employee in case the previously grounded lines and equipment become energized.
(10) Conductor separation: In cases where the conductor separation at any pole or structure is so great as to make it impractical to apply shorts on all conductors, and where only one conductor is to be worked on, only that conductor which is to be worked on needs to be grounded.
(11) Ground personnel: In cases where ground rods or pole grounds are utilized for personal protective grounding, personnel working on the ground should maintain sufficient distance from such equipment or utilize other approved procedures designed to prevent "touch-and step potential" hazards.
Note:
See ((the Appendix for tables)) Appendix B of this chapter for protection from step and touch potentials.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-355 Underground grounding.
(1) Grounding. A capacitance charge can remain in the high voltage cables after it has been disconnected from the circuit and a static-type arc can occur when grounds are applied to such cables.
(2) When work is to be done on cables or equipment of a high-voltage underground system, precautions to prevent back-feed shall be taken. This shall include either isolating or grounding of the secondary conductors.
(3) After grounding the cable, if the worker is to work on cable between terminations, ((he/she)) they must first spike the cable or use other approved methods of testing. If the cable is to be cut, it shall be cut only with approved hot cutters.
(4) Additional precautions. When work is performed on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable may not be grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-365 Testing and test facilities.
(1) Application. This section provides for safe work practices for high-voltage and high-power testing performed in laboratories, shops, and substations, and in the field and on electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment. It applies only to testing involving interim measurements utilizing high voltage, high power, or combinations of both, and not to testing involving continuous measurements as in routine metering, relaying, and normal line work.
Note:
Routine inspection and maintenance measurements made by qualified electrical employees are considered to be routine line work and are not included in the scope of this section, as long as the hazards related to the use of intrinsic high-voltage or high-power sources require only the normal precautions associated with routine operation and maintenance work required in the other subsections of this section. Two typical examples of such excluded test work procedures are "phasing-out" testing and testing for a "no-voltage" condition.
(2) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall establish and enforce work practices for the protection of each worker from the hazards of high-voltage or high-power testing at all test areas, temporary and permanent. Such work practices shall include, as a minimum, test area guarding, grounding, and the safe use of measuring and control circuits. A means providing for periodic safety checks of field test areas shall also be included.
(b) Employees shall be trained in safe work practices upon their initial assignment to the test area, with periodic reviews and updates provided as required by subsections of this section.
(3) Guarding of test areas.
(a) Permanent test areas shall be guarded by walls, fences, or barriers designed to keep employees out of the test areas.
(b) In field testing, or at a temporary test site where permanent fences and gates are not provided, one of the following means shall be used to prevent unauthorized employees from entering:
(i) The test area shall be guarded by the use of distinctively colored safety tape that is supported approximately waist high and to which safety signs are attached;
(ii) The test area shall be guarded by a barrier or barricade that limits access to the test area to a degree equivalent, physically and visually, to the barricade specified in this section; or
(iii) The test area shall be guarded by one or more test observers stationed so that the entire area can be monitored.
(c) The barriers required by this section shall be removed when the protection they provide is no longer needed.
(d) Guarding shall be provided within test areas to control access to test equipment or to apparatus under test that may become energized as part of the testing by either direct or inductive coupling, in order to prevent accidental employee contact with energized parts.
(4) Grounding practices.
(a) The employer shall establish and implement safe grounding practices for the test facility.
(i) All conductive parts accessible to the test operator during the time the equipment is operating at high voltage shall be maintained at ground potential except for portions of the equipment that are isolated from the test operator by guarding.
(ii) Wherever ungrounded terminals of test equipment or apparatus under test may be present, they shall be treated as energized until determined by tests to be deenergized.
(b) Visible grounds shall be applied, either automatically or manually with properly insulated tools, to the high-voltage circuits after they are deenergized and before work is performed on the circuit or item or apparatus under test. Common ground connections shall be solidly connected to the test equipment and the apparatus under test.
(c) In high-power testing, an isolated ground-return conductor system shall be provided so that no intentional passage of current, with its attendant voltage rise, can occur in the ground grid or in the earth. However, an isolated ground-return conductor need not be provided if the employer can demonstrate that both the following conditions are met:
(i) An isolated ground-return conductor cannot be provided due to the distance of the test site from the electric energy source; and
(ii) Employees are protected from any hazardous step and touch potentials that may develop during the test.
Note:
See Appendix B of this chapter for information on measures that can be taken to protect employees from hazardous step and touch potentials.
(d) In tests in which grounding of test equipment by means of the equipment grounding conductor located in the equipment power cord cannot be used due to increased hazards to test personnel or the prevention of satisfactory measurements, a ground that the employer can demonstrate affords equivalent safety shall be provided, and the safety ground shall be clearly indicated in the test set up.
(e) When the test area is entered after equipment is deenergized, a ground shall be placed on the high-voltage terminal and any other exposed terminals.
(i) High capacitance equipment or apparatus shall be discharged through a resistor rated for the available energy.
(ii) A direct ground shall be applied to the exposed terminals when the stored energy drops to a level at which it is safe to do so.
(f) If a test trailer or test vehicle is used in field testing, its chassis shall be grounded. Protection against hazardous touch potentials with respect to the vehicle, instrument panels, and other conductive parts accessible to employees shall be provided by bonding, insulation, or isolation.
(5) Control and measuring circuits.
(a) Control wiring, meter connections, test leads and cables may not be run from a test area unless they are contained in a grounded metallic sheath and terminated in a grounded metallic enclosure or unless other precautions are taken that the employer can demonstrate as ensuring equivalent safety.
(b) Meters and other instruments with accessible terminals or parts shall be isolated from test personnel to protect against hazards arising from such terminals and parts becoming energized during testing. If this isolation is provided by locating test equipment in metal compartments with viewing windows, interlocks shall be provided to interrupt the power supply if the compartment cover is opened.
(c) The routing and connections of temporary wiring shall be made secure against damage, accidental interruptions and other hazards. To the maximum extent possible, signal, control, ground, and power cables shall be kept separate.
(d) If employees will be present in the test area during testing, a test observer shall be present. The test observer shall be capable of implementing the immediate deenergizing of test circuits for safety purposes.
(6) Safety check.
(a) Safety practices governing employee work at temporary or field test areas shall provide for a routine check of such test areas for safety at the beginning of each series of tests.
(b) The test operator in charge shall conduct these routine safety checks before each series of tests and shall verify at least the following conditions:
(i) That barriers and guards are in workable condition and are properly placed to isolate hazardous areas;
(ii) That system test status signals, if used, are in operable condition;
(iii) That test power disconnects are clearly marked and readily available in an emergency;
(iv) That ground connections are clearly identifiable;
(v) That personal protective equipment is provided and used;
(vi) That signal, ground, and power cables are properly separated.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-375 Mechanical equipment, including aerial manlift equipment.
(1) General requirements.
(a) Other applicable requirements. Mechanical equipment shall be operated in accordance with applicable requirements in other chapters, including chapter 296-155 WAC, Parts L, M, and R, and chapter 296-869 WAC, except that WAC 296-155-605 (1)(h) and 296-155-77100 (1)(h) do not apply to operations performed by qualified electrical employees.
(b) The critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment shall receive a thorough visual inspection and operational test before use on each shift.
Note:
Critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment are components whose failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom.
(((b))) (c) No vehicular equipment having an obstructed view to the rear may be operated on off-highway job sites where any employee is exposed to the hazards created by the moving vehicle, unless:
(i) The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level; or
(ii) The vehicle is backed up only when a designated employee signals that it is safe to do so.
(((c))) (d) The operator of an electric line truck may not leave ((his or her)) their position at the controls while a load is suspended, unless the employer can demonstrate that no employee (including the operator) might be endangered.
(((d))) (e) Rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end loaders, rubber-tired dozers, wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, crawler-type tractors, crawler-type loaders, and motor graders, with or without attachments, shall have rollover protective structures that meet the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part V.
(2) Outriggers.
(a) Vehicular equipment, if provided with outriggers, shall be operated with the outriggers extended and firmly set as necessary for the stability of the specific configuration of the equipment. Outriggers may not be extended or retracted outside of clear view of the operator unless all employees are outside the range of possible equipment motion.
(b) If the work area or the terrain precludes the use of outriggers, the equipment may be operated only within its maximum load ratings for the particular configuration of the equipment without outriggers.
(3) Applied loads. Mechanical equipment used to lift or move lines or other material shall be used within its maximum load rating and other design limitations for the conditions under which the work is being performed.
(4) Hydraulic fluids. All hydraulic fluids used for the insulated section of derrick trucks, aerial lifts, and hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines or equipment shall be of the insulating type.
(5) Mechanical adjustment or repairs shall not be attempted or performed in the field except by a person qualified to perform such work.
(6) Malfunction or needed repairs of manlift equipment shall be reported to the employee responsible for such repairs as soon as is reasonably possible. Use of equipment which is known to be in need of repairs or is malfunctioning is prohibited when such deficiency creates an unsafe operating condition.
(7) When any aerial manlift equipment is parked for operation at the job site, the brakes shall be set. Wheel chocks shall be used to prevent accidental movement while parked on an incline.
(8) Employees shall not sit or stand on the basket edge, stand on materials placed in or across the basket, or work from a ladder set inside the basket.
(9) The basket shall not be rested on a fixed object(s) so that the weight of the boom is either totally or partially supported by the basket.
(10) Operations near energized lines or equipment.
(a) Mechanical equipment shall be operated so that the minimum approach distances of Table ((1 through Table 4)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325, are maintained from exposed energized lines and equipment. However, the insulated upper portion excluding the basket/bucket of an aerial lift operated by a qualified electrical employee in the lift is exempt from this requirement.
(b) A designated employee other than the equipment operator shall observe the approach distance to exposed lines and equipment and give timely warnings before the minimum approach distance required by subsection (10)(a) of this section is reached, unless the employer can demonstrate that the operator can accurately determine that the minimum approach distance is being maintained.
(c) If, during operation of the mechanical equipment, the equipment could become energized, the operation shall also comply with at least one of the following:
(i) The energized lines exposed to contact shall be covered with insulating protective material that will withstand the type of contact that might be made during the operation.
(ii) The equipment shall be insulated for the voltage involved. The equipment shall be positioned so that its uninsulated portions cannot approach the lines or equipment any closer than the minimum approach distances specified in Table ((1 through 4)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325.
(iii) Each employee shall be protected from hazards that might arise from equipment contact with the energized lines. The measures used shall ensure that employees will not be exposed to hazardous differences in potential. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the methods in use protect each employee from the hazards that might arise if the equipment contacts the energized line, the measures used shall include all of the following techniques:
(A) Using the best available ground to minimize the time the lines remain energized;
(B) Bonding mechanical equipment together to minimize potential differences;
(C) Providing ground mats to extend areas of equipotential; and
(D) Employing insulating protective equipment or barricades to guard against any remaining hazardous potential differences.
Note:
Appendix B of this chapter contains information on hazardous step and touch potentials and on methods of protecting employees from hazards resulting from such potentials.
(11) While working in aerial equipment, employees shall wear a full body harness and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket, in a secure manner.
(12) No component of aerial devices shall be operated from the ground without permission from the employee in the basket except in case of emergency.
(13) Operating levers or controls shall be kept clear of tools, materials or obstructions.
(14) Employees shall not climb into or out of the basket or platform while it is elevated or change from one basket to another on dual basket equipment, except in case of emergency or when the employees involved agree that this is the safest way to perform the work. This exception shall not be used to circumvent safety rules.
(15) Existing safety rules governing the use of hot line tools, rubber and other protective equipment and safe work practices while performing work from poles or structures shall also apply to work done from aerial manlift equipment.
(16) The basket shall be kept clean and all tools not in use shall be secured or removed.
(17) Approved warning light shall be operating when the boom leaves the cradle. This light shall be visible to approaching traffic when the boom is in position over any traveled area.
(18) All aerial manlift equipment shall have both upper and lower controls (except ladder trucks need not have upper controls). The upper controls shall not be capable of rendering the lower controls inoperative. The lower controls should be located at or near the base of the aerial structure. If the lower controls are used, the operator shall have a view of the elevated employee(s) or there shall be communication between the operator and the employee in the elevated aerial structure: Provided, That no employee shall be raised, lowered, or moved into or from the elevated position in any aerial manlift equipment unless there is another employee, not in the elevated aerial structure, available at the site to operate the lower controls, except as follows:
(a) Where there is a fixed method permanently attached to or part of the equipment which will permit an employee to descend from the elevated position without lowering the elevated structure; or
(b) Where there is a system which will provide operation from the elevated position in the event of failure or malfunction of the primary system.
Note:
This section shall not be interpreted as an exception to any other rule in this chapter.
(19) Controls in aerial manlift equipment shall be protected from accidental operation. Controls of the outriggers shall also be protected from accidental operation. Such protection may be by guarding or equivalent means.
(20) The manufacturer's recommended maximum load limit shall be posted at a conspicuous place near each set of controls and shall be kept in a legible condition.
(21) The manufacturer's operator's instructional manual shall be kept on the vehicle.
(22) Operating instructions, proper sequence and maintenance procedures prescribed by the manufacturer for operation of the equipment shall be followed.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 05-17-038, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05)
WAC 296-45-385 Overhead lines.
This section provides additional requirements for work performed on or near overhead lines and equipment.
(1) General.
(a) Before elevated structures and adjacent structures, such as poles or towers of the adjacent supporting poles, structures, and conductor supporting hardware, are subjected to such stresses as climbing or the installation or removal of equipment may impose, the employer shall ascertain that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses. If the pole or other structure cannot withstand the loads which will be imposed, it shall be braced or otherwise supported so as to prevent failure.
Note:
Appendix C of this chapter contains test methods that can be used in ascertaining whether a wood pole is capable of sustaining the forces that would be imposed by an employee climbing the pole. This ((paragraph)) section also requires the employer to ascertain that the pole can sustain all other forces that will be imposed by the work to be performed.
(b) When poles are set, moved, or removed near exposed energized overhead conductors, the pole may not contact the conductors.
(c) When a pole is set, moved, or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears electrical protective equipment or uses insulated devices when handling the pole and that no employee contacts the pole with uninsulated parts of ((his or her)) their body.
(d) To protect employees from falling into holes into which poles are to be placed, the holes shall be attended by employees or physically guarded whenever anyone is working nearby.
(2) Installing and removing overhead lines. The following provisions apply to the installation and removal of overhead conductors or cable.
(a) The employer shall use the tension stringing method, barriers, or other equivalent measures to minimize the possibility that conductors and cables being installed or removed will contact energized power lines or equipment.
(b) When conductors are being strung in or removed, they shall be kept under positive control to prevent accidental contact with energized circuit.
(c) The protective measures required by WAC 296-45-375 (10)(c) for mechanical equipment shall also be provided for conductors, cables, and pulling and tensioning equipment when the conductor or cable is being installed or removed close enough to energized conductors that any of the following failures could energize the pulling or tensioning equipment or the wire or cable being installed or removed:
(i) Failure of the pulling or tensioning equipment;
(ii) Failure of the wire or cable being pulled; or
(iii) Failure of the previously installed lines or equipment.
(d) When conductors being installed or removed cross over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts, rope nets or guard structures must be installed unless provision is made to isolate or insulate the worker or the energized conductor. Where the design of the circuit-interrupting devices protecting the lines so permits, the automatic-reclosing feature of these devices must be made inoperative. In addition, the line being strung must be grounded on either side of the crossover or considered and worked as energized.
(e) Before lines are installed parallel to existing energized lines, the employer shall make a determination of the approximate voltage to be induced in the new lines, or work shall proceed on the assumption that the induced voltage is hazardous. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the lines being installed are not subject to the induction of a hazardous voltage or unless the lines are treated as energized, ((the following requirements also apply:
(i) Each bare conductor shall be grounded in increments so that no point along the conductor is more than 2 miles (3.22 km) from a ground.
(ii) The grounds required in subsection (2)(e)(i) of this section shall be left in place until the conductor installation is completed between dead ends.
(iii) The grounds required in subsection (2)(e)(i) of this section shall be removed as the last phase of aerial cleanup.
(iv) If employees are working on bare conductors, grounds shall also be installed at each location where these employees are working, and grounds shall be installed at all open dead-end or catch-off points or the next adjacent structure.
(v) If two bare conductors are to be spliced, the conductors shall be bonded and grounded before being spliced)) temporary protective grounds shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner that the employer can demonstrate will prevent exposure of each employee to hazardous differences in electric potential.
Notes:
• If the employer takes no precautions to protect employees from hazards associated with involuntary reactions from electric shock, a hazard exists if the induced voltage is sufficient to pass a current of 1 milliampere through a 500-ohm resistor. If the employer protects employees from injury due to involuntary reactions from electric shock, a hazard exists if the resultant current would be more than 6 milliamperes.
 
• Appendix B of this chapter contains guidelines for protecting employees from hazardous differences in electric potential as required by this section.
(f) Reel handling equipment, including pulling and tensioning devices, shall be in safe operating condition and shall be leveled and aligned.
(g) Load ratings of stringing lines, pulling lines, conductor grips, load-bearing hardware and accessories, rigging, and hoists may not be exceeded.
(h) Each pull must be snubbed or dead ended at both ends before subsequent pulls.
(3) Pulling lines and accessories shall be inspected prior to each use and replaced or repaired when damaged or when there is a reasonable basis to doubt the dependability of such lines or accessories.
(4) Conductor grips may not be used on wire rope, unless the grip is specifically designed for this application.
(5) Reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, shall be maintained between the reel tender and the pulling rig operator.
(6) The pulling rig may only be operated when it is safe to do so.
Note:
Examples of unsafe conditions include employees in locations prohibited by subsection (7) of this section, conductor and pulling line hang-ups, and slipping of the conductor grip.
(7) While the conductor or pulling line is being pulled (in motion) with a power-driven device, employees are not permitted directly under overhead operations or on the cross arm, except as necessary to guide the stringing sock or board over or through the stringing sheave.
(8) Live-line bare-hand work is prohibited.
(9) When winches, trucks, or tractors are being used to raise poles, materials, to pull in wires, to pull slack or in any other operation, there shall be an operator at the controls unless the machinery or process is stopped.
(10) Leadworkers shall designate an employee to give signals when required.
(11) Raising poles, towers or fixtures in the close proximity of high voltage conductors shall be done under the supervision of a qualified electrical employee.
(12) Employees shall not crawl over insulator strings but shall use a platform or other approved device to work from when making dead ends or doing other work beyond strings of insulators, at such distance that they cannot reach the work from the pole or fixture. While working on the platform or other device, they shall be secured with safety straps or a rope to prevent falling. The provision of this subsection does not apply to extra high voltage bundle conductors when the use of such equipment may produce additional hazard. Climbing over dead end assemblies is permissible only after they have been completed and pinned in the final position.
(13) Towers and structures. The following requirements apply to work performed on towers or other structures which support overhead lines.
(a) The employer shall ensure that no employee is under a tower or structure while work is in progress, except where the employer can demonstrate that such a working position is necessary to assist employees working above.
(b) Tag lines or other similar devices shall be used to maintain control of tower sections being raised or positioned, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of such devices would create a greater hazard.
(c) The loadline may not be detached from a member or section until the load is safely secured.
(d) No one ((must)) shall be permitted to remain in the footing while equipment is being spotted for placement.
(e) A designated employee must be utilized to determine that required clearance is maintained in moving equipment under or near energized lines.
(14) All conductors, subconductors, and overhead ground conductors must be bonded to the tower at any isolated tower where it may be necessary to complete work on the transmission line.
(15) A transmission clipping crew shall have a minimum of two structures clipped in between the crew and the conductor being sagged.
(16) While on patrol at night and operating a motor vehicle on public ((highways)) roadways, there shall be two employees, at least one of whom shall be a ((journey level lineworker or otherwise)) qualified electrical employee. If repair to line or equipment is found to be of such nature as to require two ((lineworkers)) qualified electrical employees, work shall not proceed until additional help has been obtained provided that in cases of emergency where delay would increase the danger to life, limb, or substantial property, one employee may clear the hazard without assistance.
(17) Except during emergency restoration procedures, work shall be discontinued when adverse weather conditions would make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section.
Note:
((`))Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make this work too hazardous to perform, except under emergency conditions.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 99-09-080, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99)
WAC 296-45-455 Line-clearance tree-trimming operations.
This section provides additional requirements for line-clearance tree-trimming operations and for equipment used in these operations.
This section does not apply to qualified electrical employees.
(1) Before an employee climbs, enters, or works around any tree, a determination shall be made of the nominal voltage of electric power lines posing a hazard to employees. However, a determination of the maximum nominal voltage to which an employee will be exposed may be made instead, if all lines are considered as energized at this maximum voltage.
(2) There shall be a second line-clearance tree trimmer within normal (((that is)), unassisted(())) voice communication under any of the following conditions:
(a) If a line-clearance tree trimmer is to approach more closely than 10 feet (305 cm) any conductor or electrical apparatus energized at more than 600 volts; or
(b) If branches or limbs being removed are closer to lines energized at more than 600 volts than the distances listed in Table ((1, Table 4, and Table 5)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325; or
(c) If roping is necessary to remove branches or limbs ((from)) near such conductors or apparatus.
(3) Line-clearance tree trimmers shall maintain the minimum approach distances from energized conductors given in Table ((1, Table 4, and Table 5)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325.
(4) Branches that are contacting exposed energized conductors or equipment or that are within the distances specified in Table ((1, Table 4, and Table 5)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325 may be removed only through the use of insulating equipment.
Note:
A tool constructed of a material that the employer can demonstrate has insulating qualities meeting WAC 296-45-305(1) are considered as insulated under this section if the tool is clean and dry.
(5) Ladders, platforms, and aerial devices may not be brought closer to an energized part than the distances listed in Table ((1, Table 4, and Table 5)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325.
(6) Line-clearance tree-trimming work may not be performed when adverse weather conditions make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section. Each employee performing line-clearance tree-trimming work in the aftermath of a storm or under similar emergency conditions shall be trained in the special hazards related to this type of work.
Note:
Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make line-clearance tree-trimming work too hazardous to perform safely.
(7) A tree trimmer may climb out of a basket into a tree or from a tree back into the basket so long as he is properly tied into the tree during the entire maneuver and the employer can demonstrate that this is the safest way to perform the work.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-45505 Brush chippers.
(1) Brush chippers shall be equipped with a locking device in the ignition system.
(2) Access panels for maintenance and adjustment of the chipper blades and associated drive train shall be in place and secure during operation of the equipment. Servicing and maintenance shall be performed according to chapter 296-803 WAC, Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy).
(3) Brush chippers not equipped with a mechanical infeed system shall be equipped with an infeed hopper of length sufficient to prevent employees from contacting the blades or knives of the machine during operation.
(4) Trailer chippers detached from trucks shall be chocked or otherwise secured.
(5) Each employee in the immediate area of an operating chipper feed table shall wear personal protective equipment as required by ((Subpart I)) WAC 296-45-25505 of this ((Part)) chapter.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 09-10-077, filed 5/5/09, effective 7/1/09)
WAC 296-45-475 Substations.
This section provides additional requirements for substations and for work performed in them.
(1) Access and working space. Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of access and working space about electric equipment in substations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with WAC 296-45-475(1). An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with WAC 296-45-475(1) if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides ready and safe access based on the following evidence:
(a) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(b) That the configuration of the installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances required by WAC 296-45-325(5) while they are working on exposed, energized parts; and
(c) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by access and working space meeting ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012.
(d) Precaution must be taken to prevent accidental operation of relays or other protective devices due to jarring, vibration, or improper wiring.
(2) Draw-out-type circuit breakers. When draw-out-type circuit breakers are removed or inserted, the breaker shall be in the open position. The control circuit shall also be rendered inoperative, if the design of the equipment permits.
(3) Substation fences. Conductive fences around substations must be grounded. When a substation fence must be expanded or removed fence continuity must be maintained and bonding must be used to prevent electrical discontinuity. A temporary fence affording similar protection when the site is unattended, must be provided. Adequate interconnection with ground must be maintained between temporary fence and permanent fence.
(4) Guarding of rooms containing electric supply equipment.
(a) Rooms and spaces in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed shall meet the requirements of subsection (4)(b) through (e) of this section under the following conditions:
(i) If exposed live parts operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are located within 8 feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space;
(ii) If live parts operating at 151 to 600 volts and located within 8 feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space are guarded only by location, as permitted under subsection (5)(a) of this section; or
(iii) If live parts operating at more than 600 volts are located within the room or space, unless:
(A) The live parts are enclosed within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts; or
(B) The live parts are installed at a height above ground and any other working surface that provides protection at the voltage to which they are energized corresponding to the protection provided by an 8-foot height at 50 volts.
(b) The rooms and spaces shall be so enclosed within fences, screens, partitions, or walls as to minimize the possibility that unqualified persons will enter.
(c) Signs warning unqualified persons to keep out shall be displayed at entrances to the rooms and spaces.
(d) Entrances to rooms and spaces that are not under the observation of an attendant shall be kept locked.
(e) Unqualified persons may not enter the rooms or spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment are energized.
(5) Guarding of energized parts.
(a) Guards shall be provided around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering, unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient horizontal or vertical or a combination of these clearances to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in substations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with subsection (5)(a) of this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with subsection (5)(a) of this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides sufficient clearance based on the following evidence:
(i) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(ii) That each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
(iii) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012.
(b) Except for fuse replacement and other necessary access by qualified ((persons)) electrical employees, the guarding of energized parts within a compartment shall be maintained during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent tools or other equipment from being dropped on energized parts.
(c) When guards are removed from energized equipment, barriers shall be installed around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
(6) Substation entry.
(a) Upon entering an attended substation, each employee other than those regularly working in the station shall report his or her presence to the employee in charge in order to receive information on special system conditions affecting employee safety.
(b) The job briefing required by WAC 296-45-135 shall cover such additional subjects as the location of energized equipment in or adjacent to the work area and the limits of any deenergized work area.
(c) Nonqualified persons may only approach exposed energized electrical equipment located in substations or switch yards up to the distances set forth in Table((s 1 through 4)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325, when under the direct supervision of a qualified ((person)) electrical employee acting as a safety watch. The safety watch will make sure that the nonqualified person does not encroach or take conductive objects closer to exposed energized parts than set forth in Table((s 1 through 4)) 2, located in WAC 296-45-325.
(i) Nonqualified persons must have hazard recognition training and attend a documented tailgate meeting prior to entering the substation.
(ii) The safety watch must be a qualified electrical employee as defined by WAC 296-45-035.
(iii) The safety watch will have the responsibility and authority to monitor work on a continuous basis and/or stop work until the hazard is eliminated or protected.
(iv) The safety watch will maintain a direct line of sight and voice communications with all nonqualified persons under their direct supervision. If the safety watch cannot meet these requirements, additional safety watches must be assigned or work must be stopped. Each safety watch will monitor no more than four persons.
(v) The safety watch will perform no other duties while acting as a safety watch.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-48515 Access and working space.
Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of access and workspace about electric equipment in generating stations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides ready and safe access based on the following evidence:
(1) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(2) That the configuration of the installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances required by this section while they work on exposed, energized parts; and
(3) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by access and working space meeting ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-48525 Guarding of energized parts.
(1) Guards shall be provided around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering, unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient horizontal or vertical or a combination of these clearances to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in generating stations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides sufficient clearance based on the following evidence:
(a) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(b) That each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
(c) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI ((C2-1997)) C2-2012.
(2) Except for fuse replacement or other necessary access by qualified ((persons)) electrical employees, the guarding of energized parts within a compartment shall be maintained during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent tools or other equipment from being dropped on energized parts.
(3) When guards are removed from energized equipment, barriers shall be installed around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)
WAC 296-45-545 Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing.
(1) Energized trolley wire shall be jumpered when it is to be opened or cut.
(2) Reaching over trolley wire(s) or system(s). ((Lineworkers)) Qualified electrical employees shall not reach over trolley wire(s) unless properly protected by line hose or rubber blanket.
(3) Reaching across sectional insulators. ((Lineworkers)) Qualified electrical employees shall not reach across section insulator(s), insulated spacer(s) or insulated approach.
(4) Polarity on either side of sectionalizing breakers. Since the polarity on both sides of a sectionalizing insulator may be different, it is required that prior to performance of work, tests be performed with approved testing equipment to determine whether or not the polarity is the same or different on one side of the sectional insulator as compared with the other.
(5) Working on hangers. More than one truck crew shall not work on hangers attached to the same span at the same time, without rubber protection.
(6) Workers on hangers of opposite polarity. Trolley hangers and ears of opposite polarity shall not be worked on at the same time when trolley wire is energized.
(7) Checking electric switches. When electric switches are checked for operation, making it necessary to short circuit the contactor to each trolley wire, tools with insulated handles shall be used.
(8) Short circuit due to use of noninsulated or conductive long handled tools. When a hazard of short circuit exists, due to use of noninsulated or conductive long handled tools, approved protective rubber equipment shall be used as provided in this chapter.
(9) Trolley feeders. When work is to be performed on street railway trolley feeders where it is necessary for workers to work from metal or other grounded poles or fixtures or on poles or fixtures on which grounds are maintained, the feeders shall be deenergized unless the poles or fixtures are insulated before the work is started with approved protective devices in such manner that employees cannot become grounded while working on the feeders, and employees shall wear approved rubber gloves.
(10) Truck driver shall remain at tower controls while workers are working on towers except when the aerial manlift equipment has been properly chocked to prevent uncontrolled movement. Tower trucks shall be equipped with a reliable signaling device between the employees working on the tower and the truck driver.
(11) Working on truck towers. Employees shall not stand on tower gates or railings. Work shall not be done from plank(s) placed on tower railings.
(12) Tower truck railings. Towers shall have standard railings and toeboards around the tower and all railings shall be constructed of wood, fiberglass or other nonmetallic material. All railings shall be a vertical height of not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches from the floor of the platform to the upper surface of the top rail. Intermediate railings shall be midway between the floor and the underside of the top rail. Tower gates shall be so constructed as to prevent accidental opening.
(13) Tower truck decks shall be kept clear of tools, wire and other materials and tools shall be kept in proper storage area when not in use.
(14) ((Lineworkers)) Qualified electrical employees shall not wear climbers or spurs while working on a tower truck.
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-45-902 Appendix AWorking on exposed energized partsNonmandatory.
Note:
This appendix is identical to 29 C.F.R. 1910.269 Appendix B, Working on Exposed Energized Parts, however all references to live-line barehand work have been deleted since it is prohibited in Washington state.
I. Introduction
Electric utilities design electric power generation, transmission, and distribution installations to meet National Electrical Safety Code (NESC), ANSI C2, requirements. Electric utilities also design transmission and distribution lines to limit line outages as required by system reliability criteria1 and to withstand the maximum overvoltage's impressed on the system. Conditions such as switching surges, faults, and lightning can cause overvoltages. Electric utilities generally select insulator design and lengths and the clearances to structural parts so as to prevent outages from contaminated line insulation and during storms. Line insulator lengths and structural clearances have, over the years, come closer to the minimum approach distances used by workers. As minimum approach distances and structural clearances converge, it is increasingly important that system designers and system operating and maintenance personnel understand the concepts underlying minimum approach distances.
The information in this appendix will assist employers in complying with the minimum approach-distance requirements contained in § 1910.269(l)(3) and (q)(3). Employers must use the technical criteria and methodology presented in this appendix in establishing minimum approach distances in accordance with § 1910.269(l)(3)(i) and Table R-3 and Table R-8. This appendix provides essential background information and technical criteria for the calculation of the required minimum approach distances for live-line work on electric power generation, transmission, and distribution installations.
Unless an employer is using the maximum transient overvoltage's specified in Table R-9 for voltages over 72.5 kilovolts, the employer must use persons knowledgeable in the techniques discussed in this appendix, and competent in the field of electric transmission and distribution system design, to determine the maximum transient overvoltage.
II. General
A. Definitions. The following definitions from § 1910.269(x) relate to work on or near electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment and the electrical hazards they present.
Exposed. . . . Not isolated or guarded.
Guarded. Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to minimize the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or inadvertent contact by persons or objects.
Note to the definition of "guarded": Wires that are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not guarded.
Insulated. Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current.
Note to the definition of "insulated": When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the conditions to which it normally is subjected. Otherwise, it is, for the purpose of this section, uninsulated.
Isolated. Not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.
Statistical sparkover voltage. A transient overvoltage level that produces a 97.72-percent probability of sparkover (that is, two standard deviations above the voltage at which there is a 50-percent probability of sparkover).
Statistical withstand voltage. A transient overvoltage level that produces a 0.14-percent probability of sparkover (that is, three standard deviations below the voltage at which there is a 50-percent probability of sparkover).
B. Installations energized at 50 to 300 volts. The hazards posed by installations energized at 50 to 300 volts are the same as those found in many other workplaces. That is not to say that there is no hazard, but the complexity of electrical protection required does not compare to that required for high voltage systems. The employee must avoid contact with the exposed parts, and the protective equipment used (such as rubber insulating gloves) must provide insulation for the voltages involved.
C. Exposed energized parts over 300 volts AC. Paragraph (l)(3)(i) of § 1910.269 requires the employer to establish minimum approach distances no less than the distances computed by Table R-3 for AC systems so that employees can work safely without risk of sparkover.2
Unless the employee is using electrical protective equipment, air is the insulating medium between the employee and energized parts. The distance between the employee and an energized part must be sufficient for the air to withstand the maximum transient overvoltage that can reach the worksite under the working conditions and practices the employee is using. This distance is the minimum air insulation distance, and it is equal to the electrical component of the minimum approach distance.
Normal system design may provide or include a means (such as lightning arrestors) to control maximum anticipated transient overvoltage's, or the employer may use temporary devices (portable protective gaps) or measures (such as preventing automatic circuit breaker reclosing) to achieve the same result. Paragraph (l)(3)(ii) of § 1910.269 requires the employer to determine the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, through an engineering analysis or assume a maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, in accordance with Table R-9, which specifies the following maximums for ac systems:
72.6 to 420.0 kilovolts-3.5 per unit
420.1 to 550.0 kilovolts-3.0 per unit
550.1 to 800.0 kilovolts-2.5 per unit
See paragraph IV.A.2, later in this appendix, for additional discussion of maximum transient overvoltages.
D. Types of exposures. Employees working on or near energized electric power generation, transmission, and distribution systems face two kinds of exposures: Phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase. The exposure is phase-to-ground with respect to an energized part, when the employee is at ground potential.
III. Determination of Minimum Approach Distances for AC Voltages Greater Than 300 Volts
A. Voltages of 301 to 5,000 volts. Test data generally forms the basis of minimum air insulation distances. The lowest voltage for which sufficient test data exists is 5,000 volts, and these data indicate that the minimum air insulation distance at that voltage is 20 millimeters (1 inch). Because the minimum air insulation distance increases with increasing voltage, and, conversely, decreases with decreasing voltage, an assumed minimum air insulation distance of 20 millimeters will protect against sparkover at voltages of 301 to 5,000 volts. Thus, 20 millimeters is the electrical component of the minimum approach distance for these voltages.
B. Voltages of 5.1 to 72.5 kilovolts. For voltages from 5.1 to 72.5 kilovolts, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration bases the methodology for calculating the electrical component of the minimum approach distance on Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard 4-1995, Standard Techniques for High-Voltage Testing. Table 1 lists the critical sparkover distances from that standard as listed in IEEE Std 516-2009, IEEE Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized Power Lines.
TABLE 1
SPARKOVER DISTANCE FOR ROD-TO-ROD GAP
60 Hz Rod-to-Rod sparkover (kV peak)
Gap spacing from IEEE Std 4-1995 (cm)
25 . . . .
2
36 . . . .
3
46 . . . .
4
53 . . . .
5
60 . . . .
6
70 . . . .
8
79 . . . .
10
86 . . . .
12
95 . . . .
14
104 . . . .
16
112 . . . .
18
120 . . . .
20
143 . . . .
25
167 . . . .
30
192 . . . .
35
218 . . . .
40
243 . . . .
45
270 . . . .
50
322 . . . .
60
Source: IEEE Std 516-2009.
To use this table to determine the electrical component of the minimum approach distance, the employer must determine the peak phase-to-ground transient overvoltage and select a gap from the table that corresponds to that voltage as a withstand voltage rather than a critical sparkover voltage. To calculate the electrical component of the minimum approach distance for voltages between 5 and 72.5 kilovolts, use the following procedure:
1. Divide the phase-to-phase voltage by the square root of 3 to convert it to a phase-to-ground voltage.
2. Multiply the phase-to-ground voltage by the square root of 2 to convert the rms value of the voltage to the peak phase-to-ground voltage.
3. Multiply the peak phase-to-ground voltage by the maximum per-unit transient overvoltage, which, for this voltage range, is 3.0, as discussed later in this appendix. This is the maximum phase-to-ground transient overvoltage, which corresponds to the withstand voltage for the relevant exposure.3
4. Divide the maximum phase-to-ground transient overvoltage by 0.85 to determine the corresponding critical sparkover voltage. (The critical sparkover voltage is 3 standard deviations (or 15 percent) greater than the withstand voltage.)
5. Determine the electrical component of the minimum approach distance from Table 1 through interpolation.
Table 2 illustrates how to derive the electrical component of the minimum approach distance for voltages from 5.1 to 72.5 kilovolts, before the application of any altitude correction factor, as explained later.
TABLE 2
CALCULATING THE ELECTRICAL COMPONENT OF MAD 751 V TO 72.5 KV
Step
Maximum system phase-to-phase voltage (kV)
15
36
46
72.5
1. Divide by √3 . . . .
8.7
20.8
26.6
41.9
2. Multiply by √2 . . . .
12.2
29.4
37.6
59.2
3. Multiply by 3.0 . . . .
36.7
88.2
112.7
177.6
4. Divide by 0.85 . . . .
43.2
103.7
132.6
208.9
5. Interpolate from Table 1 . . . .
3+(7.2/10)*1
14+(8.7/9)*2
20+(12.6/23)*5
35+(16.9/26)*5
Electrical component of MAD (cm) . . . .
3.72
15.93
22.74
38.25
C. Voltages of 72.6 to 800 kilovolts. For voltages of 72.6 kilovolts to 800 kilovolts, this section bases the electrical component of minimum approach distances, before the application of any altitude correction factor, on the following formula:
Equation 1 - For voltages of 72.6 kV to 800 kV
D = 0.3048(C + a) VL-GT
Where:
D = Electrical component of the minimum approach distance in air in meters;
C = A correction factor associated with the variation of gap sparkover with voltage;
a = A factor relating to the saturation of air at system voltages of 345 kilovolts or higher;4
VL-G = Maximum system line-to-ground rms voltage in kilovolts - It should be the "actual" maximum, or the normal highest voltage for the range (for example, 10 percent above the nominal voltage); and
T = Maximum transient overvoltage factor in per unit.
In Equation 1, C is 0.01: (1) For phase-to-ground exposures that the employer can demonstrate consist only of air across the approach distance (gap) and (2) for phase-to-phase exposures if the employer can demonstrate that no insulated tool spans the gap and that no large conductive object is in the gap. Otherwise, C is 0.011.
In Equation 1, the term a varies depending on whether the employee's exposure is phase-to-ground or phase-to-phase and on whether objects are in the gap. The employer must use the equations in Table 3 to calculate a. Sparkover test data with insulation spanning the gap form the basis for the equations for phase-to-ground exposures, and sparkover test data with only air in the gap form the basis for the equations for phase-to-phase exposures. The phase-to-ground equations result in slightly higher values of a, and, consequently, produce larger minimum approach distances, than the phase-to-phase equations for the same value of VPeak.
TABLE 3
EQUATIONS FOR CALCULATING THE SURGE FACTOR, a
Phase-to-ground exposures
VPeak = TL-GVL-G√2 . . . .
635 kV or less 0
635.1 to 915 kV
(VPeak- 635)/140,000
915.1 to 1,050 kV (VPeak-645)/135,000
a . . . .
VPeak= TL-GVL-G√2 . . . .
More than 1,050 kV
a . . . .
(VPeak-675)/125,000
Phase-to-phase exposures 1
VPeak = (1.35TL-G + 0.45)VL-G√2 . . . .
630 kV or less 0
630.1 to 848 kV (VPeak-630)/155,000
848.1 to 1,131 kV (VPeak-633.6)/152,207
a . . . .
VPeak = (1.35TL-G + 0.45)VL-G√2 . . . .
1,131.1 to 1,485 kV (VPeak-628)/153,846
More than 1,485 kV (VPeak-350.5)/203,666
a . . . .
1Use the equations for phase-to-ground exposures (with VPeak for phase-to-phase exposures) unless the employer can demonstrate that no insulated tool spans the gap and that no large conductive object is in the gap.
In Equation 1, T is the maximum transient overvoltage factor in per unit. As noted earlier, § 1910.269(l)(3)(ii) requires the employer to determine the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, through an engineering analysis or assume a maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, in accordance with Table R-9. For phase-to-ground exposures, the employer uses this value, called TL-G, as T in Equation 1. IEEE Std 516-2009 provides the following formula to calculate the phase-to-phase maximum transient overvoltage, TL-L, from TL-G:
TL-L = 1.35TL-G + 0.45
For phase-to-phase exposures, the employer uses this value as T in Equation 1.
D. Provisions for inadvertent movement. The minimum approach distance must include an "adder" to compensate for the inadvertent movement of the worker relative to an energized part or the movement of the part relative to the worker. This "adder" must account for this possible inadvertent movement and provide the worker with a comfortable and safe zone in which to work. Employers must add the distance for inadvertent movement (called the "ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance") to the electrical component to determine the total safe minimum approach distances used in live-line work.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration based the ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance on response time-distance analysis. This technique uses an estimate of the total response time to a hazardous incident and converts that time to the distance traveled. For example, the driver of a car takes a given amount of time to respond to a "stimulus" and stop the vehicle. The elapsed time involved results in the car's traveling some distance before coming to a complete stop. This distance depends on the speed of the car at the time the stimulus appears and the reaction time of the driver.
In the case of live-line work, the employee must first perceive that he or she is approaching the danger zone. Then, the worker responds to the danger and must decelerate and stop all motion toward the energized part. During the time it takes to stop, the employee will travel some distance. This is the distance the employer must add to the electrical component of the minimum approach distance to obtain the total safe minimum approach distance.
At voltages from 751 volts to 72.5 kilovolts,5 the electrical component of the minimum approach distance is smaller than the ergonomic component. At 72.5 kilovolts, the electrical component is only a little more than 0.3 meters (1 foot). An ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance must provide for all the worker's unanticipated movements. At these voltages, workers generally use rubber insulating gloves; however, these gloves protect only a worker's hands and arms. Therefore, the energized object must be at a safe approach distance to protect the worker's face. In this case, 0.61 meters (2 feet) is a sufficient and practical ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance.
For voltages between 72.6 and 800 kilovolts, employees must use different work practices during energized line work. Generally, employees use live-line tools (hot sticks) to perform work on energized equipment. These tools, by design, keep the energized part at a constant distance from the employee and, thus, maintain the appropriate minimum approach distance automatically.
The location of the worker and the type of work methods the worker is using also influence the length of the ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance. In this higher voltage range, the employees use work methods that more tightly control their movements than when the workers perform work using rubber insulating gloves. The worker, therefore, is farther from the energized line or equipment and must be more precise in his or her movements just to perform the work. For these reasons, this section adopts an ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance of 0.31 m (1 foot) for voltages between 72.6 and 800 kilovolts.
Table 4 summarizes the ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance for various voltage ranges.
TABLE 4
ERGONOMIC COMPONENT OF MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE
Voltage range (kV)
Distance
m
ft
0.301 to 0.750 . . . .
0.31
1.0
0.751 to 72.5 . . . .
0.61
2.0
72.6 to 800 . . . .
0.31
1.0
Note:
The employer must add this distance to the electrical component of the minimum approach distance to obtain the full minimum approach distance.
The ergonomic component of the minimum approach distance accounts for errors in maintaining the minimum approach distance (which might occur, for example, if an employee misjudges the length of a conductive object he or she is holding), and for errors in judging the minimum approach distance. The ergonomic component also accounts for inadvertent movements by the employee, such as slipping. In contrast, the working position selected to properly maintain the minimum approach distance must account for all of an employee's reasonably likely movements and still permit the employee to adhere to the applicable minimum approach distance. (See Figure 1.) Reasonably likely movements include an employee's adjustments to tools, equipment, and working positions and all movements needed to perform the work. For example, the employee should be able to perform all of the following actions without straying into the minimum approach distance:
• Adjust his or her hardhat;
• Maneuver a tool onto an energized part with a reasonable amount of overreaching or underreaching;
• Reach for and handle tools, material, and equipment passed to him or her; and
• Adjust tools, and replace components on them, when necessary during the work procedure.
The training of qualified employees required under § 1910.269(a)(2), and the job planning and briefing required under § 1910.269(c), must address selection of a proper working position.
 
Figure 1 - Maintaining the Minimum Approach Distance
E. Miscellaneous correction factors. Changes in the air medium that forms the insulation influences the strength of an air gap. A brief discussion of each factor follows.
1. Dielectric strength of air. The dielectric strength of air in a uniform electric field at standard atmospheric conditions is approximately 3 kilovolts per millimeter.6
The pressure, temperature, and humidity of the air, the shape, dimensions, and separation of the electrodes, and the characteristics of the applied voltage (wave shape) affect the disruptive gradient.
2. Atmospheric effect. The empirically determined electrical strength of a given gap is normally applicable at standard atmospheric conditions (20°C, 101.3 kilopascals, 11 grams/cubic centimeter humidity). An increase in the density (humidity) of the air inhibits sparkover for a given air gap. The combination of temperature and air pressure that results in the lowest gap sparkover voltage is high temperature and low pressure. This combination of conditions is not likely to occur. Low air pressure, generally associated with high humidity, causes increased electrical strength. An average air pressure generally correlates with low humidity. Hot and dry working conditions normally result in reduced electrical strength. The equations for minimum approach distances in Table R-3 assume standard atmospheric conditions.
3. Altitude. The reduced air pressure at high altitudes causes a reduction in the electrical strength of an air gap. An employer must increase the minimum approach distance by about 3 percent per 300 meters (1,000 feet) of increased altitude for altitudes above 900 meters (3,000 feet). Table R-5 specifies the altitude correction factor that the employer must use in calculating minimum approach distances.
IV. Determining Minimum Approach Distances
A. Factors Affecting Voltage Stress at the Worksite.
1. System voltage (nominal). The nominal system voltage range determines the voltage for purposes of calculating minimum approach distances. The employer selects the range in which the nominal system voltage falls, as given in the relevant table, and uses the highest value within that range in per unit calculations.
2. Transient overvoltages. Operation of switches or circuit breakers, a fault on a line or circuit or on an adjacent circuit, and similar activities may generate transient overvoltages on an electrical system. Each overvoltage has an associated transient voltage wave shape. The wave shape arriving at the site and its magnitude vary considerably.
In developing requirements for minimum approach distances, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration considered the most common wave shapes and the magnitude of transient overvoltages found on electric power generation, transmission, and distribution systems. The equations in Table R-3 for minimum approach distances use per-unit maximum transient overvoltages, which are relative to the nominal maximum voltage of the system. For example, a maximum transient overvoltage value of 3.0 per unit indicates that the highest transient overvoltage is 3.0 times the nominal maximum system voltage.
3. Typical magnitude of overvoltages. Table 5 lists the magnitude of typical transient overvoltages.
TABLE 5
MAGNITUDE OF TYPICAL TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES
Cause
Magnitude (per unit)
Energized 200-mile line without closing resistors . . . .
3.5
Energized 200-mile line with one-step closing resistor . . . .
2.1
Energized 200-mile line with multistep resistor . . . .
2.5
Reclosing with trapped charge one-step resistor . . . .
2.2
Opening surge with single restrike . . . .
3.0
Fault initiation unfaulted phase . . . .
2.1
Fault initiation adjacent circuit . . . .
2.5
Fault clearing . . . .
1.7 to 1.9
4. Standard deviation-air-gap withstand. For each air gap length under the same atmospheric conditions, there is a statistical variation in the breakdown voltage. The probability of breakdown against voltage has a normal (Gaussian) distribution. The standard deviation of this distribution varies with the wave shape, gap geometry, and atmospheric conditions. The withstand voltage of the air gap is three standard deviations (3s) below the critical sparkover voltage. (The critical sparkover voltage is the crest value of the impulse wave that, under specified conditions, causes sparkover 50 percent of the time. An impulse wave of three standard deviations below this value, that is, the withstand voltage, has a probability of sparkover of approximately 1 in 1,000.)
5. Broken Insulators. Tests show reductions in the insulation strength of insulator strings with broken skirts. Broken units may lose up to 70 percent of their withstand capacity. Because an employer cannot determine the insulating capability of a broken unit without testing it, the employer must consider damaged units in an insulator to have no insulating value. Additionally, the presence of a live-line tool alongside an insulator string with broken units may further reduce the overall insulating strength. The number of good units that must be present in a string for it to be "insulated" as defined by § 1910.269(x) depends on the maximum overvoltage possible at the worksite.
B. Minimum Approach Distances Based on Known, Maximum-Anticipated Per-Unit Transient Overvoltages.
1. Determining the minimum approach distance for AC systems. Under § 1910.269(l)(3)(ii), the employer must determine the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, through an engineering analysis or must assume a maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, in accordance with Table R-9. When the employer conducts an engineering analysis of the system and determines that the maximum transient overvoltage is lower than specified by Table R-9, the employer must ensure that any conditions assumed in the analysis, for example, that employees block reclosing on a circuit or install portable protective gaps, are present during energized work. To ensure that these conditions are present, the employer may need to institute new livework procedures reflecting the conditions and limitations set by the engineering analysis.
2. Calculation of reduced approach distance values. An employer may take the following steps to reduce minimum approach distances when the maximum transient overvoltage on the system (that is, the maximum transient overvoltage without additional steps to control overvoltages) produces unacceptably large minimum approach distances:
Step 1. Determine the maximum voltage (with respect to a given nominal voltage range) for the energized part.
Step 2. Determine the technique to use to control the maximum transient overvoltage. (See paragraphs IV.C and IV.D of this appendix.) Determine the maximum transient overvoltage that can exist at the worksite with that form of control in place and with a confidence level of 3s. This voltage is the withstand voltage for the purpose of calculating the appropriate minimum approach distance.
Step 3. Direct employees to implement procedures to ensure that the control technique is in effect during the course of the work.
Step 4. Using the new value of transient overvoltage in per unit, calculate the required minimum approach distance from Table R-3.
C. Methods of Controlling Possible Transient Overvoltage Stress Found on a System.
1. Introduction. There are several means of controlling overvoltages that occur on transmission systems. For example, the employer can modify the operation of circuit breakers or other switching devices to reduce switching transient overvoltages. Alternatively, the employer can hold the overvoltage to an acceptable level by installing surge arresters or portable protective gaps on the system. In addition, the employer can change the transmission system to minimize the effect of switching operations. Section 4.8 of IEEE Std 516-2009 describes various ways of controlling, and thereby reducing, maximum transient overvoltages.
2. Operation of circuit breakers.7 The maximum transient overvoltage that can reach the worksite is often the result of switching on the line on which employees are working. Disabling automatic reclosing during energized line work, so that the line will not be reenergized after being opened for any reason, limits the maximum switching surge overvoltage to the larger of the opening surge or the greatest possible fault-generated surge, provided that the devices (for example, insertion resistors) are operable and will function to limit the transient overvoltage and that circuit breaker restrikes do not occur. The employer must ensure the proper functioning of insertion resistors and other overvoltage-limiting devices when the employer's engineering analysis assumes their proper operation to limit the overvoltage level. If the employer cannot disable the reclosing feature (because of system operating conditions), other methods of controlling the switching surge level may be necessary.
Transient surges on an adjacent line, particularly for double circuit construction, may cause a significant overvoltage on the line on which employees are working. The employer's engineering analysis must account for coupling to adjacent lines.
3. Surge arresters. The use of modern surge arresters allows a reduction in the basic impulse-insulation levels of much transmission system equipment. The primary function of early arresters was to protect the system insulation from the effects of lightning. Modern arresters not only dissipate lightning-caused transients, but may also control many other system transients caused by switching or faults.
The employer may use properly designed arresters to control transient overvoltages along a transmission line and thereby reduce the requisite length of the insulator string and possibly the maximum transient overvoltage on the line.8
4. Switching restrictions. Another form of overvoltage control involves establishing switching restrictions, whereby the employer prohibits the operation of circuit breakers until certain system conditions are present. The employer restricts switching by using a tagging system, similar to that used for a permit, except that the common term used for this activity is a "hold-off" or "restriction." These terms indicate that the restriction does not prevent operation, but only modifies the operation during the livework activity.
D. Minimum Approach Distance Based on Control of Maximum Transient Overvoltage at the Worksite.
When the employer institutes control of maximum transient overvoltage at the worksite by installing portable protective gaps, the employer may calculate the minimum approach distance as follows:
Step 1. Select the appropriate withstand voltage for the protective gap based on system requirements and an acceptable probability of gap sparkover.9
Step 2. Determine a gap distance that provides a withstand voltage10 greater than or equal to the one selected in the first step.11
Step 3. Use 110 percent of the gap's critical sparkover voltage to determine the phase-to-ground peak voltage at gap sparkover (VPPG Peak).
Step 4. Determine the maximum transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, at the worksite from the following formula:
 
Step 5. Use this value of T12 in the equation in Table R-3 to obtain the minimum approach distance. If the worksite is no more than 900 meters (3,000 feet) above sea level, the employer may use this value of T to determine the minimum approach distance from Table 14 through Table 21.
Note:
All rounding must be to the next higher value (that is, always round up).
Sample protective gap calculations.
Problem: Employees are to perform work on a 500-kilovolt transmission line at sea level that is subject to transient overvoltages of 2.4 p.u. The maximum operating voltage of the line is 550 kilovolts. Determine the length of the protective gap that will provide the minimum practical safe approach distance. Also, determine what that minimum approach distance is:
Step 1. Calculate the smallest practical maximum transient overvoltage (1.25 times the crest phase-to-ground voltage):13
 
This value equals the withstand voltage of the protective gap.
Step 2. Using test data for a particular protective gap, select a gap that has a critical sparkover voltage greater than or equal to:
561kV ÷ 0.85 = 660kV
For example, if a protective gap with a 1.22-m (4.0-foot) spacing tested to a critical sparkover voltage of 665 kilovolts (crest), select this gap spacing.
Step 3. The phase-to-ground peak voltage at gap sparkover (VPPG Peak) is 110 percent of the value from the previous step:
665kV × 1.10 = 732kV
This value corresponds to the withstand voltage of the electrical component of the minimum approach distance.
Step 4. Use this voltage to determine the worksite value of T:
 
Step 5. Use this value of T in the equation in Table R-3 to obtain the minimum approach distance, or look up the minimum approach distance in Table 14 through Table 21:
MAD = 2.29 m (7.6 ft).
E. Location of Protective Gaps.
1. Adjacent structures. The employer may install the protective gap on a structure adjacent to the worksite, as this practice does not significantly reduce the protection afforded by the gap.
2. Terminal stations. Gaps installed at terminal stations of lines or circuits provide a level of protection; however, that level of protection may not extend throughout the length of the line to the worksite. The use of substation terminal gaps raises the possibility that separate surges could enter the line at opposite ends, each with low enough magnitude to pass the terminal gaps without sparkover. When voltage surges occur simultaneously at each end of a line and travel toward each other, the total voltage on the line at the point where they meet is the arithmetic sum of the two surges. A gap installed within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the worksite will protect against such intersecting waves. Engineering studies of a particular line or system may indicate that employers can adequately protect employees by installing gaps at even more distant locations. In any event, unless using the default values for T from Table R-9, the employer must determine T at the worksite.
3. Worksite. If the employer installs protective gaps at the worksite, the gap setting establishes the worksite impulse insulation strength. Lightning strikes as far as 6 miles from the worksite can cause a voltage surge greater than the gap withstand voltage, and a gap sparkover can occur. In addition, the gap can sparkover from overvoltages on the line that exceed the withstand voltage of the gap. Consequently, the employer must protect employees from hazards resulting from any sparkover that could occur.
F. Disabling automatic reclosing. There are two reasons to disable the automatic-reclosing feature of circuit-interrupting devices while employees are performing live-line work:
• To prevent reenergization of a circuit faulted during the work, which could create a hazard or result in more serious injuries or damage than the injuries or damage produced by the original fault;
• To prevent any transient overvoltage caused by the switching surge that would result if the circuit were reenergized.
However, due to system stability considerations, it may not always be feasible to disable the automatic-reclosing feature.
V. Minimum Approach-Distance Tables
A. Legacy tables. Employers may use the minimum approach distances in Table 6 through Table 13 until March 31, 2015.
TABLE 6
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL DECEMBER 31, 2014
Voltage range phase to phase (kV)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-phase exposure
m
ft
m
ft
0.05 to 1.0 . . . .
Avoid Contact
Avoid Contact
1.1 to 15.0 . . . .
0.64
2.10
0.66
2.20
15.1 to 36.0 . . . .
0.72
2.30
0.77
2.60
36.1 to 46.0 . . . .
0.77
2.60
0.85
2.80
46.1 to 72.5 . . . .
0.90
3.00
1.05
3.50
72.6 to 121 . . . .
0.95
3.20
1.29
4.30
138 to 145 . . . .
1.09
3.60
1.50
4.90
161 to 169 . . . .
1.22
4.00
1.71
5.70
230 to 242 . . . .
1.59
5.30
2.27
7.50
345 to 362 . . . .
2.59
8.50
3.80
12.50
500 to 550 . . . .
3.42
11.30
5.50
18.10
765 to 800 . . . .
4.53
14.90
7.91
26.00
Note:
The clear live-line tool distance must equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
TABLE 7
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL MARCH 31, 2015-72.6 TO 121.0 KV WITH
OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-phase exposure
m
ft
m
ft
2.0 . . . .
0.74
2.42
1.09
3.58
2.1 . . . .
0.76
2.50
1.09
3.58
2.2 . . . .
0.79
2.58
1.12
3.67
2.3 . . . .
0.81
2.67
1.14
3.75
2.4 . . . .
0.84
2.75
1.17
3.83
2.5 . . . .
0.84
2.75
1.19
3.92
2.6 . . . .
0.86
2.83
1.22
4.00
2.7 . . . .
0.89
2.92
1.24
4.08
2.8 . . . .
0.91
3.00
1.24
4.08
2.9 . . . .
0.94
3.08
1.27
4.17
3.0 . . . .
0.97
3.17
1.30
4.25
Note 1:
The employer may apply the distance specified in this table only where the employer determines the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage by engineering analysis. (Table 6 applies otherwise.)
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 8
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL MARCH 31, 2015-121.1 TO 145.0 KV WITH
OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
2.0 . . . .
0.84
2.75
1.24
4.08
2.1 . . . .
0.86
2.83
1.27
4.17
2.2 . . . .
0.89
2.92
1.30
4.25
2.3 . . . .
0.91
3.00
1.32
4.33
2.4 . . . .
0.94
3.08
1.35
4.42
2.5 . . . .
0.97
3.17
1.37
4.50
2.6 . . . .
0.99
3.25
1.40
4.58
2.7 . . . .
1.02
3.33
1.42
4.67
2.8 . . . .
1.04
3.42
1.45
4.75
2.9 . . . .
1.07
3.50
1.47
4.83
3.0 . . . .
1.09
3.58
1.50
4.92
Note 1:
The employer may apply the distance specified in this table only where the employer determines the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage by engineering analysis. (Table 6 applies otherwise.)
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 9
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL MARCH 31, 2015-145.1 TO 169.0 KV WITH
OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-phase exposure
m
ft
m
ft
2.0 . . . .
0.91
3.00
1.42
4.67
2.1 . . . .
0.97
3.17
1.45
4.75
2.2 . . . .
0.99
3.25
1.47
4.83
2.3 . . . .
1.02
3.33
1.50
4.92
2.4 . . . .
1.04
3.42
1.52
5.00
2.5 . . . .
1.07
3.50
1.57
5.17
2.6 . . . .
1.12
3.67
1.60
5.25
2.7 . . . .
1.14
3.75
1.63
5.33
2.8 . . . .
1.17
3.83
1.65
5.42
2.9 . . . .
1.19
3.92
1.68
5.50
3.0 . . . .
1.22
4.00
1.73
5.67
Note 1:
The employer may apply the distance specified in this table only where the employer determines the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage by engineering analysis. (Table 6 applies otherwise.)
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 10
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL MARCH 31, 2015-169.1 TO 242.0 KV WITH
OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
2.0 . . . .
1.17
3.83
1.85
6.08
2.1 . . . .
1.22
4.00
1.91
6.25
2.2 . . . .
1.24
4.08
1.93
6.33
2.3 . . . .
1.30
4.25
1.98
6.50
2.4 . . . .
1.35
4.42
2.01
6.58
2.5 . . . .
1.37
4.50
2.06
6.75
2.6 . . . .
1.42
4.67
2.11
6.92
2.7 . . . .
1.47
4.83
2.13
7.00
2.8 . . . .
1.50
4.92
2.18
7.17
2.9 . . . .
1.55
5.08
2.24
7.33
3.0 . . . .
1.60
5.25
2.29
7.50
Note 1:
The employer may apply the distance specified in this table only where the employer determines the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage by engineering analysis. (Table 6 applies otherwise.)
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 11
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL MARCH 31, 2015-242.1 TO 362.0 KV WITH
OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
2.0 . . . .
1.60
5.25
2.62
8.58
2.1 . . . .
1.65
5.42
2.69
8.83
2.2 . . . .
1.75
5.75
2.79
9.17
2.3 . . . .
1.85
6.08
2.90
9.50
2.4 . . . .
1.93
6.33
3.02
9.92
2.5 . . . .
2.03
6.67
3.15
10.33
2.6 . . . .
2.16
7.08
3.28
10.75
2.7 . . . .
2.26
7.42
3.40
11.17
2.8 . . . .
2.36
7.75
3.53
11.58
2.9 . . . .
2.49
8.17
3.68
12.08
3.0 . . . .
2.59
8.50
3.81
12.50
Note 1:
The employer may apply the distance specified in this table only where the employer determines the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage by engineering analysis. (Table 6 applies otherwise.)
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 12
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL MARCH 31, 2015-362.1 TO 552.0 KV WITH
OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
1.83
6.00
2.24
7.33
1.6 . . . .
1.98
6.50
2.67
8.75
1.7 . . . .
2.13
7.00
3.10
10.17
1.8 . . . .
2.31
7.58
3.53
11.58
1.9 . . . .
2.46
8.08
4.01
13.17
2.0 . . . .
2.67
8.75
4.52
14.83
2.1 . . . .
2.84
9.33
4.75
15.58
2.2 . . . .
3.02
9.92
4.98
16.33
2.3 . . . .
3.20
10.50
5.23
17.17
2.4 . . . .
3.43
11.25
5.51
18.08
Note 1:
The employer may apply the distance specified in this table only where the employer determines the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage by engineering analysis. (Table 6 applies otherwise.)
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 13
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES UNTIL MARCH 31, 2015-552.1 TO 800.0 KV WITH
OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
2.95
9.67
3.68
12.08
1.6 . . . .
3.25
10.67
4.42
14.50
1.7 . . . .
3.56
11.67
5.23
17.17
1.8 . . . .
3.86
12.67
6.07
19.92
1.9 . . . .
4.19
13.75
6.99
22.92
2.0 . . . .
4.55
14.92
7.92
26.00
Note 1:
The employer may apply the distance specified in this table only where the employer determines the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage by engineering analysis. (Table 6 applies otherwise.)
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air and live-line tool distances.
B. Alternative minimum approach distances. Employers may use the minimum approach distances in Table 14 through Table 21 provided that the employer follows the notes to those tables.
TABLE 14
AC MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES-72.6 TO 121.0 KV
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
0.67
2.2
0.84
2.8
1.6 . . . .
0.69
2.3
0.87
2.9
1.7 . . . .
0.71
2.3
0.90
3.0
1.8 . . . .
0.74
2.4
0.93
3.1
1.9 . . . .
0.76
2.5
0.96
3.1
2.0 . . . .
0.78
2.6
0.99
3.2
2.1 . . . .
0.81
2.7
1.01
3.3
2.2 . . . .
0.83
2.7
1.04
3.4
2.3 . . . .
0.85
2.8
1.07
3.5
2.4 . . . .
0.88
2.9
1.10
3.6
2.5 . . . .
0.90
3.0
1.13
3.7
2.6 . . . .
0.92
3.0
1.16
3.8
2.7 . . . .
0.95
3.1
1.19
3.9
2.8 . . . .
0.97
3.2
1.22
4.0
2.9 . . . .
0.99
3.2
1.24
4.1
3.0 . . . .
1.02
3.3
1.27
4.2
3.1 . . . .
1.04
3.4
1.30
4.3
3.2 . . . .
1.06
3.5
1.33
4.4
3.3 . . . .
1.09
3.6
1.36
4.5
3.4 . . . .
1.11
3.6
1.39
4.6
3.5 . . . .
1.13
3.7
1.42
4.7
TABLE 15
AC MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES-121.1 TO 145.0 KV
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
0.74
2.4
0.95
3.1
1.6 . . . .
0.76
2.5
0.98
3.2
1.7 . . . .
0.79
2.6
1.02
3.3
1.8 . . . .
0.82
2.7
1.05
3.4
1.9 . . . .
0.85
2.8
1.08
3.5
2.0 . . . .
0.88
2.9
1.12
3.7
2.1 . . . .
0.90
3.0
1.15
3.8
2.2 . . . .
0.93
3.1
1.19
3.9
2.3 . . . .
0.96
3.1
1.22
4.0
2.4 . . . .
0.99
3.2
1.26
4.1
2.5 . . . .
1.02
3.3
1.29
4.2
2.6 . . . .
1.04
3.4
1.33
4.4
2.7 . . . .
1.07
3.5
1.36
4.5
2.8 . . . .
1.10
3.6
1.39
4.6
2.9 . . . .
1.13
3.7
1.43
4.7
3.0 . . . .
1.16
3.8
1.46
4.8
3.1 . . . .
1.19
3.9
1.50
4.9
3.2 . . . .
1.21
4.0
1.53
5.0
3.3 . . . .
1.24
4.1
1.57
5.2
3.4 . . . .
1.27
4.2
1.60
5.2
3.5 . . . .
1.30
4.3
1.64
5.4
TABLE 16
AC MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES-145.1 TO 169.0 KV
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
0.81
2.7
1.05
3.4
1.6 . . . .
0.84
2.8
1.09
3.6
1.7 . . . .
0.87
2.9
1.13
3.7
1.8 . . . .
0.90
3.0
1.17
3.8
1.9 . . . .
0.94
3.1
1.21
4.0
2.0 . . . .
0.97
3.2
1.25
4.1
2.1 . . . .
1.00
3.3
1.29
4.2
2.2 . . . .
1.03
3.4
1.33
4.4
2.3 . . . .
1.07
3.5
1.37
4.5
2.4 . . . .
1.10
3.6
1.41
4.6
2.5 . . . .
1.13
3.7
1.45
4.8
2.6 . . . .
1.17
3.8
1.49
4.9
2.7 . . . .
1.20
3.9
1.53
5.0
2.8 . . . .
1.23
4.0
1.57
5.2
2.9 . . . .
1.26
4.1
1.61
5.3
3.0 . . . .
1.30
4.3
1.65
5.4
3.1 . . . .
1.33
4.4
1.70
5.6
3.2 . . . .
1.36
4.5
1.76
5.8
3.3 . . . .
1.39
4.6
1.82
6.0
3.4 . . . .
1.43
4.7
1.88
6.2
3.5 . . . .
1.46
4.8
1.94
6.4
TABLE 17
AC MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES-169.1 TO 242.0 KV
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
1.02
3.3
1.37
4.5
1.6 . . . .
1.06
3.5
1.43
4.7
1.7 . . . .
1.11
3.6
1.48
4.9
1.8 . . . .
1.16
3.8
1.54
5.1
1.9 . . . .
1.21
4.0
1.60
5.2
2.0 . . . .
1.25
4.1
1.66
5.4
2.1 . . . .
1.30
4.3
1.73
5.7
2.2 . . . .
1.35
4.4
1.81
5.9
2.3 . . . .
1.39
4.6
1.90
6.2
2.4 . . . .
1.44
4.7
1.99
6.5
2.5 . . . .
1.49
4.9
2.08
6.8
2.6 . . . .
1.53
5.0
2.17
7.1
2.7 . . . .
1.58
5.2
2.26
7.4
2.8 . . . .
1.63
5.3
2.36
7.7
2.9 . . . .
1.67
5.5
2.45
8.0
3.0 . . . .
1.72
5.6
2.55
8.4
3.1 . . . .
1.77
5.8
2.65
8.7
3.2 . . . .
1.81
5.9
2.76
9.1
3.3 . . . .
1.88
6.2
2.86
9.4
3.4 . . . .
1.95
6.4
2.97
9.7
3.5 . . . .
2.01
6.6
3.08
10.1
TABLE 18
AC MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES-242.1 TO 362.0 KV
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
1.37
4.5
1.99
6.5
1.6 . . . .
1.44
4.7
2.13
7.0
1.7 . . . .
1.51
5.0
2.27
7.4
1.8 . . . .
1.58
5.2
2.41
7.9
1.9 . . . .
1.65
5.4
2.56
8.4
2.0 . . . .
1.72
5.6
2.71
8.9
2.1 . . . .
1.79
6.1
2.87
9.4
2.2 . . . .
1.87
6.1
3.03
9.9
2.3 . . . .
1.97
6.5
3.20
10.5
2.4 . . . .
2.08
6.8
3.37
11.1
2.5 . . . .
2.19
7.2
3.55
11.6
2.6 . . . .
2.29
7.5
3.73
12.2
2.7 . . . .
2.41
7.9
3.91
12.8
2.8 . . . .
2.52
8.3
4.10
13.5
2.9 . . . .
2.64
8.7
4.29
14.1
3.0 . . . .
2.76
9.1
4.49
14.7
3.1 . . . .
2.88
9.4
4.69
15.4
3.2 . . . .
3.01
9.9
4.90
16.1
3.3 . . . .
3.14
10.3
5.11
16.8
3.4 . . . .
3.27
10.7
5.32
17.5
3.5 . . . .
3.41
11.2
5.52
18.1
TABLE 19
AC MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES-362.1 TO 420.0 KV
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .
1.53
5.0
2.40
7.9
1.6 . . . .
1.62
5.3
2.58
8.5
1.7 . . . .
1.70
5.6
2.75
9.0
1.8 . . . .
1.78
5.8
2.94
9.6
1.9 . . . .
1.88
6.2
3.13
10.3
2.0 . . . .
1.99
6.5
3.33
10.9
2.1 . . . .
2.12
7.0
3.53
11.6
2.2 . . . .
2.24
7.3
3.74
12.3
2.3 . . . .
2.37
7.8
3.95
13.0
2.4 . . . .
2.50
8.2
4.17
13.7
2.5 . . . .
2.64
8.7
4.40
14.4
2.6 . . . .
2.78
9.1
4.63
15.2
2.7 . . . .
2.93
9.6
4.87
16.0
2.8 . . . .
3.07
10.1
5.11
16.8
2.9 . . . .
3.23
10.6
5.36
17.6
3.0 . . . .
3.38
11.1
5.59
18.3
3.1 . . . .
3.55
11.6
5.82
19.1
3.2 . . . .
3.72
12.2
6.07
19.9
3.3 . . . .
3.89
12.8
6.31
20.7
3.4 . . . .
4.07
13.4
6.56
21.5
3.5 . . . .
4.25
13.9
6.81
22.3
TABLE 20
AC MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES-420.1 TO 550.0 KV
T (p.u.)
Phase-to-ground exposure
Phase-to-ground exposure
m
ft
m
ft
1.5 . . . .