WSR 16-10-086
PROPOSED RULES
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
[Filed May 3, 2016, 11:17 a.m.]
Original Notice.
Proposal is exempt under RCW 34.05.310(4) or 34.05.330(1).
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Chapter 246-220 WAC, General provisions; chapter 246-221 WAC, Radiation protection standards; chapter 246-231 WAC, Packaging and transportation of radioactive material; chapter 246-232 WAC, Licensing applicability; chapter 246-233 WAC, Radioactive materialsGeneral licenses; chapter 246-235 WAC, Radioactive materialsSpecific licenses; chapter 246-237 WAC, Physical protection of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material; chapter 246-243 WAC, Industrial radiography; and chapter 246-252 WAC, Uranium or thorium milling. The department of health is proposing to revise these rules to be consistent with United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's rules and make editorial changes.
Hearing Location(s): Department of Health, Town Center Two, Room 145, 111 Israel Road S.E., Tumwater, WA 98501, on June 7, 2016, at 10:00 a.m.
Date of Intended Adoption: June 10, 2016.
Submit Written Comments to: Vicki M. Bouvier, Department of Health, P.O. Box 47820, Olympia, WA 98504-7820, e-mail http://www3.doh.wa.gov/policyreview/, fax (360) 236-2250, by June 7, 2016.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Vicki M. Bouvier by May 31, 2016, TTY (800) 833-6388 or 711.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: This rule making is necessary to amend eight chapters of rules and create one new chapter of rules in order to adopt federally required rule changes related to licensing and use of radioactive materials. Chapter 246-237 WAC, Physical protection of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material, is being proposed to permanently adopt emergency rules adopted on March 19, 2016.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: This rule making is required to comply with RCW 70.98.050 State radiation control agency and 70.98.110 Federal-state agreements. Under the formal state agreement between the governor and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the department of health is required to remain compatible with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules. This is done through rule making.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 70.98.050.
Statute Being Implemented: RCW 70.98.050 and 70.98.110.
Rule is necessary because of federal law, 77 F.R. 39899, 77 F.R. 43666, 78 F.R. 16922, 78 F.R. 32310, 79 F.R. 57721, 79 F.R. 58664, and 80 F.R. 45841.
Name of Proponent: Department of health, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting, Implementation, and Enforcement: Curt DeMaris, 111 Israel Road S.E., Tumwater, WA 98501, (360) 236-3223.
No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. Under RCW 19.85.025 and 34.05.310 (4)(c), a small business economic impact statement is not required for proposed rules that adopt or incorporate by reference, without material change, federal statutes or regulations, Washington state law, the rules of other Washington state agencies, or national consensus codes that generally establish industry standards.
A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. The agency did not complete a cost-benefit analysis under RCW 34.05.328. RCW 34.05.328 (5)(b)(iii) exempts rules that adopt or incorporate by reference without material change federal statutes or regulations, Washington state law, the rules of other Washington state agencies, or national consensus codes that generally establish industry standards.
May 3, 2016
Clark Halvorson
Assistant Secretary
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 00-08-013, filed 3/24/00, effective 4/24/00)
WAC 246-220-007 Statement of philosophy.
In accordance with the recommendations of the Environmental Protection Agency, formerly the Federal Radiation Council, approved by the president of the United States of America, persons engaged in activities under licenses issued by the Washington state department of health pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, shall, in addition to complying with the requirements set forth in chapter 246-221 WAC, make every reasonable effort to maintain radiation exposures, and releases of radioactive materials in effluents to unrestricted areas, as low as is reasonably achievable. Such persons should make particular efforts to keep the radiation exposure of an embryo or fetus as low as is reasonably achievable during the entire gestation period as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. The term "as low as is reasonably achievable" ((means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits in these regulations as is practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed or registered activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to the utilization of nuclear energy, ionizing radiation, and radioactive materials in the public interest)) has the same meaning as defined in WAC 246-220-010(10).
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 15-06-015, filed 2/23/15, effective 3/26/15)
WAC 246-220-010 Definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms.
The definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms in this section apply throughout chapters 246-220 through 246-254 WAC unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Additional definitions used only in a certain chapter are included in that chapter.
(1) "Absorbed dose" means the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. The units of absorbed dose are the gray (Gy) and the rad.
(2) "Accelerator produced material" means any material made radioactive by exposing it in a particle accelerator.
(3) "Act" means ((nuclear energy and radiation, chapter 70.98 RCW)) the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, including any amendments thereto.
(4) "Activity" means the rate of disintegration or transformation or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the becquerel (Bq) and the curie (Ci).
(5) "Adult" means an individual eighteen or more years of age.
(6) "Agreement state" means any state with which the Atomic Energy Commission or the NRC has entered into an effective agreement under subsection 274b of the ((Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended)) act. Nonagreement state means any other state.
(7) "Airborne radioactive material" means any radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of particulates, dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases.
(8) "Airborne radioactivity area" means a room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive material exists in concentrations (a) in excess of the derived air concentration (DAC) specified in WAC 246-221-290, Appendix A, or (b) to the degree that an individual present in the area without respiratory protective equipment could exceed, during the hours an individual is present in a week, an intake of 0.6 percent of the annual limit on intake (ALI) or twelve DAC-hours.
(9) "Air purifying respirator" means a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.
(10) "ALARA" (as low as reasonably achievable or as low as is reasonably achievable) means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits in this chapter as is practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to the utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest.
(11) "Alert" means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a release of radioactive material but that the release is not expected to require a response by off-site response organizations to protect persons off-site.
(12) "ALI (annual limit on intake)" means the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem) or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to any individual organ or tissue. ALI values for intake by ingestion and by inhalation of selected radionuclides are given in WAC 246-221-290.
(13) "APF (assigned protection factor)" means the expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator or a class of respirators to properly fitted and trained users. Operationally, the inhaled concentration can be estimated by dividing the ambient airborne concentration by the APF.
(14) "Atmosphere-supplying respirator" means a respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes SARs and SCBA units.
(15) "Background radiation" means radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon, except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material, and including global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation and are not under the control of the licensee. "Background radiation" does not include sources of radiation from radioactive materials regulated by the department.
(16) "Bq (becquerel)" means the SI unit of activity. One becquerel is equal to 1 disintegration or transformation per second (s-1).
(17) "Bioassay" means the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement, in vivo counting, or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body. For purposes of these rules, "radiobioassay" is an equivalent term.
(18) "By-product material" means:
(a) Any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in, or made radioactive by, exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or using special nuclear material;
(b) The tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium solution extraction processes. Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute "by-product material" within this definition;
(c)(i) Any discrete source of radium-226 that is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; or
(ii) Any material that:
(A) Has been made radioactive by use of a particle accelerator; and
(B) Is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; and
(d) Any discrete source of naturally occurring radioactive material, other than source material, that:
(i) The ((commission)) NRC, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the head of any other appropriate federal agency, determines what would pose a threat similar to the threat posed by a discrete source of radium-226 to the public health and safety or the common defense and security; and
(ii) Before, on, or after August 8, 2005, is extracted or converted after extraction for use for in a commercial, medical, or research activity.
(19) "Calendar quarter" means at least twelve but no more than fourteen consecutive weeks. The first calendar quarter of each year begins in January and subsequent calendar quarters shall be arranged so that no day is included in more than one calendar quarter and no day in any one year is omitted from inclusion within a calendar quarter. A licensee or registrant may not change the method of determining calendar quarters for purposes of these rules.
(20) "Calibration" means the determination of (a) the response or reading of an instrument relative to a series of known radiation values over the range of the instrument, or (b) the strength of a source of radiation relative to a standard.
(21) "C.F.R." means Code of Federal Regulations.
(22) "Class" means a classification scheme for inhaled material according to its rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung. Materials are classified as D, W, or Y, which applies to a range of clearance half-times: For Class D, Days, of less than ten days, for Class W, Weeks, from ten to one hundred days, and for Class Y, Years, of greater than one hundred days. For purposes of these rules, "lung class" and "inhalation class" are equivalent terms. For "class of waste" see WAC 246-249-040.
(23) "Collective dose" means the sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.
(24) "Commencement of construction" means taking any action defined as construction or any other activity at the site of a facility subject to the regulations in this chapter that has a reasonable nexus to radiological health and safety.
(25) "Committed dose equivalent" (HT,50) means the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the fifty-year period following the intake.
(26) "Committed effective dose equivalent" (HE,50) is the sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to each of these organs or tissues (HE,50 = ∑wT,HT,50).
(27) "Consortium" means an association of medical use licensees and a PET radionuclide production facility in the same geographical area that jointly own or share in the operation and maintenance cost of the PET radionuclide production facility that produces PET radionuclides for use in producing radioactive drugs within the consortium for noncommercial distributions among its associated members for medical use. The PET radionuclide production facility within the consortium must be located at an educational institution or a federal facility or a medical facility.
(28) "Constraint" or dose constraint means a value above which specified licensee actions are required.
(29) "Construction" means the installation of foundations, or in-place assembly, erection, fabrication, or testing for any structure, system, or component of a facility or activity subject to the requirements in chapters 246-220 through 246-254 WAC that are related to radiological safety or security. The term construction does not include:
(a) Changes for temporary use of the land for public recreational purposes;
(b) Site exploration, including necessary borings to determine foundation conditions or other preconstruction monitoring to establish background information related to the suitability of the site, the environmental impacts of construction or operation, or the protection of environmental values;
(c) Preparation of the site for construction of the facility, including clearing of the site, grading, installation of drainage, erosion and other environmental mitigation measures, and construction of temporary roads and borrow areas;
(d) Erection of fences and other access control measures that are not related to the safe use of, or security of, radiological materials;
(e) Excavation;
(f) Erection of support buildings (e.g., construction equipment storage sheds, warehouse and shop facilities, utilities, concrete mixing plants, docking and unloading facilities, and office buildings) for use in connection with the construction of the facility;
(g) Building of service facilities (e.g., paved roads, parking lots, railroad spurs, exterior utility and lighting systems, potable water systems, sanitary sewerage treatment facilities, and transmission lines);
(h) Procurement or fabrication of components or portions of the proposed facility occurring at other than the final in-place location at the facility; or
(i) Taking any other action that has no reasonable nexus to radiological health and safety.
(30) "Controlled area." See "Restricted area."
(31) "Curie" means a unit of quantity of radioactivity. One curie (Ci) is that quantity of radioactive material which decays at the rate of 3.7 x 1010 transformations per second (tps).
(32) "Declared pregnant woman" means a woman who has voluntarily informed the licensee or registrant, in writing, of her pregnancy, and the estimated date of conception. The declaration remains in effect until the declared pregnant woman withdraws the declaration in writing or is no longer pregnant.
(33) "Deep dose equivalent" (Hd), which applies to external whole body exposure, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 1 centimeter (1000 mg/cm2).
(34) "Demand respirator" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.
(35) "Department" means the Washington state department of health, which has been designated as the state radiation control agency under chapter 70.98 RCW.
(36) "Depleted uranium" means the source material uranium in which the isotope Uranium-235 is less than 0.711 percent by weight of the total uranium present. Depleted uranium does not include special nuclear material.
(37) "Derived air concentration" (DAC) means the concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed by the reference man for a working year of two thousand hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of one ALI. For purposes of these rules, the condition of light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2 cubic meters of air per hour for two thousand hours in a year. DAC values are given in WAC 246-221-290.
(38) "DAC-hour (derived air concentration-hour)" means the product of the concentration of radioactive material in air, expressed as a fraction or multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide, and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. A licensee or registrant may take two thousand DAC-hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem).
(39) "Discrete source" means a radionuclide that has been processed so that its concentration within a material has been purposely increased for use for commercial, medical or research activities.
(40) "Disposable respirator" means a respirator for which maintenance is not intended and that is designed to be discarded after excessive breathing resistance, sorbent exhaustion, physical damage, or end-of-service-life renders it unsuitable for use. Examples of this type of respirator are a disposable half-mask respirator or a disposable escape-only self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
(41) "Dose" is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, total organ dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent. For purposes of these rules, "radiation dose" is an equivalent term.
(42) "Dose commitment" means the total radiation dose to a part of the body that will result from retention in the body of radioactive material. For purposes of estimating the dose commitment, it is assumed that from the time of intake the period of exposure to retained material will not exceed fifty years.
(43) "Dose equivalent" (HT) means the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest. The units of dose equivalent are the sievert (Sv) and rem.
(44) "Dose limits" means the permissible upper bounds of radiation doses established in accordance with these rules. For purposes of these rules, "limits" is an equivalent term.
(45) "Dosimetry processor" means a person that processes and evaluates individual monitoring devices in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the monitoring devices.
(46) "dpm" means disintegrations per minute. See also "curie."
(47) "Effective dose equivalent" (HE) means the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to each organ or tissue (HT) and the weighting factor (wT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated (HE = ∑wTHT).
(48) "Embryo/fetus" means the developing human organism from conception until the time of birth.
(49) "Entrance or access point" means any opening through which an individual or extremity of an individual could gain access to radiation areas or to licensed radioactive materials. This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, without respect to their intended use.
(50) "Exposure" means (a) being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material, or (b) the quotient of dQ by dm where "dQ" is the absolute value of the total charge of the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons (negatrons and positrons) liberated by photons in a volume element of air having mass "dm" are completely stopped in air. The special unit of exposure is the roentgen (R) and the SI equivalent is the coulomb per kilogram (c/kg). One roentgen is equal to 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb per kilogram of air.
(51) "Exposure rate" means the exposure per unit of time, such as roentgen per minute and milliroentgen per hour.
(52) "External dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from any source of radiation outside the body.
(53) "Extremity" means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee, and leg below the knee.
(54) "Filtering facepiece" (dust mask) means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium, not equipped with elastomeric sealing surfaces and adjustable straps.
(55) "Fit factor" means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.
(56) "Fit test" means the use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.
(57) "Former United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) or United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed facilities" means nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment plants, or critical mass experimental facilities where AEC or NRC licenses have been terminated.
(58) "Generally applicable environmental radiation standards" means standards issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, that impose limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.
(59) "Gray" (Gy) means the SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 joule/kilogram (100 rad).
(60) "Healing arts" means the disciplines of medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, and veterinary medicine.
(61) "Helmet" means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.
(62) "High radiation area" means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from any source of radiation or 30 centimeters from any surface that the radiation penetrates. For purposes of these rules, rooms or areas in which diagnostic X-ray systems are used for healing arts purposes are not considered high radiation areas.
(63) "Hood" means a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.
(64) "Human use" means the intentional internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.
(65) "Immediate" or "immediately" means as soon as possible but no later than four hours after the initiating condition.
(66) "IND" means investigatory new drug for which an exemption has been claimed under the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (Title 21 C.F.R.).
(67) "Individual" means any human being.
(68) "Individual monitoring" means the assessment of:
(a) Dose equivalent (i) by the use of individual monitoring devices or (ii) by the use of survey data; or
(b) Committed effective dose equivalent (i) by bioassay or (ii) by determination of the time-weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed, that is, DAC-hours.
(69) "Individual monitoring devices" (individual monitoring equipment) means devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent e.g., as film badges, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), pocket ionization chambers, and personal ("lapel") air sampling devices.
(70) "Inspection" means an official examination or observation by the department including, but not limited to, tests, surveys, and monitoring to determine compliance with rules, orders, requirements and conditions of the department.
(71) "Interlock" means a device arranged or connected so that the occurrence of an event or condition is required before a second event or condition can occur or continue to occur.
(72) "Internal dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.
(73) "Irretrievable source" means any sealed source containing licensed material which is pulled off or not connected to the wireline downhole and for which all reasonable effort at recovery, as determined by the department, has been expended.
(74) "LDE (lens dose equivalent)" applies to the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeters (300 mg/cm2).
(75) "License" means a license issued by the department.
(76) "Licensed material" means radioactive material received, possessed, used, transferred, or disposed under a general or specific license issued by the department.
(77) "Licensee" means any person who is licensed by the department under ((these rules and the act)) chapter 70.98 RCW.
(78) "Loose-fitting facepiece" means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.
(79) "Lost or missing licensed material" means licensed material whose location is unknown. This definition includes licensed material that has been shipped but has not reached its planned destination and whose location cannot be readily traced in the transportation system.
(80) "Member of the public" means an individual except when the individual is receiving an occupational dose.
(81) "Minor" means an individual less than eighteen years of age.
(82) "Monitoring" means the measurement of radiation, radioactive material concentrations, surface area activities or quantities of radioactive material and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses. For purposes of these rules, radiation monitoring and radiation protection monitoring are equivalent terms.
(83) "NARM" means any naturally occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material. It does not include by-product, source, or special nuclear material.
(84) "Nationally tracked source" means a sealed source containing a quantity equal to or greater than Category 1 or Category 2 levels of any radioactive material listed in WAC 246-221-236. In this context a sealed source is defined as radioactive material that is sealed in a capsule or closely bonded, in a solid form and which is not exempt from regulatory control. It does not mean material encapsulated solely for disposal, or nuclear material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet. Category 1 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 1 threshold. Category 2 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 2 threshold but less than the Category 1 threshold.
(85) "Natural radioactivity" means radioactivity of naturally occurring nuclides.
(86) "NDA" means a new drug application which has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration.
(87) "Negative pressure respirator" (tight-fitting) means a respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
(88) "Nonstochastic effect" means a health effect, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect. For purposes of these rules, a "deterministic effect" is an equivalent term.
(89) "NRC" means the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
(90) "Occupational dose" means the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties involve exposure to radiation or to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the licensee, registrant, or other person. Occupational dose does not include dose received: From background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under chapter 246-240 WAC, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, or as a member of the public.
(91) "Ore refineries" means all processors of a radioactive material ore.
(92) "Particle accelerator" means any machine capable of accelerating electrons, protons, deuterons, or other charged particles in a vacuum and of discharging the resultant particulate or other radiation into a medium at energies usually in excess of 1 MeV. For purposes of this definition, "accelerator" is an equivalent term.
(93) "Permittee" means a person who has applied for, and received, a valid site use permit for use of the low-level waste disposal facility at Hanford, Washington.
(94) "Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, and any legal successor, representative, agent or agency of the foregoing.
(95) "Personal supervision" means supervision where the supervisor is physically present at the facility and in sufficient proximity that contact can be maintained and immediate assistance given as required.
(96) "Personnel monitoring equipment." See individual monitoring devices.
(97) "PET" means positron emission tomography.
(98) "Pharmacist" means an individual licensed by this state to compound and dispense drugs, and poisons.
(99) "Physician" means a medical doctor or doctor of osteopathy licensed by this state to prescribe and dispense drugs in the practice of medicine.
(100) "Planned special exposure" means an infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual occupational dose limits.
(101) "Positive pressure respirator" means a respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
(102) "PAPR (powered air-purifying respirator)" means an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.
(103) "Practitioner" means an individual licensed by the state for the practice of a healing art (i.e., physician, dentist, podiatrist, chiropractor, etc.).
(104) "Pressure demand respirator" means a positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.
(105) "Public dose" means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to sources of radiation under the licensee's or registrant's control or to radiation or radioactive material released by the licensee. Public dose does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under chapter 246-240 WAC, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.
(106) "Qualified expert" means an individual who has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department the knowledge, training, and experience to measure ionizing radiation, to evaluate safety techniques, and to advise regarding radiation protection needs. The department reserves the right to recognize the qualifications of an individual in specific areas of radiation protection.
(107) "QLFT (qualitative fit test)" means a pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit which relies on the individual's response to the test agent.
(108) "Quality factor (Q)" means the modifying factor, listed in Tables I and II, that is used to derive dose equivalent from absorbed dose.
TABLE I
QUALITY FACTORS AND ABSORBED DOSE EQUIVALENCIES
TYPE OF RADIATION
Quality Factor
(Q)
Absorbed Dose Equal to
A Unit Dose Equivalenta
X, gamma, or beta radiation
and high-speed electrons
1
1
Alpha particles, multiple-
charged particles, fission
fragments and heavy particles of unknown charge
20
0.05
Neutrons of unknown energy
10
0.1
High-energy protons
10
0.1
a
Absorbed dose in rad equal to 1 rem or the absorbed dose in gray equal to 1 Sv.
If it is more convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate rather than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in sievert per hour or rem per hour as required for Table I, then 0.01 Sv (1 rem) of neutron radiation of unknown energies may, for purposes of these rules, be assumed to result from a total fluence of 25 million neutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body. If sufficient information exists to estimate the approximate energy distribution of the neutrons, the licensee or registrant may use the fluence rate per unit dose equivalent or the appropriate Q value from Table II to convert a measured tissue dose in gray or rad to dose equivalent in sievert or rem.
TABLE II
MEAN QUALITY FACTORS, Q, AND FLUENCE PER UNIT DOSE EQUIVALENT FOR MONOENERGETIC NEUTRONS
Neutron
Energy
(MeV)
Quality Factora
(Q)
Fluence per Unit
Dose Equivalentb
(neutrons
cm-2 rem-1)
Fluence per Unit
Dose Equivalentb
(neutrons
cm-2 Sv-1)
(thermal) 2.5 x 10-8
2
980 x 106
980 x 108
1 x 10-7
2
980 x 106
980 x 108
1 x 10-6
2
810 x 106
810 x 108
1 x 10-5
2
810 x 106
810 x 108
1 x 10-4
2
840 x 106
840 x 108
1 x 10-3
2
980 x 106
980 x 108
1 x 10-2
2.5
1010 x 106
1010 x 108
1 x 10-1
7.5
170 x 106
170 x 108
5 x 10-1
11
39 x 106
39 x 108
1
11
27 x 106
27 x 108
2.5
9
29 x 106
29 x 108
5
8
23 x 106
23 x 108
7
7
24 x 106
24 x 108
10
6.5
24 x 106
24 x 108
14
7.5
17 x 106
17 x 108
20
8
16 x 106
16 x 108
40
7
14 x 106
14 x 108
60
5.5
16 x 106
16 x 108
1 x 102
4
20 x 106
20 x 108
2 x 102
3.5
19 x 106
19 x 108
3 x 102
3.5
16 x 106
16 x 108
4 x 102
3.5
14 x 106
14 x 108
a
Value of quality factor (Q) at the point where the dose equivalent is maximum in a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.
b
Monoenergetic neutrons incident normally on a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.
(109) "QNFT (quantitative fit test)" means an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.
(110) "Quarter" means a period of time equal to one-fourth of the year observed by the licensee, approximately thirteen consecutive weeks, providing that the beginning of the first quarter in a year coincides with the starting date of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive quarters.
(111) "Rad" means the special unit of absorbed dose. One rad equals one-hundredth of a joule per kilogram of material; for example, if tissue is the material of interest, then 1 rad equals 100 ergs per gram of tissue. One rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg/gram or 0.01 joule/kilogram (0.01 gray).
(112) "Radiation" means alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other particles capable of producing ions. For purposes of these rules: Radiation does not include magnetic fields or nonionizing radiation, such as radiowaves or microwaves, visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light; and ionizing radiation is an equivalent term.
(113) "Radiation area" means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.05 mSv (0.005 rem) in one hour at thirty centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
(114) "Radiation machine" means any device capable of producing ionizing radiation except those devices with radioactive material as the only source of radiation.
(115) "Radiation safety officer" means an individual who has the knowledge and responsibility to apply appropriate radiation protection rules and has been assigned that responsibility by the licensee or registrant.
(116) "Radiation source." See "Source of radiation."
(117) "Radioactive material" means any material (solid, liquid, or gas) which emits radiation spontaneously.
(118) "Radioactive waste" means any radioactive material which is no longer of use and intended for disposal or treatment for the purposes of disposal.
(119) "Radioactivity" means the transformation of unstable atomic nuclei by the emission of radiation.
(120) "Reference man" means a hypothetical aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics determined by international consensus. These characteristics may be used by researchers and public health workers to standardize results of experiments and to relate biological insult to a common base.
(121) "Registrable item" means any radiation-producing machine except those exempted by RCW 70.98.180 or exempted by the department under the authority of RCW 70.98.080.
(122) "Registrant" means any person who is registered by the department or is legally obligated to register with the department in accordance with these rules and the act.
(123) "Registration" means registration with the department in accordance with the rules adopted by the department.
(124) "Regulations of the United States Department of Transportation" means the regulations in 49 C.F.R. Parts 170-189, 14 C.F.R. Part 103, and 46 C.F.R. Part 146.
(125) "Rem" means the special unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in rem is equal to the absorbed dose in rad multiplied by the quality factor (1 rem = 0.01 Sv).
(126) "Research and development" means: (a) Theoretical analysis, exploration, or experimentation; or (b) the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes. Research and development does not include the internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.
(127) "Respiratory protective equipment" means an apparatus, such as a respirator, used to reduce an individual's intake of airborne radioactive materials.
(128) "Restricted area" means any area to which access is limited by the licensee or registrant for purposes of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to radiation and radioactive material. "Restricted area" does not include any areas used for residential quarters, although a separate room or rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area.
(129) "Roentgen" (R) means the special unit of exposure. One roentgen equals 2.58 x 10-4 coulombs/kilogram of air.
(130) "Sanitary sewerage" means a system of public sewers for carrying off waste water and refuse, but excluding sewage treatment facilities, septic tanks, and leach fields owned or operated by the licensee or registrant.
(131) "Sealed source" means any radioactive material that is encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or the escape of the radioactive material.
(132) "SEPA" means the State Environmental Policy Act under chapter 43.21C RCW.
(133) "SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus)" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.
(134) "Shallow dose equivalent" (Hs), which applies to the external exposure of the skin of the whole body or the skin of an extremity, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.007 centimeter (7 mg/cm2).
(135) "SI" means an abbreviation of the International System of Units.
(136) "Sievert" means the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in sievert is equal to the absorbed dose in gray multiplied by the quality factor (1 Sv = 100 rem).
(137) "Site area emergency" means events which may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a significant release of radioactive material and that could require a response by off-site response organizations to protect persons off-site.
(138) "Site boundary" means that line beyond which the land or property is not owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the licensee or registrant.
(139) "Source container" means a device in which radioactive material is transported or stored.
(140) "Source material" means: (a) Uranium or thorium, or any combination thereof, in any physical or chemical form, or (b) ores which contain by weight one-twentieth of one percent (0.05 percent) or more of uranium, thorium, or any combination thereof. Source material does not include special nuclear material.
(141) "Source material milling" means the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processing primarily for its source material content.
(142) "Source of radiation" means any radioactive material, or any device or equipment emitting or capable of producing ionizing radiation.
(143) "Special nuclear material" means:
(a) Plutonium, uranium-233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material that the NRC, under the provisions of section 51 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or
(b) Any material artificially enriched in any of the foregoing, but does not include source material.
(144) "Special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass" means uranium enriched in the isotope U-235 in quantities not exceeding three hundred fifty grams of contained U-235; uranium-233 in quantities not exceeding two hundred grams; plutonium in quantities not exceeding two hundred grams; or any combination of them in accordance with the following formula: For each kind of special nuclear material, determine the ratio between the quantity of that special nuclear material and the quantity specified above for the same kind of special nuclear material. The sum of the ratios for all of the kinds of special nuclear material in combination shall not exceed "1" (i.e., unity). For example, the following quantities in combination would not exceed the limitation and are within the formula:
175 (grams contained U-235)
+
 
350
 
50 (grams U-233)
+
 
200
 
50 (grams Pu)
< 1
 
200
 
(145) "Stochastic effect" means a health effect that occurs randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold. Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects. For purposes of these rules, probabilistic effect is an equivalent term.
(146) "SAR (supplied-air respirator)" or "airline respirator" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.
(147) "Survey" means an evaluation of the radiological conditions and potential hazards incident to the production, use, release, disposal, or presence of sources of radiation. When appropriate, the evaluation includes, but is not limited to, tests, physical examinations, calculations and measurements of levels of radiation or concentration of radioactive material present.
(148) "Test" means (a) the process of verifying compliance with an applicable rule, or (b) a method for determining the characteristics or condition of sources of radiation or components thereof.
(149) "These rules" mean all parts of the rules for radiation protection of the state of Washington.
(150) "Tight-fitting facepiece" means a respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.
(151) "TEDE (total effective dose equivalent)" means the sum of the effective dose equivalent for external exposures and the committed effective dose equivalent for internal exposures.
(152) "TODE (total organ dose equivalent)" means the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to the organ or tissue receiving the highest dose.
(153) "United States Department of Energy" means the Department of Energy established by Public Law 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565, 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq., to the extent that the department exercises functions formerly vested in the United States Atomic Energy Commission, its chairman, members, officers and components and transferred to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration and to the administrator thereof under sections 104 (b), (c) and (d) of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-438, October 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233 at 1237, 42 U.S.C. 5814 effective January 19, 1975) and retransferred to the Secretary of Energy under section 301(a) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565 at 577-578, 42 U.S.C. 7151, effective October 1, 1977).
(154) "Unrefined and unprocessed ore" means ore in its natural form prior to any processing, such as grinding, roasting((,)) or beneficiating, or refining. Processing does not include sieving or encapsulation of ore, or preparation of samples for laboratory analysis.
(155) "Unrestricted area" (uncontrolled area) means any area which is not a restricted area. Areas where the external dose exceeds 2 mrem in any one hour or where the public dose, taking into account occupancy factors, will exceed 100 mrem total effective dose equivalent in any one year must be restricted.
(156) "User seal check" (fit check) means an action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face. Examples include negative pressure check, positive pressure check, irritant smoke check, or isoamyl acetate check.
(157) "Very high radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving an absorbed dose in excess of 5 Gy (500 rad) in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation or one meter from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
(158) "Waste" means those low-level radioactive wastes containing source, special nuclear or by-product material that are acceptable for disposal in a land disposal facility. For purposes of this definition, low-level radioactive waste means radioactive waste not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in subsection (17)(b), (c), and (d) of the definition of by-product material in this section.
(159) "Waste handling licensees" mean persons licensed to receive and store radioactive wastes prior to disposal or persons licensed to dispose of radioactive waste.
(160) "Week" means seven consecutive days starting on Sunday.
(161) "Weighting factor" wT for an organ or tissue (T) means the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. For calculating the effective dose equivalent, the values of wT are:
ORGAN DOSE WEIGHTING FACTORS
 
Organ or Tissue
wT
 
 
Gonads
0.25
 
 
Breast
0.15
 
 
Red bone marrow
0.12
 
 
Lung
0.12
 
 
Thyroid
0.03
 
 
Bone surfaces
0.03
 
 
Remainder
0.30a
 
 
Whole Body
1.00b
 
a
0.30 results form 0.06 for each of 5 "remainder" organs, excluding the skin and the lens of the eye, that receive the highest doses.
b
For the purpose of weighting the external whole body dose, for adding it to the internal dose, a single weighting factor, wT =1.0, has been specified. The use of other weighting factors for external exposure will be approved on a case-by-case basis until such time as specific guidance is issued.
(162) "Whole body" means, for purposes of external exposure, head, trunk including male gonads, arms above the elbow, or legs above the knee.
(163) "Worker" means an individual engaged in activities under a license or registration issued by the department and controlled by a licensee or registrant but does not include the licensee or registrant. Where the licensee or registrant is an individual rather than one of the other legal entities defined under "person," the radiation exposure limits for the worker also apply to the individual who is the licensee or registrant. If students of age eighteen years or older are subjected routinely to work involving radiation, then the students are considered to be workers. Individuals of less than eighteen years of age shall meet the requirements of WAC 246-221-050.
(164) "WL (working level)" means any combination of short-lived radon daughters in 1 liter of air that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3 x 105 MeV of potential alpha particle energy. The short-lived radon daughters are(()) - For radon-222: Polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214, and polonium-214; and for radon-220: Polonium-216, lead-212, bismuth-212, and polonium-212.
(165) "WLM (working level month)" means an exposure to one working level for one hundred seventy hours(()) - Two thousand working hours per year divided by twelve months per year is approximately equal to one hundred seventy hours per month.
(166) "Year" means the period of time beginning in January used to determine compliance with the provisions of these rules. The licensee or registrant may change the starting date of the year used to determine compliance by the licensee or registrant provided that the change is made at the beginning of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive years.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 00-08-013, filed 3/24/00, effective 4/24/00)
WAC 246-221-020 Determination of prior occupational dose.
(1) For each individual who is likely to receive, in a year, an occupational dose requiring monitoring pursuant to WAC 246-221-090 and 246-221-100, the licensee or registrant shall:
(a) Determine the occupational radiation dose received during the current year; and
(b) Attempt to obtain the records of lifetime cumulative occupational radiation dose.
(2) Prior to permitting an individual to participate in a planned special exposure, the licensee or registrant shall determine:
(a) The internal and external doses from all previous planned special exposures; and
(b) All doses in excess of the limits, including doses received during accidents and emergencies, received during the lifetime of the individual.
(3) In complying with the requirements of subsection (1) of this section, a licensee or registrant may:
(a) Accept, as a record of the occupational dose that the individual received during the current year, a written signed statement from the individual, or from the individual's most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, that discloses the nature and the amount of any occupational dose that the individual received during the current year; and
(b) Accept, as the record of lifetime cumulative radiation dose, an up-to-date Form RHF-4A, or equivalent, signed by the individual and countersigned by an appropriate official of the most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, or the individual's current employer, if the individual is not employed by the licensee or registrant; and
(c) Obtain reports of the individual's dose equivalent from the most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, or the individual's current employer, if the individual is not employed by the licensee or registrant, by telephone, ((telegram,)) facsimile, e-mail, or letter. The licensee or registrant shall request a written verification of the dose data if the authenticity of the transmitted report cannot be established.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall record the exposure history, as required by subsection (1) of this section, on Form RHF-4A, or other clear and legible record, of all the information required on that form. The form or record shall show each period in which the individual received occupational exposure to radiation or radioactive material and shall be signed by the individual who received the exposure. For each period for which the licensee or registrant obtains reports, the licensee or registrant shall use the dose shown in the report in preparing Form RHF-4A. For any period in which the licensee or registrant does not obtain a report, the licensee or registrant shall place a notation on Form RHF-4A indicating the periods of time for which data are not available.
(5) Licensees or registrants are not required to reevaluate the separate external dose equivalents and internal committed dose equivalents or intakes of radionuclides assessed under the regulations in effect before January 1, 1994. Further, occupational exposure histories obtained and recorded on Form RHF-4 before January 1, 1994, would not have included effective dose equivalent, but may be used in the absence of specific information on the intake of radionuclides by the individual.
(6) If the licensee or registrant is unable to obtain a complete record of an individual's current and previously accumulated occupational dose, the licensee or registrant shall assume:
(a) In establishing administrative controls under WAC 246-221-010(6) for the current year, that the allowable dose limit for the individual is reduced by 12.5 mSv (1.25 rem) for each calendar quarter for which records were unavailable and the individual was engaged in activities that could have resulted in occupational radiation exposure; and
(b) That the individual is not available for planned special exposures.
(7) The licensee or registrant shall retain the records on Form RHF-4A or equivalent until the department terminates each pertinent license requiring this record. The licensee or registrant shall retain records used in preparing Form RHF-4 or RHF-4A for three years after the record is made.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-01-077, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14)
WAC 246-221-160 Procedures for picking up, receiving, and opening packages.
(1) Each licensee who expects to receive a package containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of the Type A1 or A2 quantities specified in WAC 246-231-200 shall make arrangements to receive:
(a) The package when it is offered for delivery by the carrier; or
(b) Immediate notification from the carrier of the arrival of the package at the carrier's terminal.
(2) Each licensee who picks up a package of radioactive material from a carrier's terminal shall pick up the package expeditiously upon receipt of notification from the carrier of its arrival.
(3) Each licensee shall:
(a) Monitor for radioactive contamination the external surfaces of any package labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II or Yellow III label unless the package contains only radioactive material in the form of gas or in special form as defined in WAC 246-231-010; and
(b) Monitor the radiation levels of the external surfaces of any package labeled with a Radioactive White I, Yellow II or Yellow III label unless the package contains quantities of radioactive material that are less than or equal to the Type A quantity, as defined in WAC 246-231-200; and
(c) Monitor all packages known to contain radioactive material for radioactive contamination and radiation levels if the package has evidence of potential contamination, such as packages that are crushed, wet, or damaged.
(4) Monitoring shall be performed:
(a) Immediately upon receipt if there is evidence of package degradation or any other evidence of potential contamination or excessive radiation levels; or
(b) As soon as practicable after receipt, but no later than three hours after the package is received at the licensee's facility if received during the licensee's normal working hours, or no later than three hours from the beginning of the next working day if received after normal working hours.
(5) The licensee shall immediately notify the final delivery carrier and, by telephone ((and telegram, mailgram, or)), facsimile, e-mail, or letter, the department when:
(a) For normal shipments, removable radioactive surface contamination exceeds either 22 dpm/ cm2 for beta-gamma emitting radionuclides, all radionuclides with half-lives less than ten days, natural uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, and thorium-228 and thorium 230 when contained in ores or concentrates; or 2.2 dpm/ cm2 for all other alpha emitting radionuclides; or
(b) For exclusive use shipments, removable radioactive surface contamination exceeds either 220 dpm/ cm2 for beta-gamma emitting radionuclides, all radionuclides with half-lives less than ten days, natural uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, and thorium-228 and thorium 230 when contained in ores or concentrates; or 22 dpm/ cm2 for all other alpha emitting radionuclides; or
(c) For normal or exclusive use shipments, external radiation levels exceed two mSv/hour (200 millirem per hour) at any point on the external surface of the package; or
(d) For exclusive use shipments where the shipment is made in a closed transport vehicle, packages are secured in a fixed position, and no loading or unloading occurs between the beginning and end of transportation, external radiation levels exceed ten mSv/hour (1000 millirem per hour) at any point on the external surface of the package.
(6) Each licensee shall establish and maintain procedures for safely opening packages in which radioactive material is received, and shall assure that such procedures are followed and that due consideration is given to instructions for the type of package being opened and the monitoring of potentially contaminated packaging material (including packages containing radioactive material in gaseous form) to assure that only background levels of radiation are present prior to disposal of such material as nonradioactive waste.
(7) Licensees transferring special form sources to and from a work site in vehicles owned or operated by the licensee are exempt from the contamination monitoring requirements of subsection (3)(a) of this section but are not exempt from the monitoring requirement in subsection (3)(b) of this section for measuring radiation levels to ensure that the source is still properly lodged in its shield.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-01-077, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14)
WAC 246-221-240 Reports of stolen, lost or missing radiation sources.
(1) Each licensee and registrant shall report by telephone (206-682-5327) and confirm promptly by letter, ((telegram, mailgram, or)) facsimile, or e-mail to the State Department of Health, Office of Radiation Protection, P.O. Box 47827, Olympia, Washington 98504-7827.
(a) Immediately after its occurrence becomes known to the licensee, stolen, lost, or missing radioactive material in an aggregate quantity equal to or greater than one thousand times the quantity specified in WAC 246-221-300, Appendix B; or
(b) Within thirty days after its occurrence becomes known to the licensee, lost, stolen, or missing radioactive material in an aggregate quantity greater than ten times the quantity specified in WAC 246-221-300, Appendix B that is still missing or any item not exempted in chapter 246-232 WAC; or
(c) Immediately after its occurrence becomes known to the registrant, a stolen, lost, or missing radiation machine.
(2) Each licensee or registrant required to make a report pursuant to subsection (1) of this section shall, within thirty days after making the telephone report, make a written report to the department setting forth the following information:
(a) A description of the licensed or registered source of radiation involved, including, for radioactive material, the kind, quantity, and chemical and physical form; and, for radiation machines, the manufacturer, model and serial number, type and maximum energy of radiation emitted; and
(b) A description of the circumstances under which the loss or theft occurred; and
(c) A statement of disposition, or probable disposition, of the licensed or registered source of radiation involved; and
(d) Exposures of individuals to radiation, circumstances under which the exposures occurred, and the possible total effective dose equivalent to persons in unrestricted areas; and
(e) Actions that have been taken, or will be taken, to recover the source of radiation; and
(f) Procedures or measures that have been, or will be, adopted to ensure against a recurrence of the loss or theft of licensed or registered sources of radiation.
(3) Subsequent to filing the written report, the licensee or registrant shall also report additional substantive information on the loss or theft within thirty days after the licensee or registrant learns of such information.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall prepare any report filed with the department pursuant to this section so that names of individuals who may have received exposure to radiation are stated in a separate and detachable portion of the report.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-01-077, filed 12/16/13, effective 1/16/14)
WAC 246-221-250 Notification of incidents.
(1) Immediate notification. Notwithstanding other requirements for notification, each licensee and registrant shall immediately (as soon as possible but no later than four hours after discovery of an incident) notify the State Department of Health, Office of Radiation Protection, P.O. Box 47827, Olympia, Washington 98504-7827, by telephone (206-682-5327) and confirming letter, ((telegram, mailgram, or)) facsimile, or e-mail with a follow-up written report within thirty days of any incident involving any radiation source which may have caused or threatens to cause:
(a) An individual to receive:
(i) A total effective dose equivalent of 0.25 Sv (25 rem) or more;
(ii) A lens dose equivalent of 0.75 Sv (75 rem) or more; or
(iii) A shallow dose equivalent to the skin or extremities or a total organ dose equivalent of 2.5 Sv (250 rem) or more;
(b) The release of radioactive material, inside or outside of a restricted area, so that, had an individual been present for twenty-four hours, the individual could have received an intake five times the occupational ALI. This provision does not apply to locations where personnel are not normally stationed during routine operations, such as hot-cells or process enclosures; or
(c) The loss of ability to take immediate protective actions necessary to avoid exposure to sources of radiation or releases of radioactive material that could exceed regulatory limits. Events which could cause such a loss of ability include fires, explosions, toxic gas releases, etc.
(2) Twenty-four hour notification. Each licensee and registrant shall within twenty-four hours of discovery of the event, notify the State Department of Health, Office of Radiation Protection, P.O. Box 47827, Olympia, Washington 98504-7827, by telephone (206-682-5327) and confirming letter, ((telegram, mailgram, or)) facsimile, or e-mail with a follow-up written report within thirty days of any incident involving any radiation source possessed which may have caused or threatens to cause:
(a) An individual to receive, in a period of twenty-four hours:
(i) A total effective dose equivalent exceeding 0.05 Sv (5 rem);
(ii) A lens dose equivalent exceeding 0.15 Sv (15 rem); or
(iii) A shallow dose equivalent to the skin or extremities or a total organ dose equivalent exceeding 0.5 Sv (50 rem);
(b) The release of radioactive material, inside or outside of a restricted area, so that, had an individual been present for twenty-four hours, the individual could have received an intake in excess of one occupational ALI. This provision does not apply to locations where personnel are not normally stationed during routine operations, such as hot-cells or process enclosures;
(c) An unplanned contamination incident that:
(i) Requires access to the contaminated area, by workers or the general public, to be restricted for more than twenty-four hours by imposing additional radiological controls or by prohibiting entry into the area;
(ii) Involves a quantity of material greater than five times the lowest annual limit on intake specified in WAC 246-221-290; and
(iii) Has access to the area restricted for a reason other than to allow radionuclides with a half-life of less than twenty-four hours to decay prior to decontamination;
(d) Equipment failure or inability to function as designed when:
(i) The equipment is required by regulation or license condition to prevent releases exceeding regulatory limits, to prevent exposures to radiation and radioactive material exceeding regulatory limits or to mitigate the consequences of an accident;
(ii) The equipment is required to be available and operable at the time it becomes disabled or fails to function; and
(iii) No redundant equipment is available and operable to perform the required safety functions;
(e) An unplanned medical treatment at a medical facility of an individual with removable radioactive contamination on the individual's clothing or body; or
(f) An unplanned fire or explosion damaging any radioactive material or any device, container or equipment containing radioactive material when:
(i) The quantity of radioactive material involved is greater than five times the lowest annual limit on intake specified in WAC 246-221-290; and
(ii) The damage affects the integrity of the radioactive material or its container.
(3) For each occurrence requiring notification pursuant to this section, a prompt investigation of the situation shall be initiated by the licensee/registrant. A written report of the findings of the investigation shall be sent to the department within thirty days.
(4) The licensee or registrant shall prepare each report filed with the department under this section so that names of individuals who have received exposure to sources of radiation are stated in a separate and detachable portion of the report.
Any report filed with the department under this section shall contain the information described in WAC 246-221-260 (2) and (3).
(5) The provisions of this section do not apply to doses that result from planned special exposures, provided such doses are within the limits for planned special exposures and are reported pursuant to WAC 246-221-265.
(6) Telephone notifications that do not involve immediate or twenty-four hour notification should be made to the Tumwater office (360-236-3300).
(7) Telephone notification required under this section shall include, to the extent that the information is available at the time of notification:
(a) The caller's name and call-back telephone number;
(b) A description of the incident including date and time;
(c) The exact location of the incident;
(d) The radionuclides, quantities, and chemical and physical forms of the radioactive materials involved; and
(e) Any personnel radiation exposure data available.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-09-017, filed 4/7/14, effective 5/8/14)
WAC 246-231-040 Exemptions.
(1) Common and contract carriers, freight forwarders, ((and)) warehouse workers ((who are subject to the rules and regulations of the United States Department of Transportation (49 C.F.R. 170 through 189) or the United States Postal Service (Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual, 39 C.F.R. 111.1))), and the U.S. Postal Service are exempt from this chapter and chapters 246-232, 246-233, 246-235, 246-237, 246-240, 246-243, and 246-244 WAC to the extent that they transport or store radioactive material in the regular course of their carriage for another or storage incident thereto. Common and contract carriers who are not subject to the rules and regulations of the DOT or United States Postal Service are subject to WAC 246-231-005 and other applicable sections of these regulations.
(2) Any licensee who delivers radioactive material to a carrier for transport, where such transport is subject to the regulations of the United States Postal Service, is exempt from the provisions of WAC 246-231-005.
(3) Exemption of physicians. Any physician as defined in WAC 246-220-010 who is licensed by the department, NRC or an agreement state, to dispense drugs in the practice of medicine, is exempt from WAC 246-220-030 with respect to transport by the physician of licensed material for use in the practice of medicine. However, any physician operating under this exemption must be licensed under chapter 246-240 WAC, 10 C.F.R. 35, or the equivalent agreement state regulations.
(4) Exemption for low-level materials. A licensee is exempt from all requirements of this chapter with respect to shipment or carriage of the following low-level materials:
(a) Natural material and ores containing naturally occurring radionuclides that are not intended to be processed for use of these radionuclides, provided the activity concentration of the material does not exceed ten times the values specified in WAC 246-231-200, Table A-2.
(b) Materials for which the activity concentration is not greater than the activity concentration values specified in WAC 246-231-200, Table A-2, or for which the consignment activity is not greater than the limit for an exempt consignment found in WAC 246-231-200, Table A-2.
(5) Exemption from classification as fissile material. Fissile material meeting at least one of the requirements in (a) through (f) of this subsection is exempt from classification as fissile material and from the fissile material package standards of 10 C.F.R. 71.55 and 71.59, but are subject to all other requirements of this chapter, except as noted.
(a) Individual package containing 2 grams or less fissile material.
(b) Individual or bulk packaging containing 15 grams or less of fissile material provided the package has at least 200 grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the package but must not be included in determining the required mass for solid nonfissile material.
(c)(i) Low concentrations of solid fissile material commingled with solid nonfissile material, provided that:
(A) There are at least 2000 grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material; and
(B) There are no more than 180 grams of fissile material distributed within 360 kg of contiguous nonfissile material.
(ii) Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the package but must not be included in determining the required mass of solid nonfissile material.
(d) Uranium enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 1 percent by weight, and with total plutonium and uranium-233 content of up to 1 percent of the mass of uranium-235, provided that the mass of any beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium constitutes less than 5 percent of the uranium mass.
(e) Liquid solutions of uranyl nitrate enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 2 percent by mass, with a total plutonium and uranium-233 content not exceeding 0.002 percent of the mass of uranium, and with a minimum nitrogen to uranium atomic ratio (N/U) of 2. The material must be contained in at least a DOT Type A package.
(f) Packages containing, individually, a total plutonium mass of not more than 1000 grams, of which not more than 20 percent by mass may consist of plutonium-239, plutonium-241, or any combination of these radionuclides.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 14-09-017, filed 4/7/14, effective 5/8/14)
WAC 246-231-200 Appendix A—Determination of A1 and A2.
(1) Values of A1 and A2 for individual radionuclides, which are the basis for many activity limits elsewhere in these regulations, are given in this section, Table A-1. The curie (Ci) values specified are obtained by converting from the Terabecquerel (TBq) value. The Terabecquerel values are the regulatory standard. The curie values are for information only and are not intended to be the regulatory standard. Where values of A1 or A2 are unlimited, it is for radiation control purposes only. For nuclear criticality safety, some materials are subject to controls placed on fissile material.
(2)(a) For individual radionuclides whose identities are known, but which are not listed in this section, Table A-1, the A1 and A2 values contained in this section, Table A-3 may be used. Otherwise, the licensee shall obtain prior NRC approval of the A1 and A2 values for radionuclides not listed in this section, Table A-1, before shipping the material.
(b) For individual radionuclides whose identities are known, but which are not listed in this section, Table A-2, the exempt material activity concentration and exempt consignment activity values contained in this section, Table A-3 may be used. Otherwise, the licensee shall obtain prior NRC approval of the exempt material activity concentration and exempt consignment activity values for radionuclides not listed in this section, Table A-2, before shipping the material.
(c) The licensee shall submit requests for prior approval, described under (a) and (b) of this subsection, to NRC in accordance with 10 C.F.R. 71.1.
(3) In the calculations of A1 and A2 for a radionuclide not in this section, Table A-1, a single radioactive decay chain, in which radionuclides are present in their naturally occurring proportions, and in which no daughter radionuclide has a half-life either longer than ten days, or longer than that of the parent radionuclide, shall be considered as a single radionuclide, and the activity to be taken into account, and the A1 or A2 value to be applied shall be those corresponding to the parent radionuclide of that chain. In the case of radioactive decay chains in which any daughter radionuclide has a half-life either longer than ten days, or greater than that of the parent radionuclide, the parent and those daughter radionuclides shall be considered as mixtures of different radionuclides.
(4) For mixtures of radionuclides whose identities and respective activities are known, the following conditions apply:
(a) For special form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package:
 
Where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide I, and A1(i) is the A1 value for radionuclide I.
(b) For normal form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package:
 
Where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide I and A2(i) is the A2 value for radionuclide I.
(c) Alternatively, the A1 value for mixtures of special form material may be determined as follows:
 
Where f(i) is the fraction of activity for radionuclide I in the mixture and A1(i) is the appropriate A1 value for radionuclide I.
(d) Alternatively, the A2 value for mixtures of normal form material may be determined as follows:
 
Where f(i) is the fraction of activity for radionuclide I in the mixture and A2(i) is the appropriate A2 value for radionuclide I.
(e) The exempt activity concentration for mixtures of nuclides may be determined as follows:
 
Where f(i) is the fraction of activity concentration of radionuclide I in the mixture, and A is the activity concentration f material containing radionuclide I.
(f) The activity limit for an exempt consignment for mixtures of radionuclides may be determined as follows:
 
Where f(i) is the fraction of activity of radionuclide I in the mixture, and A is the activity limit for exempt consignments for radionuclide I.
(5) When the identity of each radionuclide is known, but the individual activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the radionuclides may be grouped and the lowest A1 or A2 value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used in applying the formulas in subsection (4) of this section. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest A1 or A2 values for the alpha emitters and beta/gamma emitters.
Table A-1.—A1 and A2 Values for Radionuclides
Symbol of radionuclide
Element and atomic number
A1 (TBq)
A1 (Ci)b
A2 (TBq)
A2 (Ci)b
Specific activity
(TBq/g)
(Ci/g)
Ac-225 (a)
Actinium (89)
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
6.0X10-3
1.6X10-1
2.1X103
5.8X104
Ac-227 (a)
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
9.0X10-5
2.4X10-3
2.7
7.2X101
Ac-228
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
8.4X104
2.2X106
Ag-105
Silver (47)
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
1.1X103
3.0X104
Ag-108m (a)
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
9.7X10-1
2.6X101
Ag-110m (a)
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.8X102
4.7X103
Ag-111
 
2.0
5.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
5.8X103
1.6X105
Al-26
Aluminum (13)
1.0X10-1
2.7
1.0X10-1
2.7
7.0X10-4
1.9X10-2
Am-241
Americium (95)
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
1.3X10-1
3.4
Am-242m (a)
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
3.6X10-1
1.0X101
Am-243 (a)
 
5.0
1.4X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
7.4X10-3
2.0X10-1
Ar-37
Argon (18)
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.7X103
9.9X104
Ar-39
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0X101
5.4X102
1.3
3.4X101
Ar-41
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
1.5X106
4.2X107
As-72
Arsenic (33)
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
6.2X104
1.7X106
As-73
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
8.2X102
2.2X104
As-74
 
1.0
2.7X101
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
3.7X103
9.9X104
As-76
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
5.8X104
1.6X106
As-77
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
3.9X104
1.0X106
At-211 (a)
Astatine (85)
2.0X101
5.4X102
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
7.6X104
2.1X106
Au-193
Gold (79)
7.0
1.9X102
2.0
5.4X101
3.4X104
9.2X105
Au-194
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
1.5X104
4.1X105
Au-195
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
6.0
1.6X102
1.4X102
3.7X103
Au-198
 
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
9.0X103
2.4X105
Au-199
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
7.7X103
2.1X105
Ba-131 (a)
Barium (56)
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
3.1X103
8.4X104
Ba-133
 
3.0
8.1X101
3.0
8.1X101
9.4
2.6X102
Ba-133m
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.2X104
6.1X105
Ba-140 (a)
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
3.0X10-1
8.1
2.7X103
7.3X104
Be-7
Beryllium (4)
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X101
5.4X102
1.3X104
3.5X105
Be-10
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
8.3X10-4
2.2X10-2
Bi-205
Bismuth (83)
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
1.5X103
4.2X104
Bi-206
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.8X103
1.0X105
Bi-207
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
1.9
5.2X101
Bi-210
 
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
4.6X103
1.2X105
Bi-210m (a)
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
2.1X10-5
5.7X10-4
Bi-212 (a)
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
5.4X105
1.5X107
Bk-247
Berkelium (97)
8.0
2.2X102
8.0X10-4
2.2X10-2
3.8X10-2
1.0
Bk-249 (a)
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.0X10-1
8.1
6.1X101
1.6X103
Br-76
Bromine (35)
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
9.4X104
2.5X106
Br-77
 
3.0
8.1X101
3.0
8.1X101
2.6X104
7.1X105
Br-82
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X104
1.1X106
C-11
Carbon (6)
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.1X107
8.4X108
C-14
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.0
8.1X101
1.6X10-1
4.5
Ca-41
Calcium (20)
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
3.1X10-3
8.5X10-2
Ca-45
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0
2.7X101
6.6X102
1.8X104
Ca-47 (a)
 
3.0
8.1X101
3.0X10-1
8.1
2.3X104
6.1X105
Cd-109
Cadmium (48)
3.0X101
8.1X102
2.0
5.4X101
9.6X101
2.6X103
Cd-113m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
8.3
2.2X102
Cd-115 (a)
 
3.0
8.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.9X104
5.1X105
Cd-115m
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
9.4X102
2.5X104
Ce-139
Cerium (58)
7.0
1.9X102
2.0
5.4X101
2.5X102
6.8X103
Ce-141
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.1X103
2.8X104
Ce-143
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.5X104
6.6X105
Ce-144 (a)
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.0X10-1
5.4
1.2X102
3.2X103
Cf-248
Californium (98)
4.0X101
1.1X103
6.0X10-3
1.6X10-1
5.8X101
1.6X103
Cf-249
 
3.0
8.1X101
8.0X10-4
2.2X10-2
1.5X10-1
4.1
Cf-250
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X10-3
5.4X10-2
4.0
1.1X102
Cf-251
 
7.0
1.9X102
7.0X10-4
1.9X10-2
5.9X10-2
1.6
Cf-252 (h)
 
5.0X10-2
1.4
3.0X10-3
8.1X10-2
2.0X101
5.4X102
Cf-253 (a)
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X10-2
1.1
1.1X103
2.9X104
Cf-254
 
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
3.1X102
8.5X103
Cl-36
Chlorine (17)
1.0X101
2.7X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.2X10-3
3.3X10-2
Cl-38
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.0X10-1
5.4
4.9X106
1.3X108
Cm-240
Curium (96)
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
7.5X102
2.0X104
Cm-241
 
2.0
5.4X101
1.0
2.7X101
6.1X102
1.7X104
Cm-242
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0X10-2
2.7X10-1
1.2X102
3.3X103
Cm-243
 
9.0
2.4X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
1.9X10-3
5.2X101
Cm-244
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X10-3
5.4X10-2
3.0
8.1X101
Cm-245
 
9.0
2.4X102
9.0X10-4
2.4X10-2
6.4X10-3
1.7X10-1
Cm-246
 
9.0
2.4X102
9.0X10-4
2.4X10-2
1.1X10-2
3.1X10-1
Cm-247 (a)
 
3.0
8.1X101
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
3.4X10-6
9.3X10-5
Cm-248
 
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
3.0X10-4
8.1X10-3
1.6X10-4
4.2X10-3
Co-55
Cobalt (27)
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
1.1X105
3.1X106
Co-56
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
1.1X103
3.0X104
Co-57
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X101
2.7X102
3.1X102
8.4X103
Co-58
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
1.2X103
3.2X104
Co-58m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.2X105
5.9X106
Co-60
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.2X101
1.1X103
Cr-51
Chromium (24)
3.0X101
8.1X102
3.0X101
8.1X102
3.4X103
9.2X104
Cs-129
Cesium (55)
4.0
1.1X102
4.0
1.1X102
2.8X104
7.6X105
Cs-131
 
3.0X101
8.1X102
3.0X101
8.1X102
3.8X103
1.0X105
Cs-132
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
5.7X103
1.5X105
Cs-134
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
4.8X101
1.3X103
Cs-134m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.0X105
8.0X106
Cs-135
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0
2.7X101
4.3X10-5
1.2X10-3
Cs-136
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
2.7X103
7.3X104
Cs-137 (a)
 
2.0
5.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.2
8.7X101
Cu-64
Copper (29)
6.0
1.6X102
1.0
2.7X101
1.4X105
3.9X106
Cu-67
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
2.8X104
7.6X105
Dy-159
Dysprosium (66)
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.1X102
5.7X103
Dy-165
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.0X105
8.2X106
Dy-166 (a)
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
3.0X10-1
8.1
8.6X103
2.3X105
Er-169
Erbium (68)
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0
2.7X101
3.1X103
8.3X104
Er-171
 
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
9.0X104
2.4X106
Eu-147
Europium (63)
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
1.4X103
3.7X104
Eu-148
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
6.0X102
1.6X104
Eu-149
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X101
5.4X102
3.5X102
9.4X103
Eu-150 (short lived)
 
2.0
5.4X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
6.1X104
1.6X106
Eu-150 (long lived)
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
6.1X104
1.6X106
Eu-152
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
6.5
1.8X102
Eu-152m
 
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
8.2X104
2.2X106
Eu-154
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
9.8
2.6X102
Eu-155
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
3.0
8.1X101
1.8X101
4.9X102
Eu-156
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
2.0X103
5.5X104
F-18
Fluorine (9)
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.5X106
9.5X107
Fe-52 (a)
Iron (26)
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
2.7X105
7.3X106
Fe-55
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
8.8X101
2.4X103
Fe-59
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
1.8X103
5.0X104
Fe-60 (a)
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0X10-1
5.4
7.4X10-4
2.0X10-2
Ga-67
Gallium (31)
7.0
1.9X102
3.0
8.1X101
2.2X104
6.0X105
Ga-68
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
1.5X106
4.1X107
Ga-72
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.1X105
3.1X106
Gd-146 (a)
Gadolinium (64)
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
6.9X102
1.9X104
Gd-148
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X10-3
5.4X10-2
1.2
3.2X101
Gd-153
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
9.0
2.4X102
1.3X102
3.5X103
Gd-159
 
3.0
8.1X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.9X104
1.1X106
Ge-68 (a)
Germanium (32)
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
2.6X102
7.1X103
Ge-71
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
5.8X103
1.6X105
Ge-77
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
1.3X105
3.6X106
Hf-172 (a)
Hafnium (72)
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
4.1X101
1.1X103
Hf-175
 
3.0
8.1X101
3.0
8.1X101
3.9X102
1.1X104
Hf-181
 
2.0
5.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
6.3X102
1.7X104
Hf-182
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
8.1X10-6
2.2X10-4
Hg-194 (a)
Mercury (80)
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
1.3X10-1
3.5
Hg-195m (a)
 
3.0
8.1X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
1.5X104
4.0X105
Hg-197
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
1.0X101
2.7X102
9.2X103
2.5X105
Hg-197m
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
2.5X104
6.7X105
Hg-203
 
5.0
1.4X102
1.0
2.7X101
5.1X102
1.4X104
Ho-166
Holmium (67)
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
2.6X104
7.0X105
Ho-166m
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
6.6X10-2
1.8
I-123
Iodine (53)
6.0
1.6X102
3.0
8.1X101
7.1X104
1.9X106
I-124
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
9.3X103
2.5X105
I-125
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
3.0
8.1X101
6.4X102
1.7X104
I-126
 
2.0
5.4X101
1.0
2.7X101
2.9X103
8.0X104
I-129
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
6.5X10-6
1.8X10-4
I-131
 
3.0
8.1X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
4.6X103
1.2X105
I-132
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
3.8X105
1.0X107
I-133
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
4.2X104
1.1X106
I-134
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
9.9X105
2.7X107
I-135 (a)
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.3X105
3.5X106
In-111
Indium (49)
3.0
8.1X101
3.0
8.1X101
1.5X104
4.2X105
In-113m
 
4.0
1.1X102
2.0
5.4X101
6.2X105
1.7X107
In-114m (a)
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
8.6X102
2.3X104
In-115m
 
7.0
1.9X102
1.0
2.7X101
2.2X105
6.1X106
Ir-189 (a)
Iridium (77)
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.9X103
5.2X104
Ir-190
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
2.3X103
6.2X104
Ir-192 (c)
 
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.4X102
9.2X103
Ir-194
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.1X104
8.4X105
K-40
Potassium (19)
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
2.4X10-7
6.4X10-6
K-42
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.2X105
6.0X106
K-43
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.2X105
3.3X106
Kr-81
Krypton (36)
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
7.8X10-4
2.1X10-2
Kr-85
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.5X101
3.9X102
Kr-85m
 
8.0
2.2X102
3.0
8.1X101
3.0X105
8.2X106
Kr-87
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.0X10-1
5.4
1.0X106
2.8X107
La-137
Lanthanum (57)
3.0X101
8.1X102
6.0
1.6X102
1.6X10-3
4.4X10-2
La-140
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
2.1X104
5.6X105
Lu-172
Lutetium (71)
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
4.2X103
1.1X105
Lu-173
 
8.0
2.2X102
8.0
2.2X102
5.6X101
1.5X103
Lu-174
 
9.0
2.4X102
9.0
2.4X102
2.3X101
6.2X102
Lu-174m
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
1.0X101
2.7X102
2.0X102
5.3X103
Lu-177
 
3.0X101
8.1X102
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
4.1X103
1.1X105
Mg-28 (a)
Magnesium (12)
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
2.0X105
5.4X106
Mn-52
Manganese (25)
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
1.6X104
4.4X105
Mn-53
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
6.8X10-5
1.8X10-3
Mn-54
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
2.9X102
7.7X103
Mn-56
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
8.0X105
2.2X107
Mo-93
Molybdenum (42)
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0X101
5.4X102
4.1X10-2
1.1
Mo-99 (a) (i)
 
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.8X104
4.8X105
N-13
Nitrogen (7)
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
5.4X107
1.5X109
Na-22
Sodium (11)
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
2.3X102
6.3X103
Na-24
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.0X10-1
5.4
3.2X105
8.7X106
Nb-93m
Niobium (41)
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.0X101
8.1X102
8.8
2.4X102
Nb-94
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
6.9X10-3
1.9X10-1
Nb-95
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
1.5X103
3.9X104
Nb-97
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
9.9X105
2.7X107
Nd-147
Neodymium (60)
6.0
1.6X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.0X103
8.1X104
Nd-149
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
4.5X105
1.2X107
Ni-59
Nickel (28)
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
3.0X10-3
8.0X10-2
Ni-63
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.0X101
8.1X102
2.1
5.7X101
Ni-65
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
7.1X105
1.9X107
Np-235
Neptunium (93)
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
5.2X101
1.4X103
Np-236 (short-lived)
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0
5.4X101
4.7X10-4
1.3X10-2
Np-236 (long-lived)
 
9.0X100
2.4X102
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
4.7X10-4
1.3X10-2
Np-237
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X10-3
5.4X10-2
2.6X10-5
7.1X10-4
Np-239
 
7.0
1.9X102
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
8.6X103
2.3X105
Os-185
Osmium (76)
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
2.8X102
7.5X103
Os-191
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
2.0
5.4X101
1.6X103
4.4X104
Os-191m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.0X101
8.1X102
4.6X104
1.3X106
Os-193
 
2.0
5.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
b2.0X104
5.3X105
Os-194 (a)
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
1.1X101
3.1X102
P-32
Phosphorus (15)
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
1.1X104
2.9X105
P-33
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0
2.7X101
5.8X103
1.6X105
Pa-230 (a)
Protactinium (91)
2.0
5.4X101
7.0X10-2
1.9
1.2X103
3.3X104
Pa-231
 
4.0
1.1X102
4.0X10-4
1.1X10-2
1.7X10-3
4.7X10-2
Pa-233
 
5.0
1.4X102
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.7X102
2.1X104
Pb-201
Lead (82)
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
6.2X104
1.7X106
Pb-202
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0X101
5.4X102
1.2X10-4
3.4X10-3
Pb-203
 
4.0
1.1X102
3.0
8.1X101
1.1X104
3.0X105
Pb-205
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
4.5X10-6
1.2X10-4
Pb-210 (a)
 
1.0
2.7X101
5.0X10-2
1.4
2.8
7.6X101
Pb-212 (a)
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
2.0X10-1
5.4
5.1X104
1.4X106
Pd-103 (a)
Palladium (46)
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.8X103
7.5X104
Pd-107
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
1.9X10-5
5.1X10-4
Pd-109
 
2.0
5.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
7.9X104
2.1X106
Pm-143
Promethium (61)
3.0
8.1X101
3.0
8.1X101
1.3X102
3.4X103
Pm-144
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
9.2X101
2.5X103
Pm-145
 
3.0X101
8.1X102
1.0X101
2.7X102
5.2
1.4X102
Pm-147
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0
5.4X101
3.4X101
9.3X102
Pm-148m (a)
 
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
7.9X102
2.1X104
Pm-149
 
2.0
5.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.5X104
4.0X105
Pm-151
 
2.0
5.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.7X104
7.3X105
Po-210
Polonium (84)
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
1.7X102
4.5X103
Pr-142
Praseodymium (59)
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.3X104
1.2X106
Pr-143
 
3.0
8.1X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.5X103
6.7X104
Pt-188 (a)
Platinum (78)
1.0
2.7X101
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
2.5X103
6.8X104
Pt-191
 
4.0
1.1X102
3.0
8.1X101
8.7X103
2.4X105
Pt-193
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.4
3.7X101
Pt-193m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.8X103
1.6X105
Pt-195m
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
6.2X103
1.7X105
Pt-197
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.2X104
8.7X105
Pt-197m
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.7X105
1.0X107
Pu-236
Plutonium (94)
3.0X101
8.1X102
3.0X10-3
8.1X10-2
2.0X101
5.3X102
Pu-237
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
2.0X101
5.4X102
4.5X102
1.2X104
Pu-238
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
6.3X10-1
1.7X101
Pu-239
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
2.3X10-3
6.2X10-2
Pu-240
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
8.4X10-3
2.3X10-1
Pu-241 (a)
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
6.0X10-2
1.6
3.8
1.0X102
Pu-242
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
1.5X10-4
3.9X10-3
Pu-244 (a)
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
6.7X10-7
1.8X10-5
Ra-223 (a)
Radium (88)
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
7.0X10-3
1.9X10-1
1.9X103
5.1X104
Ra-224 (a)
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
5.9X103
1.6X105
Ra-225 (a)
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
4.0X10-3
1.1X10-1
1.5X103
3.9X104
Ra-226 (a)
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
3.0X10-3
8.1X10-2
3.7X10-2
1.0
Ra-228 (a)
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
1.0X101
2.7X102
Rb-81
Rubidium (37)
2.0
5.4X101
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
3.1X105
8.4X106
Rb-83 (a)
 
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
6.8X102
1.8X104
Rb-84
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
1.8X103
4.7X104
Rb-86
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
3.0X103
8.1X104
Rb-87
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
3.2X10-9
8.6X10-8
Rb (nat)
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
6.7X106
1.8X108
Re-184
Rhenium (75)
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
6.9X102
1.9X104
Re-184m
 
3.0
8.1X101
1.0
2.7X101
1.6X102
4.3X103
Re-186
 
2.0
5.4X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.9X103
1.9X105
Re-187
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
1.4X10-9
3.8X10-8
Re-188
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
3.6X104
9.8X105
Re-189 (a)
 
3.0
8.1X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.5X104
6.8X105
Re (nat)
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
0.0
2.4X10-8
Rh-99
Rhodium (45)
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
3.0X103
8.2X104
Rh-101
 
4.0
1.1X102
3.0
8.1X101
4.1X101
1.1X103
Rh-102
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
4.5X101
1.2X103
Rh-102m
 
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
2.3X102
6.2X103
Rh-103m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.2X106
3.3X107
Rh-105
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
3.1X104
8.4X105
Rn-222 (a)
Radon (86)
3.0X10-1
8.1
4.0X10-3
1.1X10-1
5.7X103
1.5X105
Ru-97
Ruthenium (44)
5.0
1.4X102
5.0
1.4X102
1.7X104
4.6X105
Ru-103 (a)
 
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
1.2X103
3.2X104
Ru-105
 
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.5X105
6.7X106
Ru-106 (a)
 
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.0X10-1
5.4
1.2X102
3.3X103
S-35
Sulphur (16)
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.0
8.1X101
1.6X103
4.3X104
Sb-122
Antimony (51)
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.5X104
4.0X105
Sb-124
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.5X102
1.7X104
Sb-125
 
2.0
5.4X101
1.0
2.7X101
3.9X101
1.0X103
Sb-126
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
3.1X103
8.4X104
Sc-44
Scandium (21)
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
6.7X105
1.8X107
Sc-46
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
1.3X103
3.4X104
Sc-47
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
3.1X104
8.3X105
Sc-48
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
5.5X104
1.5X106
Se-75
Selenium (34)
3.0
8.1X101
3.0
8.1X101
5.4X102
1.5X104
Se-79
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0
5.4X101
2.6X10-3
7.0X10-2
Si-31
Silicon (14)
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.4X106
3.9X107
Si-32
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
3.9
1.1X102
Sm-145
Samarium (62)
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X101
2.7X102
9.8X101
2.6X103
Sm-147
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
8.5X10-1
2.3X10-8
Sm-151
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0X101
2.7X102
9.7X10-1
2.6X101
Sm-153
 
9.0
2.4X102
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.6X104
4.4X105
Sn-113 (a)
Tin (50)
4.0
1.1X102
2.0
5.4X101
3.7X102
1.0X104
Sn-117m
 
7.0
1.9X102
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
3.0X103
8.2X104
Sn-119m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.0X101
8.1X102
1.4X102
3.7X103
Sn-121m (a)
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
Sn-123
 
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
3.0X102
8.2X103
Sn-125
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X103
1.1X105
Sn-126 (a)
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.0X10-3
2.8X10-2
Sr-82 (a)
Strontium (38)
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.0X10-1
5.4
2.3X103
6.2X104
Sr-85
 
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
8.8X102
2.4X104
Sr-85m
 
5.0
1.4X102
5.0
1.4X102
1.2X106
3.3X107
Sr-87m
 
3.0
8.1X101
3.0
8.1X101
4.8X105
1.3X107
Sr-89
 
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
1.1X103
2.9X104
Sr-90 (a)
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
5.1
1.4X102
Sr-91 (a)
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
1.3X105
3.6X106
Sr-92 (a)
 
1.0
2.7X101
3.0X10-1
8.1
4.7X105
1.3X107
T(H-3)
Tritium (1)
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
3.6X102
9.7X103
Ta-178 (long-lived)
Tantalum (73)
1.0
2.7X101
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
4.2X106
1.1X108
Ta-179
 
3.0X101
8.1X102
3.0X101
8.1X102
4.1X101
1.1X103
Ta-182
 
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
2.3X102
6.2X103
Tb-157
Terbium (65)
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
5.6X10-1
1.5X101
Tb-158
 
1.0
2.7X101
1.0
2.7X101
5.6X10-1
1.5X101
Tb-160
 
1.0
2.7X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
4.2X102
1.1X104
Tc-95m (a)
Technetium (43)
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
8.3X102
2.2X104
Tc-96
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.2X104
3.2X105
Tc-96m (a)
 
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.4X106
3.8X107
Tc-97
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
5.2X10-5
1.4X10-3
Tc-97m
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0
2.7X101
5.6X102
1.5X104
Tc-98
 
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
3.2X10-5
8.7X10-4
Tc-99
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
6.3X10-4
1.7X10-2
Tc-99m
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
4.0
1.1X102
1.9X105
5.3X106
Te-121
Tellurium (52)
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
2.4X103
6.4X104
Te-121m
 
5.0
1.4X102
3.0
8.1X101
2.6X102
7.0X103
Te-123m
 
8.0
2.2X102
1.0
2.7X101
3.3X102
8.9X103
Te-125m
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
6.7X102
1.8X104
Te-127
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
9.8X104
2.6X106
Te-127m (a)
 
2.0X101
5.4X102
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
3.5X102
9.4X103
Te-129
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
7.7X105
2.1X107
Te-129m (a)
 
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
1.1X103
3.0X104
Te-131m (a)
 
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
3.0X104
8.0X105
Te-132 (a)
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
((3.1X104))
1.1X104
3.0X105
Th-227
Thorium (90)
1.0X101
2.7X102
5.0X10-3
1.4X10-1
1.1X103
3.1X104
Th-228 (a)
 
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
3.0X101
8.2X102
Th-229
 
5.0
1.4X102
5.0X10-4
1.4X10-2
7.9X10-3
2.1X10-1
Th-230
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
1.0X10-3
2.7X10-2
7.6X10-4
2.1X10-2
Th-231
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
2.0X10-2
5.4X10-1
2.0X104
5.3X105
Th-232
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
4.0X10-9
1.1X10-7
Th-234 (a)
 
3.0X10-1
8.1
3.0X10-1
8.1
8.6X102
2.3X104
Th(nat)
 
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
8.1X10-9
2.2X10-7
Ti-44 (a)
Titanium (22)
5.0X10-1
1.4X101
4.0X10-1
1.1X101
6.4
1.7X102
Tl-200
Thallium (81)
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
9.0X10-1
2.4X101
2.2X104
6.0X105
Tl-201
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
4.0
1.1X102
7.9X103
2.1X105
Tl-202
 
2.0
5.4X101
2.0
5.4X101
2.0X103
5.3X104
Tl-204
 
1.0X101
2.7X102
7.0X10-1
1.9X101
1.7X101
4.6X102
Tm-167
Thulium (69)
7.0
1.9X102
8.0X10-1
2.2X101
3.1X103
8.5X104
Tm-170
 
3.0
8.1X101
6.0X10-1
1.6X101
2.2X102
6.0X103
Tm-171
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X101
1.1X103
U-230 (fast lung absorption) (a)(d)
Uranium (92)
4.0X101
1.1X103
1.0X10-1
2.7
1.0X103
2.7X104
U-230 (medium lung absorption) (a)(e)
 
4.0X101
1.1X103
4.0X10-3
1.1X10-1
1.0X103
2.7X104
U-230 (slow lung absorption) (a)(f)
 
3.0X101
8.1X102
3.0X10-3
8.1X10-2