WSR 18-20-104
PROPOSED RULES
DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed October 2, 2018, 11:06 a.m.]
Original Notice.
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 16-15-078.
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: eRules Phase 9: Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards.
Hearing Location(s): On November 19, 2018, at 1:30 p.m., at the Department of Labor and Industries (L&I), 7273 Linderson Way S.W., Room S119, Tumwater, WA 98501.
Date of Intended Adoption: December 18, 2018.
Submit Written Comments to: Tari Enos, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504, email tari.enos@lni.wa.gov, fax 360-902-5619, by November 26, 2018.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Tari Enos, phone 360-902-5541, fax 360-902-5619, email tari.enos@lni.wa.gov, by November 5, 2018.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: No changes in requirements as a result of this rule making.
Consistent format for all division of occupational safety and health (DOSH) rules.
Easy to access rules for smart phone and tablet users.
Easy navigation in PDF files provided through bookmarks in the rules.
Easier referencing by replacing bullets and dashes with numbers and letters.
Enhanced rule update efficiency for customers through electronic postings.
WAC 296-62-020 through 296-62-50010:
Change bullets to letters or numbers where applicable.
Change "shall" to "must" where applicable.
Change "shall be required to" to "must" where applicable.
Change "shall assure" to "must ensure" where applicable.
Change "assure" to "ensure" where applicable.
Remove numbers and quotation marks from all defined words.
Remove words/phrases such as "means," "as defined" or "is an" from all applicable definitions and replace it with a period, making all definitions complete sentences.
Change "his" or "her" to any variation of "their," "them" or "they" where applicable.
WAC 296-62-020 Definitions applicable to all sections of this chapter.
Update outdated reference in definition of "Coal tar pitch volatiles" from WAC 296-62-07515 Table I to WAC 296-841-20025 Table 3.
WAC 296-62-07306 Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.
Changed reference in subsection (2)(c) from WAC 296-62-07304(12) to 296-62-07304.
Remove outdated reference in subsections (2)(f)(vii)(B) and (2)(f)(viii)(B); in WAC 296-62-07310 there is no longer a subsection (4) after previous rule making and therefore that reference needs to be taken out.
WAC 296-62-07310 Signs, information and training.
Update language in subsection (1)(a) to read: "The employer must post signs at entrances to regulated areas. The signs must bear the legend:"
Remove subsections (1)(c) and (d), and their outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant. Reletter the rest of the subsection.
WAC 296-62-07312 Reports.
Update outdated reference under the "Carcinogens Standard Report" table from WAC 296-62-07308 to 296-62-07304.
WAC 296-62-07316 Premixed solutions.
Remove outdated reference in subsection (1)(c); in WAC 296-62-07310 there is no longer a subsection (4) after previous rule making and therefore that reference needs to be taken out.
WAC 296-62-07329 Vinyl chloride.
Remove subsections (12)(c) and (d) and their outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant.
Remove subsections (13)(b), (c), (d)(i) and (ii) and their outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, that is no longer relevant. Reletter the rest of the subsection.
WAC 296-62-07336 Acrylonitrile.
Remove subsection (16)(b)(iii) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant.
Remove outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, from subsection (16)(c)(ii) that is no longer relevant. Renumber the subsection.
WAC 296-62-07338 Appendix BSubstance technical guidelines for acrylonitrile.
Update outdated reference in subsection (2)(a)(viii) from WAC 296-24-59207 to 296-800-300.
Update outdated reference in subsection (2)(a)(ix) from WAC 296-24-95613 to 296-800-280.
Remove outdated reference in subsection (6) to WAC 296-24-120; those requirements are now in chapter 296-800 WAC, which is already listed.
WAC 296-62-07339 Appendix CMedical surveillance guidelines for acrylonitrile.
In subsection (2)(a), remove the word "contract" and replace it with the bracketed word "contact" that was next to it in the sentence. It appears this update was meant to be made previously, but it didn't occur. Remove the brackets around the word "contact."
WAC 296-62-07342 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.
Update outdated reference in subsection (15)(a)(ii)(C) from "chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E" to "chapter 296-842 WAC," which is where respiratory protections are covered.
Remove subsection (16)(b)(ii) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant. Renumber the subsection.
Remove subsection (16)(c)(iii) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, that is no longer relevant.
WAC 296-62-07373 Communication of EtO hazards.
Remove subsection (2)(a)(ii) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant. Renumber subsection.
Remove subsections (2)(b)(ii)(A) and (B) and (c) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, that is no longer relevant. Reletter the subsection.
WAC 296-62-07425 Communication of cadmium hazards.
Remove outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, from subsection (4)(b) that is no longer relevant. Reletter the subsection.
Remove outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, from subsection (5)(b) that is no longer relevant. Reletter the subsection.
Update outdated reference in subsection (6)(c)(ix) from "chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E" to "chapter 296-842 WAC," which is where respiratory protections are covered.
WAC 296-62-07460 1,3-Butadiene.
Update outdated reference in subsection (10) from "WAC 296-62-3112 Hazardous waste operations and emergency responses" to "chapter 296-843 WAC, Hazardous waste operations."
Remove outdated language from subsection (14)(a) referring to "this section becoming effective in 1997." Reletter the subsection.
Remove subsection (14)(iii) and its outdated language referring to this subsection being "implemented by February 4, 2000."
WAC 296-62-07470 Methylene chloride.
Update outdated reference in the "Note" under subsection (6)(d)(ii) from "WAC 296-62-3112" to "chapter 296-843 WAC."
Update outdated reference in the "Note" under subsection (7)(d)(ii) from "WAC 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07516" to "WAC 296-842-14005."
Remove language referring to "medical surveillance" in subsection (10)(d)(i) that is outdated and no longer relevant.
Update outdated reference in subsection (13)(e) from "WAC 296-62-05215" to "296-802-600 transfer and disposal of employee records."
Update outdated reference in subsection (14)(d) from "WAC 296-62-07515" to "296-307-62610."
WAC 296-62-07473 Appendix A.
Remove outdated reference to "WAC 296-24-120" in subsection (V) "Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities" – those requirements are now in chapter 296-800 WAC, which is already listed.
Update outdated reference in subsection (VI)(H) from "WAC 296-24-956" which was previously repealed to "WAC 296-24-957" where the electrical requirements are located.
WAC 296-62-07519 Thiram.
Update outdated reference in subsection (1) from "WAC 296-62-07515" to "chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne contaminants."
Update outdated references in subsections (3)(c)(vi) and (ix) from "WAC 296-62-071" to "chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators."
WAC 296-62-07521 Lead.
Update subsection (5)(i) to "Reserved" and added subsection letter (j) to avoid confusion of how the subsections in (5) were listed.
Remove language from subsection (8)(b)(viii) referring to June 1, 2015, that is outdated and no longer relevant. Renumber subsection.
Update outdated reference in subsection (13)(v)(C) from "chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E" to "chapter 296-842 WAC" which is where respiratory protections are covered.
Remove subsection (14)(b)(v) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant.
Remove language in subsection (17)(b)(xi) referring to June 1, 2016, that is outdated and no longer relevant.
WAC 296-62-07540 Formaldehyde.
Update outdated reference in subsection (9)(a) from "WAC 296-24-120" to "WAC 296-800-230."
WAC 296-62-07601 Scope and application.
Remove outdated reference to "WAC 296-62-054" in subsection (4). Those requirements are located in chapter 296-901 WAC, which is already listed.
WAC 296-62-07619 Hygiene facilities and practices.
Update outdated reference in subsection (2)(a)(i) from "WAC 296-24-12010" to "WAC 296-800-23065."
WAC 296-62-07621 Communication of hazards.
Remove subsection (2)(a)(ii) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant. Reletter subsection.
Remove subsections (2)(b)(i) and (ii) and their outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, that is no longer relevant.
Update outdated reference in subsection (4)(b)(iii) from "WAC 296-62-07625" to "WAC 296-62-07627" and also added a reference to WAC 296-62-07629 to cover all requirements regarding "medical removal."
WAC 296-62-07631 Recordkeeping.
Update outdated references in subsections (3)(a), (4)(a), (d) and (6)(c) from "Part B of this chapter" to "chapter 296-802 WAC" which is where requirements regarding employee medical and exposure records are located.
Update outdated reference in subsection (3)(c) from "Part B of this chapter" to "WAC 296-802-20010."
Update outdated reference in subsection (6)(a) from "WAC 296-62-076" to "chapter 296-802 WAC."
Update outdated reference in subsection (6)(b) from "WAC 296-800-170" to "chapter 296-800 WAC."
WAC 296-62-07637 Appendices.
Remove sentence referring to "respiratory fit testing in Appendix E of WAC 296-62-076" – that section was previously repealed.
WAC 296-62-07711 Regulated areas.
Update outdated reference in subsection (7) from "chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M" to "chapter 296-809 WAC" – the requirements of Part M were previously moved.
WAC 296-62-07715 Respiratory protection.
Update outdated reference in subsection (5)(b) from "WAC 296-62-07160 through 296-62-07162 and 296-62-07201 through 296-62-07248" to "chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators."
WAC 296-62-07721 Communication of hazards.
Remove subsection (4)(b)(iii) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant.
Remove subsection (5)(d) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, that is no longer relevant.
Update outdated reference in subsection (7) from "WAC 296-62-05413" to "WAC 296-901-14014."
WAC 296-62-14533 Cotton dust.
Remove subsection (10)(b) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant. Also, remove letter (a) from subsection (10) for formatting purposes.
WAC 296-62-20021 Communication of hazards.
Remove subsections (2)(e) and (f) and their outdated language referring to June 1, 2016, that is no longer relevant.
Remove subsection (3)(b) and its outdated language referring to June 1, 2015, that is no longer relevant. Also, remove letter (a) from subsection (3) for formatting purposes.
WAC 296-62-50055 Implementation plan.
Remove subsections (1)(a)-(c) and their outdated language referring to implementing a "written hazardous drugs control program" by January 1, 2014, "training" by July 1, 2014, and "installation of appropriate ventilated cabinets" by January 1, 2015.
Remove subsection (2) and replace subsection letters with numbers.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: When the agency updated its web site, DOSH rules in HTML were broken and DOSH began forwarding rule users to the office of the code reviser web site, causing more confusion among customers. This rule package will resolve stakeholder issues that have caused confusion for rule users by bringing one clear and consistent format to all of our rules.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Name of Proponent: L&I, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Chris Miller, Tumwater, Washington, 360-902-5516; Implementation and Enforcement: Anne Soiza, Tumwater, Washington, 360-902-5090.
A school district fiscal impact statement is not required under RCW 28A.305.135.
A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. According to RCW 34.05.328 (5)(b)(iv), no cost-benefit analysis is required for this rule making.
This rule proposal, or portions of the proposal, is exempt from requirements of the Regulatory Fairness Act because the proposal:
Is exempt under RCW 19.85.025(3) as the rules only correct typographical errors, make address or name changes, or clarify language of a rule without changing its effect.
October 2, 2018
Joel Sacks
Director
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)
WAC 296-62-020Definitions applicable to all sections of this chapter.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, words used in this chapter shall have the meaning given in this section.
(((1) "Adequate" or "effective" means))Adequate or effective. Compliance with terms and intent of these standards.
(((2) "Appendix" means))Appendix. References or recommendations to be used as guides in applying the provisions of this chapter.
(((3) "Approved" means))Approved. Approved by the director of the department of labor and industries or his authorized representative, or by an organization that is specifically named in a rule, such as Underwriters' Laboratories (UL), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
(((4) "Authorized person" means))Authorized person. A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site.
(((5) "Coal tar pitch volatiles"))Coal tar pitch volatiles. As used in WAC ((296-62-07515))296-841-20025, Table ((I))3, include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum, (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic matter. Asphalt (CAS 8052-42-4, and CAS 64742-93-4) is not covered under the "coal tar pitch volatiles" standard.
(((6) "Competent person" means))Competent person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective action to eliminate them.
(((7) "Department" means))Department. The department of labor and industries.
(((8) "Director" means))Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, or ((his))their designated representative.
(((9) "Employer" means))Employer. Any person, firm, corporation, partnership, business trust, legal representative, or other business entity which engages in any business, industry, profession, or activity in this state and employs one or more employees or who contracts with one or more persons, the essence of which is the personal labor of such person or persons and includes the state, counties, cities, and all municipal corporations, public corporations, political subdivisions of the state, and charitable organizations: Provided, That any persons, partnership, or business entity not having employees, and who is covered by the industrial insurance act shall be considered both an employer and an employee.
(((10) "Hazard" means))Hazard. That condition, potential or inherent, which can cause injury, death, or occupational disease.
(((11) "Occupational disease" means))Occupational disease. Such disease or infection as arises naturally and proximately out of employment.
(((12) "Qualified" means))Qualified. One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
(((13) "Shall" or "must" means))Shall or must. Mandatory.
(((14) "Should" or "may" means))Should or may. Recommended.
(((15) "Suitable" means))Suitable. That which fits, or has the qualities or qualifications to meet a given purpose, occasion, condition, function, or circumstance.
(((16) "Worker," "personnel," "person," "employee,"))Worker, personnel, person, employee, and other terms of like meaning((,)). Unless the context of the provision containing such term indicates otherwise, mean an employee of an employer who is employed in the business of their employer whether by way of manual labor or otherwise and every person in this state who is engaged in the employment of or who is working under an independent contract the essence of which is their personal labor for an employer whether by manual labor or otherwise.
(((17) "Work place" means))Work place. Any plant, yard, premises, room, or other place where an employee or employees are employed for the performance of labor or service over which the employer has the right of access or control. This includes, but is not limited to, all work places covered by industrial insurance under Title 51 RCW, as now or hereafter amended.
(((18))) Abbreviations used in this chapter:
(((a) "ANSI" means))ANSI. American National Standards Institute.
(((b) "ASHRE" means))ASHRE. American Society of Heating and Refrigeration Engineers.
(((c) "BTU" means))BTU. British thermal unit.
(((d) "BTUH" means))BTUH. British thermal unit per hour.
(((e) "CFM" means))CFM. Cubic feet per minute.
(((f) "C.F.R." means))C.F.R. Code of Federal Register.
(((g) "CGA" means))CGA. Compressed Gas Association.
(((h) "ID" means))ID. Inside diameter.
(((i) "MCA" means))MCA. Manufacturing Chemist Association or Chemical Manufacturer Association (CMA).
(((j) "NEMA" means))NEMA. National Electrical Manufacturing Association.
(((k) "NFPA" means))NFPA. National Fire Protection Association.
(((l) "OD" means))OD. Outside diameter.
(((m) "WAC" means))WAC. Washington Administrative Code.
(((n) "WISHA" means))WISHA. Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (chapter 80, Laws of 1973).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 73-3, filed 5/7/73)
WAC 296-62-040Unconstitutionality clause.
In the event that any section, paragraph, sentence, clause, phrase or work of this chapter is declared unconstitutional or invalid for any reason the remainder of said standard or this chapter ((shall))must not be affected thereby.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-05520Retain readily visible DOT labeling.
You must((:
))retain readily visible DOT labeling as specified in Table 1.
Table 1
Specifications for Retaining DOT Labeling
If you receive
Retain DOT markings, placards and labels UNTIL:
• Packages of hazardous materials
• Hazardous materials are sufficiently removed
– Packaging must be
■ cleaned of residue
■ purged of vapors
• Freight containers
• Rail freight cars
• Motor vehicles
• Transport vehicles
• Hazardous materials are sufficiently removed
• Nonbulk packages that will not be reshipped
• You replace the DOT labeling with labeling that complies with WAC 296-901-140((,)) Hazard communication
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-16-047, filed 8/1/02, effective 10/1/02)
WAC 296-62-060Control requirements in addition to those specified.
Note:
The requirements in this section apply only to agriculture. The requirements for general industry relating to control requirements have been moved to chapter 296-800 WAC, Safety and health core rules.
(1) In those cases where no acceptable standards have been derived for the control of hazardous conditions, every reasonable precaution ((shall))must be taken to safeguard the health of the worker whether provided herein or not.
(2) Preservation of records.
(a) Scope and application. This section applies to each employer who makes, maintains or has access to employee exposure records or employee medical records.
(b) Definitions.
(i) (("))Employee exposure record((" -)). A record of monitoring or measuring which contains qualitative or quantitative information indicative of employee exposure to toxic materials or harmful physical agents. This includes both individual exposure records and general research or statistical studies based on information collected from exposure records.
(ii) (("))Employee medical record((" -)). A record which contains information concerning the health status of an employee or employees exposed or potentially exposed to toxic materials or harmful physical agents. These records may include, but are not limited to:
(A) The results of medical examinations and tests;
(B) Any opinions or recommendations of a physician or other health professional concerning the health of an employee or employees; and
(C) Any employee medical complaints relating to workplace exposure. Employee medical records include both individual medical records and general research or statistical studies based on information collected from medical records.
(c) Preservation of records. Each employer who makes, maintains, or has access to employee exposure records or employee medical records ((shall))must preserve these records.
(d) Availability of records. The employer ((shall))must make available, upon request, to the director, department of labor and industries, or his designee, all employee exposure records and employee medical records for examination and copying.
(e) Effective date. This standard shall become effective thirty days after filing with the code reviser.
(3) Monitoring of employees. The department ((shall))must use industrial hygiene sampling methods and techniques including but not limited to personal monitoring devices and equipment approved by the director or his designee for the purpose of establishing compliance with chapter 296-62 WAC.
(a) The employer ((shall))must permit the director or his designee to monitor and evaluate any workplace or employee in accordance with all provisions of this subsection.
(b) The employer ((shall))must not prevent or discourage an employee from cooperating with the department by restricting or inhibiting his/her participation in the use of personal monitoring devices and equipment in accordance with all provisions of this subsection.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07302Communication of hazards.
(1) Hazard communication.
(a) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors, and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for each carcinogen listed in subsection (2) of this section.
(b) In classifying the hazards of carcinogens listed in subsection (2) of this section, at least the hazards listed in subsection (2) of this section are to be addressed.
(c) Employers ((shall))must include the carcinogens listed in subsection (2) of this section in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of the carcinogens listed in subsection (2) of this section and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and subsection (2) of this section.
(2) List of carcinogens:
(a) 4-Nitrobiphenyl: Cancer (CAS 92-93-3).
(b) Alpha-Naphthylamine: Cancer; skin irritation; and acute toxicity effects (CAS 134-32-7).
(c) Methyl chloromethyl ether: Cancer; skin, eye and respiratory effects; acute toxicity effects; and flammability (CAS 107-30-2).
(d) 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts): Cancer and skin sensitization (CAS 91-94-1).
(e) Bis-Chloromethyl ether: Cancer; skin, eye, and respiratory tract effects; acute toxicity effects; and flammability (CAS 542-88-1).
(f) Beta-Naphthylamine: Cancer and acute toxicity effects (CAS 91-59-8).
(g) Benzidine: Cancer and acute toxicity effects (CAS 92-87-5).
(h) 4-Aminodiphenyl: Cancer (CAS 92-67-1).
(i) Ethyleneimine: Cancer; mutagenicity; skin and eye effects; liver effects; kidney effects; acute toxicity effects; and flammability (CAS 151-56-4).
(j) Beta-Propiolactone: Cancer; skin irritation; eye effects; and acute toxicity effects (CAS 57-57-8).
(k) 2-Acetylaminofluorene: Cancer (CAS 53-96-3).
(l) 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene: Cancer, skin effects; and respiratory tract irritation (CAS 60-11-7).
(m) N-Nitrosodimethylamine: Cancer; liver effects; and acute toxicity effects (CAS 62-75-9).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-12-098, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02)
WAC 296-62-07304Definitions.
The definitions set forth in this section apply throughout WAC 296-62-073 through 296-62-07316.
(((1) Absolute filter -))Absolute filter. Is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 micron size particles.
(((2) Authorized employee -))Authorized employee. An employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned to those duties by the employer.
(((3) Clean change room -))Clean change room. A room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective equipment in an environment free of carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.
(((4) Closed system -))Closed system. An operation involving carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302 where containment prevents the release of carcinogens.
(((5) Decontamination -))Decontamination. The inactivation of a carcinogen listed in WAC 296-62-07302 or its safe disposal.
(((6) Disposal -))Disposal. The safe removal of a carcinogen listed in WAC 296-62-07302 from the work environment.
(((7) Emergency -))Emergency. An unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release of a carcinogen which may result in exposure to or contact with any carcinogen listed in WAC 296-62-07302.
(((8) External environment -))External environment. Any environment external to regulated and nonregulated areas.
(((9) Isolated system -))Isolated system. A fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment of a listed carcinogen which is impervious to the passage of listed carcinogens and which would prevent the entry of carcinogens into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.
(((10) Laboratory-type hood -))Laboratory-type hood. A device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute, designed, constructed and maintained such that an operation involving a listed carcinogen within the hood does not require the insertion of any portion of any employees' body other than his hands and arms.
(((11) Nonregulated area -))Nonregulated area. Any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.
(((12) Open-vessel system -))Open-vessel system. An operation involving listed carcinogens in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory-type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of carcinogens into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.
(((13) Protective clothing -))Protective clothing. Clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with or exposure to listed carcinogens.
(((14) Regulated area -))Regulated area. An area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07306Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.
(1) A regulated area ((shall))must be established by an employer where listed carcinogens are manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored.
(2) All such areas ((shall))must be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:
(a) Isolated systems. Employees working with carcinogens within an isolated system such as a "glove box" ((shall))must wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.
(b) Closed system operation. Within regulated areas where carcinogens are stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system including piping systems with any sample ports or openings closed while carcinogens are contained within:
(i) Access ((shall))must be restricted to authorized employees only;
(ii) Employees ((shall be required to))must wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.
(c) Open vessel system operations. Open vessel system operations as defined in WAC 296-62-07304(((12))) are prohibited.
(d) Transfer from a closed system. Charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system. In operations involving "laboratory-type hoods," or in locations where a carcinogen is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this section shall apply.
(i) Access ((shall))must be restricted to authorized employees only;
(ii) Each operation ((shall))must be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air ((shall))must not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air ((shall))must be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.
(iii) Employees ((shall))must be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.
(iv) Each employee engaged in handling operations involving the following carcinogens must be provided with and required to wear and use a NIOSH-certified self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode, or any supplied air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus as required in chapter 296-842 WAC. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.
((
Methyl Chloromethyl Ether;
 
bis-Chloromethyl Ether;
 
Ethylenemine;
 
beta-Propiolactone;
 
4-Amino Diphenyl.))
 
(A) Methyl Chloromethyl Ether;
(B) bis-Chloromethyl Ether;
(C) Ethylenemine;
(D) beta-Propiolactone;
(E) 4-Amino Diphenyl.
(v) Each employee engaged in handling operations involving the following carcinogens must be provided with, and required to wear and use, NIOSH-certified air-purifying, half-mask respirator with particulate filters as required in chapter 296-842 WAC. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.
((
4-Nitrobiphenyl;
 
alpha-Naphthylamine;
 
4-4'Methylene bis(2-Chloroaniline);
 
3-3'Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts);
 
beta-Naphthylamine;
 
Benzidine;
 
2-acetylamino fluroene;
 
4-imethylaminoazobenzene;
 
n-nitrosodimethylamine.))
 
(A) 4-Nitrobiphenyl;
(B) alpha-Naphthylamine;
(C) 4-4'Methylene bis(2-Chloroaniline);
(D) 3-3'Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts);
(E) beta-Naphthylamine;
(F) Benzidine;
(G) 2-acetylamino fluroene;
(H) 4-imethylaminoazobenzene;
(I) n-nitrosodimethylamine.
must be provided with, and required to wear and use, a half-face, filter-type respirator certified for solid or liquid particulates with minimum efficiency rating of 95% as required in chapter 296-842 WAC. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.
(vi) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees ((shall be required to))must remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers ((shall))must be identified, as required under WAC 296-62-07302.
(vii) Employees ((shall be required to))must wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.
(viii) Employees ((shall be required to))must shower after the last exit of the day.
(ix) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.
(e) Maintenance and decontamination activities. In clean up of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with carcinogens could result, each authorized employee entering the area ((shall))must:
(i) Be provided with and required to wear, clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with WAC 296-800-160, and respiratory protective equipment required by this chapter 296-842 WAC;
(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;
(iii) ((Be required to))Shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.
(f) Laboratory activities. The requirements of this subdivision shall apply to research and quality control activities involving the use of carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.
(i) Mechanical pipetting aids ((shall))must be used for all pipetting procedures.
(ii) Experiments, procedures and equipment which could produce aerosols ((shall))must be confined to laboratory-type hoods or glove boxes.
(iii) Surfaces on which carcinogens are handled ((shall))must be protected from contamination.
(iv) Contaminated wastes and animal carcasses ((shall))must be collected in impervious containers which are closed and decontaminated prior to removal from the work area. Such wastes and carcasses ((shall))must be incinerated in such a manner that no carcinogenic products are released.
(v) All other forms of listed carcinogens ((shall))must be inactivated prior to disposal.
(vi) Laboratory vacuum systems ((shall))must be protected with high efficiency scrubbers or with disposable absolute filters.
(vii) Employees engaged in animal support activities ((shall))must be:
(A) Provided with, and required to wear, a complete protective clothing change, clean each day, including coveralls or pants and shirt, foot covers, head covers, gloves, and appropriate respiratory protective equipment or devices; and
(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees ((shall be required to))must remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers ((shall))must be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2)((, (3) and (4)))and (3).
(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities; and
(D) Required to shower after the last exit of the day.
(viii) Employees, other than those engaged only in animal support activities, each day ((shall))must be:
(A) Provided with and required to wear a clean change of appropriate laboratory clothing, such as a solid front gown, surgical scrub suit, or fully buttoned laboratory coat.
(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees ((shall be required to))must remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2)((, (3) and (4)))and (3).
(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.
(ix) Air pressure in laboratory areas and animal rooms where carcinogens are handled and bioassay studies are performed ((shall))must be negative in relation to the pressure in surrounding areas. Exhaust air ((shall))must not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated.
(x) There ((shall be no))must not be any connection between regulated areas and any other areas through the ventilation system.
(xi) A current inventory of the carcinogens ((shall))must be maintained.
(xii) Ventilated apparatus such as laboratory-type hoods, ((shall))must be tested at least ((semi-annually))semiannually or immediately after ventilation modification or maintenance operations, by personnel fully qualified to certify correct containment and operation.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-15-145, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09)
WAC 296-62-07308General regulated area requirements.
(1) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130 (1) and (5) and 296-62-07131), which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.
(2) Emergencies. In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this subsection ((shall))must be implemented.
(a) The potentially affected area ((shall))must be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.
(b) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency ((shall))must be eliminated and the potentially affected area ((shall))must be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.
(c) Special medical surveillance by a physician ((shall))must be instituted within twenty-four hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment ((shall))must be included in the incident report, in accordance with WAC 296-62-07312(2).
(d) Where an employee has a known contact with a listed carcinogen, such employee ((shall be required to))must shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.
(e) An incident report on the emergency ((shall))must be reported as provided in WAC 296-62-07312(2).
(3) Hygiene facilities and practices.
(a) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.
(b) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities ((shall))must be provided in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.
(c) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities ((shall))must be provided.
(i) One shower ((shall))must be provided for each ten employees of each sex, or numerical fraction thereof, who are required to shower during the same shift.
(ii) Body soap or other appropriate cleansing agents convenient to the showers ((shall))must be provided as specified in WAC 296-800-230, of the safety and health core rules.
(iii) Showers ((shall))must be provided with hot and cold water feeding a common discharge line.
(iv) Employees who use showers ((shall))must be provided with individual clean towels.
(d) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change rooms ((shall))must be provided and ((shall))must be equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for the protective clothing for the number of such employees required to change clothes.
(e) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets ((shall))must be in a separate room.
(4) Contamination control.
(a) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, ((shall))must be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume ((shall))must replace air removed.
(b) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area ((shall))must be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.
(c) Decontamination procedures ((shall))must be established and implemented to remove carcinogens from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.
(d) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07310Signs, information and training.
(1) Signs.
(a) The employer ((shall))must post signs at entrances to regulated areas ((with signs bearing)). The signs must bear the legend:
DANGER
(CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION)
MAY CAUSE CANCER
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(b) The employer ((shall))must post signs at entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in WAC 296-62-07306 (2)(e). The signs ((shall))must bear the legend:
DANGER
(CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION)
MAY CAUSE CANCER
WEAR AIR-SUPPLIED HOODS, IMPERVIOUS SUITS, AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(c) ((Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (a) of this subsection:
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(d) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (b) of this subsection:
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA
IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD
REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(e))) Appropriate signs and instructions ((shall))must be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.
(2) Prohibited statements. No statements shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction that contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.
(3) Training and indoctrination.
(a) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, ((shall))must receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:
(i) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of listed carcinogens, including local and systemic toxicity;
(ii) The specific nature of the operation involving carcinogens which could result in exposure;
(iii) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;
(iv) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;
(v) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;
(vi) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;
(vii) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and situations which may result in the release of listed carcinogens;
(viii) The purpose for and application of specific first-aid procedures and practices;
(ix) A review of this section at the employee's first training and indoctrination program and annually thereafter.
(b) Specific emergency procedures ((shall))must be prescribed, and posted, and employees, ((shall))must be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.
(c) All materials relating to the program ((shall))must be provided upon request to the director.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-12-098, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02)
WAC 296-62-07312Reports.
(1) Operations. Not later than October 30, 1974, the information required in ((WAC 296-62-07312 (1)))(a), (b), (c) and (d) of this ((section))subsection must be reported in writing to the Department of Labor and Industries, WISHA Services Division, Policy and Technical Services, P.O. Box 44610, Olympia, WA 98504-4610. Any changes in the information must also be reported in writing within 15 calendar days of the change.
(a) A brief description and in plant location of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;
(b) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of listed carcinogens in each regulated area;
(c) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities; and
(d) The manner in which a carcinogen is present in each regulated area; e.g., whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.
(2) Incidents. Incidents which result in the release of a listed carcinogen into any area where employees may be potentially exposed ((shall))must be reported in accordance with this subsection.
(a) The occurrence of the incident, including any facts obtainable at that time, as well as a report on any medical treatment of affected employees, must be reported within 24 hours to the Department of Labor and Industries, WISHA Services Division, Policy and Technical Services, P.O. Box 44610, Olympia, WA 98504-4610.
(b) A written report must be filed with the Department of Labor and Industries, WISHA Services Division, Policy and Technical Services, P.O. Box 44610, Olympia, WA 98504-4610, within 15 calendar days after the incident occurs, and must include:
(i) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this figure;
(ii) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and area contamination;
(iii) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program implemented; and
(iv) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.
CARCINOGEN STANDARD REPORT
Company: . . . . . . . . .
Plant Address: . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prepared By: . . . . . . . . . .
Title: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compound and Other Identifying Information
Description of Inplant Location of Regulated Area*
Number of Employees in Each Regulated Area* Normally Maintenance
Manner** In Which Compound is Present in Each Regulated Area*
 
*
See WAC ((296-62-07308))296-62-07304 for definition of "regulated area."
**
Indicated whether manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, stored, or if otherwise handled (describe).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-62-07314Medical surveillance.
(1) At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance must be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.
(2) Examinations.
(a) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician must be provided and must include a personal history of the employee and/or ((his/her))their family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.
(i) Taking of employees' medical history and background history must be considered to be a routine part of standard medical practice.
(ii) This provision does not require "genetic testing" of any employee.
(iii) This provision does not require the exclusion of otherwise qualified employees from jobs on the basis of genetic factors.
(b) Authorized employees must be provided periodic physical examination, not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.
(c) In all physical examinations, the examining physician must be requested to consider whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, pregnancy, cigarette smoking, and those undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents.
(3) Records.
(a) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this subdivision must maintain complete and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records must be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment. The employer ((shall))must ensure that medical records are maintained and made available in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC, Employee medical and exposure records.
(b) Records required by this section must be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(c) Any employer who requests a physical examination of an employee or prospective employee as required by this section must obtain from the physician a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific exposure.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 80-17-014, filed 11/13/80)
WAC 296-62-07316Premixed solutions.
(((1))) Where 4,4'-Methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) is present only in a single solution at a temperature not exceeding 220°F. the establishment of a regulated area is not required; however((,
(a))):
(1) Only authorized employees shall be permitted to handle such materials.
(((b)))(2) Each day employees ((shall))must be provided with and required to wear a clean change of protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirts and pants), gloves and other protective garments and equipment necessary to prevent contact with the solution in the process used.
(((c)))(3) Employees ((shall be required to))must remove and leave protective clothing and equipment when leaving the work area at the end of the work day, or at any time solution is spilled on such clothing or equipment. Used clothing and equipment ((shall))must be placed in impervious containers for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers ((shall))must be identified, as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2)((,))and (3) ((and (4))).
(((d)))(4) Employees ((shall be required to))must wash hands and face after removing such clothing and equipment and before engaging in other activities.
(((e)))(5) Employees assigned to work covered by this section ((shall))must be deemed to be working in regulated areas for the purposes of WAC 296-62-07308 (1), (2)(a) and (b), and (3)(c) and (d), 296-62-07310, 296-62-07312 and 296-62-07314.
(((f)))(6) Work areas where solution may be spilled ((shall))must be:
(((i)))(a) Covered daily or after any spill with a clean covering; or
(((ii)))(b) Clean thoroughly, daily and after any spill.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07329Vinyl chloride.
(1) Scope and application.
(a) This section includes requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014.
(b) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of polyvinyl chloride.
(c) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the department of transportation may regulate the hazards covered by this section.
(2) Definitions.
(a) (("Action level" means))Action level. A concentration of vinyl chloride of 0.5 ppm averaged over an eight-hour work day.
(b) (("Authorized person" means))Authorized person. Any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require ((him/her))them to enter a regulated area or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring procedures.
(c) (("Director" means))Director. The director of department of labor and industries or ((his/her))their designated representative.
(d) (("Emergency" means))Emergency. A any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, result in massive release of vinyl chloride.
(e) (("Fabricated product" means))Fabricated product. A product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing at temperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of the polyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.
(f) (("Hazardous operation" means))Hazardous operation. Any operation, procedure, or activity where a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation, which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible exposure limit.
(g) (("Polyvinyl chloride" means))Polyvinyl chloride. Polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymer before such is converted to a fabricated product.
(h) (("Vinyl chloride" means))Vinyl chloride. Vinyl chloride monomer.
(3) Permissible exposure limit.
(a) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and
(b) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5 ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.
(c) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact with liquid vinyl chloride.
(4) Monitoring.
(a) A program of initial monitoring and measurement ((shall))must be undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.
(b) Where a determination conducted under subdivision (a) of this subsection shows any employee exposures without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each such employee ((shall))must be established. Such a program:
(i) ((Shall))Must be repeated at least monthly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit.
(ii) ((Shall))Must be repeated not less than quarterly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.
(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least two consecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than five working days apart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.
(c) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change which may result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employer has any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess of the action level, a determination of employee exposure under subdivision (a) of this subsection ((shall))must be performed.
(d) The method of monitoring and measurement ((shall))must have an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus fifty percent from 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus thirty-five percent from over 0.5 ppm through 1.0 ppm, plus or minus twenty-five percent over 1.0 ppm, (methods meeting these accuracy requirements are available from the director).
(e) Employees or their designated representatives ((shall))must be afforded reasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required by this subsection.
(5) Regulated area.
(a) A regulated area ((shall))must be established where:
(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted, repackaged, stored, handled or used; and
(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.
(b) Access to regulated areas ((shall))must be limited to authorized persons.
(6) Methods of compliance. Employee exposures to vinyl chloride ((shall))must be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided in subsection (3) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows:
(a) Feasible engineering and work practice controls ((shall))must immediately be used to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.
(b) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, they ((shall))must nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest practicable level, and ((shall))must be supplemented by respiratory protection in accordance with subsection (7) of this section. A program ((shall))must be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon as feasible.
(c) Written plans for such a program ((shall))must be developed and furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director. Such plans ((shall))must be updated at least every six months.
(7) Respiratory protection.
(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section.
(b) Respirator program. The employer must develop, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator. Exception: The requirements in WAC 296-842-13005 that address change out of vapor or gas respirator cartridges or canisters.
(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:
(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.
(ii) Provide organic vapor cartridges that have a service life of at least one hour when employees use air-purifying respirators in vinyl chloride concentrations up to 10 parts per million (ppm).
(iii) Make sure the following respirators, when selected, are equipped with a canister with a service life of at least four hours when used in vinyl chloride concentrations up to 25 ppm:
(A) Helmet, hood, or full-facepiece PAPRs; or
(B) Gas masks with a front- or back-mounted canister.
(d) Where air-purifying respirators are used:
(i) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges must be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are first used, whichever occurs first, and
(ii) A continuous monitoring and alarm system must be provided when concentrations of vinyl chloride could reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Such system ((shall))must be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use, and
(iii) Respirators specified for higher concentrations may be used for lower concentration.
(8) Hazardous operations.
(a) Employees engaged in hazardous operations, including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls, ((shall))must be provided and required to wear and use;
(i) Respiratory protection in accordance with subsections (3) and (7) of this section; and
(ii) Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride or with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls. The protective garments ((shall))must be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.
(b) Protective garments ((shall))must be provided clean and dry for each use.
(c) Emergency situations. A written operational plan for emergency situations ((shall))must be developed for each facility storing, handling, or otherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas. Appropriate portions of the plan ((shall))must be implemented in the event of an emergency. The plan ((shall))must specifically provide that:
(i) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations of existing hazardous releases ((shall))must be equipped as required in (a) and (b) of this subsection;
(ii) Other employees not so equipped ((shall))must evacuate the area and not return until conditions are controlled by the methods required in subsection (6) of this section and the emergency is abated.
(9) Training. Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations ((shall))must be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.
(a) The program ((shall))must include:
(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride including specifically the carcinogenic hazard;
(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to vinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective steps;
(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices;
(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary protective steps;
(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;
(vi) The purpose for and a description of, the medical surveillance program;
(vii) Emergency procedures:
(A) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and
(B) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and indoctrination program, and annually thereafter.
(b) All materials relating to the program ((shall))must be provided upon request to the director.
(10) Medical surveillance. A program of medical surveillance ((shall))must be instituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level. The program ((shall))must provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection. All medical examinations and procedures ((shall))must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician and ((shall))must be provided without cost to the employee.
(a) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medical surveillance;
(i) A general physical examination ((shall))must be performed with specific attention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, or dysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connective tissues and the pulmonary system (see Appendix A).
(ii) A medical history ((shall))must be taken, including the following topics:
(A) Alcohol intake,
(B) Past history of hepatitis,
(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents, including drugs and chemicals,
(D) Past history of blood transfusions, and
(E) Past history of hospitalizations.
(iii) A serum specimen ((shall))must be obtained and determinations made of:
(A) Total bilirubin,
(B) Alkaline phosphatase,
(C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT),
(D) Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and
(E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.
(b) Examinations provided in accordance with this subdivision ((shall))must be performed at least:
(i) Every six months for each employee who has been employed in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride manufacturing for ten years or longer; and
(ii) Annually for all other employees.
(c) Each employee exposed to an emergency ((shall))must be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.
(d) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure to vinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, ((shall))must be obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination. A copy of the physician's statement ((shall))must be provided each employee.
(e) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continued exposure, such employee ((shall))must be withdrawn from possible contact with vinyl chloride.
(f) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medical examinations ((shall))must be performed in laboratories licensed under 42 C.F.R. Part 74.
(g) If the examining physician determines that alternative medical examinations to those required by (a) of this subsection will provide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent to the exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternative examinations as meeting the requirements of (a) of this subsection, if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician setting forth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution. This statement ((shall))must be available upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the director.
(11) Communication of hazards.
(a) Hazard communication – General.
(b) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride.
(c) In classifying the hazards of vinyl chloride at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; blood effects; and flammability.
(d) Employers ((shall))must include vinyl chloride in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of vinyl chloride and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and subsection (9) of this section.
(12) Signs.
(a) The employers ((shall))must post entrances to regulated areas with legible signs bearing the legend:
DANGER
VINYL CHLORIDE
MAY CAUSE CANCER
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(b) The employer ((shall))must post signs at areas containing hazardous operations or where emergencies currently exist. The signs ((shall))must be legible and bear the legend:
DANGER
VINYL CHLORIDE
MAY CAUSE CANCER
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(((c) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (a) of this subsection:
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(d) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (b) of this subsection:
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY))
(13) Labels.
(a) In addition to the other requirements in this section, the employer ((shall))must ensure that labels for containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride are legible and include the following information:
CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER
(b) ((Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on labels of containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride in lieu of the labeling requirements in (a) of this subsection:
CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
(c) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information for containers of polyvinyl chloride in lieu of the labeling requirements in subsection (11)(b) of this section:
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME) CONTAINS VINYL CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
(d) Containers of vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled either:
(i) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include either the following information in either subsection (13)(d)(i) or (ii) of this section on containers of vinyl chloride in lieu of the labeling requirements in subsection (11)(b) of this section:
VINYL CHLORIDE EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
(or)
(ii) In accordance with 49 C.F.R. Parts 170-189, with the additional legend applied near the label or placard:
CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT
(e))) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information, or instruction.
(14) Records.
(a) All records maintained in accordance with this section ((shall))must include the name and Social Security number of each employee where relevant.
(b) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records ((shall))must be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. These records ((shall))must be provided upon request to the director. Authorized personnel rosters ((shall))must also be provided upon request to the director.
(i) Monitoring and measuring records ((shall))must:
(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrations determined and identify the instruments and methods used;
(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individual employee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other than individual monitoring of employees; and
(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.
(ii) Medical records ((shall))must be maintained for the duration of the employment of each employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.
(c) The employer ((shall))must comply with any additional requirements set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.
(d) Employees or their designated representatives ((shall))must be provided access to examine and copy records of required monitoring and measuring.
(e) Former employees ((shall))must be provided access to examine and copy required monitoring and measuring records reflecting their own exposures.
(f) Upon written request of any employee, a copy of the medical record of that employee ((shall))must be furnished to any physician designated by the employee.
(15) Reports.
(a) Not later than 1 month after the establishment of a regulated area, the following information ((shall))must be reported to the director. Any changes to such information ((shall))must be reported within fifteen days.
(i) The address and location of each establishment which has one or more regulated areas; and
(ii) The number of employees in each regulated area during normal operations, including maintenance.
(b) Emergencies and the facts obtainable at that time, ((shall))must be reported within twenty-four hours to the director. Upon request of the director, the employer ((shall))must submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of similar nature.
(c) Within ten working days following any monitoring and measuring which discloses that any employee has been exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit, each such employee ((shall))must be notified in writing of the results of the exposure measurement and the steps being taken to reduce the exposure to within the permissible exposure limit.
(16) Appendix A supplementary medical information.
When required tests under subsection (10)(a) of this section show abnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable, preferably within three to four weeks. If tests remain abnormal, consideration should be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinyl chloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made.
Additional tests which may be useful:
(a) For kidney dysfunction: Urine examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal cells.
(b) Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, and chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior, 14 x 17 inches).
(c) Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic acid dehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.
(d) For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests: Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07336Acrylonitrile.
(1) Scope and application.
(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to acrylonitrile (AN), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 000107131, except as provided in (b) and (c) of this subsection.
(b) This section does not apply to exposures which result solely from the processing, use, and handling of the following materials:
(i) ABS resins, SAN resins, nitrile barrier resins, solid nitrile elastomers, and acrylic and modacrylic fibers, when these listed materials are in the form of finished polymers, and products fabricated from such finished polymers;
(ii) Materials made from and/or containing AN for which objective data is reasonably relied upon to demonstrate that the material is not capable of releasing AN in airborne concentrations in excess of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average, under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and
(iii) Solid materials made from and/or containing AN which will not be heated above 170°F during handling, use, or processing.
(c) An employer relying upon exemption under (1)(b)(ii) ((shall))must maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption, and of the basis of the employer's reliance on the data as provided in subsection (17) of this section.
(2) Definitions, as applicable to this section:
(a) (("Acrylonitrile" or "AN" -))Acrylonitrile or AN. Acrylonitrile monomer, chemical formula CH2=CHCN.
(b) (("Action level" -))Action level. A concentration of AN of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.
(c) (("Authorized person" -))Authorized person. Any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the opportunity to observe monitoring procedures under subsection (18) of this section.
(d) (("Decontamination" means))Decontamination. Treatment of materials and surfaces by water washdown, ventilation, or other means, to ((assure))ensure that the materials will not expose employees to airborne concentrations of AN above 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.
(e) (("Director" -))Director. The director of labor and industries, or ((his))their authorized representative.
(f) (("Emergency" -))Emergency. Any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which is likely to, or does, result in unexpected exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit.
(g) (("Liquid AN" means))Liquid AN. AN monomer in liquid form, and liquid or semiliquid polymer intermediates, including slurries, suspensions, emulsions, and solutions, produced during the polymerization of AN.
(h) (("Polyacrylonitrile" or "PAN" -))Polyacrylonitrile or PAN. Polyacrylonitrile homopolymers or copolymers, except for materials as exempted under subsection (1)(b) of this section.
(3) Permissible exposure limits.
(a) Inhalation.
(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of two parts acrylonitrile per million parts of air (2 ppm), as an eight-hour time-weighted average.
(ii) Ceiling limit. The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of 10 ppm as averaged over any fifteen-minute period during the working day.
(b) Dermal and eye exposure. The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to skin contact or eye contact with liquid AN or PAN.
(4) Notification of use and emergencies.
(a) Use. Within ten days of the effective date of this standard, or within fifteen days following the introduction of AN into the workplace, every employer ((shall))must report, unless he has done so pursuant to the emergency temporary standard, the following information to the director for each such workplace:
(i) The address and location of each workplace in which AN is present;
(ii) A brief description of each process of operation which may result in employee exposure to AN;
(iii) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to AN and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs; and
(iv) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to AN. Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by this subsection, the employer ((shall))must promptly amend such information previously provided to the director.
(b) Emergencies and remedial action. Emergencies, and the facts obtainable at that time, ((shall))must be reported within twenty-four hours of the initial occurrence to the director. Upon request of the director, the employer ((shall))must submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of a similar nature.
(5) Exposure monitoring.
(a) General.
(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels ((shall))must be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to AN over an eight-hour period.
(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.
(b) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a place of employment in which AN is present ((shall))must monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of AN to which employees may be exposed. Such monitoring may be done on a representative basis, provided that the employer can demonstrate that the determinations are representative of employee exposures.
(c) Frequency.
(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee. The employer ((shall))must continue these quarterly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level, and thereafter the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee.
(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limits, the employer ((shall))must repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least quarterly.
(iii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer ((shall))must repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly. The employer ((shall))must continue these monthly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limits, and thereafter the employer ((shall))must monitor at least quarterly.
(d) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to AN, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to AN, additional monitoring which complies with this subsection ((shall))must be conducted.
(e) Employee notification.
(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer ((shall))must notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.
(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limits, the employer ((shall))must include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limits were exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.
(f) Accuracy of measurement. The method of measurement of employee exposures ((shall))must be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus twenty-five percent for concentrations of AN at or above the permissible exposure limits, and plus or minus thirty-five percent for concentrations of AN between the action level and the permissible exposure limits.
(g) Weekly survey of operations involving liquid AN. In addition to monitoring of employee exposures to AN as otherwise required by this subsection, the employer ((shall))must survey areas of operations involving liquid AN at least weekly to detect points where AN liquid or vapor are being released into the workplace. The survey ((shall))must employ an infra-red gas analyzer calibrated for AN, a multipoint gas chromatographic monitor, or comparable system for detection of AN. A listing of levels detected and areas of AN release, as determined from the survey, ((shall))must be posted prominently in the workplace, and ((shall))must remain posted until the next survey is completed.
(6) Regulated areas.
(a) The employer ((shall))must establish regulated areas where AN concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limits.
(b) Regulated areas ((shall))must be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace, in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to AN.
(c) Access to regulated areas ((shall))must be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.
(d) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that in the regulated area, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, (except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under subsection (13)(a) through (c) of this section.
(7) Methods of compliance.
(a) Engineering and work practice controls.
(i) The employer ((shall))must institute engineering or work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to AN, to or below the permissible exposure limits, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible.
(ii) Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits, the employer ((shall))must nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and ((shall))must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.
(b) Compliance program.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by subsection (7)(a) of this section.
(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs ((shall))must include at least the following:
(A) A description of each operation or process resulting in employee exposure to AN above the permissible exposure limits;
(B) Engineering plans and other studies used to determine the controls for each process;
(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limits;
(D) A detailed schedule for the implementation of engineering or work practice controls; and
(E) Other relevant information.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must complete the steps set forth in the compliance program by the dates in the schedule.
(iv) Written plans for such a program ((shall))must be submitted upon request to the director, and ((shall))must be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, or any affected employee or representative.
(v) The plans required by this subsection ((shall))must be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.
(8) Respiratory protection.
(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:
(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;
(ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities or reactor cleaning, for which the employer establishes that engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;
(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;
(iv) In emergencies.
(b) Respirator program.
Employers must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.
(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:
(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators by following the requirements in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.
(ii) Provide to employees, for escape, any organic vapor, air-purifying respirator or any self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) that meets the selection requirements of WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.
(9) Emergency situations.
(a) Written plans.
(i) A written plan for emergency situations ((shall))must be developed for each workplace where AN is present. Appropriate portions of the plan ((shall))must be implemented in the event of an emergency.
(ii) The plan ((shall))must specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions ((shall))must be equipped as required in subsection (8) of this section until the emergency is abated.
(b) Alerting employees.
(i) Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm ((shall))must be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.
(ii) Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency ((shall))must be evacuated from the area and ((shall))must not be permitted to return until the emergency is abated.
(10) Protective clothing and equipment.
(a) Provision and use. Where eye or skin contact with liquid AN or PAN may occur, the employer ((shall))must provide at no cost to the employee, and ((assure))ensure that employees wear, appropriate protective clothing or other equipment in accordance with WAC 296-800-160 to protect any area of the body which may come in contact with liquid AN or PAN.
(b) Cleaning and replacement.
(i) The employer ((shall))must clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection, as needed to maintain their effectiveness. In addition, the employer ((shall))must provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that impermeable protective clothing which contacts or is likely to have contacted liquid AN ((shall))must be decontaminated before being removed by the employee.
(iii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that AN- or PAN-contaminated protective clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closable containers which prevent dispersion of the AN or PAN outside the container.
(iv) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that an employee whose nonimpermeable clothing becomes wetted with liquid AN ((shall))must immediately remove that clothing and proceed to shower. The clothing ((shall))must be decontaminated before it is removed from the regulated area.
(v) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee removes AN- or PAN-contaminated protective equipment or clothing from the change room, except for those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.
(vi) The employer ((shall))must inform any person who launders or cleans AN- or PAN-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to AN.
(vii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment which are to be removed from the workplace for any reason are labeled in accordance with subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section, and that such labels remain affixed when such containers leave the employer's workplace.
(11) Housekeeping.
(a) All surfaces ((shall))must be maintained free of accumulations of liquid AN and of PAN.
(b) For operations involving liquid AN, the employer ((shall))must institute a program for detecting leaks and spills of liquid AN, including regular visual inspections.
(c) Where spills of liquid AN are detected, the employer ((shall assure))must ensure that surfaces contacted by the liquid AN are decontaminated. Employees not engaged in decontamination activities ((shall))must leave the area of the spill, and shall not be permitted in the area until decontamination is completed.
(d) Liquids. Where AN is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing AN ((shall))must be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use, with adequate provision made to avoid any resulting potential explosion hazard.
(e) Surfaces.
(i) Dry sweeping and the use of compressed air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where AN and PAN are found is prohibited.
(ii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.
(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust ((shall))must be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that AN is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and
(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect AN may not be used for other cleaning purposes and ((shall))must be labeled as prescribed by subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.
(iii) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.
(12) Waste disposal. AN and PAN waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, ((shall))must be disposed of in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of AN outside the container, and labeled as prescribed in subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.
(13) Hygiene facilities and practices. Where employees are exposed to airborne concentrations of AN above the permissible exposure limits, or where employees are required to wear protective clothing or equipment pursuant to subsection (11) of this section, or where otherwise found to be appropriate, the facilities required by WAC 296-800-230 ((shall))must be provided by the employer for the use of those employees, and the employer ((shall assure))must ensure that the employees use the facilities provided. In addition, the following facilities or requirements are mandated.
(a) Change rooms. The employer ((shall))must provide clean change rooms in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.
(b) Showers.
(i) The employer ((shall))must provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.
(ii) In addition, the employer ((shall))must also ((assure))ensure that employees exposed to liquid AN and PAN shower at the end of the work shift.
(iii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that, in the event of skin or eye exposure to liquid AN, the affected employee ((shall))must shower immediately to minimize the danger of skin absorption.
(c) Lunchrooms.
(i) Whenever food or beverages are consumed in the workplace, the employer ((shall))must provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits.
(ii) In addition, the employer ((shall))must also ((assure))ensure that employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits wash their hands and face prior to eating.
(14) Medical surveillance.
(a) General.
(i) The employer ((shall))must institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed to AN above the action level. The employer ((shall))must provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection.
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and ((shall))must be provided without cost to the employee.
(b) Initial examinations. At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the medical surveillance program, the employer ((shall))must provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:
(i) A work history and medical history with special attention to skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, and those nonspecific symptoms, such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, or other central nervous system dysfunctions that may be associated with acute or chronic exposure to AN.
(ii) A physical examination giving particular attention to central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, skin and thyroid.
(iii) A 14" x 17" posteroanterior chest X-ray.
(iv) Further tests of the intestinal tract, including fecal occult blood screening, and proctosigmoidoscopy, for all workers forty years of age or older, and for any other affected employees for whom, in the opinion of the physician, such testing is appropriate.
(c) Periodic examinations.
(i) The employer ((shall))must provide examinations specified in this subsection at least annually for all employees specified in subsection (14)(a) of this section.
(ii) If an employee has not had the examinations prescribed in subsection (14)(b) of this section within six months of termination of employment, the employer ((shall))must make such examination available to the employee upon such termination.
(d) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to AN, the employer ((shall))must provide appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.
(e) Information provided to the physician. The employer ((shall))must provide the following information to the examining physician:
(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;
(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;
(iii) The employee's representative exposure level;
(iv) The employee's anticipated or estimated exposure level (for preplacement examinations or in cases of exposure due to an emergency);
(v) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and
(vi) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee, which is not otherwise available to the examining physician.
(f) Physician's written opinion.
(i) The employer ((shall))must obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which ((shall))must include:
(A) The results of the medical examination and test performed;
(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to AN;
(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to AN or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and
(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to AN.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.
(15) Employee information and training.
(a) Training program.
(i) The employer ((shall))must train each employee exposed to AN above the action level, each employee whose exposures are maintained below the action level by engineering and work practice controls, and each employee subject to potential skin or eye contact with liquid AN in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer ((shall))must institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the training program.
(ii) The training program ((shall))must be provided at the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the training program, and at least annually thereafter, and the employer ((shall assure))must ensure that each employee is informed of the following:
(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;
(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of AN and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to AN, as well as any necessary protective steps;
(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;
(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section;
(E) The emergency procedures developed, as required by subsection (9) of this section; and
(F) The engineering and work practice controls, their function and the employee's relationship thereto; and
(G) A review of this standard.
(b) Access to training materials.
(i) The employer ((shall))must make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.
(16) Communication of hazards.
(a) Hazard communication - General.
(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for AN and AN-based materials not exempted under subsection (1)(b) of this section.
(ii) In classifying the hazards of AN and AN-based materials at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; skin sensitization; skin, respiratory, and eye irritation; acute toxicity effects; and flammability.
(iii) Employers ((shall))must include AN and AN-based materials in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of AN and AN-based materials and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and subsection (15) of this section.
(iv) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.
(v) The employer ((shall))must ensure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label, required by this subsection, that contradicts or detracts from the required sign or label.
(b) Signs.
(i) The employer ((shall))must post signs to clearly indicate all workplaces where AN concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limits. The signs ((shall))must bear the following legend:
DANGER
ACRYLONITRILE (AN)
MAY CAUSE CANCER
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION MAY BE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(ii) The employer ((shall))must ensure that signs required by (b) of this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.
(((iii) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (b)(i) of this subsection:
DANGER
ACRYLONITRILE (AN)
CANCER HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS MAY BE REQUIRED))
(c) Labels.
(i) The employer ((shall))must ensure that precautionary labels are in compliance with (a)(i) of this subsection and are affixed to all containers of liquid AN and AN-based materials not exempted under subsection (1)(b) of this section. The employer ((shall))must ensure that the labels remain affixed when the materials are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace.
(ii) ((Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on precautionary labels required by this subsection in lieu of the labeling requirements in (b)(i) of this subsection:
DANGER
CONTAINS ACRYLONITRILE (AN)
CANCER HAZARD
(iii))) The employer ((shall))must ensure that the precautionary labels required by (c) of this subsection are readily visible and legible.
(17) Recordkeeping.
(a) Objective data for exempted operations.
(i) Where the processing, use, and handling of products fabricated from PAN are exempted pursuant to subsection (1)(b) of this section, the employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include the following information:
(A) The relevant condition in subsection (1)(b) upon which exemption is based;
(B) The source of the objective data;
(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of AN;
(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data supports the exemption; and
(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, and processing covered by the exemption.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
(b) Exposure monitoring.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (5) of this section.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include:
(A) The dates, number, duration, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;
(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and the data relied upon to establish that the methods used meet the accuracy and precision requirements of subsection (5)(f) of this section;
(C) Type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any; and
(D) Name, Social Security number and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for at least ((40))forty years or the duration of employment plus ((20))twenty years, whichever is longer.
(c) Medical surveillance.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (14) of this section.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include:
(A) A copy of the physicians' written opinions;
(B) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to AN;
(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (14)(f) of this section; and
(D) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.
(iii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that this record be maintained for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(d) Availability.
(i) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.
(ii) Records required by (a) through (c) of this subsection ((shall))must be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. Records required by (a) of this subsection ((shall))must be provided in the same manner as exposure monitoring records.
(iii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employee medical records required to be maintained by this section, be made available, upon request, for examination and copying, to the affected employee or former employee, or to a physician designated by the affected employee, former employee, or designated representative.
(e) Transfer of records.
(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer ((shall))must receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-802-60005.
(18) Observation of monitoring.
(a) Employee observation. The employer ((shall))must provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to AN conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.
(b) Observation procedures.
(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to AN requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer ((shall))must provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, ((assure))ensure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled:
(A) To receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;
(B) To observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of AN performed at the place of exposure; and
(C) To record the results obtained.
(19) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligation not otherwise imposed, or to detract from any obligation.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-62-07338Appendix BSubstance technical guidelines for acrylonitrile.
(1) Physical and chemical data.
(a) Substance identification:
(i) Synonyms: AN; VCN; vinyl cyanide; propenenitrile; cyanoethylene; Acrylon; Carbacryl; Fumigrain; Ventox.
(ii) Formula: CH2=CHCN.
(iii) Molecular weight: 53.1.
(b) Physical data:
(i) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): 77.3°C (171°F);
(ii) Specific gravity (water = 1): 0.81 (at 20°C or 68°F);
(iii) Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point of acrylonitrile): 1.83;
(iv) Melting point: -83°C (-117°F);
(v) Vapor pressure (@20°F): 83 mm Hg;
(vi) Solubility in water, percent by weight @20°C (68°F): 7.35;
(vii) Evaporation rate (Butyl Acetate = 1): 4.54; and
(viii) Appearance and odor: Colorless to pale yellow liquid with a pungent odor at concentrations above the permissible exposure level. Any detectable odor of acrylonitrile may indicate overexposure.
(2) Fire, explosion, and reactivity hazard data.
(a) Fire:
(i) Flash point: -1°C (30°F) (closed cup).
(ii) Autoignition temperature: 481°C (898°F).
(iii) Flammable limits air, percent by volume: Lower: 3, Upper: 17.
(iv) Extinguishing media: Alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, and dry chemical.
(v) Special firefighting procedures: Do not use a solid stream of water, since the stream will scatter and spread the fire. Use water to cool containers exposed to a fire.
(vi) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: Acrylonitrile is a flammable liquid. Its vapors can easily form explosive mixtures with air. All ignition sources must be controlled where acrylonitrile is handled, used, or stored in a manner that could create a potential fire or explosion hazard. Acrylonitrile vapors are heavier than air and may travel along the ground and be ignited by open flames or sparks at locations remote from the site at which acrylonitrile is being handled.
(vii) For purposes of compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-800-300, acrylonitrile is classified as a class IB flammable liquid. For example, 7,500 ppm, approximately one-fourth of the lower flammable limit, would be considered to pose a potential fire and explosion hazard.
(viii) For purposes of compliance with WAC ((296-24-59207))296-800-300, acrylonitrile is classified as a Class B fire hazard.
(ix) For purpose of compliance with WAC ((296-24-95613))296-800-280, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of acrylonitrile ((shall))must be Class I, Group D.
(b) Reactivity:
(i) Conditions contributing to instability: Acrylonitrile will polymerize when hot, and the additional heat liberated by the polymerization may cause containers to explode. Pure AN may self-polymerize, with a rapid build-up of pressure, resulting in an explosion hazard. Inhibitors are added to the commercial product to prevent self-polymerization.
(ii) Incompatibilities: Contact with strong oxidizers (especially bromine) and strong bases may cause fires and explosions. Contact with copper, copper alloys, ammonia, and amines may start serious decomposition.
(iii) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases and vapors (such as hydrogen cyanide, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving acrylonitrile and certain polymers made from acrylonitrile.
(iv) Special precautions: Liquid acrylonitrile will attack some forms of plastics, rubbers, and coatings.
(3) Spill, leak, and disposal procedures.
(a) If acrylonitrile is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:
(i) Remove all ignition sources.
(ii) The area should be evacuated at once and reentered only after the area has been thoroughly ventilated and washed down with water.
(iii) If liquid acrylonitrile or polymer intermediate, collect for reclamation or absorb in paper, vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or similar material, or wash down with water into process sewer system.
(b) Persons not wearing protective equipment should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until clean-up has been completed.
(c) Waste disposal methods: Waste materials ((shall))must be disposed of in a manner that is not hazardous to employees or to the general population. Spills of acrylonitrile and flushing of such spills ((shall))must be channeled for appropriate treatment or collection for disposal. They ((shall))must not be channeled directly into the sanitary sewer system. In selecting the method of waste disposal, applicable local, state, and federal regulations should be consulted.
(4) Monitoring and measurement procedures.
(a) Exposure above the permissible exposure limit:
(i) Eight-hour exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this section are best taken so that the average eight-hour exposure may be determined from a single eight-hour sample or two four-hour samples. Air samples should be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee).
(ii) Ceiling evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this section must be taken during periods of maximum expected airborne concentrations of acrylonitrile in the employee's breathing zone. A minimum of three measurements should be taken on one work shift. The average of all measurements taken is an estimate of the employee's ceiling exposure.
(iii) Monitoring techniques: The sampling and analysis under this section may be performed by collecting the acrylonitrile vapor on charcoal adsorption tubes or other composition adsorption tubes, with subsequent chemical analysis. Sampling and analysis may also be performed by instruments such as real-time continuous monitoring systems, portable direct-reading instruments, or passive dosimeters. Analysis of resultant samples should be by gas chromatograph.
(iv) Appendix D lists methods of sampling and analysis which have been tested by NIOSH and OSHA for use with acrylonitrile. NIOSH and OSHA have validated modifications of NIOSH Method S-156 (see Appendix D) under laboratory conditions for concentrations below 1 ppm. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his/her unique field conditions. The standard requires that methods of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95-percent confidence level, to ±35-percent for concentrations of AN at or above 2 ppm, and to ±50-percent for concentrations below 2 ppm. In addition to the methods described in Appendix D, there are numerous other methods available for monitoring for AN in the workplace. Details on these other methods have been submitted by various companies to the rulemaking record, and are available at the OSHA Docket Office.
(b) Since many of the duties relating to employee exposure are dependent on the results of monitoring and measuring procedures, employers ((shall assure))must ensure that the evaluation of employee exposures is performed by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person.
(5) Protective clothing.
(a) Employees ((shall))must be provided with and required to wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent any possibility of skin contact with liquid AN. Because acrylonitrile is absorbed through the skin, it is important to prevent skin contact with liquid AN. Protective clothing ((shall))must include impermeable coveralls or similar full-body work clothing, gloves, head-coverings, as appropriate to protect areas of the body which may come in contact with liquid AN.
(b) Employers should ascertain that the protective garments are impermeable to acrylonitrile. Nonimpermeable clothing and shoes should not be allowed to become contaminated with liquid AN. If permeable clothing does become contaminated, it should be promptly removed, placed in a regulated area for removal of the AN, and not worn again until the AN is removed. If leather footwear or other leather garments become wet from acrylonitrile, they should be replaced and not worn again, due to the ability of leather to absorb acrylonitrile and hold it against the skin. Since there is no pain associated with the blistering which may result from skin contact with liquid AN, it is essential that the employee be informed of this hazard so that he or she can be protected.
(c) Any protective clothing which has developed leaks or is otherwise found to be defective ((shall))must be repaired or replaced. Clean protective clothing ((shall))must be provided to the employee as necessary to ((assure))ensure its protectiveness. Whenever impervious clothing becomes wet with liquid AN, it ((shall))must be washed down with water before being removed by the employee. Employees are also required to wear splash-proof safety goggles where there is any possibility of acrylonitrile contacting the eyes.
(6) Housekeeping and hygiene facilities. For purposes of complying with WAC ((296-24-120,)) 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, the following items should be emphasized:
(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition. The employer is required to institute a leak and spill detection program for operations involving liquid AN in order to detect sources of fugitive AN emissions.
(b) Dry sweeping and the use of compressed air is unsafe for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where liquid AN may be found.
(c) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents are also to be provided to ((assure))ensure the effective removal of acrylonitrile from the skin.
(d) Change or dressing rooms with individual clothes storage facilities must be provided to prevent the contamination of street clothes with acrylonitrile. Because of the hazardous nature of acrylonitrile, contaminated protective clothing should be placed in a regulated area designated by the employer for removal of the AN before the clothing is laundered or disposed of.
(7) Miscellaneous precautions.
(a) Store acrylonitrile in tightly-closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area and take necessary precautions to avoid any explosion hazard.
(b) High exposures to acrylonitrile can occur when transferring the liquid from one container to another.
(c) Nonsparking tools must be used to open and close metal acrylonitrile containers. These containers must be effectively grounded and bonded prior to pouring.
(d) Never store uninhibited acrylonitrile.
(e) Acrylonitrile vapors are not inhibited.
They may form polymers and clog vents of storage tanks.
(f) Use of supplied-air suits or other impervious coverings may be necessary to prevent skin contact with and provide respiratory protection from acrylonitrile where the concentration of acrylonitrile is unknown or is above the ceiling limit. Supplied-air suits should be selected, used, and maintained under the immediate supervision of persons knowledgeable in the limitations and potential life-endangering characteristics of supplied-air suits.
(g) Employers ((shall))must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to acrylonitrile could occur.
(8) Common operations. Common operations in which exposure to acrylonitrile is likely to occur include the following: Manufacture of the acrylonitrile monomer; synthesis of acrylic fibers, ABS, SAN, and nitrile barrier plastics and resins, nitrile rubber, surface coatings, specialty chemicals; use as a chemical intermediate; use as a fumigant; and in the cyanoethylation of cotton.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 88-11-021, filed 5/11/88)
WAC 296-62-07339Appendix CMedical surveillance guidelines for acrylonitrile.
(1) Route of entry.
(a) Inhalation;
(b) Skin absorption;
(c) Ingestion.
(2) Toxicology.
(a) Acrylonitrile vapor is an asphyxiant due to inhibitory action on metabolic enzyme systems. Animals exposed to 75 or 100 ppm for seven hours have shown signs of anoxia; in some animals which died at the higher level, cyanomethemoglobin was found in the blood. Two human fatalities from accidental poisoning have been reported; one was caused by inhalation of an unknown concentration of the vapor, and the other was thought to be caused by skin absorption or inhalation. Most cases of intoxication from industrial exposure have been mild, with rapid onset of eye irritation, headache, sneezing, and nausea. Weakness, lightheadedness, and vomiting may also occur. Exposure to high concentrations may produce profound weakness, asphyxia, and death. The vapor is a severe eye irritant. Prolonged skin ((contract [contact]))contact with the liquid may result in absorption with systemic effects, and in the formation of large blisters after a latent period of several hours. Although there is usually little or no pain or inflammation, the affected skin resembles a second-degree thermal burn. Solutions spilled on exposed skin, or on areas covered only by a light layer of clothing, evaporate rapidly, leaving no irritation, or, at the most, mild transient redness. Repeated spills on exposed skin may result in dermatitis due to solvent effects.
(b) Results after one year of a planned two-year animal study on the effects of exposure to acrylonitrile have indicated that rats ingesting as little as 35 ppm in their drinking water develop tumors of the central nervous system. The interim results of this study have been supported by a similar study being conducted by the same laboratory, involving exposure of rats by inhalation of acrylonitrile vapor, which has shown similar types of tumors in animals exposed to 80 ppm.
(c) In addition, the preliminary results of an epidemiological study being performed by duPont on a cohort of workers in their Camden, S.C. acrylic fiber plant indicate a statistically significant increase in the incidence of colon and lung cancers among employees exposed to acrylonitrile.
(3) Signs and symptoms of acute overexposure. Asphyxia and death can occur from exposure to high concentrations of acrylonitrile. Symptoms of overexposure include eye irritation, headache, sneezing, nausea and vomiting, weakness, and light-headedness. Prolonged skin contact can cause blisters on the skin with appearance of a second-degree burn, but with little or no pain. Repeated skin contact may produce scaling dermatitis.
(4) Treatment of acute overexposure. Remove employee from exposure. Immediately flush eyes with water and wash skin with soap or mild detergent and water. If AN has been swallowed, and person is conscious, induce vomiting. Give artificial respiration if indicated. More severe cases, such as those associated with loss of consciousness, may be treated by the intravenous administration of sodium nitrite, followed by sodium thiosulfate, although this is not as effective for acrylonitrile poisoning as for inorganic cyanide poisoning.
(5) Surveillance and preventive considerations.
(a) As noted above, exposure to acrylonitrile has been linked to increased incidence of cancers of the colon and lung in employees of the duPont acrylic fiber plant in Camden, S.C. In addition, the animal testing of acrylonitrile has resulted in the development of cancers of the central nervous system in rats exposed by either inhalation or ingestion. The physician should be aware of the findings of these studies in evaluating the health of employees exposed to acrylonitrile.
(b) Most reported acute effects of occupational exposure to acrylonitrile are due to its ability to cause tissue anoxia and asphyxia. The effects are similar to those caused by hydrogen cyanide. Liquid acrylonitrile can be absorbed through the skin upon prolonged contact. The liquid readily penetrates leather, and will produce burns of the feet if footwear contaminated with acrylonitrile is not removed.
(c) It is important for the physician to become familiar with the operating conditions in which exposure to acrylonitrile may occur. Those employees with skin diseases may not tolerate the wearing of whatever protective clothing may be necessary to protect them from exposure. In addition, those with chronic respiratory disease may not tolerate the wearing of negative-pressure respirators.
(d) Surveillance and screening. Medical histories and laboratory examinations are required for each employee subject to exposure to acrylonitrile above the action level. The employer must screen employees for history of certain medical conditions which might place the employee at increased risk from exposure.
(i) Central nervous system dysfunction. Acute effects of exposure to acrylonitrile generally involve the central nervous system. Symptoms of acrylonitrile exposure include headache, nausea, dizziness, and general weakness. The animal studies cited above suggest possible carcinogenic effects of acrylonitrile on the central nervous system, since rats exposed by either inhalation or ingestion have developed similar CNS tumors.
(ii) Respiratory disease. The duPont data indicate an increased risk of lung cancer among employees exposed to acrylonitrile.
(iii) Gastrointestinal disease. The duPont data indicate an increased risk of cancer of the colon among employees exposed to acrylonitrile. In addition, the animal studies show possible tumor production in the stomachs of the rats in the ingestion study.
(iv) Skin disease. Acrylonitrile can cause skin burns when prolonged skin contact with the liquid occurs. In addition, repeated skin contact with the liquid can cause dermatitis.
(e) General. The purpose of the medical procedures outlined in the standard is to establish a baseline for future health monitoring. Persons unusually susceptible to the effects of anoxia or those with anemia would be expected to be at increased risk. In addition to emphasis on the CNS, respiratory and gastro-intestinal systems, the cardiovascular system, liver, and kidney function should also be stressed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 88-11-021, filed 5/11/88)
WAC 296-62-07340Appendix DSampling and analytical methods for acrylonitrile.
(1) There are many methods available for monitoring employee exposures to acrylonitrile. Most of these involve the use of charcoal tubes and sampling pumps, with analysis by gas chromatograph. The essential differences between the charcoal tube methods include, among others, the use of different desorbing solvents, the use of different lots of charcoal, and the use of different equipment for analysis of the samples.
(2) Besides charcoal, considerable work has been performed on methods using porous polymer sampling tubes and passive dosimeters. In addition, there are several portable gas analyzers and monitoring units available on the open market.
(3) This appendix contains details for the methods which have been tested at OSHA Analytical Laboratory in Salt Lake City, and NIOSH in Cincinnati. Each is a variation on NIOSH Method S-156, which is also included for reference. This does not indicate that these methods are the only ones which will be satisfactory. There also may be workplace situations in which these methods are not adequate, due to such factors as high humidity. Copies of the other methods available to OSHA are available in the rulemaking record, and may be obtained from the OSHA docket office. These include, the Union Carbide, Monsanto, Dow Chemical and Dow Badische methods, as well as NIOSH Method P & CAM 127.
(4) Employers who note problems with sample breakthrough should try larger charcoal tubes. Tubes of larger capacity are available, and are often used for sampling vinyl chloride. In addition, lower flow rates and shorter sampling times should be beneficial in minimizing breakthrough problems.
(5) Whatever method the employer chooses, ((he must assure himself))they must be ensured of the method's accuracy and precision under the unique conditions present in ((his))their workplace.
(6) NIOSH Method S-156 (unmodified)
Analyte: Acrylonitrile.
Matrix: Air.
Procedure: Absorption on charcoal, desorption with methanol, GC.
(a) Principle of the method. Reference (k)(i) of this subsection.
(i) A known volume of air is drawn through a charcoal tube to trap the organic vapors present.
(ii) The charcoal in the tube is transferred to a small, stoppered sample container, and the analyte is desorbed with methanol.
(iii) An aliquot of the desorbed sample is injected into a gas chromatograph.
(iv) The area of the resulting peak is determined and compared with areas obtained for standards.
(b) Range and sensitivity.
(i) This method was validated over the range of 17.5-70.0 mg/cu m at an atmospheric temperature and pressure of 22°C and 760 mm Hg, using a twenty-liter sample. Under the conditions of sample size (20 liters) the probable useful range of this method is 4.5-135 mg/cu m. The method is capable of measuring much smaller amounts if the desorption efficiency is adequate. Desorption efficiency must be determined over the range used.
(ii) The upper limit of the range of the method is dependent on the adsorptive capacity of the charcoal tube. This capacity varies with the concentrations of acrylonitrile and other substances in the air. The first section of the charcoal tube was found to hold at least 3.97 mg of acrylonitrile when a test atmosphere containing 92.0 mg/cu m of acrylonitrile in air was sampled 0.18 liter per minute for 240 minutes; at that time the concentration of acrylonitrile in the effluent was less than 5 percent of that in the influent. (The charcoal tube consists of two sections of activated charcoal separated by a section of urethane foam. See (f)(ii) of this subsection. If a particular atmosphere is suspected of containing a large amount of contaminant, a smaller sampling volume should be taken.)
(c) Interference.
(i) When the amount of water in the air is so great that condensation actually occurs in the tube, organic vapors will not be trapped efficiently. Preliminary experiments using toluene indicate that high humidity severely decreases the breakthrough volume.
(ii) When interfering compounds are known or suspected to be present in the air, such information, including their suspected identities, should be transmitted with the sample.
(iii) It must be emphasized that any compound which has the same retention time as the analyte at the operating conditions described in this method is an interference. Retention time data on a single column cannot be considered proof of chemical identity.
(iv) If the possibility of interference exists, separation conditions (column packing, temperature, etc.) must be changed to circumvent the problem.
(d) Precision and accuracy.
(i) The coefficient of variation (CVt) for the total analytical and sampling method in the range of 17.5-70.0 mg/cu m was 0.073. This value corresponds to a 3.3 mg/cu m standard deviation at the (previous) OSHA standard level (20 ppm). Statistical information and details of the validation and experimental test procedures can be found in (k)(ii) of this subsection.
(ii) On the average the concentrations obtained at the 20 ppm level using the overall sampling and analytical method were 6.0 percent lower than the "true" concentrations for a limited number of laboratory experiments. Any difference between the "found" and "true" concentrations may not represent a bias in the sampling and analytical method, but rather a random variation from the experimentally determined "true" concentration. Therefore, no recovery correction should be applied to the final result in (j)(v) of this subsection.
(e) Advantages and disadvantages of the method.
(i) The sampling device is small, portable, and involves no liquids. Interferences are minimal, and most of those which do occur can be eliminated by altering chromatographic conditions. The tubes are analyzed by means of a quick, instrumental method.
(ii) The method can also be used for the simultaneous analysis of two or more substances suspected to be present in the same sample by simply changing gas chromatographic conditions.
(iii) One disadvantage of the method is that the amount of sample which can be taken is limited by the number of milligrams that the tube will hold before overloading. When the sample value obtained for the backup section of the charcoal tube exceeds 25 percent of that found on the front section, the possibility of sample loss exists.
(iv) Furthermore, the precision of the method is limited by the reproducibility of the pressure drop across the tubes. This drop will affect the flow rate and cause the volume to be imprecise, because the pump is usually calibrated for one tube only.
(f) Apparatus.
(i) A calibrated personal sampling pump whose flow can be determined within ±5 percent at the recommended flow rate. Reference (k)(iii) of this subsection.
(ii) Charcoal tubes: Glass tubes with both ends flame sealed, 7 cm long with a 6 mm O.D. and a 4 mm I.D., containing 2 sections of 20/40 mesh activated charcoal separated by a 2 mm portion of urethane foam. The activated charcoal is prepared from coconut shells and is fired at 600°C prior to packing. The adsorbing section contains 100 mg of charcoal, the backup section 50 mg. A 3 mm portion of urethane foam is placed between the outlet end of the tube and the backup section. A plug of silicated glass wool is placed in front of the adsorbing section. The pressure drop across the tube must be less than 1 inch of mercury at a flow rate of 1 liter per minute.
(iii) Gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector.
(iv) Column (4 ft × 1/4 in stainless steel) packed with 50/80 mesh Poropak, type Q.
(v) An electronic integrator or some other suitable method for measuring peak areas.
(vi) Two-milliliter sample containers with glass stoppers or Teflon-lined caps. If an automatic sample injector is used, the associated vials may be used.
(vii) Microliter syringes: Ten-microliter and other convenient sizes for making standards.
(viii) Pipets: 1.0 ml delivery pipets.
(ix) Volumetric flask: 10 ml or convenient sizes for making standard solutions.
(g) Reagents.
(i) Chromatographic quality methanol.
(ii) Acrylonitrile, reagent grade.
(iii) Hexane, reagent grade.
(iv) Purified nitrogen.
(v) Prepurified hydrogen.
(vi) Filtered compressed air.
(h) Procedure.
(i) Cleaning of equipment. All glassware used for the laboratory analysis should be detergent washed and thoroughly rinsed with tap water and distilled water.
(ii) Calibration of personal pumps. Each personal pump must be calibrated with a representative charcoal tube in the line. This will minimize errors associated with uncertainties in the sample volume collected.
(iii) Collection and shipping of samples.
(A) Immediately before sampling, break the ends of the tube to provide an opening at least one-half the internal diameter of the tube (2mm).
(B) The smaller section of charcoal is used as a backup and should be positioned nearest the sampling pump.
(C) The charcoal tube should be placed in a vertical direction during sampling to minimize channeling through the charcoal.
(D) Air being sampled should not be passed through any hose or tubing before entering the charcoal tube.
(E) A maximum sample size of 20 liters is recommended. Sample at a flow of 0.20 liter per minute or less. The flow rate should be known with an accuracy of at least ±5 percent.
(F) The temperature and pressure of the atmosphere being sampled should be recorded. If pressure reading is not available, record the elevation.
(G) The charcoal tubes should be capped with the supplied plastic caps immediately after sampling. Under no circumstances should rubber caps be used.
(H) With each batch of ten samples submit one tube from the same lot of tubes which was used for sample collection and which is subjected to exactly the same handling as the samples except that no air is drawn through it. Label this as a blank.
(I) Capped tubes should be packed tightly and padded before they are shipped to minimize tube breakage during shipping.
(J) A sample of the bulk material should be submitted to the laboratory in a glass container with a Teflon-lined cap. This sample should not be transported in the same container as the charcoal tubes.
(iv) Analysis of samples.
(A) Preparation of samples. In preparation for analysis, each charcoal tube is scored with a file in front of the first section of charcoal and broken open. The glass wool is removed and discarded. The charcoal in the first (larger) section is transferred to a 2 ml stoppered sample container. The separating section of foam is removed and discarded; the second section is transferred to another stoppered container. These two sections are analyzed separately.
(B) Desorption of samples. Prior to analysis, 1.0 ml of methanol is pipetted into each sample container. Desorption should be done for 30 minutes. Tests indicate that this is adequate if the sample is agitated occasionally during this period. If an automatic sample injector is used, the sample vials should be capped as soon as the solvent is added to minimize volatilization.
(C) GC conditions. The typical operating conditions for the gas chromatograph are:
(I) 50 ml/min (60 psig) nitrogen carrier gas flow.
(II) 65 ml/min (24 psig) hydrogen gas flow to detector.
(III) 500 ml/min (50 psig) air flow to detector.
(IV) 235°C injector temperature.
(V) 255°C manifold temperature (detector).
(VI) 155°C column temperature.
(D) Injection. The first step in the analysis is the injection of the sample into the gas chromatograph. To eliminate difficulties arising from blowback or distillation within the syringe needle, one should employ the solvent flush injection technique. The 10-microliter syringe is first flushed with solvent several times to wet the barrel and plunger. Three microliters of solvent are drawn into the syringe to increase the accuracy and reproducibility of the injected sample volume. The needle is removed from the solvent, and the plunger is pulled back about 0.2 microliter to separate the solvent flush from the sample with a pocket of air to be used as a marker. The needle is then immersed in the sample, and a five microliter aliquot is withdrawn, taking into consideration the volume of the needle, since the sample in the needle will be completely injected. After the needle is removed from the sample and prior to injection, the plunger is pulled back 1.2 microliters to minimize evaporation of the sample from the tip of the needle. Observe that the sample occupies 4.9-5.0 microliters in the barrel of the syringe. Duplicate injections of each sample and standard should be made. No more than a 3 percent difference in area is to be expected. An automatic sample injector can be used if it is shown to give reproducibility at least as good as the solvent flush method.
(E) Measurement of area. The area of the sample peak is measured by an electronic integrator or some other suitable form of area measurement, and preliminary results are read from a standard curve prepared as discussed below.
(v) Determination of desorption efficiency.
(A) Importance of determination. The desorption efficiency of a particular compound can vary from one laboratory to another and also from one batch of charcoal to another. Thus, it is necessary to determine at least once the percentage of the specific compound that is removed in the desorption process, provided the same batch of charcoal is used.
(B) Procedure for determining desorption efficiency.
(I) Activated charcoal equivalent to the amount in the first section of the sampling tube (100 mg) is measured into a 2.5 in., 4 mm I.D. glass tube, flame sealed at one end. This charcoal must be from the same batch as that used in obtaining the samples and can be obtained from unused charcoal tubes. The open end is capped with Parafilm. A known amount of hexane solution of acrylonitrile containing 0.239 g/ml is injected directly into the activated charcoal with a microliter syringe, and tube is capped with more Parafilm. When using an automatic sample injector, the sample injector vials, capped with Teflon-faced septa, may be used in place of the glass tube.
(II) The amount injected is equivalent to that present in a twenty-liter air sample at the selected level.
(III) Six tubes at each of three levels (0.5X, 1X, and 2X of the standard) are prepared in this manner and allowed to stand for at least overnight to ((assure))ensure complete adsorption of the analyte onto the charcoal. These tubes are referred to as the sample. A parallel blank tube should be treated in the same manner except that no sample is added to it. The sample and blank tubes are desorbed and analyzed in exactly the same manner as the sampling tube described in (h)(iv) of this subsection
(IV) Two or three standards are prepared by injecting the same volume of compound into 1.0 ml of methanol with the same syringe used in the preparation of the samples. These are analyzed with the samples.
(V) The desorption efficiency (D.E.) equals the average weight in mg recovered from the tube divided by the weight in mg added to the tube, or
D.E. =
Average weight recovered (mg)
———————————————
weight added (mg)
 
(VI) The desorption efficiency is dependent on the amount of analyte collected on the charcoal. Plot the desorption efficiency versus weight of analyte found. This curve is used in (j)(iv) of this subsection to correct for adsorption losses.
(i) Calibration and standards. It is convenient to express concentration of standards in terms of mg/1.0 ml methanol, because samples are desorbed in this amount of methanol. The density of the analyte is used to convert mg into microliters for easy measurement with a microliter syringe. A series of standards, varying in concentration over the range of interest, is prepared and analyzed under the same GC conditions and during the same time period as the unknown samples. Curves are established by plotting concentration in mg/1.0 ml versus peak area.
Note:
Since no internal standard is used in the method, standard solutions must be analyzed at the same time that the sample analysis is done. This will minimize the effect of known day-to-day variations and variations during the same day of the FID response.
(j) Calculations.
(i) Read the weight, in mg, corresponding to each peak area from the standard curve. No volume corrections are needed, because the standard curve is based on mg/1.0 ml methanol and the volume of sample injected is identical to the volume of the standards injected.
(ii) Corrections for the bank must be made for each sample.
mg = mg sample-mg blank
Where:
mg sample = mg found in front section of sample tube.
mg sample = mg found in front section of blank tube.
Note:
A similar procedure is followed for the backup sections.
(iii) Add the weights found in the front and backup sections to get the total weight in the sample.
(iv) Read the desorption efficiency from the curve (reference (h)(v)(B) of this subsection) for the amount found in the front section. Divide the total weight by this desorption efficiency to obtain the corrected mg/sample.
Corrected mg/sample =
Total
weight
————
D.E.
(v) The concentration of the analyte in the air sampled can be expressed in mg/cu m.
mg/cu m = Corrected mg (see (j)(iv)) x
1,000 (liter/cu m)
——————————————
air volume sampled (liter)
(vi) Another method of expressing concentration is ppm.
ppm = mg/cu m × 24.45/M.W. × 760/P × T + 273/298
Where:
P = Pressure (mm Hg) of air sampled.
T = Temperature (°C) of air sampled.
24.45 = Molar volume (liter/mole) at 25°C and 760 mm Hg.
M.W. = Molecular weight (g/mole) of analyte.
760 = Standard pressure (mm Hg).
298 = Standard temperature (°K).
(k) References.
(i) White, L. D. et al., "A Convenient Optimized Method for the Analysis of Selected Solvent Vapors in the Industrial Atmosphere," Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 31:225 (1970).
(ii) Documentation of NIOSH Validation Tests, NIOSH Contract No. CDC-99-74-45.
(iii) Final Report, NIOSH Contract HSM-99-71-31, "Personal Sampler Pump for Charcoal Tubes," September 15, 1972.
(7) NIOSH Modification of NIOSH Method S-156. The NIOSH recommended method for low levels for acrylonitrile is a modification of method S-156. It differs in the following respects:
(a) Samples are desorbed using 1 ml of 1 percent acetone in CS2 rather than methanol.
(b) The analytical column and conditions are:
(i) Column: 20 percent SP-1000 on 80/100 Supelcoport 10 feet × 1/8 inch S.S.
(ii) Conditions:
Injector temperature: 200°C.
Detector temperature: 100°C.
Column temperature: 85°C.
Helium flow: 25 ml/min.
Air flow: 450 ml/min.
Hydrogen flow: 55 ml/min.
(c) A 2 µl injection of the desorbed analyte is used.
(d) A sampling rate of 100 ml/min is recommended.
(8) OSHA Laboratory Modification of NIOSH Method S-156.
(a) Analyte: Acrylonitrile.
(b) Matrix: Air.
(c) Procedure: Adsorption on charcoal, desorption with methanol, GC.
(d) Principle of the method (subsection (1)(a) of this section).
(i) A known volume of air is drawn through a charcoal tube to trap the organic vapors present.
(ii) The charcoal in the tube is transferred to a small, stoppered sample vial, and the analyte is desorbed with methanol.
(iii) An aliquot of the desorbed sample is injected into a gas chromatograph.
(iv) The area of the resulting peak is determined and compared with areas obtained for standards.
(e) Advantages and disadvantages of the method.
(i) The sampling device is small, portable, and involves no liquids. Interferences are minimal, and most of those which do occur can be eliminated by altering chromatographic conditions. The tubes are analyzed by means of a quick, instrumental method.
(ii) This method may not be adequate for the simultaneous analysis of two or more substances.
(iii) The amount of sample which can be taken is limited by the number of milligrams that the tube will hold before overloading. When the sample value obtained for the backup section of the charcoal tube exceeds 25 percent of that found on the front section, the possibility of sample loss exists.
(iv) The precision of the method is limited by the reproducibility of the pressure drop across the tubes. This drop will affect the flow rate and cause the volume to be imprecise, because the pump is usually calibrated for one tube only.
(f) Apparatus.
(i) A calibrated personal sampling pump whose flow can be determined within ±5 percent at the recommended flow rate.
(ii) Charcoal tubes: Glass tube with both ends flame sealed, 7 cm long with a 6 mm O.D. and a 4 mm I.D., containing 2 sections of 20/40 mesh activated charcoal separated by a 2 mm portion of urethane foam. The activated charcoal is prepared from coconut shells and is fired at 600°C prior to packing. The absorbing section contains 100 mg of charcoal, the back-up section 50 mg. A 3 mm portion of urethane foam is placed between the outlet end of the tube and the back-up section. A plug of silicated glass wool is placed in front of the adsorbing section. The pressure drop across the tube must be less than one inch of mercury at a flow rate of 1 liter per minute.
(iii) Gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen phosphorus detector.
(iv) Column (10 ft × 1/8 in stainless steel) packed with 100/120 Supelcoport coated with 10 percent SP 1000.
(v) An electronic integrator or some other suitable method for measuring peak area.
(vi) Two-milliliter sample vials with Teflon-lined caps.
(vii) Microliter syringes: 10 microliter, and other convenient sizes for making standards.
(viii) Pipets: 1.0 ml delivery pipets.
(ix) Volumetric flasks: Convenient sizes for making standard solutions.
(g) Reagents.
(i) Chromatographic quality methanol.
(ii) Acrylonitrile, reagent grade.
(iii) Filtered compressed air.
(iv) Purified hydrogen.
(v) Purified helium.
(h) Procedure.
(i) Cleaning of equipment. All glassware used for the laboratory analysis should be properly cleaned and free of organics which could interfere in the analysis.
(ii) Calibration of personal pumps. Each pump must be calibrated with a representative charcoal tube in the line.
(iii) Collection and shipping of samples.
(A) Immediately before sampling, break the ends of the tube to provide an opening at least one-half the internal diameter of the tube (2 mm).
(B) The smaller section of the charcoal is used as the backup and should be placed nearest the sampling pump.
(C) The charcoal should be placed in a vertical position during sampling to minimize channeling through the charcoal.
(D) Air being sampled should not be passed through any hose or tubing before entering the charcoal tube.
(E) A sample size of 20 liters is recommended. Sample at a flow rate of approximately 0.2 liters per minute. The flow rate should be known with an accuracy of at least ±5 percent.
(F) The temperature and pressure of the atmosphere being sampled should be recorded.
(G) The charcoal tubes should be capped with the supplied plastic caps immediately after sampling. Rubber caps should not be used.
(H) Submit at least one blank tube (a charcoal tube subjected to the same handling procedures, without having any air drawn through it) with each set of samples.
(I) Take necessary shipping and packing precautions to minimize breakage of samples.
(iv) Analysis of samples.
(A) Preparation of samples. In preparation for analysis, each charcoal tube is scored with a file in front of the first section of charcoal and broken open. The glass wool is removed and discarded. The charcoal in the first (larger) section is transferred to a 2 ml vial. The separating section of foam is removed and discarded; the section is transferred to another capped vial. These two sections are analyzed separately.
(B) Desorption of samples. Prior to analysis, 1.0 ml of methanol is pipetted into each sample container. Desorption should be done for 30 minutes in an ultrasonic bath. The sample vials are recapped as soon as the solvent is added.
(C) GC conditions. The typical operating conditions for the gas chromatograph are:
(I) 30 ml/min (60 psig) helium carrier gas flow.
(II) 3.0 ml/min (30 psig) hydrogen gas flow to detector.
(III) 50 ml/min (60 psig) air flow to detector.
(IV) 200°C injector temperature.
(V) 200°C dejector temperature.
(VI) 100°C column temperature.
(D) Injection. Solvent flush technique or equivalent.
(E) Measurement of area. The area of the sample peak is measured by an electronic integator or some other suitable form of area measurement, and preliminary results are read from a standard curve prepared as discussed below.
(v) Determination of desorption efficiency.
(A) Importance of determination. The desorption efficiency of a particular compound can vary from one laboratory to another and also from one batch of charcoal to another. Thus, it is necessary to determine, at least once, the percentage of the specific compound that is removed in the desorption process, provided the same batch of charcoal is used.
(B) Procedure for determining desorption efficiency. The reference portion of the charcoal tube is removed. To the remaining portion, amounts representing 0.5X, 1X, and 2X (X represents TLV) based on a 20 l air sample are injected onto several tubes at each level. Dilutions of acrylonitrile with methanol are made to allow injection of measurable quantities. These tubes are then allowed to equilibrate at least overnight. Following equilibration they are analyzed following the same procedure as the samples. A curve of the desorption efficiency (amt recovered/amt added) is plotted versus amount of analyte found. This curve is used to correct for adsorption losses.
(i) Calibration and standards. A series of standards, varying in concentration over the range of interest, is prepared and analyzed under the same GC conditions and during the same time period as the unknown samples. Curves are prepared by plotting concentration versus peak area.
Note:
Since no internal standard is used in the method, standard solutions must be analyzed at the same time that the sample analysis is done. This will minimize the effect of known day-to-day variations and variations during the same day of the NPD response. Multiple injections are necessary.
(j) Calculations. Read the weight, corresponding to each peak area from the standard curve, correct for the blank, correct for the desorption efficiency, and make necessary air volume corrections.
(k) Reference. NIOSH Method S-156.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-073421,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.
(1) Scope and application.
(a) This section applies to occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).
(b) This section does not apply to:
(i) Exposure to DBCP which results solely from the application and use of DBCP as a pesticide; or
(ii) The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of DBCP in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to prevent exposure to DBCP vapors or liquids, except for the requirements of subsections (11), (16), and (17) of this section.
(2) Definitions applicable to this section:
(a) (("Authorized person" -))Authorized person. Any person specifically authorized by the employer and whose duties require the person to be present in areas where DBCP is present; and any person entering this area as a designated representative of employees exercising an opportunity to observe employee exposure monitoring.
(b) (("DBCP" -))DBCP. 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 96-12-8, and includes all forms of DBCP.
(c) (("Director" -))Director. The director of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.
(d) (("Emergency" -))Emergency. Any occurrence such as, but not limited to equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which may, or does, result in unexpected release of DBCP.
(3) Permissible exposure limits.
(a) Inhalation.
(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA). The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of one part DBCP per billion part of air (ppb) as an eight-hour time-weighted average.
(ii) Ceiling limit. The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of five parts DBCP per billion parts of air (ppb) as averaged over any fifteen minutes during the working day.
(b) Dermal and eye exposure. The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to eye or skin contact with DBCP.
(4) Notification of use. Within ten days of the effective date of this section or within ten days following the introduction of DBCP into the workplace, every employer who has a workplace where DBCP is present ((shall))must report the following information to the director for each such workplace:
(a) The address and location of each workplace in which DBCP is present;
(b) A brief description of each process or operation which may result in employee exposure to DBCP;
(c) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to DBCP and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs;
(d) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to DBCP.
(5) Regulated areas. The employer ((shall))must establish, within each place of employment, regulated areas wherever DBCP concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.
(a) The employer ((shall))must limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.
(b) All employees entering or working in a regulated area ((shall))must wear respiratory protection in accordance with Table I.
(6) Exposure monitoring.
(a) General. Determinations of airborne exposure levels ((shall))must be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to DBCP over an eight-hour period. (For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.)
(b) Initial. Each employer who has a place of employment in which DBCP is present ((shall))must monitor each workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of DBCP to which employees may be exposed.
(c) Frequency.
(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposures to be below the permissible exposure limits, the employer ((shall))must repeat these determinations at least quarterly.
(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer ((shall))must repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly. The employer ((shall))must continue these monthly determinations until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limit, thereafter the employer ((shall))must monitor at least quarterly.
(d) Additional. Whenever there has been a production process, control or personnel change which may result in any new or additional exposure to DBCP, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposure to DBCP, additional monitoring which complies with ((subsection (6) shall))this subsection must be conducted.
(e) Employee notification.
(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer ((shall))must notify each employee in writing of results which represent the employee's exposure.
(ii) Whenever the results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer ((shall))must include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.
(f) Accuracy of measurement. The method of measurement ((shall))must be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus twenty-five percent for concentrations of DBCP at or above the permissible exposure limits.
(7) Methods of compliance.
(a) Priority of compliance methods. The employer ((shall))must institute engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to DBCP at or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible. Where feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to within the permissible exposure limit, the employer ((shall))must nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest level achievable by these controls, and ((shall))must supplement them by use of respiratory protection.
(b) Compliance program.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to DBCP to or below the permissible exposure limit solely by means of engineering and work practice controls as required by this section.
(ii) The written program ((shall))must include a detailed schedule for development and implementation of the engineering and work practice controls. These plans ((shall))must be revised at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.
(iii) Written plans for these compliance programs ((shall))must be submitted upon request to the director, and ((shall))must be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, and any affected employee or designated representative of employees.
(iv) The employer ((shall))must institute and maintain at least the controls described in his most recent written compliance program.
(8) Respiratory protection.
(a) General. For employees who are required to use respirators under this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:
(i) Period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;
(ii) Maintenance and repair activities for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;
(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit;
(iv) Emergencies.
(b) The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.
(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:
(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this chapter and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.
(ii) Provide employees with one of the following respirator options to use for entry into, or escape from, unknown DBCP concentrations:
(A) A combination respirator that includes a full-facepiece air-line respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) operated in a pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode; or
(B) A full-facepiece SCBA operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
(9) Reserved.
(10) Emergency situations.
(a) Written plans.
(i) A written plan for emergency situations ((shall))must be developed for each workplace in which DBCP is present.
(ii) Appropriate portions of the plan ((shall))must be implemented in the event of an emergency.
(b) Employees engaged in correcting conditions ((shall))must be equipped as required in subsection (11) of this section until the emergency is abated.
(c) Evacuation. Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency ((shall))must be removed and restricted from the area and normal operations in the affected area ((shall))must not be resumed until the emergency is abated.
(d) Alerting employees. Where there is a possibility of employee exposure to DBCP due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm ((shall))must be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.
(e) Medical surveillance. For any employee exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer ((shall))must provide medical surveillance in accordance with subsection (14) of this section.
(f) Exposure monitoring.
(i) Following an emergency, the employer ((shall))must conduct monitoring which complies with subsection (6) of this section.
(ii) In workplaces not normally subject to periodic monitoring, the employer may terminate monitoring when two consecutive measurements indicate exposures below the permissible exposure limit.
(11) Protective clothing and equipment.
(a) Provision and use. Where eye or skin contact with liquid or solid DBCP may occur, employers ((shall))must provide at no cost to the employee, and ((assure))ensure that employees wear impermeable protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-800-160 to protect the area of the body which may come in contact with DBCP.
(b) Cleaning and replacement.
(i) The employer ((shall))must clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection to maintain their effectiveness. In addition, the employer ((shall))must provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least daily to each affected employee.
(ii) Removal and storage.
(A) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees remove DBCP contaminated work clothing only in change rooms provided in accordance with subsection (13) of this section.
(B) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees promptly remove any protective clothing and equipment which becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids and solids. This clothing ((shall))must not be reworn until the DBCP has been removed from the clothing or equipment.
(C) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee takes DBCP contaminated protective devices and work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.
(iii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that DBCP-contaminated protective work clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.
(iv) The employer ((shall))must inform any person who launders or cleans DBCP-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to DBCP.
(v) Containers of DBCP-contaminated protective devices or work clothing which are to be taken out of change rooms or the workplace for cleaning, maintenance or disposal ((shall))must bear labels with the following information: CONTAMINATED WITH 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), MAY CAUSE CANCER.
(vi) The employer ((shall))must prohibit the removal of DBCP from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.
(12) Housekeeping.
(a) Surfaces.
(i) All surfaces ((shall))must be maintained free of accumulations of DBCP.
(ii) Dry sweeping and the use of air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where DBCP dust or liquids are found is prohibited.
(iii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.
(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust ((shall))must be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that DBCP is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and
(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect DBCP may not be used for other cleaning purposes and ((shall))must be labeled as prescribed by subsection (11)(b)(v) of this section.
(iv) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.
(b) Liquids. Where DBCP is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing DBCP ((shall))must be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use.
(c) Waste disposal. DBCP waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, ((shall))must be disposed in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.
(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.
(a) Change rooms. The employer ((shall))must provide clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment whenever employees are required to wear protective clothing and equipment in accordance with subsections (8), (9), and (11) of this section.
(b) Showers.
(i) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees working in the regulated area shower at the end of the work shift.
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees whose skin becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids or solids immediately wash or shower to remove any DBCP from the skin.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.
(c) Lunchrooms. The employer ((shall))must provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.
(d) Lavatories.
(i) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees working in the regulated area remove protective clothing and wash their hands and face prior to eating.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide a sufficient number of lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-800-230.
(e) Prohibition of activities in regulated areas. The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that, in regulated areas, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products and implements are not present or used, and cosmetics are not present or applied.
(14) Medical surveillance.
(a) General. The employer ((shall))must institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to DBCP. The employer ((shall))must provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection. All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and ((shall))must be provided without cost to the employee.
(b) Frequency and content. At the time of initial assignment, annually thereafter, and whenever exposure to DBCP occurs, the employer ((shall))must provide a medical examination for employees who work in regulated areas, which includes at least the following:
(i) A complete medical and occupational history with emphasis on reproductive history.
(ii) A complete physical examination with emphasis on the genito-urinary tract, testicle size, and body habitus including the following tests:
(A) Sperm count;
(B) Complete urinalysis (U/A);
(C) Complete blood count; and
(D) Thyroid profile.
(iii) A serum specimen ((shall))must be obtained and the following determinations made by radioimmunoassay techniques utilizing National Institutes of Health (NIH) specific antigen or one of equivalent sensitivity:
(A) Serum multiphasic analysis (SMA 12);
(B) Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH);
(C) Serum luteinizing hormone (LH); and
(D) Serum estrogen (females).
(iv) Any other tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician.
(c) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to DBCP, the employer ((shall))must provide the employee with a medical examination which ((shall))must include those elements considered appropriate by the examining physician.
(d) Information provided to the physician. The employer ((shall))must provide the following information to the examining physician:
(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;
(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;
(iii) The level of DBCP to which the employee is exposed; and
(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used.
(e) Physician's written opinion.
(i) For each examination under this section, the employer ((shall))must obtain and provide the employee with a written opinion from the examining physician which ((shall))must include:
(A) The results of the medical tests performed;
(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of health from exposure to DBCP;
(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to DBCP or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and
(D) A statement that the employee was informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination, and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to DBCP.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.
(f) Emergency situations. If the employee is exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer ((shall))must provide the employee with a sperm count test as soon as practicable, or, if the employee is unable to produce a semen specimen, the hormone tests contained in (b) of this subsection. The employer ((shall))must provide these same tests three months later.
(15) Employee information and training.
(a) Training program.
(i) Within thirty days of the effective date of this standard, the employer ((shall))must institute a training program for all employees who may be exposed to DBCP and ((shall assure))must ensure their participation in such training program.
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that each employee is informed of the following:
(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;
(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of DBCP and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to DBCP as well as any necessary protective steps;
(C) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements covering respiratory protection as required in chapter ((296-62))296-842 WAC((, Part E));
(D) The purpose and description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section; and
(E) A review of this standard.
(b) Access to training materials.
(i) The employer ((shall))must make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.
(16) Communication of hazards.
(a) Hazard communication - General.
(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for DBCP.
(ii) In classifying the hazards of DBCP at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; reproductive effects; liver effects; kidney effects; central nervous system effects; skin, eye and respiratory tract irritation; and acute toxicity effects.
(iii) Employers ((shall))must include DBCP in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of DBCP and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and subsection (15) of this section.
(iv) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.
(v) The employer ((shall))must ensure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the required sign or label.
(b) Signs.
(((i))) The employer ((shall))must post signs to clearly indicate all regulated areas. These signs ((shall))must bear the legend:
DANGER
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
MAY CAUSE CANCER
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(((ii) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (b) of this subsection:
DANGER
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
(Insert appropriate trade or common names)
CANCER HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATOR REQUIRED))
(c) Labels.
(i) Where DBCP or products containing DBCP are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace bearing appropriate labels required by EPA under the regulations in 40 C.F.R. Part 162, the labels required by (c) of this subsection need not be affixed.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must ensure that the precautionary labels required by (c) of this subsection are readily visible and legible.
(((iii) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on containers of DBCP or products containing DBCP, DBCP-contaminated protective devices or work clothing or DBCP-contaminated portable vacuums in lieu of the labeling requirements in (11)(b)(v), (12)(a)(iii)(B) and (a)(i) of this subsection:
DANGER
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
CANCER HAZARD))
(17) Recordkeeping.
(a) Exposure monitoring.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (6) of this section.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include:
(A) The dates, number, duration and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;
(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used;
(C) Type of respiratory worn, if any; and
(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(b) Medical surveillance.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance required by subsection (14) of this section.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include:
(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;
(B) A copy of the physician's written opinion;
(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to DBCP;
(D) A copy of the information provided the physician as required by subsection (14)(c) of this section; and
(E) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(c) Availability.
(i) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.
(ii) Employee exposure monitoring records and employee medical records required by this subsection ((shall))must be provided upon request to employees' designated representatives and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(d) Transfer of records.
(i) If the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer ((shall))must receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-802-60005.
(18) Observation of monitoring.
(a) Employee observation. The employer ((shall))must provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP conducted under subsection (6) of this section.
(b) Observation procedures.
(i) Whenever observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer ((shall))must provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, ((assure))ensure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring or measurement, observers shall be entitled to:
(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;
(B) Observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of DBCP performed at the place of exposure; and
(C) Record the results obtained.
(19) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99)
WAC 296-62-07343Appendix ASubstance safety data sheet for DBCP.
(1) Substance identification.
(a) Synonyms and trades names: DBCP; Dibromochloropropane; Fumazone (Dow Chemical Company TM); Nemafume; Nemagon (Shell Chemical Co. TM); Nemaset; BBC 12; and OS 1879.
(b) Permissible exposure:
(i) Airborne. 1 part DBCP vapor per billion parts of air (1 ppb); time-weighted average (TWA) for an eight-hour workday.
(ii) Dermal. Eye contact and skin contact with DBCP are prohibited.
(c) Appearance and odor: Technical grade DBCP is a dense yellow or amber liquid with a pungent odor. It may also appear in granular form, or blended in varying concentrations with other liquids.
(d) Uses: DBCP is used to control nematodes, very small worm-like plant parasites, on crops including cotton, soybeans, fruits, nuts, vegetables and ornamentals.
(2) Health hazard data.
(a) Routes of entry: Employees may be exposed:
(i) Through inhalation (breathing);
(ii) Through ingestion (swallowing);
(iii) Skin contact; and
(iv) Eye contact.
(b) Effects of exposure:
(i) Acute exposure. DBCP may cause drowsiness, irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and skin, nausea and vomiting. In addition, overexposure may cause damage to the lungs, liver or kidneys.
(ii) Chronic exposure. Prolonged or repeated exposure to DBCP has been shown to cause sterility in humans. It also has been shown to produce cancer and sterility in laboratory animals and has been determined to constitute an increased risk of cancer in people.
(iii) Reporting signs and symptoms. If you develop any of the above signs or symptoms that you think are caused by exposure to DBCP, you should inform your employer.
(3) Emergency first-aid procedures.
(a) Eye exposure. If DBCP liquid or dust containing DBCP gets into your eyes, wash your eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with DBCP.
(b) Skin exposure. If DBCP liquids or dusts containing DBCP get on your skin, immediately wash using soap or mild detergent and water. If DBCP liquids or dusts containing DBCP penetrate through your clothing, remove the clothing immediately and wash. If irritation is present after washing get medical attention.
(c) Breathing. If you or any person breathe in large amounts of DBCP, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration. Do not use mouth-to-mouth. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible.
(d) Swallowing. When DBCP has been swallowed and the person is conscious, give the person large amounts of water immediately. After the water has been swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by having ((him))them touch the back of ((his))their throat with ((his))their finger. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Get medical attention immediately.
(e) Rescue. Notify someone. Put into effect the established emergency rescue procedures. Know the locations of the emergency rescue equipment before the need arises.
(4) Respirators and protective clothing.
(a) Respirators. You may be required to wear a respirator in emergencies and while your employer is in the process of reducing DBCP exposures through engineering controls. If respirators are worn, they must have a label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 C.F.R. part 84 stating that the respirators have been certified for use with organic vapors. For effective protection, a respirator must fit your face and head snugly. The respirator should not be loosened or removed in work situations where its use is required. Respirators must not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.
(b) Protective clothing. When working with DBCP you must wear for your protection impermeable work clothing provided by your employer. (Standard rubber and neoprene protective clothing do not offer adequate protection). DBCP must never be allowed to remain on the skin. Clothing and shoes must not be allowed to become contaminated with DBCP, and if they do, they must be promptly removed and not worn again until completely free of DBCP. Turn in impermeable clothing that has developed leaks for repair or replacement.
(c) Eye protection. You must wear splashproof safety goggles where there is any possibility of DBCP liquid or dust contacting your eyes.
(5) Precautions for safe use, handling, and storage.
(a) DBCP must be stored in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area.
(b) If your work clothing may have become contaminated with DBCP, or liquids or dusts containing DBCP, you must change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
(c) You must promptly remove any protective clothing that becomes contaminated with DBCP. This clothing must not be reworn until the DBCP is removed from the clothing.
(d) If your skin becomes contaminated with DBCP, you must immediately and thoroughly wash or shower with soap or mild detergent and water to remove any DBCP from your skin.
(e) You must not keep food, beverages, cosmetics, or smoking materials, nor eat or smoke, in regulated areas.
(f) If you work in a regulated area, you must wash your hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent and water, before eating, smoking or using toilet facilities.
(g) If you work in a regulated area, you must remove any protective equipment or clothing before leaving the regulated area.
(h) Ask your supervisor where DBCP is used in your work area and for any additional safety and health rules.
(6) Access to information.
(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this substance safety data sheet for DBCP. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the safe use of DBCP, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.
(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to DBCP. You or your representative have the right to observe employee exposure measurements and to record the result obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, they are required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure.
(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposure and medical examinations. Your employer is required to keep exposure and medical data for at least forty years or the duration of your employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(d) Your employer is required to release exposure and medical records to you, your physician, or other individual designated by you upon your written request.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-17-168, filed 8/23/05, effective 1/1/06)
WAC 296-62-07355Ethylene oxide.
Scope and application.
Note:
The requirements in WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07386 apply only to agriculture. The requirements for all other industries relating to ethylene oxide have been moved to chapter 296-855 WAC, Ethylene oxide.
(1) WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389 applies to all occupational exposures to ethylene oxide (EtO), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75-21-8, except as provided in subsection (2) of this section.
(2) WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389 does not apply to the processing, use, or handling of products containing EtO where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate that the product is not capable of releasing EtO in airborne concentrations at or above the action level, and may not reasonably be foreseen to release EtO in excess of the excursion limit, under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.
(3) Where products containing EtO are exempted under subsection (2) of this section, the employer ((shall))must maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in WAC 296-62-07375(1).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 87-24-051, filed 11/30/87)
WAC 296-62-07357Definitions.
For the purpose of WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389, the following definitions shall apply:
(((1) "Action level" means))Action level. A concentration of airborne EtO of 0.5 ppm calculated as an eight-hour time-weighted average.
(((2) "Authorized person" means))Authorized person. Any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under WAC 296-62-07377, or any other person authorized by chapter 49.17 RCW or regulations issued under chapter 49.17 RCW.
(((3) "Director" means))Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, or designee.
(((4) "Emergency" means))Emergency. Any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that is likely to or does result in an unexpected significant release of EtO.
(((5) "Employee exposure" means))Employee exposure. Exposure to airborne EtO which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.
(((6) "Ethylene oxide" or "EtO" means))Ethylene oxide or EtO. The three-membered ring organic compound with chemical formula C2H4O.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 88-23-054, filed 11/14/88)
WAC 296-62-07359Permissible exposure limits (PEL).
(1) Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA). The employer ((shall))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of EtO in excess of one part EtO per million parts of air (1 ppm) as an eight-hour time-weighted average. (Eight-hour TWA.)
(2) Excursion limit. The employer ((shall))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of EtO in excess of five parts of EtO per million parts of air (5 ppm) as averaged over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 88-23-054, filed 11/14/88)
WAC 296-62-07361Exposure monitoring.
(1) General.
(a) Determinations of employee exposure ((shall))must be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the eight-hour TWA and fifteen-minute short-term exposures of each employee.
(b) Representative eight-hour TWA employee exposure ((shall))must be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift for each job classification in each work area. Representative fifteen-minute short-term employee exposures ((shall))must be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing fifteen-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the excursion limit for each shift for each job classification in each work area.
(c) Where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations in different work shifts, the employer need only determine representative employee exposure for that operation during one shift.
(2) Initial monitoring.
(a) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389, except as provided in WAC 296-62-07355(2) or (b) of this subsection, ((shall))must perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of EtO to which employees may be exposed.
(b) Where the employer has monitored after June 15, 1983, and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (a) of this subsection.
(c) Where the employer has previously monitored for the excursion limit and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (a) of this subsection.
(3) Monitoring frequency (periodic monitoring).
(a) If the monitoring required by subsection (2) of this section reveals employee exposure at or above the action level but at or below the eight-hour TWA, the employer ((shall))must repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least every six months.
(b) If the monitoring required by subsection (2)(a) of this section reveals employee exposure above the eight-hour TWA, the employer ((shall))must repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least every three months.
(c) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from quarterly to semiannually for any employee for whom two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart indicate that the employee's exposure has decreased to or below the eight-hour TWA.
(d) If the monitoring required by subsection (2)(a) of this section reveals employee exposure above the fifteen-minute excursion limit, the employer shall repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least every three months, and more often as necessary to evaluate the employee's short-term exposures.
(4) Termination of monitoring.
(a) If the initial monitoring required by subsection (2)(a) of this section reveals employee exposure to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue TWA monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.
(b) If the periodic monitoring required by subsection (3) of this section reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level, the employer may discontinue TWA monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.
(c) If the initial monitoring required by subsection (2)(a) of this section reveals the employee exposure to be at or below the excursion limit, the employer may discontinue excursion limit monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.
(d) If the periodic monitoring required by subsection (3) of this section reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart, are at or below the excursion limit, the employer may discontinue excursion limit monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.
(5) Additional monitoring. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (4) of this section, the employer ((shall))must institute the exposure monitoring required under subsections (2)(a) and (3) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures to EtO or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures.
(6) Accuracy of monitoring.
(a) Monitoring ((shall))must be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus twenty-five percent for airborne concentrations of EtO at the 1 ppm TWA and to within plus or minus thirty-five percent for airborne concentrations of EtO at the action level of 0.5 ppm.
(b) Monitoring ((shall))must be accurate, to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, to within plus or minus thirty-five percent for airborne concentrations of EtO at the excursion limit.
(7) Employee notification of monitoring results.
(a) The employer ((shall))must, within fifteen working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389, notify the affected employee of these results in writing either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.
(b) The written notification required by (a) of this subsection ((shall))must contain the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit, wherever monitoring results indicated that the TWA and/or excursion limit has been exceeded.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 88-23-054, filed 11/14/88)
WAC 296-62-07363Regulated areas.
(1) The employer ((shall))must establish a regulated area wherever occupational exposures to airborne concentrations of EtO may exceed the TWA or wherever the EtO concentration exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the excursion limit.
(2) Access to regulated areas ((shall))must be limited to authorized persons.
(3) Regulated areas ((shall))must be demarcated in any manner that minimizes the number of employees within the regulated area.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 88-23-054, filed 11/14/88)
WAC 296-62-07365Methods of compliance.
(1) Engineering controls and work practices.
(a) The employer ((shall))must institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the TWA and to or below the excursion limit, except to the extent that such controls are not feasible.
(b) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and to or below the excursion limit, the employer ((shall))must use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and ((shall))must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07367.
(c) Engineering controls are generally infeasible for the following operations: Collection of quality assurance sampling from sterilized materials removal of biological indicators from sterilized materials: Loading and unloading of tank cars; changing of ethylene oxide tanks on sterilizers; and vessel cleaning. For these operations, engineering controls are required only where the director demonstrates that such controls are feasible.
(2) Compliance program.
(a) Where the TWA or excursion limit is exceeded, the employer ((shall))must establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA and to or below the excursion limit by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by subsection (1) of this section, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389.
(b) The compliance program ((shall))must include a schedule for periodic leak detection surveys and a written plan for emergency situations, as specified in WAC 296-62-07369 (1)(a).
(c) Written plans for a program required in this subsection ((shall))must be developed and furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives. Such plans ((shall))must be reviewed at least every twelve months, and ((shall))must be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.
(d) The employer ((shall))must not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the TWA or excursion limit.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99)
WAC 296-62-07369Emergency situations.
(1) Written plan.
(a) A written plan for emergency situations ((shall))must be developed for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency. Appropriate portions of the plan ((shall))must be implemented in the event of an emergency.
(b) The plan ((shall))must specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions ((shall))must be equipped with respiratory protection as required by WAC 296-62-07367 until the emergency is abated.
(c) The plan ((shall))must include the elements prescribed in WAC 296-24-567, "Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans."
(2) Alerting employees. Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to EtO due to an emergency, means ((shall))must be developed to alert potentially affected employees of such occurrences promptly. Affected employees ((shall))must be immediately evacuated from the area in the event that an emergency occurs.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 87-24-051, filed 11/30/87)
WAC 296-62-07371Medical surveillance.
(1) General.
(a) Employees covered.
(i) The employer ((shall))must institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed to EtO at or above the action level, without regard to the use of respirators, for at least thirty days a year.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must make available medical examinations and consultations to all employees who have been exposed to EtO in an emergency situation.
(b) Examination by a physician. The employer ((shall))must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and are provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.
(2) Medical examinations and consultations.
(a) Frequency. The employer ((shall))must make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered under subsection (1)(a) of this section on the following schedules:
(i) Prior to assignment of the employee to an area where exposure may be at or above the action level for at least thirty days a year.
(ii) At least annually each employee exposed at or above the action level for at least thirty days in the past year.
(iii) At termination of employment or reassignment to an area where exposure to EtO is not at or above the action level for at least thirty days a year.
(iv) As medically appropriate for any employee exposed during an emergency.
(v) As soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either (A) that the employee has developed signs or symptoms indicating possible overexposure to EtO, or (B) that the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to EtO on the employee's ability to produce a healthy child.
(vi) If the examining physician determines that any of the examinations should be provided more frequently than specified, the employer ((shall))must provide such examinations to affected employees at the frequencies recommended by the physician.
(b) Content.
(i) Medical examinations made available pursuant to (a)(i) through (iv) of this subsection ((shall))must include:
(A) A medical and work history with special emphasis directed to symptoms related to the pulmonary, hematologic, neurologic, and reproductive systems and to the eyes and skin.
(B) A physical examination with particular emphasis given to the pulmonary, hematologic, neurologic, and reproductive systems and to the eyes and skin.
(C) A complete blood count to include at least a white cell count (including differential cell count), red cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin.
(D) Any laboratory or other test which the examining physician deems necessary by sound medical practice.
(ii) The content of medical examinations or consultation made available pursuant to (a)(i)(v) of this subsection shall be determined by the examining physician, and shall include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of fertility, if requested by the employee and deemed appropriate by the physician.
(3) Information provided to the physician. The employer ((shall))must provide the following information to the examining physician:
(a) A copy of WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389.
(b) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure.
(c) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level.
(d) A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used.
(e) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.
(4) Physician's written opinion.
(a) The employer ((shall))must obtain a written opinion from the examining physician. This written opinion ((shall))must contain the results of the medical examination and ((shall))must include:
(i) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to EtO;
(ii) Any recommended limitations on the employee or upon the use of personal protective equipment such as clothing or respirators; and
(iii) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions resulting from EtO exposure that require further explanation or treatment.
(b) The employer ((shall))must instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to EtO.
(c) The employer ((shall))must provide a copy of the physician's written opinion to the affected employee within fifteen days from its receipt.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07373Communication of EtO hazards.
(1) Hazard communication - General.
(a) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for EtO.
(b) In classifying the hazards of EtO at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; reproductive effects; mutagenicity; central nervous system; skin sensitization; skin, eye and respiratory tract irritation; acute toxicity effects; and flammability.
(c) Employers ((shall))must include EtO in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of EtO and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and WAC 296-855-20090.
(2) Signs and labels.
(a) Signs.
(((i))) The employer ((shall))must post and maintain legible signs demarcating regulated areas and entrances or accessways to regulated areas that bear the following legend:
DANGER
ETHYLENE OXIDE
MAY CAUSE CANCER
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MAY BE
REQUIRED IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(((ii) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (a)(i) of this subsection:
DANGER
ETHYLENE OXIDE
CANCER HAZARD AND REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MAY BE REQUIRED
TO BE WORN IN THIS AREA))
(b) Labels.
(((i))) The employer ((shall))must ensure that labels are affixed to all containers of EtO whose contents are capable of causing employee exposure at or above the action level or whose contents may reasonably be foreseen to cause employee exposure above the excursion limit, and that the labels remain affixed when the containers of EtO leave the workplace. For the purpose of this subsection, reaction vessels, storage tanks, and pipes or piping systems are not considered to be containers.
(((ii) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on containers of EtO in lieu of the labeling requirements in subsection (1)(a) of this section:
(A)
DANGER
CONTAINS ETHYLENE OXIDE
CANCER HAZARD AND REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD; and
(B) A warning statement against breathing airborne concentrations of EtO.
(c) The labeling requirements under WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389 do not apply where EtO is used as a pesticide, as such term is defined in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.), when it is labeled pursuant to that act and regulations issued under that act by the Environmental Protection Agency.
(d)))(c) The details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, including an explanation of the labeling system and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information.
(3) Safety data sheets. Employers who are manufacturers or importers of EtO ((shall))must comply with the requirements regarding development of safety data sheets as specified in WAC 296-901-14014 of the Hazard Communication Standard.
(4) Information and training.
(a) The employer ((shall))must provide employees who are potentially exposed to EtO at or above the action level or above the excursion limit with information and training on EtO at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.
(b) Employees ((shall))must be informed of the following:
(i) The requirements of WAC 296-62-07353 through 296-62-07389 with an explanation of its contents, including Appendices A and B;
(ii) Any operations in their work area where EtO is present;
(iii) The location and availability of the written EtO final rule; and
(iv) The medical surveillance program required by WAC 296-62-07371 with an explanation of the information in Appendix C.
(c) Employee training ((shall))must include at least:
(i) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of EtO in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, etc.);
(ii) The physical and health hazards of EtO;
(iii) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from hazards associated with EtO exposure, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to EtO, such as work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used; and
(iv) The details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, including an explanation of the labeling system and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-10-026, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04)
WAC 296-62-07375Recordkeeping.
(1) Objective data for exempted operations.
(a) Where the processing, use, or handling of products made from or containing EtO are exempted from other requirements of WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389 under WAC 296-62-07355, or where objective data have been relied on in lieu of initial monitoring under WAC 296-62-07361 (2)(b), the employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.
(b) This record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(i) The product qualifying for exemption;
(ii) The source of the objective data;
(iii) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of EtO;
(iv) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and
(v) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.
(c) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
(2) Exposure measurements.
(a) The employer ((shall))must keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to EtO as prescribed in WAC 296-62-07361.
(b) This record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(i) The date of measurement;
(ii) The operation involving exposure to EtO which is being monitored;
(iii) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(iv) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;
(v) Type of protective devices worn, if any; and
(vi) Name, Social Security number and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented.
(c) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for at least thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(3) Medical surveillance.
(a) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by WAC 296-62-07371 (1)(a), in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(b) The record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(i) The name and Social Security number of the employee;
(ii) Physicians' written opinions;
(iii) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to EtO; and
(iv) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by WAC 296-62-07371(3).
(c) The employer ((shall))must ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(4) Availability.
(a) The employer, upon written request, ((shall))must make all records required to be maintained by WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389 available to the director for examination and copying.
(b) The employer, upon request, ((shall))must make any exemption and exposure records required by WAC 296-62-07377 (1) and (2) available for examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, designated representatives and the director, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(c) The employer, upon request, ((shall))must make employee medical records required by subsection (3) of this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and the director, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(5) Transfer of records.
(a) The employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.
(b) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, the employer ((shall))must notify the director at least ninety days prior to disposal and transmit them to the director.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 87-24-051, filed 11/30/87)
WAC 296-62-07377Observation of monitoring.
(1) Employee observation. The employer ((shall))must provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to EtO conducted in accordance with WAC 296-62-07361.
(2) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to EtO requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the observer ((shall))must be provided with and be required to use such clothing and equipment and ((shall))must comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-075, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93)
WAC 296-62-07403Definitions.
(((1) Action level (AL) is defined as))Action level (AL). An airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).
(((2) Authorized person means))Authorized person. Any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas or any person authorized by the WISH Act or regulations issued under it to be in regulated areas.
(((3) Director means))Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, or authorized representatives.
(((4)))Employee exposure and similar language referring to the air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed((means)). The exposure to airborne cadmium that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.
(((5)))Final medical determination((is)). The written medical opinion of the employee's health status by the examining physician under WAC 296-62-07423 (3) through (12) or, if multiple physician review under WAC 296-62-07423(13) or the alternative physician determination under WAC 296-62-07423(14) is invoked, it is the final, written medical finding, recommendation or determination that emerges from that process.
(((6)))High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter((means)). A filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.
(((7) Regulated area means))Regulated area. An area demarcated by the employer where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-07-044, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93)
WAC 296-62-07405Permissible exposure limit (PEL).
The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of cadmium in excess of five micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average exposure (TWA).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-07-044, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93)
WAC 296-62-07407Exposure monitoring.
(1) General.
(a) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section ((shall))must determine if any employee may be exposed to cadmium at or above the action level.
(b) Determinations of employee exposure ((shall))must be made from breathing zone air samples that reflect the monitored employee's regular, daily 8-hour TWA exposure to cadmium.
(c) 8-hour TWA exposures ((shall))must be determined for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing zone air samples reflecting full shift exposure on each shift, for each job classification, in each work area. Where several employees perform the same job tasks, in the same job classification, on the same shift, in the same work area, and the length, duration, and level of cadmium exposures are similar, an employer may sample a representative fraction of the employees instead of all employees in order to meet this requirement. In representative sampling, the employer ((shall))must sample the employee(s) expected to have the highest cadmium exposures.
(2) Specific.
(a) Initial monitoring. Except as provided for in (b) and (c) of this subsection, the employer ((shall))must monitor employee exposures and ((shall))must base initial determinations on the monitoring results.
(b) Where the employer has monitored after September 14, 1991, under conditions that in all important aspects closely resemble those currently prevailing and where that monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, including the accuracy and confidence levels of subsection (6) of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of WAC 296-62-07427 (2)(a).
(c) Where the employer has objective data, as defined in WAC 296-62-07427(2), demonstrating that employee exposure to cadmium will not exceed the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling, the employer may rely upon such data instead of implementing initial monitoring.
(3) Monitoring frequency (periodic monitoring).
(a) If the initial monitoring or periodic monitoring reveals employee exposures to be at or above the action level, the employer ((shall))must monitor at a frequency and pattern needed to represent the levels of exposure of employees and where exposures are above the PEL to ((assure))ensure the adequacy of respiratory selection and the effectiveness of engineering and work practice controls. However, such exposure monitoring ((shall))must be performed at least every six months. The employer, at a minimum, ((shall))must continue these semiannual measurements unless and until the conditions set out in (b) of this subsection are met.
(b) If the initial monitoring or the periodic monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level and that result is confirmed by the results of another monitoring taken at least seven days later, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.
(4) Additional monitoring. The employer also ((shall))must institute the exposure monitoring required under (2)(a) and (3) of this section whenever there has been a change in the raw materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or finished products that may result in additional employees being exposed to cadmium at or above the action level or in employees already exposed to cadmium at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, or whenever the employer has any reason to suspect that any other change might result in such further exposure.
(5) Employee notification of monitoring results.
(a) Within fifteen working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, the employer ((shall))must notify each affected employee individually in writing of the results. In addition, within the same time period the employer ((shall))must post the results of the exposure monitoring in an appropriate location that is accessible to all affected employees.
(b) Wherever monitoring results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the PEL, the employer ((shall))must include in the written notice a statement that the PEL has been exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL.
(6) Accuracy of measurement. The employer ((shall))must use a method of monitoring and analysis that has an accuracy of not less than plus or minus twenty-five percent, with a confidence level of ninety-five percent, for airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level, the permissible exposure limit (PEL), and the separate engineering control air limit (SECAL).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-07-044, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93)
WAC 296-62-07409Regulated areas.
(1) Establishment. The employer ((shall))must establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium is, or can reasonably be expected to be in excess of the permissible exposure limit (PEL).
(2) Demarcation. Regulated areas ((shall))must be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees of the boundaries of the regulated area.
(3) Access. Access to regulated areas ((shall))must be limited to authorized persons.
(4) Provision of respirators. Each person entering a regulated area ((shall))must be supplied with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with WAC 296-62-07413(2).
(5) Prohibited activities. The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas, carry the products associated with these activities into regulated areas, or store such products in those areas.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-075, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93)
WAC 296-62-07411Methods of compliance.
(1) Compliance hierarchy.
(a) Except as specified in (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection, the employer ((shall))must implement engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to cadmium at or below the PEL, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.
(b) Except as specified in (c) and (d) of this subsection, in industries where a separate engineering control air limit (SECAL) has been specified for particular processes (Table ((1))I of this subsection), the employer ((shall))must implement engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure at or below the SECAL, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.
Table I.—Separate Engineering
Control Airborne Limits (SECALs) for Processes in Selected Industries
Industry
Process
SECAL
(µg/m3)
Nickel cadmium battery
Plate making, plate preparation
50
All other processes
15
Zinc/Cadmium refining*
Cadmium refining, casting, melting, oxide production, sinter plant
50
Pigment manufacture
Calcine, crushing, milling, blending
50
All other processes
15
Stabilizers*
Cadmium oxide charging, crushing, drying, blending
50
Lead smelting*
Sinter plant, blast furnace, baghouse, yard area
50
Plating*
Mechanical plating
15
*
Processes in these industries that are not specified in this table must achieve the PEL using engineering controls and work practices as required in (a) of this subsection.
(c) The requirement to implement engineering and work practice controls to achieve the PEL or, where applicable, the SECAL does not apply where the employer demonstrates the following:
(i) The employee is only intermittently exposed; and
(ii) The employee is not exposed above the PEL on thirty or more days per year (twelve consecutive months).
(d) Wherever engineering and work practice controls are required and are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL or, where applicable, the SECAL, the employer nonetheless ((shall))must implement such controls to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable. The employer ((shall))must supplement such controls with respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07413 and the PEL.
(e) The employer ((shall))must not use employee rotation as a method of compliance.
(2) Compliance program.
(a) Where the PEL is exceeded, the employer ((shall))must establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by subsection (1) of this section. To the extent that engineering and work practice controls cannot reduce exposures to or below the PEL, the employer ((shall))must include in the written compliance program the use of appropriate respiratory protection to achieve compliance with the PEL.
(b) Written compliance programs ((shall))must include at least the following:
(i) A description of each operation in which cadmium is emitted; e.g., machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures, and maintenance practices;
(ii) A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance, including engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to cadmium, as well as, where necessary, the use of appropriate respiratory protection to achieve the PEL;
(iii) A report of the technology considered in meeting the PEL;
(iv) Air monitoring data that document the sources of cadmium emissions;
(v) A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.;
(vi) A work practice program that includes items required under WAC 296-62-07415, 296-62-07417, and 296-62-07419;
(vii) A written plan for emergency situations, as specified in WAC 296-62-07415; and
(viii) Other relevant information.
(c) The written compliance programs ((shall))must be reviewed and updated at least annually, or more often if necessary, to reflect significant changes in the employer's compliance status.
(d) Written compliance programs ((shall))must be provided upon request for examination and copying to affected employees, designated employee representatives, and the director.
(3) Mechanical ventilation.
(a) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure ((shall))must be made as necessary to maintain its effectiveness.
(b) Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure ((shall))must be made as necessary within five working days of any change in production, process, or control that might result in a significant increase in employee exposure to cadmium.
(c) Recirculation of air. If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the system ((shall))must have a high efficiency filter and be monitored to ((assure))ensure effectiveness.
(d) Procedures ((shall))must be developed and implemented to minimize employee exposure to cadmium when maintenance of ventilation systems and changing of filters is being conducted.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-07-044, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93)
WAC 296-62-07415Emergency situations.
The employer ((shall))must develop and implement a written plan for dealing with emergency situations involving substantial releases of airborne cadmium. The plan ((shall))must include provisions for the use of appropriate respirators and personal protective equipment. In addition, employees not essential to correcting the emergency situation ((shall))must be restricted from the area and normal operations halted in that area until the emergency is abated.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-62-07417Protective work clothing and equipment.
(1) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to airborne cadmium above the PEL or where skin or eye irritation is associated with cadmium exposure at any level, the employer ((shall))must provide at no cost to the employee, and ((assure))ensure that the employee uses, appropriate protective work clothing and equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's garments. Protective work clothing and equipment includes, but is not limited to:
(a) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;
(b) Gloves, head coverings, and boots or foot coverings; and
(c) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment that complies with WAC 296-800-160.
(2) Removal and storage.
(a) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees remove all protective clothing and equipment contaminated with cadmium at the completion of the work shift and do so only in change rooms provided in accordance with WAC 296-62-07419(1).
(b) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee takes cadmium-contaminated protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for employees authorized to do so for purposes of laundering, cleaning, maintaining, or disposing of cadmium contaminated protective clothing and equipment at an appropriate location or facility away from the workplace.
(c) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that contaminated protective clothing and equipment, when removed for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, is placed and stored in sealed, impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers that are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium dust.
(d) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that bags or containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment that are to be taken out of the change rooms or the workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal ((shall))must bear labels in accordance with WAC 296-62-07425(3).
(3) Cleaning, replacement, and disposal.
(a) The employer ((shall))must provide the protective clothing and equipment required by subsection (1) of this section in a clean and dry condition as often as necessary to maintain its effectiveness, but in any event at least weekly. The employer is responsible for cleaning and laundering the protective clothing and equipment required by this paragraph to maintain its effectiveness and is also responsible for disposing of such clothing and equipment.
(b) The employer also is responsible for repairing or replacing required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain its effectiveness. When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working they ((shall))must be immediately mended, or the worksuit ((shall))must be immediately replaced.
(c) The employer ((shall))must prohibit the removal of cadmium from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses cadmium into the air.
(d) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that any laundering of contaminated clothing or cleaning of contaminated equipment in the workplace is done in a manner that prevents the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the permissible exposure limit prescribed in WAC 296-62-07405.
(e) The employer ((shall))must inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with cadmium of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to cadmium and that the clothing and equipment should be laundered or cleaned in a manner to effectively prevent the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the PEL.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-18-090, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03)
WAC 296-62-07419Hygiene areas and practices.
(1) General. For employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL, the employer ((shall))must provide clean change rooms, handwashing facilities, showers, and lunchroom facilities that comply with WAC 296-800-230.
(2) Change rooms. The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for street clothes and for protective clothing and equipment, which are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium and contamination of the employee's street clothes.
(3) Showers and handwashing facilities.
(a) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees who are exposed to cadmium above the PEL shower during the end of the work shift.
(b) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, or applying cosmetics.
(4) Lunchroom facilities.
(a) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that the lunchroom facilities are readily accessible to employees, that tables for eating are maintained free of cadmium, and that no employee in a lunchroom facility is exposed at any time to cadmium at or above a concentration of 2.5 µg/m3.
(b) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface cadmium has been removed from the clothing and equipment by HEPA vacuuming or some other method that removes cadmium dust without dispersing it.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-12-098, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02)
WAC 296-62-07421Housekeeping.
(1) All surfaces ((shall))must be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of cadmium.
(2) All spills and sudden releases of material containing cadmium ((shall))must be cleaned up as soon as possible.
(3) Surfaces contaminated with cadmium ((shall))must, wherever possible, be cleaned by vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne.
(4) HEPA-filtered vacuuming equipment or equally effective filtration methods ((shall))must be used for vacuuming. The equipment ((shall))must be used and emptied in a manner that minimizes the reentry of cadmium into the workplace.
(5) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne have been tried and found not to be effective.
(6) Compressed air ((shall))must not be used to remove cadmium from any surface unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.
(7) Waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, personal protective equipment, and clothing contaminated with cadmium and consigned for disposal must be collected and disposed of in sealed impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers. These bags and containers must be labeled in accordance with WAC 296-62-07425(3).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-075, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93)
WAC 296-62-07423Medical surveillance.
(1) General.
(a) Scope.
(i) Currently exposed. The employer ((shall))must institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed to cadmium at or above the action level unless the employer demonstrates that the employee is not, and will not be, exposed at or above the action level on thirty or more days per year (twelve consecutive months); and
(ii) Previously exposed. The employer ((shall))must also institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who prior to the effective date of this section might previously have been exposed to cadmium at or above the action level by the employer, unless the employer demonstrates that the employee did not prior to the effective date of this section work for the employer in jobs with exposure to cadmium for an aggregated total of more than sixty months.
(b) To determine an employee's fitness for using a respirator, the employer ((shall))must provide the limited medical examination specified in subsection (6) of this section.
(c) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this standard are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, who has read and is familiar with the health effects WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A, the regulatory text of this section, the protocol for sample handling and laboratory selection in WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F and the questionnaire of WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D. These examinations and procedures ((shall))must be provided without cost to the employee and at a time and place that is reasonable and convenient to employees.
(d) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that the collecting and handling of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees under this section is done in a manner that ((assures))ensures their reliability and that analysis of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees under this section is performed in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency for that particular analyte. (See WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F.)
(2) Initial examination.
(a) The employer ((shall))must provide an initial (preplacement) examination to all employees covered by the medical surveillance program required in subsection (1)(a) of this section. The examination ((shall))must be provided to those employees within thirty days after initial assignment to a job with exposure to cadmium or no later than ninety days after the effective date of this section, whichever date is later.
(b) The initial (preplacement) medical examination ((shall))must include:
(i) A detailed medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, reproductive, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; current usage of medication with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; and smoking history and current status; and
(ii) Biological monitoring that includes the following tests:
(A) Cadmium in urine (CdU), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr);
(B) Beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr), with pH specified, as described in WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F; and
(C) Cadmium in blood (CdB), standardized to liters of whole blood (lwb).
(c) Recent examination: An initial examination is not required to be provided if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of (b) of this subsection within the past twelve months. In that case, such records ((shall))must be maintained as part of the employee's medical record and the prior exam ((shall))must be treated as if it were an initial examination for the purposes of subsections (3) and (4) of this section.
(3) Actions triggered by initial biological monitoring:
(a) If the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the employee's CdU level to be at or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level to be at or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level to be at or below 5 µg/lwb, then:
(i) For currently exposed employees, who are subject to medical surveillance under subsection (1)(a)(i) of this section, the employer ((shall))must provide the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance in accordance with the requirements in subsection (4)(a) of this section; and
(ii) For previously exposed employees, who are subject to medical surveillance under subsection (1)(a)(ii) of this section, the employer ((shall))must provide biological monitoring for CdU, β2-M, and CdB one year after the initial biological monitoring and then the employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements of subsection (4)(e) of this section.
(b) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under subsection (1)(a) of this section, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to exceed 3 µg/g Cr, the level of β2-M to exceed 300 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to exceed 5 µg/lwb, the employer ((shall))must:
(i) Within two weeks after receipt of biological monitoring results, reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium as follows:
(A) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene;
(B) Reevaluate the employee's respirator use, if any, and the respirator program;
(C) Review the hygiene facilities;
(D) Reevaluate the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls;
(E) Assess the employee's smoking history and status;
(ii) Within thirty days after the exposure reassessment, specified in (b)(i) of this subsection, take reasonable steps to correct any deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium; and,
(iii) Within ninety days after receipt of biological monitoring results, provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07423 (4)(b). After completing the medical examination, the examining physician ((shall))must determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. If the physician determines that medical removal is not necessary, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, µ2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer ((shall))must:
(A) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section on a semiannual basis; and
(B) Provide annual medical examinations in accordance with subsection (4)(b) of this section.
(c) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under subsection (1)(a) of this section, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to be in excess of 15 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 15 µg/lwb, or the level of β2-M to be in excess of 1,500 µg/g Cr, the employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements of (b)(i) and (ii) of this subsection. Within ninety days after receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer ((shall))must provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of subsection (4)(b) of this section. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician ((shall))must determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 15 µg/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 15 µg/lwb; or β2-M exceeds 1500 µg/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 µg/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 µg/liter of whole blood, then the physician ((shall))must medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer ((shall))must:
(i) Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;
(ii) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section on a quarterly basis; and
(iii) Provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with subsection (4)(b) of this section.
(d) For all employees to whom medical surveillance is provided, beginning on January 1, 1999, and in lieu of (a) through (c) of this subsection:
(i) If the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the employee's CdU level to be at or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level to be at or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level to be at or below 5 µg/lwb, then for currently exposed employees, the employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements of (a)(i) of this subsection and for previously exposed employees, the employer shall comply with the requirements of (a)(ii) of this subsection;
(ii) If the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to exceed 3 µg/g Cr, the level of β2-M to exceed 300 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to exceed 5 µg/lwb, the employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements of (b)(i) through (iii) of this subsection; and
(iii) If the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to be in excess of 7 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 10 µg/lwb, or the level of β2-M to be in excess of 750 µg/g Cr, the employer ((shall))must: Comply with the requirements of (b)(i) through (ii) of this subsection; and, within ninety days after receipt of biological monitoring results, provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of subsection (4)(b) of this section. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician ((shall))must determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 7 µg/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 10 µg/lwb; or β2-M exceeds 750 µg/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 µg/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 µg/liter of whole blood, then the physician ((shall))must medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, β2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, the employer ((shall))must: Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium; provide biological monitoring in accordance with subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section on a quarterly basis; and provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with subsection (4)(b) of this section.
(4) Periodic medical surveillance.
(a) For each employee who is covered under subsection (1)(a)(i) of this section, the employer ((shall))must provide at least the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance, which consists of periodic medical examinations and periodic biological monitoring. A periodic medical examination ((shall))must be provided within one year after the initial examination required by subsection (2) of this section and thereafter at least biennially. Biological sampling ((shall))must be provided at least annually, either as part of a periodic medical examination or separately as periodic biological monitoring.
(b) The periodic medical examination ((shall))must include:
(i) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: Past, present and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; reproductive history; current use of medications with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; and as part of the medical and work history, for employees who wear respirators, questions 3-11 and 25-32 in WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D;
(ii) A complete physical examination with emphasis on: Blood pressure, the respiratory system, and the urinary system;
(iii) A 14 inch by 17 inch, or a reasonably standard sized posterior-anterior chest X-ray (after the initial X-ray, the frequency of chest X-rays is to be determined by the examining physician);
(iv) Pulmonary function tests, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1);
(v) Biological monitoring, as required in subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section;
(vi) Blood analysis, in addition to the analysis required under this section, including blood urea nitrogen, complete blood count, and serum creatinine;
(vii) Urinalysis, in addition to the analysis required under subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section, including the determination of albumin, glucose, and total and low molecular weight proteins;
(viii) For males over forty years old, prostate palpation, or other at least as effective diagnostic test(s); and
(ix) Any additional tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician.
(c) Periodic biological monitoring ((shall))must be provided in accordance with subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section.
(d) If the results of periodic biological monitoring or the results of biological monitoring performed as part of the periodic medical examination show the level of the employee's CdU, β2-M, or CdB to be in excess of the levels specified in subsection (3)(b) or (c) of this section; or, beginning on January 1, 1999, in excess of the levels specified in subsection (3)(b) or (d) of this section, the employer ((shall))must take the appropriate actions specified in subsection (3)(b) through (d) of this section.
(e) For previously exposed employees under subsection (1)(a)(ii) of this section:
(i) If the employee's levels of CdU did not exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB did not exceed 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M did not exceed 300 µg/g Cr in the initial biological monitoring tests, and if the results of the followup biological monitoring required by subsection (3)(a)(ii) of this section one year after the initial examination confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.
(ii) If the initial biological monitoring results for CdU, CdB, or β2-M were in excess of the levels specified in subsection (3)(a) of this section, but subsequent biological monitoring results required by subsection (3)(b) through (e) of this section show that the employee's CdU levels no longer exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB levels no longer exceed 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M levels no longer exceed 300 µg/g Cr, the employer shall provide biological monitoring for CdU, CdB, and β2-M one year after these most recent biological monitoring results. If the results of the followup biological monitoring, specified in this section, confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.
(iii) However, if the results of the follow-up tests specified in (e)(i) or (ii) of this subsection indicate that the level of the employee's CdU, β2-M, or CdB exceeds these same levels, the employer is required to provide annual medical examinations in accordance with the provisions of (b) of this subsection until the results of biological monitoring are consistently below these levels or the examining physician determines in a written medical opinion that further medical surveillance is not required to protect the employee's health.
(f) A routine, biennial medical examination is not required to be provided in accordance with subsections (3)(a) and (4) of this section if adequate medical records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of (b) of this subsection within the past twelve months. In that case, such records ((shall))must be maintained by the employer as part of the employee's medical record, and the next routine, periodic medical examination ((shall))must be made available to the employee within two years of the previous examination.
(5) Actions triggered by medical examinations.
If the results of a medical examination carried out in accordance with this section indicate any laboratory or clinical finding consistent with cadmium toxicity that does not require employer action under subsection((s)) (2), (3), or (4) of this section, the employer, within thirty days, ((shall))must reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium and take the following corrective action until the physician determines they are no longer necessary:
(a) Periodically reassess: The employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's smoking history and status; the respiratory protection program; the hygiene facilities; and the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls;
(b) Within thirty days after the reassessment, take all reasonable steps to correct the deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium;
(c) Provide semiannual medical reexaminations to evaluate the abnormal clinical sign(s) of cadmium toxicity until the results are normal or the employee is medically removed; and
(d) Where the results of tests for total proteins in urine are abnormal, provide a more detailed medical evaluation of the toxic effects of cadmium on the employee's renal system.
(6) Examination for respirator use.
(a) To determine an employee's fitness for respirator use, the employer ((shall))must provide a medical examination that includes the elements specified in (a)(i) through (iv) of this subsection. This examination ((shall))must be provided prior to the employee's being assigned to a job that requires the use of a respirator or no later than ninety days after this section goes into effect, whichever date is later, to any employee without a medical examination within the preceding twelve months that satisfies the requirements of this paragraph.
(i) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: Past exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculoskeletal system dysfunction; a description of the job for which the respirator is required; and questions 3 through 11 and 25 through 32 in WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D;
(ii) A blood pressure test;
(iii) Biological monitoring of the employee's levels of CdU, CdB and β2-M in accordance with the requirements of subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section, unless such results already have been obtained within the previous twelve months; and
(iv) Any other test or procedure that the examining physician deems appropriate.
(b) After reviewing all the information obtained from the medical examination required in (a) of this subsection, the physician ((shall))must determine whether the employee is fit to wear a respirator.
(c) Whenever an employee has exhibited difficulty in breathing during a respirator fit test or during use of a respirator, the employer, as soon as possible, ((shall))must provide the employee with a periodic medical examination in accordance with subsection (4)(b) of this section to determine the employee's fitness to wear a respirator.
(d) Where the results of the examination required under (a), (b), or (c) of this subsection are abnormal, medical limitation or prohibition of respirator use ((shall))must be considered. If the employee is allowed to wear a respirator, the employee's ability to continue to do so ((shall))must be periodically evaluated by a physician.
(7) Emergency examinations.
(a) In addition to the medical surveillance required in subsections (2) through (6) of this section, the employer ((shall))must provide a medical examination as soon as possible to any employee who may have been acutely exposed to cadmium because of an emergency.
(b) The examination ((shall))must include the requirements of subsection (4)(b) of this section, with emphasis on the respiratory system, other organ systems considered appropriate by the examining physician, and symptoms of acute overexposure, as identified in WAC 296-62-07441 (2)(b)(i) through (ii) and (4), Appendix A.
(8) Termination of employment examination.
(a) At termination of employment, the employer ((shall))must provide a medical examination in accordance with subsection (4)(b) of this section, including a chest X-ray, to any employee to whom at any prior time the employer was required to provide medical surveillance under subsection (1)(a) or (7) of this section. However, if the last examination satisfied the requirements of subsection (4)(b) of this section and was less than six months prior to the date of termination, no further examination is required unless otherwise specified in subsection (3) or (5) of this section;
(b) However, for employees covered by subsection (1)(a)(ii) of this section, if the employer has discontinued all periodic medical surveillance under subsection (4)(e) of this section, no termination of employment medical examination is required.
(9) Information provided to the physician. The employer ((shall))must provide the following information to the examining physician:
(a) A copy of this standard and appendices;
(b) A description of the affected employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;
(c) The employee's former, current, and anticipated future levels of occupational exposure to cadmium;
(d) A description of any personal protective equipment, including respirators, used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used that equipment; and
(e) Relevant results of previous biological monitoring and medical examinations.
(10) Physician's written medical opinion.
(a) The employer ((shall))must promptly obtain a written, signed medical opinion from the examining physician for each medical examination performed on each employee. This written opinion ((shall))must contain:
(i) The physician's diagnosis for the employee;
(ii) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from further exposure to cadmium, including any indications of potential cadmium toxicity;
(iii) The results of any biological or other testing or related evaluations that directly assess the employee's absorption of cadmium;
(iv) Any recommended removal from, or limitation on the activities or duties of the employee or on the employee's use of personal protective equipment, such as respirators;
(v) A statement that the physician has clearly and carefully explained to the employee the results of the medical examination, including all biological monitoring results and any medical conditions related to cadmium exposure that require further evaluation or treatment, and any limitation on the employee's diet or use of medications.
(b) The employer promptly ((shall))must obtain a copy of the results of any biological monitoring provided by an employer to an employee independently of a medical examination under subsections (2) and (4) of this section, and, in lieu of a written medical opinion, an explanation sheet explaining those results.
(c) The employer ((shall))must instruct the physician not to reveal orally or in the written medical opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to cadmium.
(11) Medical removal protection (MRP).
(a) General.
(i) The employer ((shall))must temporarily remove an employee from work where there is excess exposure to cadmium on each occasion that medical removal is required under subsection (3), (4), or (6) of this section and on each occasion that a physician determines in a written medical opinion that the employee should be removed from such exposure. The physician's determination may be based on biological monitoring results, inability to wear a respirator, evidence of illness, other signs or symptoms of cadmium-related dysfunction or disease, or any other reason deemed medically sufficient by the physician.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must medically remove an employee in accordance with this subsection regardless of whether at the time of removal a job is available into which the removed employee may be transferred.
(iii) Whenever an employee is medically removed under this subsection, the employer ((shall))must transfer the removed employee to a job where the exposure to cadmium is within the permissible levels specified in that subsection as soon as one becomes available.
(iv) For any employee who is medically removed under the provisions of (a) of this subsection, the employer ((shall))must provide follow-up biological monitoring in accordance with subsection (2)(b)(ii) of this section at least every three months and follow-up medical examinations semiannually at least every six months until in a written medical opinion the examining physician determines that either the employee may be returned to ((his/her))their former job status as specified under (d) through (e) of this subsection or the employee must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure.
(v) The employer may not return an employee who has been medically removed for any reason to ((his/her))their former job status until a physician determines in a written medical opinion that continued medical removal is no longer necessary to protect the employee's health.
(b) Where an employee is found unfit to wear a respirator under subsection (6)(b) of this section, the employer ((shall))must remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is above the PEL.
(c) Where removal is based on any reason other than the employee's inability to wear a respirator, the employer ((shall))must remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is at or above the action level.
(d) Except as specified in (e) of this subsection, no employee who was removed because ((his/her))their level of CdU, CdB and/or β2-M exceeded the medical removal trigger levels in subsection (3) or (4) of this section may be returned to work with exposure to cadmium at or above the action level until the employee's levels of CdU fall to or below 3 µg/g Cr, CdB falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr.
(e) However, when in the examining physician's opinion continued exposure to cadmium will not pose an increased risk to the employee's health and there are special circumstances that make continued medical removal an inappropriate remedy, the physician ((shall))must fully discuss these matters with the employee, and then in a written determination may return a worker to ((his/her))their former job status despite what would otherwise be unacceptably high biological monitoring results. Thereafter, the returned employee ((shall))must continue to be provided with medical surveillance as if ((he/she))they were still on medical removal until the employee's levels of CdU fall to or below 3 µg/g Cr, CdB falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, and β2-M falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr.
(f) Where an employer, although not required by (a) through (c) of this subsection to do so, removes an employee from exposure to cadmium or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of cadmium exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer ((shall))must provide the same medical removal protection benefits to that employee under subsection (12) of this section as would have been provided had the removal been required under (a) through (c) of this subsection.
(12) Medical removal protection benefits (MRPB).
(a) The employer ((shall))must provide MRPB for up to a maximum of eighteen months to an employee each time and while the employee is temporarily medically removed under subsection (11) of this section.
(b) For purposes of this section, the requirement that the employer provide MRPB means that the employer ((shall))must maintain the total normal earnings, seniority, and all other employee rights and benefits of the removed employee, including the employee's right to ((his/her))their former job status, as if the employee had not been removed from the employee's job or otherwise medically limited.
(c) Where, after eighteen months on medical removal because of elevated biological monitoring results, the employee's monitoring results have not declined to a low enough level to permit the employee to be returned to ((his/her))their former job status:
(i) The employer ((shall))must make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant in order to obtain a final medical determination as to whether the employee may be returned to ((his/her))their former job status or must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure; and
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that the final medical determination indicates whether the employee may be returned to ((his/her))their former job status and what steps, if any, should be taken to protect the employee's health.
(d) The employer may condition the provision of MRPB upon the employee's participation in medical surveillance provided in accordance with this section.
(13) Multiple physician review.
(a) If the employer selects the initial physician to conduct any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee may designate a second physician to:
(i) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; and
(ii) Conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
(b) The employer ((shall))must promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician provided by the employer conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, multiple physician review upon the employee doing the following within fifteen days after receipt of this notice, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:
(i) Informing the employer that he or she intends to seek a medical opinion; and
(ii) Initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.
(c) If the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee ((shall assure))must ensure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.
(d) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee, through their respective physicians, ((shall))must designate a third physician to:
(i) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the other two physicians; and
(ii) Conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests, and discussions with the other two physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement among them.
(e) The employer ((shall))must act consistently with the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement that is consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the other two physicians.
(14) Alternate physician determination. The employer and an employee or designated employee representative may agree upon the use of any alternate form of physician determination in lieu of the multiple physician review provided by subsection (13) of this section, so long as the alternative is expeditious and at least as protective of the employee.
(15) Information the employer must provide the employee.
(a) The employer ((shall))must provide a copy of the physician's written medical opinion to the examined employee within two weeks after receipt thereof.
(b) The employer ((shall))must provide the employee with a copy of the employee's biological monitoring results and an explanation sheet explaining the results within two weeks after receipt thereof.
(c) Within thirty days after a request by an employee, the employer ((shall))must provide the employee with the information the employer is required to provide the examining physician under subsection (9) of this section.
(16) Reporting. In addition to other medical events that are required to be reported on the OSHA Form No. 200, the employer ((shall))must report any abnormal condition or disorder caused by occupational exposure to cadmium associated with employment as specified in WAC ((296-27-060))296-27-02105.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07425Communication of cadmium hazards.
(1) General. Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of WAC 296-901-140((,)) Hazard communication.
(2) In classifying the hazards of cadmium at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; lung effects; kidney effects; and acute toxicity effects.
(3) Employers ((shall))must include cadmium in the hazard communication program established to comply with WAC 296-901-140((,)) Hazard communication. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of cadmium and to safety data sheets (SDSs), and is trained in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-901-140((,)) Hazard communication and subsection (m)(4) of this section.
(4) Warning signs.
(a) Warning signs ((shall))must be provided and displayed in regulated areas. In addition, warning signs ((shall))must be posted at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.
(b) ((Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (d) of this subsection:
DANGER CADMIUM CANCER HAZARD CAN CAUSE LUNG
AND KIDNEY DISEASE AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA
(c))) The employer ((shall))must ensure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated, cleaned, and maintained as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.
(((d)))(c) Warning signs required by (a) of this subsection ((shall))must bear the following legend:
DANGER CADMIUM MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(5) Warning labels.
(a) Shipping and storage containers containing cadmium, cadmium compounds, or cadmium contaminated clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris ((shall))must bear appropriate warning labels, as specified in subsection (1) of this section.
(b) ((Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on warning labels in lieu of the labeling requirements specified in subsection (1) of this section and (c) of this subsection:
DANGER CONTAINS CADMIUM CANCER HAZARD AVOID
CREATING DUST CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE
(c))) The warning labels for containers of contaminated protective clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris ((shall))must include at least the following information:
DANGER CONTAINS CADMIUM MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS
AVOID CREATING DUST
(((d)))(c) Where feasible, installed cadmium products ((shall))must have a visible label or other indication that cadmium is present.
(6) Employee information and training.
(a) The employer ((shall))must train each employee who is potentially exposed to cadmium in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. The employer ((shall))must institute a training program, ensure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of such program.
(b) Training ((shall))must be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to cadmium and at least annually thereafter.
(c) The employer ((shall))must make the training program understandable to the employee and ((shall assure))must ensure that each employee is informed of the following:
(i) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special attention to the information incorporated in WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A;
(ii) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in the workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure to cadmium, especially exposures above the PEL;
(iii) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;
(iv) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal hygiene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment;
(v) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of protective clothing;
(vi) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by WAC 296-62-07423;
(vii) The contents of this section and its appendices;
(viii) The employee's rights of access to records under WAC 296-901-140 and chapter 296-802 WAC; and
(ix) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required in chapter ((296-62))296-842 WAC((, Part E)).
(d) Additional access to information and training program and materials.
(i) The employer ((shall))must make a copy of this section and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and ((shall))must provide a copy if requested.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide to the director, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-10-026, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04)
WAC 296-62-07427Recordkeeping.
(1) Exposure monitoring.
(a) The employer ((shall))must establish and keep an accurate record of all air monitoring for cadmium in the workplace.
(b) This record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(i) The monitoring date, duration, and results in terms of an 8-hour TWA of each sample taken;
(ii) The name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposures the monitoring is intended to represent;
(iii) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(iv) The type of respiratory protective device, if any, worn by the monitored employee;
(v) A notation of any other conditions that might have affected the monitoring results.
(c) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for at least thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(2) Objective data for exemption from requirement for initial monitoring.
(a) For purposes of this section, objective data are information demonstrating that a particular product or material containing cadmium or a specific process, operation, or activity involving cadmium cannot release dust or fumes in concentrations at or above the action level even under the worst-case release conditions. Objective data can be obtained from an industry-wide study or from laboratory product test results from manufacturers of cadmium-containing products or materials. The data the employer uses from an industry-wide survey must be obtained under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.
(b) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain a record of the objective data for at least thirty years.
(3) Medical surveillance.
(a) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under WAC 296-62-07423 (1)(a).
(b) The record ((shall))must include at least the following information about the employee:
(i) Name, Social Security number, and description of the duties;
(ii) A copy of the physician's written opinions and an explanation sheet for biological monitoring results;
(iii) A copy of the medical history, and the results of any physical examination and all test results that are required to be provided by this section, including biological tests, X-rays, pulmonary function tests, etc., or that have been obtained to further evaluate any condition that might be related to cadmium exposure;
(iv) The employee's medical symptoms that might be related to exposure to cadmium; and
(v) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by WAC 296-62-07423 (9)(b) through (e).
(c) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(4) Training. The employer ((shall))must certify that employees have been trained by preparing a certification record which includes the identity of the person trained, the signature of the employer or the person who conducted the training, and the date the training was completed. The certification records ((shall))must be prepared at the completion of training and ((shall))must be maintained on file for one year beyond the date of training of that employee.
(5) Availability.
(a) Except as otherwise provided for in this section, access to all records required to be maintained by subsections (1) through (4) of this section ((shall))must be in accordance with the provisions of chapter 296-802 WAC.
(b) Within fifteen days after a request, the employer ((shall))must make an employee's medical records required to be kept by subsection (3) of this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, to designated representatives, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and after the employee's death or incapacitation, to the employee's family members.
(6) Transfer of records. Whenever an employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain records for the prescribed period or the employer intends to dispose of any records required to be preserved for at least thirty years, the employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-07-044, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93)
WAC 296-62-07429Observation of monitoring.
(1) Employee observation. The employer ((shall))must provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to cadmium.
(2) Observation procedures. When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer ((shall))must provide the observer with that clothing and equipment and ((shall assure))must ensure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99)
WAC 296-62-07441Appendix A, substance safety data sheetCadmium.
(1) Substance identification.
(a) Substance: Cadmium.
(b) 8-Hour, time-weighted-average, permissible exposure limit (TWA PEL):
(c) TWA PEL: Five micrograms of cadmium per cubic meter of air 5 µg/m3, time-weighted average (TWA) for an 8-hour workday.
(d) Appearance: Cadmium metal—soft, blue-white, malleable, lustrous metal or grayish-white powder. Some cadmium compounds may also appear as a brown, yellow, or red powdery substance.
(2) Health hazard data.
(a) Routes of exposure. Cadmium can cause local skin or eye irritation. Cadmium can affect your health if you inhale it or if you swallow it.
(b) Effects of overexposure.
(i) Short-term (acute) exposure: Cadmium is much more dangerous by inhalation than by ingestion. High exposures to cadmium that may be immediately dangerous to life or health occur in jobs where workers handle large quantities of cadmium dust or fume; heat cadmium-containing compounds or cadmium-coated surfaces; weld with cadmium solders or cut cadmium-containing materials such as bolts.
(ii) Severe exposure may occur before symptoms appear. Early symptoms may include mild irritation of the upper respiratory tract, a sensation of constriction of the throat, a metallic taste and/or a cough. A period of one to ten hours may precede the onset of rapidly progressing shortness of breath, chest pain, and flu-like symptoms with weakness, fever, headache, chills, sweating, and muscular pain. Acute pulmonary edema usually develops within twenty-four hours and reaches a maximum by three days. If death from asphyxia does not occur, symptoms may resolve within a week.
(iii) Long-term (chronic) exposure. Repeated or long-term exposure to cadmium, even at relatively low concentrations, may result in kidney damage and an increased risk of cancer of the lung and of the prostate.
(c) Emergency first-aid procedures.
(i) Eye exposure: Direct contact may cause redness or pain. Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical attention immediately.
(ii) Skin exposure: Direct contact may result in irritation. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes immediately. Wash affected area with soap or mild detergent and large amounts of water. Get medical attention immediately.
(iii) Ingestion: Ingestion may result in vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, headache, and sore throat. Treatment for symptoms must be administered by medical personnel. Under no circumstances should the employer allow any person whom ((he/she))they retain((s)), employ((s)), supervise((s)), or control((s)) to engage in therapeutic chelation. Such treatment is likely to translocate cadmium from pulmonary or other tissue to renal tissue. Get medical attention immediately.
(iv) Inhalation: If large amounts of cadmium are inhaled, the exposed person must be moved to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Administer oxygen if available. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately.
(v) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure. If the exposed person has been overcome, attempt rescue only after notifying at least one other person of the emergency and putting into effect established emergency procedures. Do not become a casualty yourself. Understand your emergency rescue procedures and know the location of the emergency equipment before the need arises.
(3) Employee information.
(a) Protective clothing and equipment.
(i) Respirators: You may be required to wear a respirator for nonroutine activities; in emergencies; while your employer is in the process of reducing cadmium exposures through engineering controls; and where engineering controls are not feasible. If air-purifying respirators are worn, they must have a label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 C.F.R. part 84 stating that the respirators have been certified for use with cadmium. Cadmium does not have a detectable odor except at levels well above the permissible exposure limits. If you can smell cadmium while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air. If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.
(ii) Protective clothing: You may be required to wear impermeable clothing, gloves, foot gear, a face shield, or other appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin contact with cadmium. Where protective clothing is required, your employer must provide clean garments to you as necessary to assure that the clothing protects you adequately. The employer must replace or repair protective clothing that has become torn or otherwise damaged.
(iii) Eye protection: You may be required to wear splash-proof or dust resistant goggles to prevent eye contact with cadmium.
(b) Employer requirements.
(i) Medical: If you are exposed to cadmium at or above the action level, your employer is required to provide a medical examination, laboratory tests and a medical history according to the medical surveillance provisions under WAC 296-62-07423. (See summary chart and tables in this section, appendix A.) These tests ((shall))must be provided without cost to you. In addition, if you are accidentally exposed to cadmium under conditions known or suspected to constitute toxic exposure to cadmium, your employer is required to make special tests available to you.
(ii) Access to records: All medical records are kept strictly confidential. You or your representative are entitled to see the records of measurements of your exposure to cadmium. Your medical examination records can be furnished to your personal physician or designated representative upon request by you to your employer.
(iii) Observation of monitoring: Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to cadmium and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear the protective clothing and equipment.
(c) Employee requirements. You will not be able to smoke, eat, drink, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics while working with cadmium in regulated areas. You will also not be able to carry or store tobacco products, gum, food, drinks, or cosmetics in regulated areas because these products easily become contaminated with cadmium from the workplace and can therefore create another source of unnecessary cadmium exposure. Some workers will have to change out of work clothes and shower at the end of the day, as part of their workday, in order to wash cadmium from skin and hair. Handwashing and cadmium-free eating facilities ((shall))must be provided by the employer and proper hygiene should always be performed before eating. It is also recommended that you do not smoke or use tobacco products, because among other things, they naturally contain cadmium. For further information, read the labeling on such products.
(4) Physician information.
(a) Introduction. The medical surveillance provisions of WAC 296-62-07423 generally are aimed at accomplishing three main interrelated purposes: First, identifying employees at higher risk of adverse health effects from excess, chronic exposure to cadmium; second, preventing cadmium-induced disease; and third, detecting and minimizing existing cadmium-induced disease. The core of medical surveillance in this standard is the early and periodic monitoring of the employee's biological indicators of:
(i) Recent exposure to cadmium;
(ii) Cadmium body burden; and
(iii) Potential and actual kidney damage associated with exposure to cadmium. The main adverse health effects associated with cadmium overexposure are lung cancer and kidney dysfunction. It is not yet known how to adequately biologically monitor human beings to specifically prevent cadmium-induced lung cancer. By contrast, the kidney can be monitored to provide prevention and early detection of cadmium-induced kidney damage. Since, for noncarcinogenic effects, the kidney is considered the primary target organ of chronic exposure to cadmium, the medical surveillance provisions of this standard effectively focus on cadmium-induced kidney disease. Within that focus, the aim, where possible, is to prevent the onset of such disease and, where necessary, to minimize such disease as may already exist. The by-products of successful prevention of kidney disease are anticipated to be the reduction and prevention of other cadmium-induced diseases.
(b) Health effects. The major health effects associated with cadmium overexposure are described below.
(i) Kidney: The most prevalent nonmalignant disease observed among workers chronically exposed to cadmium is kidney dysfunction. Initially, such dysfunction is manifested as proteinuria. The proteinuria associated with cadmium exposure is most commonly characterized by excretion of low-molecular weight proteins (15,000 to 40,000 MW) accompanied by loss of electrolytes, uric acid, calcium, amino acids, and phosphate. The compounds commonly excreted include: Beta-2-microglobulin (β2-M), retinol binding protein (RBP), immunoglobulin light chains, and lysozyme. Excretion of low molecular weight proteins are characteristic of damage to the proximal tubules of the kidney (Iwao et al., 1980). It has also been observed that exposure to cadmium may lead to urinary excretion of high-molecular weight proteins such as albumin, immunoglobulin G, and glycoproteins (Ex. 29). Excretion of high-molecular weight proteins is typically indicative of damage to the glomeruli of the kidney. Bernard et al., (1979) suggest that damage to the glomeruli and damage to the proximal tubules of the kidney may both be linked to cadmium exposure but they may occur independently of each other. Several studies indicate that the onset of low-molecular weight proteinuria is a sign of irreversible kidney damage (Friberg et al., 1974; Roels et al., 1982; Piscator 1984; Elinder et al., 1985; Smith et al., 1986). Above specific levels of β2-M associated with cadmium exposure it is unlikely that β2-M levels return to normal even when cadmium exposure is eliminated by removal of the individual from the cadmium work environment (Friberg, Ex. 29, 1990). Some studies indicate that such proteinuria may be progressive; levels of β2-M observed in the urine increase with time even after cadmium exposure has ceased. See, for example, Elinder et al., 1985. Such observations, however, are not universal, and it has been suggested that studies in which proteinuria has not been observed to progress may not have tracked patients for a sufficiently long time interval (Jarup, Ex. 8-661). When cadmium exposure continues after the onset of proteinuria, chronic nephrotoxicity may occur (Friberg, Ex. 29). Uremia results from the inability of the glomerulus to adequately filter blood. This leads to severe disturbance of electrolyte concentrations and may lead to various clinical complications including kidney stones (L-140-50). After prolonged exposure to cadmium, glomerular proteinuria, glucosuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, and hypercalciuria may develop (Exs. 8-86, 4-28, 14-18). Phosphate, calcium, glucose, and amino acids are essential to life, and under normal conditions, their excretion should be regulated by the kidney. Once low molecular weight proteinuria has developed, these elements dissipate from the human body. Loss of glomerular function may also occur, manifested by decreased glomerular filtration rate and increased serum creatinine. Severe cadmium-induced renal damage may eventually develop into chronic renal failure and uremia (Ex. 55). Studies in which animals are chronically exposed to cadmium confirm the renal effects observed in humans (Friberg et al., 1986). Animal studies also confirm problems with calcium metabolism and related skeletal effects which have been observed among humans exposed to cadmium in addition to the renal effects. Other effects commonly reported in chronic animal studies include anemia, changes in liver morphology, immunosuppression and hypertension. Some of these effects may be associated with co-factors. Hypertension, for example, appears to be associated with diet as well as cadmium exposure. Animals injected with cadmium have also shown testicular necrosis (Ex. 8-86B).
(ii) Biological markers. It is universally recognized that the best measures of cadmium exposures and its effects are measurements of cadmium in biological fluids, especially urine and blood. Of the two, CdU is conventionally used to determine body burden of cadmium in workers without kidney disease. CdB is conventionally used to monitor for recent exposure to cadmium. In addition, levels of CdU and CdB historically have been used to predict the percent of the population likely to develop kidney disease (Thun et al., Ex. L-140-50; WHO, Ex. 8-674; ACGIH, Exs. 8-667, 140-50). The third biological parameter upon which WISHA relies for medical surveillance is beta-2-microglobulin in urine (β2-M), a low molecular weight protein. Excess β2-M has been widely accepted by physicians and scientists as a reliable indicator of functional damage to the proximal tubule of the kidney (Exs. 8-447, 144-3-C, 4-47, L-140-45, 19-43-A). Excess β2-M is found when the proximal tubules can no longer reabsorb this protein in a normal manner. This failure of the proximal tubules is an early stage of a kind of kidney disease that commonly occurs among workers with excessive cadmium exposure. Used in conjunction with biological test results indicating abnormal levels of CdU and CdB, the finding of excess β2-M can establish for an examining physician that any existing kidney disease is probably cadmium-related (Trs. 6/6/90, pp. 82-86, 122, 134). The upper limits of normal levels for cadmium in urine and cadmium in blood are 3 µg Cd/gram creatinine in urine and 5 µgCd/liter whole blood, respectively. These levels were derived from broad-based population studies. Three issues confront the physicians in the use of β2-M as a marker of kidney dysfunction and material impairment. First, there are a few other causes of elevated levels of β2-M not related to cadmium exposures, some of which may be rather common diseases and some of which are serious diseases (e.g., myeloma or transient flu, Exs. 29 and 8-086). These can be medically evaluated as alternative causes (Friberg, Ex. 29). Also, there are other factors that can cause β2-M to degrade so that low levels would result in workers with tubular dysfunction. For example, regarding the degradation of β2-M, workers with acidic urine (pH<6) might have β2-M levels that are within the "normal" range when in fact kidney dysfunction has occurred (Ex. L-140-1) and the low molecular weight proteins are degraded in acid urine. Thus, it is very important that the pH of urine be measured, that urine samples be buffered as necessary (See WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F.), and that urine samples be handled correctly, i.e., measure the pH of freshly voided urine samples, then if necessary, buffer to Ph˃6 (or above for shipping purposes), measure Ph again and then, perhaps, freeze the sample for storage and shipping. (See also WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F.) Second, there is debate over the pathological significance of proteinuria, however, most world experts believe that β2-M levels greater than 300 µg/g Cr are abnormal (Elinder, Ex. 55, Friberg, Ex. 29). Such levels signify kidney dysfunction that constitutes material impairment of health. Finally, detection of β2-M at low levels has often been considered difficult, however, many laboratories have the capability of detecting excess β2-M using simple kits, such as the Phadebas Delphia test, that are accurate to levels of 100 µg β2-M/g Cr U (Ex. L-140-1). Specific recommendations for ways to measure β2-M and proper handling of urine samples to prevent degradation of β2-M have been addressed by WISHA in WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F, in the section on laboratory standardization. All biological samples must be analyzed in a laboratory that is proficient in the analysis of that particular analyte, under WAC 296-62-07423 (1)(d). (See WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F). Specifically, under WAC 296-62-07423 (1)(d), the employer is to ((assure))ensure that the collecting and handling of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees is collected in a manner that ((assures))ensures reliability. The employer must also ((assure))ensure that analysis of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (β2-M) taken from employees is performed in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency for that particular analyte. (See WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F).
(iii) Lung and prostate cancer. The primary sites for cadmium-associated cancer appear to be the lung and the prostate (L-140-50). Evidence for an association between cancer and cadmium exposure derives from both epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Mortality from prostate cancer associated with cadmium is slightly elevated in several industrial cohorts, but the number of cases is small and there is not clear dose-response relationship. More substantive evidence exists for lung cancer. The major epidemiological study of lung cancer was conducted by Thun et al., (Ex. 4-68). Adequate data on cadmium exposures were available to allow evaluation of dose-response relationships between cadmium exposure and lung cancer. A statistically significant excess of lung cancer attributed to cadmium exposure was observed in this study even when confounding variables such as co-exposure to arsenic and smoking habits were taken into consideration (Ex. L-140-50). The primary evidence for quantifying a link between lung cancer and cadmium exposure from animal studies derives from two rat bioassay studies; one by Takenaka et al., (1983), which is a study of cadmium chloride and a second study by Oldiges and Glaser (1990) of four cadmium compounds. Based on the above cited studies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified cadmium as "B1," a probable human carcinogen, in 1985 (Ex. 4-4). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1987 also recommended that cadmium be listed as "2A," a probable human carcinogen (Ex. 4-15). The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recently recommended that cadmium be labeled as a carcinogen. Since 1984, NIOSH has concluded that cadmium is possibly a human carcinogen and has recommended that exposures be controlled to the lowest level feasible.
(iv) Noncarcinogenic effects. Acute pneumonitis occurs 10 to 24 hours after initial acute inhalation of high levels of cadmium fumes with symptoms such as fever and chest pain (Exs. 30, 8-86B). In extreme exposure cases pulmonary edema may develop and cause death several days after exposure. Little actual exposure measurement data is available on the level of airborne cadmium exposure that causes such immediate adverse lung effects, nonetheless, it is reasonable to believe a cadmium concentration of approximately 1 mg/m3 over an eight hour period is "immediately dangerous" (55 FR 4052, ANSI; Ex. 8-86B). In addition to acute lung effects and chronic renal effects, long term exposure to cadmium may cause other severe effects on the respiratory system. Reduced pulmonary function and chronic lung disease indicative of emphysema have been observed in workers who have had prolonged exposure to cadmium dust or fumes (Exs. 4-29, 4-22, 4-42, 4-50, 4-63). In a study of workers conducted by Kazantzis et al., a statistically significant excess of worker deaths due to chronic bronchitis was found, which in his opinion was directly related to high cadmium exposures of 1 mg/m3 or more (Tr. 6/8/90, pp. 156-157). Cadmium need not be respirable to constitute a hazard. Inspirable cadmium particles that are too large to be respirable but small enough to enter the tracheobronchial region of the lung can lead to bronchoconstriction, chronic pulmonary disease, and cancer of that portion of the lung. All of these diseases have been associated with occupational exposure to cadmium (Ex. 8-86B). Particles that are constrained by their size to the extra-thoracic regions of the respiratory system such as the nose and maxillary sinuses can be swallowed through mucocillary clearance and be absorbed into the body (ACGIH, Ex. 8-692). The impaction of these particles in the upper airways can lead to anosmia, or loss of sense of smell, which is an early indication of overexposure among workers exposed to heavy metals. This condition is commonly reported among cadmium-exposed workers (Ex. 8-86-B).
(c) Medical surveillance. In general, the main provisions of the medical surveillance section of the standard, under WAC 296-62-07423 (1) through (16), are as follows:
(i) Workers exposed above the action level are covered;
(ii) Workers with intermittent exposures are not covered;
(iii) Past workers who are covered receive biological monitoring for at least one year;
(iv) Initial examinations include a medical questionnaire and biological monitoring of cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU), and Beta-2-microglobulin in urine (β2-M);
(v) Biological monitoring of these three analytes is performed at least annually; full medical examinations are performed biennially;
(vi) Until five years from the effective date of the standard, medical removal is required when CdU is greater than 15 µg/gram creatinine (g Cr), or CdB is greater than 15 µg/liter whole blood (lwb), or β2-M is greater than 1500 µg/g Cr, and CdB is greater than 5 µg/lwb or CdU is greater than 3 µg/g Cr;
(vii) Beginning five years after the standard is in effect, medical removal triggers will be reduced;
(viii) Medical removal protection benefits are to be provided for up to eighteen months;
(ix) Limited initial medical examinations are required for respirator usage;
(x) Major provisions are fully described under WAC 296-62-07423; they are outlined here as follows:
(A) Eligibility.
(B) Biological monitoring.
(C) Actions triggered by levels of CdU, CdB, and β2-M (See Summary Charts and Tables in WAC 296-62-07441(5).)
(D) Periodic medical surveillance.
(E) Actions triggered by periodic medical surveillance (See appendix A Summary Chart and Tables in WAC 296-62-07441(5).)
(F) Respirator usage.
(G) Emergency medical examinations.
(H) Termination examination.
(I) Information to physician.
(J) Physician's medical opinion.
(K) Medical removal protection.
(L) Medical removal protection benefits.
(M) Multiple physician review.
(N) Alternate physician review.
(O) Information employer gives to employee.
(P) Recordkeeping.
(Q) Reporting on OSHA form 200.
(xi) The above mentioned summary of the medical surveillance provisions, the summary chart, and tables for the actions triggered at different levels of CdU, CdB and β2-M (in subsection (5) of this section, Attachment 1) are included only for the purpose of facilitating understanding of the provisions of WAC 296-62-07423(3) of the final cadmium standard. The summary of the provisions, the summary chart, and the tables do not add to or reduce the requirements in WAC 296-62-07423(3).
(d) Recommendations to physicians.
(i) It is strongly recommended that patients with tubular proteinuria are counseled on: The hazards of smoking; avoidance of nephrotoxins and certain prescriptions and over-the-counter medications that may exacerbate kidney symptoms; how to control diabetes and/or blood pressure; proper hydration, diet, and exercise (Ex. 19-2). A list of prominent or common nephrotoxins is attached. (See subsection (6) of this section, Attachment 2.)
(ii) DO NOT CHELATE; KNOW WHICH DRUGS ARE NEPHROTOXINS OR ARE ASSOCIATED WITH NEPHRITIS.
(iii) The gravity of cadmium-induced renal damage is compounded by the fact there is no medical treatment to prevent or reduce the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney (Ex. 8-619). Dr. Friberg, a leading world expert on cadmium toxicity, indicated in 1992, that there is no form of chelating agent that could be used without substantial risk. He stated that tubular proteinuria has to be treated in the same way as other kidney disorders (Ex. 29).
(iv) After the results of a workers' biological monitoring or medical examination are received the employer is required to provide an information sheet to the patient, briefly explaining the significance of the results. (See subsection (7) of this section.)
(v) For additional information the physician is referred to the following additional resources:
(A) The physician can always obtain a copy of the OSHA final rule preamble, with its full discussion of the health effects, from OSHA's Computerized Information System (OCIS).
(B) The OSHA Docket Officer maintains a record of the OSHA rulemaking. The Cadmium Docket (H-057A), is located at 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room N-2625, Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202) 219-7894.
(C) The following articles and exhibits in particular from that docket (H-057A):
Exhibit number
Author and paper title
 
8-447
Lauwerys et. al., Guide for physicians, "Health Maintenance of Workers Exposed to Cadmium," published by the Cadmium Council.
 
4-67
Takenaka, S., H. Oldiges, H. Konig, D. Hochrainer, G. Oberdorster. "Carcinogenicity of Cadmium Chloride Aerosols in Wistar Rats." JNCI 70:367-373, 1983. (32)
 
4-68
Thun, M.J., T.M. Schnoor, A.B. Smith, W.E. Halperin, R.A. Lemen. "Mortality Among a Cohort of U.S. Cadmium Production Workers—An Update." JNCI 74(2):325-33, 1985. (8)
 
4-25
Elinder, C.G., Kjellstrom, T., Hogstedt, C., et al., "Cancer Mortality of Cadmium Workers." Brit. J. Ind. Med. 42:651-655, 1985. (14)
 
4-26
Ellis, K.J. et al., "Critical Concentrations of Cadmium in Human Renal Cortex: Dose Effect Studies to Cadmium Smelter Workers." J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7:691-703, 1981. (76)
 
4-27
Ellis, K.J., S.H. Cohn and T.J. Smith. "Cadmium Inhalation Exposure Estimates: Their Significance with Respect to Kidney and Liver Cadmium Burden." J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 15:173-187, 1985.
 
4-28
Falck, F.Y., Jr., Fine, L.J., Smith, R.G., McClatchey, K.D., Annesley, T., England, B., and Schork, A.M. "Occupational Cadmium Exposure and Renal Status." Am. J. Ind. Med. 4:541, 1983. (64)
 
8-86A
Friberg, L., C.G. Elinder, et al., "Cadmium and Health a Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal, Volume I, Exposure, Dose, and Metabolism." CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1986. (Available from the OSHA Technical Data Center)
 
8-86B
Friberg, L., C.G. Elinder, et al., "Cadmium and Health: A Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal, Volume II, Effects and Response." CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1986. (Available from the OSHA Technical Data Center)
 
L-140-45
Elinder, C.G., "Cancer Mortality of Cadmium Workers," Brit. J. Ind. Med., 42, 651-655, 1985.
 
L-140-50
Thun, M., Elinder, C.G., Friberg, L, "Scientific Basis for an Occupational Standard for Cadmium, Am. J. Ind. Med., 20; 629-642, 1991.
(5) Information sheet. The information sheet (subsection (8) of this section, Attachment 3) or an equally explanatory one should be provided to you after any biological monitoring results are reviewed by the physician, or where applicable, after any medical examination.
(6) Attachment 1—Appendix A, summary chart and Tables A and B of actions triggered by biological monitoring.
(a) Summary chart: WAC 296-62-07423(3) Medical surveillance—Categorizing biological monitoring results.
(i) Biological monitoring results categories are set forth in Table A for the periods ending December 31, 1998, and for the period beginning January 1, 1999.
(ii) The results of the biological monitoring for the initial medical exam and the subsequent exams ((shall))must determine an employee's biological monitoring result category.
(b) Actions triggered by biological monitoring.
(i) The actions triggered by biological monitoring for an employee are set forth in Table B.
(ii) The biological monitoring results for each employee under WAC 296-62-07423(3) ((shall))must determine the actions required for that employee. That is, for any employee in biological monitoring category C, the employer will perform all of the actions for which there is an X in column C of Table B.
(iii) An employee is assigned the alphabetical category ("A" being the lowest) depending upon the test results of the three biological markers.
(iv) An employee is assigned category A if monitoring results for all three biological markers fall at or below the levels indicated in the table listed for category A.
(v) An employee is assigned category B if any monitoring result for any of the three biological markers fall within the range of levels indicated in the table listed for category B, providing no result exceeds the levels listed for category B.
(vi) An employee is assigned category C if any monitoring result for any of the three biological markers are above the levels listed for category C.
(c) The user of Tables A and B should know that these tables are provided only to facilitate understanding of the relevant provisions of WAC 296-62-07423. Tables A and B are not meant to add to or subtract from the requirements of those provisions.
Table A
Categorization of Biological Monitoring Results
Applicable Through 1998 Only
 
Monitoring result categories
Biological marker
A
B
C
Cadmium in urine (CdU)
(µg/g creatinine)
≤=3
˃3 and ≤=15
˃15
β2-microglobulin (β2-M)
(µg/g creatinine)
≤=300
˃300 and ≤=1500
˃1500*
Cadmium in blood (CdB)
(µg/liter whole blood)
≤=5
˃5 and ≤=15
˃15
*
If an employee's β2-M levels are above 1,500 µg/g creatinine, in order for mandatory medical removal to be required (See WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A Table B.), either the employee's CdU level must also be ˃3 µg/g creatinine or CdB level must also be ˃5 µg/liter whole blood.
Applicable Beginning January 1, 1999
 
Monitoring result categories
Biological marker
A
B
C
Cadmium in urine (CdU)
(µg/g creatinine)
≤=3
˃3 and ≤=7
˃7
β2-microglobulin (β2-M)
(µg/g creatinine)
≤=300
˃300 and ≤=750
˃750*
Cadmium in blood (CdB)
(µg/liter whole blood)
≤=5
˃5 and ≤=10
˃10
*
If an employee's β2-M levels are above 750 µg/g creatinine, in order for mandatory medical removal to be required (See WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A Table B.), either the employee's CdU level must also be ˃3 µg/g creatinine or CdB level must also be ˃5 µg/liter whole blood.
Table B—Actions determined by biological monitoring.
This table presents the actions required based on the monitoring result in Table A. Each item is a separate requirement in citing noncompliance. For example, a medical examination within ninety days for an employee in category B is separate from the requirement to administer a periodic medical examination for category B employees on an annual basis.
Table B
Monitoring result category
 
 
A1
B1
C1
Required actions
(1) Biological monitoring:
 
(a) Annual.
X
 
 
 
(b) Semiannual
 
X
 
 
(c) Quarterly
 
 
X
(2) Medical examination:
 
(a) Biennial
X
 
 
 
(b) Annual.
 
X
 
 
(c) Semiannual.
 
 
X
 
(d) Within 90 days
 
X
X
(3) Assess within two weeks:
 
(a) Excess cadmium exposure
 
X
X
 
(b) Work practices
 
X
X
 
(c) Personal hygiene
 
X
X
 
(d) Respirator usage
 
X
X
 
(e) Smoking history
 
X
X
 
(f) Hygiene facilities
 
X
X
 
(g) Engineering controls
 
X
X
 
(h) Correct within 30 days
 
X
X
 
(i) Periodically assess exposures
 
 
X
(4) Discretionary medical
removal
 
X
X
(5) Mandatory medical removal
 
 
X2
1
For all employees covered by medical surveillance exclusively because of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard, if they are in Category A, the employer shall follow the requirements of WAC 296-62-07423 (3)(a)(ii) and (4)(e)(i). If they are in Category B or C, the employer shall follow the requirements of WAC 296-62-07423 (4)(e)(ii) and (iii).
2
See footnote in Table A.
(7) Attachment 2, list of medications.
(a) A list of the more common medications that a physician, and the employee, may wish to review is likely to include some of the following:
(i) Anticonvulsants: Paramethadione, phenytoin, trimethadone;
(ii) Antihypertensive drugs: Captopril, methyldopa;
(iii) Antimicrobials: Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, cephalosporins, ethambutol;
(iv) Antineoplastic agents: Cisplatin, methotrexate, mitomycin-C, nitrosoureas, radiation;
(v) Sulfonamide diuretics: Acetazolamide, chlorthalidone, furosemide, thiazides;
(vi) Halogenated alkanes, hydrocarbons, and solvents that may occur in some settings: Carbon tetrachloride, ethylene glycol, toluene; iodinated radiographic contrast media; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; and
(vii) Other miscellaneous compounds: Acetaminophen, allopurinol, amphetamines, azathioprine, cimetidine, cyclosporine, lithium, methoxyflurane, methysergide, D-penicillamine, phenacetin, phenendione.
(b) A list of drugs associated with acute interstitial nephritis includes:
(i) Antimicrobial drugs: Cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, colistin, erythromycin, ethambutol, isoniazid, para-amin-osalicylic acid, penicillins, polymyxin B, rifampin, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and vancomycin;
(ii) Other miscellaneous drugs: Allopurinol, antipyrine, azathioprine, captopril, cimetidine, clofibrate, methyldopa, phenindione, phenylpropanolamine, phenytoin, probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, sulfonamide diuretics, triamterene; and
(iii) Metals: Bismuth, gold. This list has been derived from commonly available medical textbooks (e.g., Ex. 14-18). The list has been included merely to facilitate the physician's, employer's, and employee's understanding. The list does not represent an official OSHA opinion or policy regarding the use of these medications for particular employees. The use of such medications should be under physician discretion.
(8) Attachment 3—Biological monitoring and medical examination results.
Employee                         
Testing
Date                             
Cadmium in Urine ___ µg/g Cr—Normal Levels: ≤=3 µg/g Cr.
Cadmium in Blood ___ µg/lwb—Normal Levels: ≤=5 µg/lwb.
Beta-2-microglobulin in Urine ___ µg/g Cr-Normal Levels: ≤=300 µg/g Cr.
Physical Examination Results:
N/A ___ Satisfactory ___
Unsatisfactory ___ (see physician again).
Physician's Review of Pulmonary Function Test:
N/A ___ Normal ___ Abnormal ___.
Next biological monitoring or
medical examination scheduled
for __________________
(a) The biological monitoring program has been designed for three main purposes:
(i) To identify employees at risk of adverse health effects from excess, chronic exposure to cadmium;
(ii) To prevent cadmium-induced disease(s); and
(iii) To detect and minimize existing cadmium-induced disease(s).
(b) The levels of cadmium in the urine and blood provide an estimate of the total amount of cadmium in the body. The amount of a specific protein in the urine (beta-2-microglobulin) indicates changes in kidney function. All three tests must be evaluated together. A single mildly elevated result may not be important if testing at a later time indicates that the results are normal and the workplace has been evaluated to decrease possible sources of cadmium exposure. The levels of cadmium or beta-2-microglobulin may change over a period of days to months and the time needed for those changes to occur is different for each worker.
(c) If the results for biological monitoring are above specific "high levels" (cadmium urine greater than 10 micrograms per gram of creatinine µg/g Cr), cadmium blood greater than 10 micrograms per liter of whole blood (µg/lwb), or beta-2-microglobulin greater than 1000 micrograms per gram of creatinine (µg/g Cr)), the worker has a much greater chance of developing other kidney diseases.
(d) One way to measure for kidney function is by measuring beta-2-microglobulin in the urine. Beta-2-microglobulin is a protein which is normally found in the blood as it is being filtered in the kidney, and the kidney reabsorbs or returns almost all of the beta-2-microglobulin to the blood. A very small amount (less than 300 µg/g Cr in the urine) of beta-2-microglobulin is not reabsorbed into the blood, but is released in the urine. If cadmium damages the kidney, the amount of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine increases because the kidney cells are unable to reabsorb the beta-2-microglobulin normally. An increase in the amount of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine is a very early sign of kidney dysfunction. A small increase in beta-2-microglobulin in the urine will serve as an early warning sign that the worker may be absorbing cadmium from the air, cigarettes contaminated in the workplace, or eating in areas that are cadmium contaminated.
(e) Even if cadmium causes permanent changes in the kidney's ability to reabsorb beta-2-microglobulin, and the beta-2-microglobulin is above the "high levels," the loss of kidney function may not lead to any serious health problems. Also, renal function naturally declines as people age. The risk for changes in kidney function for workers who have biological monitoring results between the "normal values" and the "high levels" is not well known. Some people are more cadmium-tolerant, while others are more cadmium-susceptible.
(f) For anyone with even a slight increase of beta-2-microglobulin, cadmium in the urine, or cadmium in the blood, it is very important to protect the kidney from further damage. Kidney damage can come from other sources than excess cadmium-exposure so it is also recommended that if a worker's levels are "high" ((he/she))they should receive counseling about drinking more water; avoiding cadmium-tainted tobacco and certain medications (nephrotoxins, acetaminophen); controlling diet, vitamin intake, blood pressure and diabetes; etc.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-075, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93)
WAC 296-62-07447Appendix DOccupational health history interview with reference to cadmium exposure directions.
(To be read by employee and signed prior to the interview.)
Please answer the questions you will be asked as completely and carefully as you can. These questions are asked of everyone who works with cadmium. You will also be asked to give blood and urine samples. The doctor will give your employer a written opinion on whether you are physically capable of working with cadmium. Legally, the doctor cannot share personal information you may tell ((him/her))them with your employer. The following information is considered strictly confidential. The results of the tests will go to you, your doctor and your employer. You will also receive an information sheet explaining the results of any biological monitoring or physical examinations performed. If you are just being hired, the results of this interview and examination will be used to:
(1) Establish your health status and see if working with cadmium might be expected to cause unusual problems;
(2) Determine your health status today and see if there are changes over time;
(3) See if you can wear a respirator safely. If you are not a new hire: WISHA says that everyone who works with cadmium can have periodic medical examinations performed by a doctor. The reasons for this are:
(a) If there are changes in your health, either because of cadmium or some other reason, to find them early;
(b) To prevent kidney damage.
Please sign below.
I have read these directions and understand them:
Employee signature
Date
Thank you for answering these questions. (Suggested Format)
Name . . . .
Age . . . .
Social Security # . . . .
Company . . . .
Job . . . .
Type of Preplacement Exam:
[ ] Periodic  [ ] Termination  [ ] Initial  [ ] Other
Blood Pressure . . . .
Pulse Rate . . . .
1. How long have you worked at the job listed above?
[ ] Not yet hired  [ ] Number of months  [ ] Number of years
2. Job Duties etc.
. . . .
. . . .
3. Have you ever been told by a doctor that you had bronchitis?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, how long ago?
[ ] Number of months  [ ] Number of years
4. Have you ever been told by a doctor that you had emphysema?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, how long ago?
[ ] Number of years  [ ] Number of months
5. Have you ever been told by a doctor that you had other lung problems?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, please describe type of lung problems and when you had these problems
. . . .
. . . .
6. In the past year, have you had a cough?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, did you cough up sputum?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, how long did the cough with sputum production last?
[ ] Less than 3 months  [ ] 3 months or longer
If yes, for how many years have you had episodes of cough with sputum production lasting this long?
[ ] Less than one  [ ] 1  [ ] 2  [ ] Longer than 2
7. Have you ever smoked cigarettes?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
8. Do you now smoke cigarettes?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
9. If you smoke or have smoked cigarettes, for how many years have you smoked, or did you smoke?
[ ] Less than 1 year  [ ] Number of years
What is or was the greatest number of packs per day that you have smoked?
[ ] Number of packs
If you quit smoking cigarettes, how many years ago did you quit?
[ ] Less than 1 year  [ ] Number of years
How many packs a day do you now smoke?
[ ] Number of packs per day
10. Have you ever been told by a doctor that you had a kidney or urinary tract disease or disorder?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
11. Have you ever had any of these disorders?
Kidney stones  [ ] Yes  [ ] No
Protein in urine  [ ] Yes  [ ] No
Blood in urine  [ ] Yes  [ ] No
Difficulty urinating  [ ] Yes  [ ] No
Other kidney/Urinary disorders  [ ] Yes  [ ] No
Please describe problems, age, treatment, and follow up for any kidney or urinary problems you have had:
. . . .
. . . .
12. Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health care provider who took your blood pressure that your blood pressure was high?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
13. Have you ever been advised to take any blood pressure medication?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
14. Are you presently taking any blood pressure medication?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
15. Are you presently taking any other medication?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
16. Please list any blood pressure or other medications and describe how long you have been taking each one:
Medicine:
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
How Long Taken
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
17. Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes? (sugar in your blood or urine)
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, do you presently see a doctor about your diabetes?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, how do you control your blood sugar?
[ ] Diet alone  [ ] Diet plus oral medicine  [ ] Diet plus insulin (injection)
18. Have you ever been told by a doctor that you had:
Anemia [ ] Yes  [ ] No
A low blood count? [ ] Yes  [ ] No
19. Do you presently feel that you tire or run out of energy sooner than normal or sooner than other people your age?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, for how long have you felt that you tire easily?
[ ] Less than 1 year  [ ] Number of years
20. Have you given blood within the last year?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, how many times?
[ ] Number of times
How long ago was the last time you gave blood?
[ ] Less than 1 month  [ ] Number of months
21. Within the last year have you had any injuries with heavy bleeding?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, how long ago?
[ ] Less than 1 month  [ ] Number of months
describe: . . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
22. Have you recently had any surgery?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, please describe: . . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
23. Have you seen any blood lately in your stool or after a bowel movement?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
24. Have you ever had a test for blood in your stool?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, did the test show any blood in the stool?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
What further evaluation and treatment were done? . . . .
. . . .
. . . .
The following questions pertain to the ability to wear a respirator. Additional information for the physician can be found in The Respiratory Protective Devices Manual.
25. Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have asthma?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, are you presently taking any medication for asthma?
Mark all that apply. [ ] Shots  [ ] Pills  [ ] Inhaler
26. Have you ever had a heart attack?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, how long ago?
[ ] Number of years  [ ] Number of months
27. Have you ever had pains in your chest?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, when did it usually happen?
[ ] While resting  [ ] While working  [ ] While exercising  [ ] Activity didn't matter
28. Have you ever had a thyroid problem?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
29. Have you ever had a seizure or fits?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
30. Have you ever had a stroke (cerebrovascular accident)?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
31. Have you ever had a ruptured eardrum or a serious hearing problem?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
32. Do you now have a claustrophobia, meaning fear of crowded or closed in spaces or any psychological problems that would make it hard for you to wear a respirator?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
The following questions pertain to reproductive history.
33. Have you or your partner had a problem conceiving a child?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, specify: [ ] Self  [ ] Present mate  [ ] Previous mate
34. Have you or your partner consulted a physician for a fertility or other reproductive problem?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, specify who consulted the physician: [ ] Self  [ ] Spouse/partner  [ ] Self and partner
If yes, specify diagnosis made: . . . .
. . . .
35. Have you or your partner ever conceived a child resulting in a miscarriage, still birth or deformed offspring?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, specify: [ ] Miscarriage  [ ] Still birth  [ ] Deformed offspring
If outcome was a deformed offspring, please specify type: . . . .
. . . .
. . . .
36. Was this outcome a result of a pregnancy of: [ ] Yours with present partner  [ ] Yours with a previous partner
37. Did the timing of any abnormal pregnancy outcome coincide with present employment?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
List dates of occurrences: . . . .
38. What is the occupation of your spouse or partner?
. . . .
For Women Only
39. Do you have menstrual periods?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
Have you had menstrual irregularities?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, specify type: . . . .
. . . .
. . . .
If yes, what was the approximated date this problem began?
Approximate date problem stopped? . . . .
For Men Only
40. Have you ever been diagnosed by a physician as having prostate gland problem(s)?
[ ] Yes  [ ] No
If yes, please describe type of problem(s) and what was done to evaluate and treat the problem(s): . . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-074601,3-Butadiene.
(1) Scope and application.
(a) This section applies to all occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 106-99-0, except as provided in (b) of this subsection.
(b)(i) Except for the recordkeeping provisions in subsection (13)(a) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, or handling of products containing BD or to other work operations and streams in which BD is present where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate the work operation or the product or the group of products or operations to which it belongs may not reasonably be foreseen to release BD in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or in excess of the STEL under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release or in any plausible accident.
(ii) This section also does not apply to work operations, products or streams where the only exposure to BD is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less of BD by volume or the vapors released from such liquids, unless objective data become available that show that airborne concentrations generated by such mixtures can exceed the action level or STEL under reasonably predictable conditions of processing, use or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.
(iii) Except for labeling requirements and requirements for emergency response, this section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or in transportation pipelines sealed in such a manner as to fully contain BD vapors or liquids.
(c) Where products or processes containing BD are exempted under (b) of this subsection, the employer ((shall))must maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in subsection (13)(a) of this section.
(2) Definitions: For the purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:
(("Action level" means))Action level. A concentration of airborne BD of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average.
(("Authorized person" means))Authorized person. Any person specifically designated by the employer, whose duties require entrance into a regulated area, or a person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees to exercise the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4)(h) of this section, or a person designated under the WISH Act or regulations issued under the WISH Act to enter a regulated area.
(("1,3-Butadiene" means))1,3-Butadiene. An organic compound with chemical formula CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2) that has a molecular weight of approximately 54.15 gm/mole.
(("Business day" means))Business day. Any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays.
(("Complete blood count (CBC)" means))Complete blood count (CBC). Laboratory tests performed on whole blood specimens and includes the following: White blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), differential count of white blood cells, red blood cell morphology, red blood cell indices, and platelet count.
(("Day" means))Day. Any part of a calendar day.
(("Director" means))Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, or authorized representatives.
(("Emergency situation" means))Emergency situation. Any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD.
(("Employee exposure" means))Employee exposure. Exposure of a worker to airborne concentrations of BD which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.
(("Objective data" means))Objective data. Monitoring data, or mathematical modelling or calculations based on composition, chemical and physical properties of a material, stream or product.
(("Permissible exposure limits (PELs)" means))Permissible exposure limits (PELs). Either the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA) exposure or the short-term exposure limit (STEL).
(("Physician or other licensed health care professional" is))Physician or other licensed health care professional. An individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows ((him or her))them to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide one or more of the specific health care services required by (k) of this subsection.
(("Regulated area" means))Regulated area. Any area where airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA) exposure of 1 ppm or the short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 5 ppm for 15 minutes.
(("This section" means))This section. This 1,3-butadiene standard.
(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).
(a) Time-weighted average (TWA) limit. The employer ((shall))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of one part BD per million parts of air (ppm) measured as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.
(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer ((shall))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of five parts of BD per million parts of air (5 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.
(4) Exposure monitoring.
(a) General.
(i) Determinations of employee exposure ((shall))must be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 15-minute short-term exposures of each employee.
(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure ((shall))must be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.
(iii) Representative 15-minute short-term employee exposures ((shall))must be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 15-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the STEL for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.
(iv) Except for the initial monitoring required under (b) of this subsection, where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations on different work shifts, the employer need only determine representative employee exposure for that operation from the shift during which the highest exposure is expected.
(b) Initial monitoring.
(i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section, ((shall))must perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of BD to which employees may be exposed, or ((shall))must rely on objective data pursuant to subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section to fulfill this requirement. The initial monitoring required under this subitem ((shall))must be completed within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.
(ii) Where the employer has monitored within two years prior to the effective date of this section and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (b)(i) of this subsection, provided that the conditions under which the initial monitoring was conducted have not changed in a manner that may result in new or additional exposures.
(c) Periodic monitoring and its frequency.
(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below both the 8-hour TWA limit and the STEL, the employer ((shall))must repeat the representative monitoring required by (a) of this subsection every twelve months.
(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the 8-hour TWA limit, the employer ((shall))must repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(ii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.
(iii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the STEL, the employer ((shall))must repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(iii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.
(iv) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every six months to annually for any required representative monitoring for which two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that employee exposure has decreased to or below the 8-hour TWA, but is at or above the action level.
(d) Termination of monitoring.
(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.
(ii) If the periodic monitoring required by (c) of this subsection reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees who are represented by such monitoring.
(e) Additional monitoring.
(i) The employer ((shall))must institute the exposure monitoring required under subsection (4) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures to BD or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures.
(ii) Whenever spills, leaks, ruptures or other breakdowns occur that may lead to employee exposure above the 8-hour TWA limit or above the STEL, the employer ((shall))must monitor (using leak source, such as direct reading instruments, area or personal monitoring), after the cleanup of the spill or repair of the leak, rupture or other breakdown, to ensure that exposures have returned to the level that existed prior to the incident.
(f) Accuracy of monitoring.
Monitoring ((shall))must be accurate, at a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the 1 ppm TWA limit and to within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the action level of 0.5 ppm and below the 1 ppm TWA limit.
(g) Employee notification of monitoring results.
(i) The employer ((shall))must, within 5 business days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify the affected employees of these results in writing either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must, within 15 business days after receipt of any monitoring performed under this section indicating the 8-hour TWA or STEL has been exceeded, provide the affected employees, in writing, with information on the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.
(h) Observation of monitoring.
(i) Employee observation. The employer ((shall))must provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to BD conducted in accordance with this section.
(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to BD requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer ((shall))must provide the observer at no cost with protective clothing and equipment, and ((shall))must ensure that the observer uses this equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(5) Regulated areas.
(a) The employer ((shall))must establish a regulated area wherever occupational exposures to airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limits, either the 8-hour TWA or the STEL.
(b) Access to regulated areas ((shall))must be limited to authorized persons.
(c) Regulated areas ((shall))must be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of employees exposed to BD within the regulated area.
(d) An employer at a multiemployer worksite who establishes a regulated area ((shall))must communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to other employers with work operations at that worksite whose employees may have access to these areas.
(6) Methods of compliance.
(a) Engineering controls and work practices.
(i) The employer ((shall))must institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the PELs, except to the extent that the employer can establish that these controls are not feasible or where subsection (8)(a)(i) of this section applies.
(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL, the employer ((shall))must use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and ((shall))must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.
(b) Compliance plan.
(i) Where any exposures are over the PELs, the employer ((shall))must establish and implement a written plan to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs primarily by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by (a) of this subsection, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section. No compliance plan is required if all exposures are under the PELs.
(ii) The written compliance plan ((shall))must include a schedule for the development and implementation of the engineering controls and work practice controls including periodic leak detection surveys.
(iii) Copies of the compliance plan required in (b) of this subsection ((shall))must be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives. Such plans ((shall))must be reviewed at least every 12 months, and ((shall))must be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.
(iv) The employer ((shall))must not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.
(7) Exposure goal program.
(a) For those operations and job classifications where employee exposures are greater than the action level, in addition to compliance with the PELs, the employer ((shall))must have an exposure goal program that is intended to limit employee exposures to below the action level during normal operations.
(b) Written plans for the exposure goal program ((shall))must be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.
(c) Such plans ((shall))must be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the exposure goal program.
(d) Respirator use is not required in the exposure goal program.
(e) The exposure goal program ((shall))must include the following items unless the employer can demonstrate that the item is not feasible, will have no significant effect in reducing employee exposures, or is not necessary to achieve exposures below the action level:
(i) A leak prevention, detection, and repair program.
(ii) A program for maintaining the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems.
(iii) The use of pump exposure control technology such as, but not limited to, mechanical double-sealed or seal-less pumps.
(iv) Gauging devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as magnetic gauges on rail cars.
(v) Unloading devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as a vapor return system.
(vi) A program to maintain BD concentration below the action level in control rooms by use of engineering controls.
(8) Respiratory protection.
(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:
(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;
(ii) Nonroutine work operations that are performed infrequently and for which exposures are limited in duration;
(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering controls and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PELs;
(iv) Emergencies.
(b) Respirator program.
(i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, except WAC 296-842-13005 and 296-842-14005, which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
(ii) If air-purifying respirators are used, the employer must replace the air-purifying filter elements according to the replacement schedule set for the class of respirators listed in Table 1 of this section, and at the beginning of each work shift.
(iii) Instead of using the replacement schedule listed in Table 1 of this section, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of their expiration service life, provided the employer:
(A) Demonstrates that employees will be adequately protected by this procedure;
(B) Uses BD breakthrough data for this purpose that have been derived from tests conducted under worst-case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air-flow rate through the filter element, and the employer also describes the data supporting the cartridge- or canister-change schedule, as well as the basis for using the data in the employer's respirator program.
(iv) A label must be attached to each filter element to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator.
(v) If NIOSH approves an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until the ESLI shows no further useful service life or until the element is replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever occurs first.
(vi) Regardless of the air-purifying element used, if an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer must replace the air-purifying element immediately.
(c) Respirator selection.
(i) The employer must select appropriate respirators from Table 1 of this section.
Table 1. - Minimum Requirements for Respiratory
Protection for Airborne BD
Concentration of Airborne BD (ppm) or condition of use
Minimum required
respirator
Less than or equal to 5 ppm (5 times PEL)
(a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.
Less than or equal to 10 ppm (10 times PEL)
(a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.
Less than or equal to 25 ppm (25 times PEL)
(a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 2 hours.
 
(b) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 2 hours.
 
(c) Continuous flow supplied air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet.
Less than or equal to 50 ppm (50 times PEL)
(a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 1 hour.
 
(b) Powered air purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece and an approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 1 hour.
Less than or equal to 1,000 ppm (1,000 times PEL)
(a) Supplied air respirator equipped with a half mask or full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Greater than 1,000 ppm
(a) Self-contained breathing unknown concentration, or apparatus equipped with a fire fighting full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
 
(b) Any supplied air respirator equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Escape from IDLH Conditions
(a) Any positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with an appropriate service life.
 
(b) Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with a front or back mounted BD or organic vapor canister.
Notes:
Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations. Full facepiece is required when eye irritation is anticipated.
(ii) Air-purifying respirators must have filter elements certified by NIOSH for organic vapor or BD.
(iii) When an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative-pressure respirator, the employer must provide the employee with a respirator that has less breathing resistance than the negative-pressure respirator, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied-air respirator, when the employee is able to use it and if it provides the employee adequate protection.
(9) Protective clothing and equipment. Where appropriate to prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure to BD, the employer ((shall))must provide protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the employee and ((shall))must ensure its use. Eye and face protection ((shall))must meet the requirements of WAC 296-800-160.
(10) Emergency situations. Written plan. A written plan for emergency situations ((shall))must be developed, or an existing plan ((shall))must be modified, to contain the applicable elements specified in WAC 296-24-567((,)) Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans, and in ((WAC 296-62-3112))chapter 296-843 WAC, Hazardous waste operations ((and emergency responses)), for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency.
(11) Medical screening and surveillance.
(a) Employees covered. The employer ((shall))must institute a medical screening and surveillance program as specified in this subsection for:
(i) Each employee with exposure to BD at concentrations at or above the action level on 30 or more days or for employees who have or may have exposure to BD at or above the PELs on 10 or more days a year;
(ii) Employers (including successor owners) ((shall))must continue to provide medical screening and surveillance for employees, even after transfer to a non-BD exposed job and regardless of when the employee is transferred, whose work histories suggest exposure to BD:
(A) At or above the PELs on 30 or more days a year for 10 or more years;
(B) At or above the action level on 60 or more days a year for 10 or more years; or
(C) Above 10 ppm on 30 or more days in any past year; and
(iii) Each employee exposed to BD following an emergency situation.
(b) Program administration.
(i) The employer ((shall))must ensure that the health questionnaire, physical examination and medical procedures are provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.
(ii) Physical examinations, health questionnaires, and medical procedures ((shall))must be performed or administered by a physician or other licensed health care professional.
(iii) Laboratory tests ((shall))must be conducted by an accredited laboratory.
(c) Frequency of medical screening activities. The employer ((shall))must make medical screening available on the following schedule:
(i) For each employee covered under (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, a health questionnaire and complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count every year, and a physical examination as specified below:
(A) An initial physical examination that meets the requirements of this rule, if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination conducted as part of a medical screening program for BD exposure;
(B) Before assumption of duties by the employee in a job with BD exposure;
(C) Every 3 years after the initial physical examination;
(D) At the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional reviewing the annual health questionnaire and CBC;
(E) At the time of employee reassignment to an area where exposure to BD is below the action level, if the employee's past exposure history does not meet the criteria of (a)(ii) of this subsection for continued coverage in the screening and surveillance program, and if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination; and
(F) At termination of employment if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination.
(ii) Following an emergency situation, medical screening ((shall))must be conducted as quickly as possible, but not later than 48 hours after the exposure.
(iii) For each employee who must wear a respirator, physical ability to perform the work and use the respirator must be determined as required by chapter 296-842 WAC.
(d) Content of medical screening.
(i) Medical screening for employees covered by (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection ((shall))must include:
(A) A baseline health questionnaire that includes a comprehensive occupational and health history and is updated annually. Particular emphasis ((shall))must be placed on the hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial systems, including exposure to chemicals, in addition to BD, that may have an adverse effect on these systems, the presence of signs and symptoms that might be related to disorders of these systems, and any other information determined by the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to be necessary to evaluate whether the employee is at increased risk of material impairment of health from BD exposure. Health questionnaires ((shall))must consist of the sample forms in Appendix C to this section, or be equivalent to those samples;
(B) A complete physical examination, with special emphasis on the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin;
(C) A CBC; and
(D) Any other test which the examining physician or other licensed health care professional deems necessary to evaluate whether the employee may be at increased risk from exposure to BD.
(ii) Medical screening for employees exposed to BD in an emergency situation ((shall))must focus on the acute effects of BD exposure and at a minimum include: A CBC within 48 hours of the exposure and then monthly for three months; and a physical examination if the employee reports irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin, blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache. Continued employee participation in the medical screening and surveillance program, beyond these minimum requirements, ((shall))must be at the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional.
(e) Additional medical evaluations and referrals.
(i) Where the results of medical screening indicate abnormalities of the hematopoietic or reticuloendothelial systems, for which a nonoccupational cause is not readily apparent, the examining physician or other licensed health care professional ((shall))must refer the employee to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and ((shall))must make available to the specialist the results of the medical screening.
(ii) The specialist to whom the employee is referred under this subsection ((shall))must determine the appropriate content for the medical evaluation, e.g., examinations, diagnostic tests and procedures, etc.
(f) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer ((shall))must provide the following information to the examining physician or other licensed health care professional involved in the evaluation:
(i) A copy of this section including its appendices;
(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's BD exposure;
(iii) The employee's actual or representative BD exposure level during employment tenure, including exposure incurred in an emergency situation;
(iv) A description of pertinent personal protective equipment used or to be used; and
(v) Information, when available, from previous employment-related medical evaluations of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional or the specialist.
(g) The written medical opinion.
(i) For each medical evaluation required by this section, the employer ((shall))must ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional produces a written opinion and provides a copy to the employer and the employee within 15 business days of the evaluation. The written opinion ((shall))must be limited to the following information:
(A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical evaluation;
(B) A medical opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to BD;
(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to BD; and
(D) A statement that the employee has been informed of the results of the medical evaluation and any medical conditions resulting from BD exposure that require further explanation or treatment.
(ii) The written medical opinion provided to the employer ((shall))must not reveal specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on the employee's ability to work with BD.
Note:
This provision does not negate the ethical obligation of the physician or other licensed health care professional to transmit any other adverse findings directly to the employee.
(h) Medical surveillance.
(i) The employer ((shall))must ensure that information obtained from the medical screening program activities is aggregated (with all personal identifiers removed) and periodically reviewed, to ascertain whether the health of the employee population of that employer is adversely affected by exposure to BD.
(ii) Information learned from medical surveillance activities must be disseminated to covered employees, as defined in (a) of this subsection, in a manner that ensures the confidentiality of individual medical information.
(12) Communication of BD hazards.
(a) Hazard communication - General.
(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for BD.
(ii) In classifying the hazards of BD at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; eye and respiratory tract irritation; central nervous system effects; and flammability.
(iii) Employers ((shall))must include BD in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of BD and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and (b) of this subsection.
(b) Employee information and training.
(i) The employer ((shall))must train each employee who is potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-901-140((,)) Hazard communication.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL, ensure employee participation in the program and maintain a record of the contents of such program.
(iii) Training ((shall))must be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job potentially involving exposure to BD at or above the action level or STEL and at least annually thereafter.
(iv) The training program ((shall))must be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer ((shall))must ensure that each employee exposed to BD over the action level or STEL is informed of the following:
(A) The health hazards associated with BD exposure, and the purpose and a description of the medical screening and surveillance program required by this section;
(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of BD and the specific operations that could result in exposure to BD, especially exposures above the PEL or STEL;
(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment, and emergency procedures and personal protective equipment;
(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to BD;
(E) The contents of this standard and its appendices; and
(F) The right of each employee exposed to BD at or above the action level or STEL to obtain:
(I) Medical examinations as required by subsection (10) of this section at no cost to the employee;
(II) The employee's medical records required to be maintained by subsection (13)(c) of this section; and
(III) All air monitoring results representing the employee's exposure to BD and required to be kept by subsection (13)(b) of this section.
(c) Access to information and training materials.
(i) The employer ((shall))must make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and their designated representatives and ((shall))must provide a copy if requested.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide to the director, or the designated employee representatives, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.
(13) Recordkeeping.
(a) Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring.
(i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products or streams made from or containing BD are exempted from other requirements of this section under subsection (1)(b) of this section, or where objective data have been relied on in lieu of initial monitoring under subsection (4)(b)(ii) of this section, the employer ((shall))must establish and maintain a record of the objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(A) The product or activity qualifying for exemption;
(B) The source of the objective data;
(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and analysis of the material for the release of BD;
(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and
(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
(b) Exposure measurements.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to BD as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.
(ii) The record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(A) The date of measurement;
(B) The operation involving exposure to BD which is being monitored;
(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;
(E) Type of protective devices worn, if any;
(F) Name, Social Security number and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented; and
(G) The written corrective action and the schedule for completion of this action required by subsection (4)(g)(ii) of this section.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for at least 30 years in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(c) Medical screening and surveillance.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical screening and surveillance under this section.
(ii) The record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;
(B) Physician's or other licensed health care professional's written opinions as described in subsection (11)(e) of this section;
(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional as required by subsection (11)(e) of this section.
(iii) Medical screening and surveillance records ((shall))must be maintained for each employee for the duration of employment plus 30 years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(d) Availability.
(i) The employer, upon written request, ((shall))must make all records required to be maintained by this section available for examination and copying to the director.
(ii) Access to records required to be maintained by (a) and (b) of this subsection ((shall))must be granted in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(e) Transfer of records. The employer shall transfer medical and exposure records as set forth in WAC 296-802-60005.
(14) ((Dates.
(a) Effective date. This section shall become effective (day, month), 1997.
(b))) Start-up dates.
(((i)))(a) The initial monitoring required under subsection (4)(b) of this section ((shall))must be completed immediately or within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.
(((ii)))(b) The requirements of subsections (3) through (13) of this section, including feasible work practice controls but not including engineering controls specified in subsection (6)(a) of this section, ((shall))must be complied with immediately.
(((iii) Engineering controls specified by subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 1999, and the exposure goal program specified in subsection (7) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 2000.))
(15) Appendices.
Appendices A, B, C, D, and F to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.
Appendix A. Substance Safety Data Sheet For 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)
(1) Substance Identification.
(a) Substance: 1,3-Butadiene (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).
(b) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bi-vinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; CAS-106-99-0.
(c) BD can be found as a gas or liquid.
(d) BD is used in production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber for the tire industry. Other uses include copolymer latexes for carpet backing and paper coating, as well as resins and polymers for pipes and automobile and appliance parts. It is also used as an intermediate in the production of such chemicals as fungicides.
(e) Appearance and odor: BD is a colorless, noncorrosive, flammable gas with a mild aromatic odor at standard ambient temperature and pressure.
(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 1 part BD per million parts of air averaged over the 8-hour workday, nor may short-term exposure exceed 5 parts of BD per million parts of air averaged over any 15-minute period in the 8-hour workday.
(2) Health Hazard Data.
(a) BD can affect the body if the gas is inhaled or if the liquid form, which is very cold (cryogenic), comes in contact with the eyes or skin.
(b) Effects of overexposure: Breathing very high levels of BD for a short time can cause central nervous system effects, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased blood pressure and pulse rate, and unconsciousness. There are no recorded cases of accidental exposures at high levels that have caused death in humans, but this could occur. Breathing lower levels of BD may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Skin contact with liquefied BD can cause irritation and frostbite.
(c) Long-term (chronic) exposure: BD has been found to be a potent carcinogen in rodents, inducing neoplastic lesions at multiple target sites in mice and rats. A recent study of BD-exposed workers showed that exposed workers have an increased risk of developing leukemia. The risk of leukemia increases with increased exposure to BD. OSHA has concluded that there is strong evidence that workplace exposure to BD poses an increased risk of death from cancers of the lymphohematopoietic system.
(d) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your supervisor if you develop any of these signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to BD.
(3) Emergency First-Aid Procedures.
In the event of an emergency, follow the emergency plan and procedures designated for your work area. If you have been trained in first-aid procedures, provide the necessary first aid measures. If necessary, call for additional assistance from co-workers and emergency medical personnel.
(a) Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential that liquefied BD can come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used. If liquefied BD comes in contact with the eye, immediately flush the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and the upper lids. Flush repeatedly. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. In the event of skin contact, which can cause frostbite, remove any contaminated clothing and flush the affected area repeatedly with large amounts of tepid water.
(b) Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of BD, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you have been trained in this procedure. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately.
(c) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure. If the exposed person has been overcome, call for help and begin emergency rescue procedures. Use extreme caution so that you do not become a casualty. Understand the plant's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises.
(4) Respirators and Protective Clothing.
(a) Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering and work practice controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented or during brief, nonroutine, intermittent exposure. Respirators may also be used in situations involving nonroutine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration, and in emergency situations. In some instances cartridge respirator use is allowed, but only with strict time constraints. For example, at exposure below 5 ppm BD, a cartridge (or canister) respirator, either full or half face, may be used, but the cartridge must be replaced at least every 4 hours, and it must be replaced every 3 hours when the exposure is between 5 and 10 ppm.
If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program must be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, fit testing, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation of respirators. If you can smell BD while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air, and change cartridge (or canister) before reentering an area where there is BD exposure. If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your supervisor.
(b) Protective Clothing: Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen by contact with liquefied BD (or a vessel containing liquid BD).
Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquefied BD may contact the eyes.
(5) Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage.
(a) Fire and Explosion Hazards: BD is a flammable gas and can easily form explosive mixtures in air. It has a lower explosive limit of 2%, and an upper explosive limit of 11.5%. It has an autoignition temperature of 420 deg. C (788 deg. F). Its vapor is heavier than air (vapor density, 1.9) and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Usually it contains inhibitors to prevent self-polymerization (which is accompanied by evolution of heat) and to prevent formation of explosive peroxides. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place. If the polymerization takes place in a container, there is a possibility of violent rupture of the container.
(b) Hazard: Slightly toxic. Slight respiratory irritant. Direct contact of liquefied BD on skin may cause freeze burns and frostbite.
(c) Storage: Protect against physical damage to BD containers. Outside or detached storage of BD containers is preferred. Inside storage should be in a cool, dry, well-ventilated, noncombustible location, away from all possible sources of ignition. Store cylinders vertically and do not stack. Do not store with oxidizing material.
(d) Usual Shipping Containers: Liquefied BD is contained in steel pressure apparatus.
(e) Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations, as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be in accordance with Article 501 of the Code. If explosion-proof electrical equipment is necessary, it shall be suitable for use in Group B. Group D equipment may be used if such equipment is isolated in accordance with Section 501-5(a) by sealing all conduit 1/2-inch size or larger. See Venting of Deflagrations (NFPA No. 68, 1994), National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70, 1996), Static Electricity (NFPA No. 77, 1993), Lightning Protection Systems (NFPA No. 780, 1995), and Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids (NFPA No. 325, 1994).
(f) Fire Fighting: Stop flow of gas. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fire extinguishers and quick drenching facilities must be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.
(g) Spill and Leak: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until clean-up has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:
(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.
(ii) Ventilate area of spill or leak.
(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.
(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.
(h) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 C.F.R. part 261). It is listed as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 C.F.R. parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulation of any additional requirements as these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulation.
(i) You should not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials in areas where there is BD exposure, nor should you eat or drink in such areas.
(j) Ask your supervisor where BD is used in your work area and ask for any additional plant safety and health rules.
(6) Medical Requirements.
Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical screening and surveillance program if you are exposed to BD at concentrations exceeding the action level (0.5 ppm BD as an 8-hour TWA) on 30 days or more a year, or at or above the 8-hr TWA (1 ppm) or STEL (5 ppm for 15 minutes) on 10 days or more a year. Exposure for any part of a day counts. If you have had exposure to BD in the past, but have been transferred to another job, you may still be eligible to participate in the medical screening and surveillance program.
The WISHA rule specifies the past exposures that would qualify you for participation in the program. These past exposure are work histories that suggest the following:
(a) That you have been exposed at or above the PELs on 30 days a year for 10 or more years;
(b) That you have been exposed at or above the action level on 60 days a year for 10 or more years; or
(c) That you have been exposed above 10 ppm on 30 days in any past year.
Additionally, if you are exposed to BD in an emergency situation, you are eligible for a medical examination within 48 hours. The basic medical screening program includes a health questionnaire, physical examination, and blood test. These medical evaluations must be offered to you at a reasonable time and place, and without cost or loss of pay.
(7) Observation of Monitoring.
Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to BD and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, the protective clothing and equipment.
(8) Access to Information.
(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this appendix. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using BD, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.
(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to BD. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits and of the schedule to implement these actions.
(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty years.
(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.
Appendix B. Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)
(1) Physical and Chemical Data.
(a) Substance identification:
(i) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bivinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50620; CAS-106-99-0.
(ii) Formula: (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).
(iii) Molecular weight: 54.1.
(b) Physical data:
(i) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): -4.7 deg. C (23.5 deg. F).
(ii) Specific gravity (water = 1):0.62 at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F).
(iii) Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point of BD): 1.87.
(iv) Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 910 mm Hg.
(v) Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 0.05.
(vi) Appearance and odor: Colorless, flammable gas with a mildly aromatic odor. Liquefied BD is a colorless liquid with a mildly aromatic odor.
(2) Fire, Explosion, and Reactivity Hazard Data.
(a) Fire:
(i) Flash point: -76 deg. C (-105 deg. F) for take out; liquefied BD; Not applicable to BD gas.
(ii) Stability: A stabilizer is added to the monomer to inhibit formation of polymer during storage. Forms explosive peroxides in air in absence of inhibitor.
(iii) Flammable limits in air, percent by volume: Lower: 2.0; Upper: 11.5.
(iv) Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide for small fires, polymer or alcohol foams for large fires.
(v) Special fire fighting procedures: Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed cylinders cool.
(vi) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: BD vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.
(vii) For purposes of compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-330, BD is classified as a flammable gas. For example, 7,500 ppm, approximately one-fourth of the lower flammable limit, would be considered to pose a potential fire and explosion hazard.
(viii) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-585, BD is classified as a Class B fire hazard.
(ix) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-956 and 296-800-280, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of BD shall be Class I.
(b) Reactivity:
(i) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat. Peroxides are formed when inhibitor concentration is not maintained at proper level. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place.
(ii) Incompatibilities: Contact with strong oxidizing agents may cause fires and explosions. The contacting of crude BD (not BD monomer) with copper and copper alloys may cause formations of explosive copper compounds.
(iii) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving BD.
(iv) Special precautions: BD will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. BD in storage should be checked for proper inhibitor content, for self-polymerization, and for formation of peroxides when in contact with air and iron. Piping carrying BD may become plugged by formation of rubbery polymer.
(c) Warning Properties:
(i) Odor Threshold: An odor threshold of 0.45 ppm has been reported in The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Report, Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards. (Ex. 32-28C).
(ii) Eye Irritation Level: Workers exposed to vapors of BD (concentration or purity unspecified) have complained of irritation of eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Dogs and rabbits exposed experimentally to as much as 6700 ppm for 7 1/2 hours a day for 8 months have developed no histologically demonstrable abnormality of the eyes.
(iii) Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since the mean odor threshold is about half of the 1 ppm PEL, and more than 10-fold below the 5 ppm STEL, most wearers of air purifying respirators should still be able to detect breakthrough before a significant overexposure to BD occurs.
(3) Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures.
(a) Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:
(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.
(ii) Ventilate areas of spill or leak.
(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.
(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.
(b) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 C.F.R. part 261). It is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 C.F.R. parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulations for any additional requirements because these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulations.
(4) Monitoring and Measurement Procedures.
(a) Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit (8-hr TWA) or Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):
(i) 8-hr TWA exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this standard are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift. Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee).
(ii) STEL exposure evaluation: Measurements must represent 15 minute exposures associated with operations most likely to exceed the STEL in each job and on each shift.
(iii) Monitoring frequencies: Table 1 gives various exposure scenarios and their required monitoring frequencies, as required by the final standard for occupational exposure to butadiene.
Table 1. — Five Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated
Monitoring Frequencies
Action Level
8-hr TWA
STEL
Required Monitoring
Activity
__*
__
__
No 8-hour TWA or STEL monitoring required.
+*
__
__
No STEL monitoring required. Monitor 8-hr TWA annually.
+
__
__
No STEL monitoring required. Periodic monitoring 8-hour TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).**
+
+
+
Periodic monitoring 8-hour TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii)**. Periodic monitoring STEL in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).
+
__
+
Periodic monitoring STEL, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii). Monitor 8-hour TWA annually.
Footnote (*)
Exposure Scenario, Limit Exceeded: + = Yes, - = No.
Footnote (**)
The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to annually when at least 2 consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart show exposures to be below the 8-hour TWA, but at or above the action level.
(iv) Monitoring techniques: Appendix D describes the validated method of sampling and analysis which has been tested by OSHA for use with BD. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95 percent confidence level, to plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of BD at or above 1 ppm, and to plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations below 1 ppm.
(5) Personal Protective Equipment.
(a) Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with liquid BD.
(b) Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid BD should be removed immediately and not reworn until the butadiene has evaporated.
(c) Employees should be provided with and required to use splash proof safety goggles where liquid BD may contact the eyes.
(6) Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities.
For purposes of complying with WAC 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, the following items should be emphasized:
(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition.
(b) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition.
(7) Additional Precautions.
(a) Store BD in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area and take all necessary precautions to avoid any explosion hazard.
(b) Nonsparking tools must be used to open and close metal containers. These containers must be effectively grounded.
(c) Do not incinerate BD cartridges, tanks or other containers.
(d) Employers must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to BD might occur.
Appendix C. Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene (Nonmandatory)
(1) Basis for Medical Screening and Surveillance Requirements.
(a) Route of Entry Inhalation.
(b) Toxicology.
Inhalation of BD has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, damage to the reproductive organs, and fetotoxicity. Butadiene can be converted via oxidation to epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, two genotoxic metabolites that may play a role in the expression of BD's toxic effects. BD has been tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Both species responded to BD exposure by developing cancer at multiple primary organ sites. Early deaths in mice were caused by malignant lymphomas, primarily lymphocytic type, originating in the thymus.
Mice exposed to BD have developed ovarian or testicular atrophy. Sperm head morphology tests also revealed abnormal sperm in mice exposed to BD; lethal mutations were found in a dominant lethal test. In light of these results in animals, the possibility that BD may adversely affect the reproductive systems of male and female workers must be considered.
Additionally, anemia has been observed in animals exposed to butadiene. In some cases, this anemia appeared to be a primary response to exposure; in other cases, it may have been secondary to a neoplastic response.
(c) Epidemiology.
Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that BD exposure poses an increased risk of leukemia. Mild alterations of hematologic parameters have also been observed in synthetic rubber workers exposed to BD.
(2) Potential Adverse Health Effects.
(a) Acute.
Skin contact with liquid BD causes characteristic burns or frostbite. BD in gaseous form can irritate the eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Blurred vision, coughing, and drowsiness may also occur. Effects are mild at 2,000 ppm and pronounced at 8,000 ppm for exposures occurring over the full workshift.
At very high concentrations in air, BD is an anesthetic, causing narcosis, respiratory paralysis, unconsciousness, and death. Such concentrations are unlikely, however, except in an extreme emergency because BD poses an explosion hazard at these levels.
(b) Chronic.
The principal adverse health effects of concern are BD-induced lymphoma, leukemia and potential reproductive toxicity. Anemia and other changes in the peripheral blood cells may be indicators of excessive exposure to BD.
(c) Reproductive.
Workers may be concerned about the possibility that their BD exposure may be affecting their ability to procreate a healthy child. For workers with high exposures to BD, especially those who have experienced difficulties in conceiving, miscarriages, or stillbirths, appropriate medical and laboratory evaluation of fertility may be necessary to determine if BD is having any adverse effect on the reproductive system or on the health of the fetus.
(3) Medical Screening Components At-A-Glance.
(a) Health Questionnaire.
The most important goal of the health questionnaire is to elicit information from the worker regarding potential signs or symptoms generally related to leukemia or other blood abnormalities. Therefore, physicians or other licensed health care professionals should be aware of the presenting symptoms and signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders and cancers, as well as the procedures necessary to confirm or exclude such diagnoses. Additionally, the health questionnaire will assist with the identification of workers at greatest risk of developing leukemia or adverse reproductive effects from their exposures to BD.
Workers with a history of reproductive difficulties or a personal or family history of immune deficiency syndromes, blood dyscrasias, lymphoma, or leukemia, and those who are or have been exposed to medicinal drugs or chemicals known to affect the hematopoietic or lymphatic systems may be at higher risk from their exposure to BD. After the initial administration, the health questionnaire must be updated annually.
(b) Complete Blood Count (CBC).
The medical screening and surveillance program requires an annual CBC, with differential and platelet count, to be provided for each employee with BD exposure. This test is to be performed on a blood sample obtained by phlebotomy of the venous system or, if technically feasible, from a fingerstick sample of capillary blood. The sample is to be analyzed by an accredited laboratory.
Abnormalities in a CBC may be due to a number of different etiologies. The concern for workers exposed to BD includes, but is not limited to, timely identification of lymphohematopoietic cancers, such as leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abnormalities of portions of the CBC are identified by comparing an individual's results to those of an established range of normal values for males and females. A substantial change in any individual employee's CBC may also be viewed as "abnormal" for that individual even if all measurements fall within the population-based range of normal values. It is suggested that a flowsheet for laboratory values be included in each employee's medical record so that comparisons and trends in annual CBCs can be easily made.
A determination of the clinical significance of an abnormal CBC shall be the responsibility of the examining physician, other licensed health care professional, or medical specialist to whom the employee is referred. Ideally, an abnormal CBC should be compared to previous CBC measurements for the same employee, when available. Clinical common sense may dictate that a CBC value that is very slightly outside the normal range does not warrant medical concern. A CBC abnormality may also be the result of a temporary physical stressor, such as a transient viral illness, blood donation, or menorrhagia, or laboratory error. In these cases, the CBC should be repeated in a timely fashion, i.e., within 6 weeks, to verify that return to the normal range has occurred. A clinically significant abnormal CBC should result in removal of the employee from further exposure to BD. Transfer of the employee to other work duties in a BD-free environment would be the preferred recommendation.
(c) Physical Examination.
The medical screening and surveillance program requires an initial physical examination for workers exposed to BD; this examination is repeated once every three years. The initial physical examination should assess each worker's baseline general health and rule out clinical signs of medical conditions that may be caused by or aggravated by occupational BD exposure. The physical examination should be directed at identification of signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders, including lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly.
Repeated physical examinations should update objective clinical findings that could be indicative of interim development of a lymphohematopoietic disorder, such as lymphoma, leukemia, or other blood abnormality. Physical examinations may also be provided on an as needed basis in order to follow up on a positive answer on the health questionnaire, or in response to an abnormal CBC. Physical examination of workers who will no longer be working in jobs with BD exposure are intended to rule out lymphohematopoietic disorders.
The need for physical examinations for workers concerned about adverse reproductive effects from their exposure to BD should be identified by the physician or other licensed health care professional and provided accordingly. For these workers, such consultations and examinations may relate to developmental toxicity and reproductive capacity.
Physical examination of workers acutely exposed to significant levels of BD should be especially directed at the respiratory system, eyes, sinuses, skin, nervous system, and any region associated with particular complaints. If the worker has received a severe acute exposure, hospitalization may be required to assure proper medical management. Since this type of exposure may place workers at greater risk of blood abnormalities, a CBC must be obtained within 48 hours and repeated at one, two, and three months.
Appendix D: Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene (Nonmandatory)
OSHA Method No.: 56.
Matrix: Air.
Target concentration: 1 ppm (2.21 mg/m(3)).
Procedure: Air samples are collected by drawing known volumes of air through sampling tubes containing charcoal adsorbent which has been coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. The samples are desorbed with carbon disulfide and then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector.
Recommended sampling rate and air volume: 0.05 L/min and 3 L.
Detection limit of the overall procedure: 90 ppb (200 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).
Reliable quantitation limit: 155 ppb (343 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).
Standard error of estimate at the target concentration: 6.5%.
Special requirements: The sampling tubes must be coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. Collected samples should be stored in a freezer.
Status of method: A sampling and analytical method has been subjected to the established evaluation procedures of the Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Analytical Laboratory, Salt Lake City, Utah 84165.
(1) Background.
This work was undertaken to develop a sampling and analytical procedure for BD at 1 ppm. The current method recommended by OSHA for collecting BD uses activated coconut shell charcoal as the sampling medium (Ref. 5.2). This method was found to be inadequate for use at low BD levels because of sample instability.
The stability of samples has been significantly improved through the use of a specially cleaned charcoal which is coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC). TBC is a polymerization inhibitor for BD (Ref. 5.3).
(a) Toxic effects.
Symptoms of human exposure to BD include irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. It can also cause coughing, drowsiness and fatigue. Dermatitis and frostbite can result from skin exposure to liquid BD. (Ref. 5.1)
NIOSH recommends that BD be handled in the workplace as a potential occupational carcinogen. This recommendation is based on two inhalation studies that resulted in cancers at multiple sites in rats and in mice. BD has also demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of a liver microsomal activating system. It has also been reported to have adverse reproductive effects. (Ref. 5.1)
(b) Potential workplace exposure.
About 90% of the annual production of BD is used to manufacture styrene-butadiene rubber and Polybutadiene rubber. Other uses include: Polychloroprene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene resins, nylon intermediates, styrene-butadiene latexes, butadiene polymers, thermoplastic elastomers, nitrile resins, methyl methacrylate-butadiene styrene resins and chemical intermediates. (Ref. 5.1)
(c) Physical properties (Ref. 5.1).
CAS No.: 106-99-0
Molecular weight: 54.1
Appearance: Colorless gas
Boiling point: -4.41 deg. C (760 mm Hg)
Freezing point: -108.9 deg. C
Vapor pressure: 2 atm (a) 15.3 deg. C; 5 atm (a) 47 deg. C
Explosive limits: 2 to 11.5% (by volume in air)
Odor threshold: 0.45 ppm
Structural formula: H(2)C:CHCH:CH(2)
Synonyms: BD; biethylene; bivinyl; butadiene; divinyl; buta-1,3-diene; alpha-gamma-butadiene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; pyrrolylene; vinylethylene.
(d) Limit defining parameters.
The analyte air concentrations listed throughout this method are based on an air volume of 3 L and a desorption volume of 1 mL. Air concentrations listed in ppm are referenced to 25 deg. C and 760 mm Hg.
(e) Detection limit of the analytical procedure.
The detection limit of the analytical procedure was 304 pg per injection. This was the amount of BD which gave a response relative to the interferences present in a standard.
(f) Detection limit of the overall procedure.
The detection limit of the overall procedure was 0.60 ug per sample (90 ppb or 200 ug/m(3)). This amount was determined graphically. It was the amount of analyte which, when spiked on the sampling device, would allow recovery approximately equal to the detection limit of the analytical procedure.
(g) Reliable quantitation limit.
The reliable quantitation limit was 1.03 ug per sample (155 ppb or 343 ug/m(3)). This was the smallest amount of analyte which could be quantitated within the limits of a recovery of at least 75% and a precision (+/- 1.96 SD) of +/-25% or better.
(h) Sensitivity.(1)
Footnote (1)
The reliable quantitation limit and detection limits reported in the method are based upon optimization of the instrument for the smallest possible amount of analyte. When the target concentration of an analyte is exceptionally higher than these limits, they may not be attainable at the routine operation parameters.
The sensitivity of the analytical procedure over a concentration range representing 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration, based on the recommended air volume, was 387 area units per ug/mL. This value was determined from the slope of the calibration curve. The sensitivity may vary with the particular instrument used in the analysis.
(i) Recovery.
The recovery of BD from samples used in storage tests remained above 77% when the samples were stored at ambient temperature and above 94% when the samples were stored at refrigerated temperature. These values were determined from regression lines which were calculated from the storage data. The recovery of the analyte from the collection device must be at least 75% following storage.
(j) Precision (analytical method only).
The pooled coefficient of variation obtained from replicate determinations of analytical standards over the range of 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 0.011.
(k) Precision (overall procedure).
The precision at the 95% confidence level for the refrigerated temperature storage test was +/- 12.7%. This value includes an additional +/- 5% for sampling error. The overall procedure must provide results at the target concentrations that are +/- 25% at the 95% confidence level.
(l) Reproducibility.
Samples collected from a controlled test atmosphere and a draft copy of this procedure were given to a chemist unassociated with this evaluation. The average recovery was 97.2% and the standard deviation was 6.2%.
(2) Sampling procedure.
(a) Apparatus. Samples are collected by use of a personal sampling pump that can be calibrated to within +/- 5% of the recommended 0.05 L/min sampling rate with the sampling tube in line.
(b) Samples are collected with laboratory prepared sampling tubes. The sampling tube is constructed of silane-treated glass and is about 5-cm long. The ID is 4 mm and the OD is 6 mm. One end of the tube is tapered so that a glass wool end plug will hold the contents of the tube in place during sampling. The opening in the tapered end of the sampling tube is at least one-half the ID of the tube (2 mm). The other end of the sampling tube is open to its full 4-mm ID to facilitate packing of the tube. Both ends of the tube are fire-polished for safety. The tube is packed with 2 sections of pretreated charcoal which has been coated with TBC. The tube is packed with a 50-mg backup section, located nearest the tapered end, and with a 100-mg sampling section of charcoal. The two sections of coated adsorbent are separated and retained with small plugs of silanized glass wool. Following packing, the sampling tubes are sealed with two 7/32 inch OD plastic end caps. Instructions for the pretreatment and coating of the charcoal are presented in Section 4.1 of this method.
(c) Reagents.
None required.
(d) Technique.
(i) Properly label the sampling tube before sampling and then remove the plastic end caps.
(ii) Attach the sampling tube to the pump using a section of flexible plastic tubing such that the larger front section of the sampling tube is exposed directly to the atmosphere. Do not place any tubing ahead of the sampling tube. The sampling tube should be attached in the worker's breathing zone in a vertical manner such that it does not impede work performance.
(iii) After sampling for the appropriate time, remove the sampling tube from the pump and then seal the tube with plastic end caps. Wrap the tube lengthwise.
(iv) Include at least one blank for each sampling set. The blank should be handled in the same manner as the samples with the exception that air is not drawn through it.
(v) List any potential interferences on the sample data sheet.
(vi) The samples require no special shipping precautions under normal conditions. The samples should be refrigerated if they are to be exposed to higher than normal ambient temperatures. If the samples are to be stored before they are shipped to the laboratory, they should be kept in a freezer. The samples should be placed in a freezer upon receipt at the laboratory.
(e) Breakthrough.
(Breakthrough was defined as the relative amount of analyte found on the backup section of the tube in relation to the total amount of analyte collected on the sampling tube. Five-percent breakthrough occurred after sampling a test atmosphere containing 2.0 ppm BD for 90 min. at 0.05 L/min. At the end of this time 4.5 L of air had been sampled and 20.1 ug of the analyte was collected. The relative humidity of the sampled air was 80% at 23 deg. C.)
Breakthrough studies have shown that the recommended sampling procedure can be used at air concentrations higher than the target concentration. The sampling time, however, should be reduced to 45 min. if both the expected BD level and the relative humidity of the sampled air are high.
(f) Desorption efficiency.
The average desorption efficiency for BD from TBC coated charcoal over the range from 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 96.4%. The efficiency was essentially constant over the range studied.
(g) Recommended air volume and sampling rate.
(h) The recommended air volume is 3 L.
(i) The recommended sampling rate is 0.05 L/min. for 1 hour.
(j) Interferences.
There are no known interferences to the sampling method.
(k) Safety precautions.
(i) Attach the sampling equipment to the worker in such a manner that it will not interfere with work performance or safety.
(ii) Follow all safety practices that apply to the work area being sampled.
(3) Analytical procedure.
(a) Apparatus.
(i) A gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID).(2)
Footnote (2)
A Hewlett-Packard Model 5840A GC was used for this evaluation. Injections were performed using a Hewlett-Packard Model 7671A automatic sampler.
(ii) A GC column capable of resolving the analytes from any interference.(3)
Footnote (3)
A 20-ft x 1/8-inch OD stainless steel GC column containing 20% FFAP on 80/100 mesh Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS was used for this evaluation.
(iii) Vials, glass 2-mL with Teflon-lined caps.
(iv) Disposable Pasteur-type pipets, volumetric flasks, pipets and syringes for preparing samples and standards, making dilutions and performing injections.
(b) Reagents.
(i) Carbon disulfide.(4)
Footnote (4)
Fisher Scientific Company A.C.S. Reagent Grade solvent was used in this evaluation.
The benzene contaminant that was present in the carbon disulfide was used as an internal standard (ISTD) in this evaluation.
(ii) Nitrogen, hydrogen and air, GC grade.
(iii) BD of known high purity.(5)
Footnote (5)
Matheson Gas Products, CP Grade 1,3-butadiene was used in this study.
(c) Standard preparation.
(i) Prepare standards by diluting known volumes of BD gas with carbon disulfide. This can be accomplished by injecting the appropriate volume of BD into the headspace above the 1-mL of carbon disulfide contained in sealed 2-mL vial. Shake the vial after the needle is removed from the septum.(6)
Footnote (6)
A standard containing 7.71 ug/mL (at ambient temperature and pressure) was prepared by diluting 4 uL of the gas with 1-mL of carbon disulfide.
(ii) The mass of BD gas used to prepare standards can be determined by use of the following equations:
MV = (760/BP)(273+t)/(273)(22.41)
Where:
MV = ambient molar volume
BP = ambient barometric pressure
T = ambient temperature
ug/uL = 54.09/MV
ug/standard = (ug/uL)(uL) BD used to prepare the standard
(d) Sample preparation.
(i) Transfer the 100-mg section of the sampling tube to a 2-mL vial. Place the 50-mg section in a separate vial. If the glass wool plugs contain a significant amount of charcoal, place them with the appropriate sampling tube section.
(ii) Add 1-mL of carbon disulfide to each vial.
(iii) Seal the vials with Teflon-lined caps and then allow them to desorb for one hour. Shake the vials by hand vigorously several times during the desorption period.
(iv) If it is not possible to analyze the samples within 4 hours, separate the carbon disulfide from the charcoal, using a disposable Pasteur-type pipet, following the one hour. This separation will improve the stability of desorbed samples.
(v) Save the used sampling tubes to be cleaned and repacked with fresh adsorbent.
(e) Analysis.
(i) GC Conditions.
Column temperature: 95 deg. C
Injector temperature: 180 deg. C
Detector temperature: 275 deg. C
Carrier gas flow rate: 30 mL/min.
Injection volume: 0.80 uL
GC column: 20-ft x 1/8-in OD stainless steel GC column containing 20%
FFAP on 80/100 Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS.
(ii) Chromatogram. See Section 4.2.
(iii) Use a suitable method, such as electronic or peak heights, to measure detector response.
(iv) Prepare a calibration curve using several standard solutions of different concentrations. Prepare the calibration curve daily. Program the integrator to report the results in ug/mL.
(v) Bracket sample concentrations with standards.
(f) Interferences (analytical).
(i) Any compound with the same general retention time as the analyte and which also gives a detector response is a potential interference. Possible interferences should be reported by the industrial hygienist to the laboratory with submitted samples.
(ii) GC parameters (temperature, column, etc.) may be changed to circumvent interferences.
(iii) A useful means of structure designation is GC/MS. It is recommended that this procedure be used to confirm samples whenever possible.
(g) Calculations.
(i) Results are obtained by use of calibration curves. Calibration curves are prepared by plotting detector response against concentration for each standard. The best line through the data points is determined by curve fitting.
(ii) The concentration, in ug/mL, for a particular sample is determined by comparing its detector response to the calibration curve. If any analyte is found on the backup section, this amount is added to the amount found on the front section. Blank corrections should be performed before adding the results together.
(iii) The BD air concentration can be expressed using the following equation:
mg/m(3) = (A)(B)/(C)(D)
Where:
A = ug/mL from Section 3.7.2
B = volume
C = L of air sampled
D = efficiency
(iv) The following equation can be used to convert results in mg/m(3) to ppm:
ppm = (mg/m(3))(24.46)/54.09
Where:
mg/m(3) = result from Section 3.7.3.
24.46 = molar volume of an ideal gas at 760 mm Hg and 25 deg. C.
(h) Safety precautions (analytical).
(i) Avoid skin contact and inhalation of all chemicals.
(ii) Restrict the use of all chemicals to a fume hood whenever possible.
(iii) Wear safety glasses and a lab coat in all laboratory areas.
(4) Additional Information.
(a) A procedure to prepare specially cleaned charcoal coated with TBC.
(i) Apparatus.
(A) Magnetic stirrer and stir bar.
(B) Tube furnace capable of maintaining a temperature of 700 deg. C and equipped with a quartz tube that can hold 30 g of charcoal.(8)
Footnote (8)
A Lindberg Type 55035 Tube furnace was used in this evaluation.
(C) A means to purge nitrogen gas through the charcoal inside the quartz tube.
(D) Water bath capable of maintaining a temperature of 60 deg. C.
(E) Miscellaneous laboratory equipment: One-liter vacuum flask, 1-L Erlenmeyer flask, 350-M1 Buchner funnel with a coarse fitted disc, 4-oz brown bottle, rubber stopper, Teflon tape etc.
(ii) Reagents.
(A) Phosphoric acid, 10% by weight, in water.(9)
Footnote (9)
Baker Analyzed Reagent grade was diluted with water for use in this evaluation.
(B) 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC).(10)
Footnote (10)
The Aldrich Chemical Company 99% grade was used in this evaluation.
(C) Specially cleaned coconut shell charcoal, 20/40 mesh.(11)
Footnote (11)
Specially cleaned charcoal was obtained from Supelco, Inc. for use in this evaluation. The cleaning process used by Supelco is proprietary.
(D) Nitrogen gas, GC grade.
(iii) Procedure.
Weigh 30g of charcoal into a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add about 250 mL of 10% phosphoric acid to the flask and then swirl the mixture. Stir the mixture for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer. Filter the mixture using a fitted Buchner funnel. Wash the charcoal several times with 250-mL portions of deionized water to remove all traces of the acid. Transfer the washed charcoal to the tube furnace quartz tube. Place the quartz tube in the furnace and then connect the nitrogen gas purge to the tube. Fire the charcoal to 700 deg. C. Maintain that temperature for at least 1 hour. After the charcoal has cooled to room temperature, transfer it to a tared beaker. Determine the weight of the charcoal and then add an amount of TBC which is 10% of the charcoal, by weight.
CAUTION-TBC is toxic and should only be handled in a fume hood while wearing gloves.
Carefully mix the contents of the beaker and then transfer the mixture to a 4-oz bottle. Stopper the bottle with a clean rubber stopper which has been wrapped with Teflon tape. Clamp the bottle in a water bath so that the water level is above the charcoal level. Gently heat the bath to 60 deg. C and then maintain that temperature for 1 hour. Cool the charcoal to room temperature and then transfer the coated charcoal to a suitable container.
The coated charcoal is now ready to be packed into sampling tubes. The sampling tubes should be stored in a sealed container to prevent contamination. Sampling tubes should be stored in the dark at room temperature. The sampling tubes should be segregated by coated adsorbent lot number.
(b) Chromatograms.
The chromatograms were obtained using the recommended analytical method. The chart speed was set at 1 cm/min. for the first three min. and then at 0.2 cm/min. for the time remaining in the analysis.
The peak which elutes just before BD is a reaction product between an impurity on the charcoal and TBC. This peak is always present, but it is easily resolved from the analyte. The peak which elutes immediately before benzene is an oxidation product of TBC.
(5) References.
(a) "Current Intelligence Bulletin 41, 1,3-Butadiene," U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH.
(b) "NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods," 2nd ed.; U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Cincinnati, OH. 1977, Vol. 2, Method No. S91 DHEW (NIOSH) Publ. (U.S.), No. 77-157-B.
(c) Hawley, G.C., Ed. "The Condensed Chemical Dictionary," 8th ed.; Van Nostrand Rienhold Company: New York, 1971; 139.5.4. Chem. Eng. News (June 10, 1985), (63), 22-66.
Appendix E: Reserved.
APPENDIX F, MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRES, (Non-mandatory)
1,3-Butadiene (BD) Initial Health Questionnaire
DIRECTIONS:
You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.
This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.
Date:
 
 
Name:
 
SSN___/___/___
Last
 
First
MI
 
Job Title:
 
 
Company's Name:
 
 
Supervisor's Name:
 
 
Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) ___-_____
Work History
1. Please list all jobs you have had in the past, starting with the job you have now and moving back in time to your first job. (For more space, write on the back of this page.)
Main Job Duty
Year
Company Name
City, State
Chemicals
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
2. Please describe what you do during a typical work day. Be sure to tell about your work with BD.
 
 
 
3. Please check any of these chemicals that you work with now or have worked with in the past:
benzene
_____
glues
_____
toluene
_____
inks, dyes
_____
other solvents, grease cutters
_____
insecticides (like DDT, lindane, etc.)
_____
paints, varnishes, thinners, strippers
_____
dusts
_____
carbon tetrachloride ("carbon tet")
_____
arsine
_____
carbon disulfide
_____
lead
_____
cement
_____
petroleum products
_____
nitrites
_____
4. Please check the protective clothing or equipment you use at the job you have now:
gloves
_____
coveralls
_____
respirator
_____
dust mask
_____
safety glasses, goggles
_____
Please circle your answer.
5. Does your protective clothing or equipment fit you properly? yes no
6. Have you ever made changes in your protective clothing or equipment to make it fit better? yes no
7. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no
8. Where do you eat, drink and/or smoke when you are at work? (Please check all that apply.)
Cafeteria/restaurant/snack bar
_____
Break room/employee lounge
_____
Smoking lounge
_____
At my work station
_____
Please circle your answer.
9. Have you been exposed to radiation (like x-rays or nuclear material) at the job you have now or at past jobs? yes no
10. Do you have any hobbies that expose you to dusts or chemicals (including paints, glues, etc.)? yes no
11. Do you have any second or side jobs? yes no
 
If yes, what are your duties there?
 
 
12. Were you in the military? yes no
If yes, what did you do in the military?
 
 
 
 
Family Health History
1. In the FAMILY MEMBER column, across from the disease name, write which family member, if any, had the disease.
DISEASE
FAMILY MEMBER
Cancer
Lymphoma
Sickle Cell Disease or Trait
Immune Disease
Leukemia
Anemia
2. Please fill in the following information about family health
Relative
Alive?
Age at Death?
Cause of Death?
Father
Mother
Brother/Sister
Brother/Sister
Brother/Sister
Personal Health History
Birth Date __/__/__ Age __ Sex __ Height___ Weight ___
Please circle your answer.
1. Do you smoke any tobacco products? yes no
2. Have you ever had any kind of surgery or operation? yes no
If yes, what type of surgery:
 
 
 
3. Have you ever been in the hospital for any other reasons? yes no
 
If yes, please describe the reason
 
 
 
 
4. Do you have any on-going or current medical problems or conditions? yes no
 
If yes, please describe:
 
 
 
5. Do you now have or have you ever had any of the following? Please check all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
_____
anemia ("low blood")
_____
HIV/AIDS
_____
weakness
_____
sickle cell
_____
miscarriage
_____
skin rash
_____
bloody stools
_____
leukemia/lymphoma
_____
neck mass/swelling
_____
wheezing
_____
yellowing of skin
_____
bruising easily
_____
lupus
_____
weight loss
_____
kidney problems
_____
enlarged lymph nodes
_____
liver disease
_____
cancer
_____
infertility
_____
drinking problems
_____
thyroid problems
_____
night sweats
_____
chest pain
_____
still birth
_____
eye redness
_____
lumps you can feel
_____
child with birth defect
_____
autoimmune disease
_____
overly tired
_____
lung problems
_____
rheumatoid arthritis
_____
mononucleosis ("mono")
_____
nagging cough
_____
Please circle your answer.
6. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no
 
If yes, please describe:
 
 
7. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or problems? yes no don't know
 
If yes, please describe:
 
 
8. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no
9. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no
10. Do you take any medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no
 
If yes, please list:
 
 
11. Are you allergic to any medication, food, or chemicals? yes no
 
If yes, please list:
 
 
12. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with
BD? yes no
 
If yes, please explain:
 
 
13. Did you understand all the questions? yes no
 
Signature
1,3-Butadiene (BD) Health Update Questionnaire
DIRECTIONS:
You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.
This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.
Date:
 
 
Name:
 
SSN___/___/___
Last
 
First
MI
 
Job Title:
 
 
Company's Name:
 
 
Supervisor's Name:
 
 
Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) ___-_____
1. Please describe any NEW duties that you have at your
job. _____
 
 
 
2. Please describe any additional job duties you have:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Please circle your answer.
3. Are you exposed to any other chemicals in your work since the last time you were evaluated for exposure to BD? yes no
 
If yes, please list what they are: _____
 
4. Does your personal protective equipment and clothing fit you properly? yes no
5. Have you made changes in this equipment or clothing to make if fit better? yes no
6. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no
7. Are you exposed to any NEW chemicals at home or while working on hobbies? yes no
 
If yes, please list what they are: _____
 
8. Since your last BD health evaluation, have you started working any new second or side jobs? yes no
 
If yes, what are your duties there?
 
 
 
Personal Health History
1. What is your current weight? ____ pounds
2. Have you been diagnosed with any new medical conditions or illness since your last evaluation? yes no
 
If yes, please tell what they are: _____
 
3. Since your last evaluation, have you been in the hospital for any illnesses, injuries, or surgery? yes no
 
If yes, please describe: _____
 
4. Do you have any of the following? Please place a check for all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
_____
anemia ("low blood")
_____
HIV/AIDS
_____
weakness
_____
sickle cell
_____
miscarriage
_____
skin rash
_____
bloody stools
_____
leukemia/lymphoma
_____
neck mass/swelling
_____
wheezing
_____
yellowing of skin
_____
bruising easily
_____
lupus
_____
weight loss
_____
kidney problems
_____
enlarged lymph nodes
_____
liver disease
_____
cancer
_____
infertility
_____
drinking problems
_____
thyroid problems
_____
night sweats
_____
chest pain
_____
still birth
_____
eye redness
_____
lumps you can feel
_____
child with birth defect
_____
autoimmune disease
_____
overly tired
_____
lung problems
_____
rheumatoid arthritis
_____
mononucleosis ("mono")
_____
nagging cough
_____
Please circle your answer.
5. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no
 
If yes, please describe:
 
 
6. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or problems? yes no don't know
 
If yes, please describe:
 
 
7. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no
8. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no
9. Have you been taking any NEW medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no
If yes, please list:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Have you developed any new allergies to medications, foods, or chemicals? yes no
If yes, please list:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with BD? yes no
 
If yes, please describe:
 
 
12. Do you understand all the questions? yes no
Signature
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07470Methylene chloride.
This occupational health standard establishes requirements for employers to control occupational exposure to methylene chloride (MC). Employees exposed to MC are at increased risk of developing cancer, adverse effects on the heart, central nervous system and liver, and skin or eye irritation. Exposure may occur through inhalation, by absorption through the skin, or through contact with the skin. MC is a solvent which is used in many different types of work activities, such as paint stripping, polyurethane foam manufacturing, and cleaning and degreasing. Under the requirements of subsection (4) of this section, each covered employer must make an initial determination of each employee's exposure to MC. If the employer determines that employees are exposed below the action level, the only other provisions of this section that apply are that a record must be made of the determination, the employees must receive information and training under subsection (12) of this section and, where appropriate, employees must be protected from contact with liquid MC under subsection (8) of this section.
The provisions of the MC standard are as follows:
(1) Scope and application. This section applies to all occupational exposures to methylene chloride (MC), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 75-09-2, in general industry, construction and shipyard employment.
(2) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:
(("Action level" means))Action level. A concentration of airborne MC of 12.5 parts per million (ppm) calculated as an eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA).
(("Authorized person" means))Authorized person. Any person specifically authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4) of this section, or any other person authorized by the WISH Act or regulations issued under the act.
(("Director" means))Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, or designee.
(("Emergency" means))Emergency. Any occurrence, such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which results, or is likely to result in an uncontrolled release of MC. If an incidental release of MC can be controlled by employees such as maintenance personnel at the time of release and in accordance with the leak/spill provisions required by subsection (6) of this section, it is not considered an emergency as defined by this standard.
(("Employee exposure" means))Employee exposure. Exposure to airborne MC which occurs or would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection.
(("Methylene chloride (MC)" means))Methylene chloride (MC). An organic compound with chemical formula, CH2Cl2. Its Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number is 75-09-2. Its molecular weight is 84.9 g/mole.
(("Physician or other licensed health care professional" is))Physician or other licensed health care professional. An individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows ((him or her))them to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the health care services required by subsection (10) of this section.
(("Regulated area" means))Regulated area. An area, demarcated by the employer, where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed either the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL.
(("Symptom" means))Symptom. Central nervous system effects such as headaches, disorientation, dizziness, fatigue, and decreased attention span; skin effects such as chapping, erythema, cracked skin, or skin burns; and cardiac effects such as chest pain or shortness of breath.
(("This section" means))This section. This methylene chloride standard.
(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).
(a) Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) PEL. The employer ((shall))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MC in excess of twenty-five parts of MC per million parts of air (25 ppm) as an eight-hour TWA.
(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer ((shall))must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MC in excess of one hundred and twenty-five parts of MC per million parts of air (125 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.
(4) Exposure monitoring.
(a) Characterization of employee exposure.
(i) Where MC is present in the workplace, the employer ((shall))must determine each employee's exposure by either:
(A) Taking a personal breathing zone air sample of each employee's exposure; or
(B) Taking personal breathing zone air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure.
(ii) Representative samples. The employer may consider personal breathing zone air samples to be representative of employee exposures when they are taken as follows:
(A) Eight-hour TWA PEL. The employer has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples for at least one employee in each job classification in a work area during every work shift, and the employee sampled is expected to have the highest MC exposure.
(B) Short-term exposure limits. The employer has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples which indicate the highest likely fifteen-minute exposures during such operations for at least one employee in each job classification in the work area during every work shift, and the employee sampled is expected to have the highest MC exposure.
(C) Exception. Personal breathing zone air samples taken during one work shift may be used to represent employee exposures on other work shifts where the employer can document that the tasks performed and conditions in the workplace are similar across shifts.
(iii) Accuracy of monitoring. The employer ((shall))must ensure that the methods used to perform exposure monitoring produce results that are accurate to a confidence level of ninety-five percent, and are:
(A) Within plus or minus twenty-five percent for airborne concentrations of MC above the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL; or
(B) Within plus or minus thirty-five percent for airborne concentrations of MC at or above the action level but at or below the eight-hour TWA PEL.
(b) Initial determination. Each employer whose employees are exposed to MC ((shall))must perform initial exposure monitoring to determine each affected employee's exposure, except under the following conditions:
(i) Where objective data demonstrate that MC cannot be released in the workplace in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or above the STEL. The objective data ((shall))must represent the highest MC exposures likely to occur under reasonably foreseeable conditions of processing, use, or handling. The employer ((shall))must document the objective data exemption as specified in subsection (13) of this section;
(ii) Where the employer has performed exposure monitoring within ((12))twelve months prior to December 1, and that exposure monitoring meets all other requirements of this section, and was conducted under conditions substantially equivalent to existing conditions; or
(iii) Where employees are exposed to MC on fewer than thirty days per year (e.g., on a construction site), and the employer has measurements by direct reading instruments which give immediate results (such as a detector tube) and which provide sufficient information regarding employee exposures to determine what control measures are necessary to reduce exposures to acceptable levels.
(c) Periodic monitoring. Where the initial determination shows employee exposures at or above the action level or above the STEL, the employer shall establish an exposure monitoring program for periodic monitoring of employee exposure to MC in accordance with Table 1:
Table 1
Six Initial Determination Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated Monitoring Frequencies
Exposure scenario
 
Required monitoring activity
Below the action level and at or below the STEL.
 
No eight-hour TWA or STEL monitoring required.
Below the action level and above the STEL.
 
No eight-hour TWA monitoring required; monitor STEL exposures every three months.
At or above the action level, at or below the TWA, and at or below the STEL.
 
Monitor eight-hour TWA exposures every six months.
At or above the action level, at or below the TWA, and above the STEL.
 
Monitor eight-hour TWA exposures every six months and monitor STEL exposures every three months.
Above the TWA and at or below the STEL.
 
Monitor eight-hour TWA exposures every three months. In addition, without regard to the last sentence of the note to subsection (3) of this section, the following employers must monitor STEL exposures every three months until either the date by which they must achieve the eight-hour TWAs PEL under subsection (3) of this section or the date by which they in fact achieve the eight-hour TWA PEL, whichever comes first:
 
 
• Employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing;
 
 
• Foam fabrication;
 
 
• Furniture refinishing;
 
 
• General aviation aircraft stripping;
 
 
• Product formulation;
 
 
• Use of MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair;
 
 
• Recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, or upholstery; and use of MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making, or floor refinishing and resurfacing.
Above the TWA and above the STEL.
 
Monitor both eight-hour TWA exposures and STEL exposures every three months.
(Note to subsection (4)(c) of this section: The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to every six months when at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart show exposures to be at or below the eight-hour TWA PEL. The employer may discontinue the periodic eight-hour TWA monitoring for employees where at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart are below the action level. The employer may discontinue the periodic STEL monitoring for employees where at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart are at or below the STEL.)
(d) Additional monitoring.
(i) The employer ((shall))must perform exposure monitoring when a change in workplace conditions indicates that employee exposure may have increased. Examples of situations that may require additional monitoring include changes in production, process, control equipment, or work practices, or a leak, rupture, or other breakdown.
(ii) Where exposure monitoring is performed due to a spill, leak, rupture or equipment breakdown, the employer ((shall))must clean up the MC and perform the appropriate repairs before monitoring.
(e) Employee notification of monitoring results.
(i) The employer ((shall))must, within fifteen working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results in writing, either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.
(ii) Whenever monitoring results indicate that employee exposure is above the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL, the employer ((shall))must describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce employee exposure to or below the eight-hour TWA PEL or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.
(f) Observation of monitoring.
(i) Employee observation. The employer ((shall))must provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to MC conducted in accordance with this section.
(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to MC requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer ((shall))must provide, at no cost to the observer(s), and the observer(s) ((shall be required to))must use such clothing and equipment and ((shall))must comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(5) Regulated areas.
(a) The employer ((shall))must establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed either the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL.
(b) The employer ((shall))must limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.
(c) The employer ((shall))must supply a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (7)(c) of this section, to each person who enters a regulated area and ((shall))must require each affected employee to use that respirator whenever MC exposures are likely to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL or STEL.
(Note to subsection (5)(c) of this section: An employer who has implemented all feasible engineering, work practice and administrative controls (as required in subsection (6) of this section), and who has established a regulated area (as required by subsection (5)(a) of this section) where MC exposure can be reliably predicted to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL only on certain days (for example, because of work or process schedule) would need to have affected employees use respirators in that regulated area only on those days.)
(d) The employer ((shall))must ensure that, within a regulated area, employees do not engage in nonwork activities which may increase dermal or oral MC exposure.
(e) The employer ((shall))must ensure that while employees are wearing respirators, they do not engage in activities (such as taking medication or chewing gum or tobacco) which interfere with respirator seal or performance.
(f) The employer ((shall))must demarcate regulated areas from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees to the boundaries of the area and minimizes the number of authorized employees exposed to MC within the regulated area.
(g) An employer at a multiemployer worksite who establishes a regulated area ((shall))must communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to all other employers with work operations at that worksite.
(6) Methods of compliance.
(a) Engineering and work practice controls. The employer ((shall))must institute and maintain the effectiveness of engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.
(b) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-TWA PEL or STEL, the employer ((shall))must use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and ((shall))must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.
(c) Prohibition of rotation. The employer ((shall))must not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.
(d) Leak and spill detection.
(i) The employer ((shall))must implement procedures to detect leaks of MC in the workplace. In work areas where spills may occur, the employer ((shall))must make provisions to contain any spills and to safely dispose of any MC-contaminated waste materials.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must ensure that all incidental leaks are repaired and that incidental spills are cleaned promptly by employees who use the appropriate personal protective equipment and are trained in proper methods of cleanup.
(Note to subsection (6)(d)(ii) of this section: See Appendix A of this section for examples of procedures that satisfy this requirement. Employers covered by this standard may also be subject to the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in ((WAC 296-62-3112))chapter 296-843 WAC.)
(7) Respiratory protection.
(a) General requirements. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:
(i) Periods when an employee's exposure to MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL (for example, when an employee is using MC in a regulated area);
(ii) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;
(iii) In a few work operations, such as some maintenance operations and repair activities, for which the employer demonstrates that engineering and work practice controls are infeasible;
(iv) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PELs;
(v) Emergencies.
(b) Respirator program.
(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator, except for the requirements in Table 5 of WAC 296-842-13005 that address gas or vapor cartridge change schedules and end-of-service-life indicators (ESLIs).
(ii) Employers who provide employees with gas masks with organic-vapor canisters for the purpose of emergency escape must replace the canisters after any emergency use and before the gas masks are returned to service.
(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:
(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.
(ii) Make sure half-facepiece respirators are not selected or used for protection against MC. This is necessary to prevent eye irritation or damage from MC exposure.
(iii) Provide to employees, for emergency escape, one of the following respirator options:
(A) A self-contained breathing apparatus operated in the continuous-flow or pressure demand mode; or
(B) A gas mask equipped with an organic vapor canister.
(d) Medical evaluation. Before having an employee use a supplied-air respirator in the negative-pressure mode, or a gas mask with an organic-vapor canister for emergency escape, the employer must:
(i) Have a physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) evaluate the employee's ability to use such respiratory protection;
(ii) Ensure that the PLHCP provides their findings in a written opinion to the employee and the employer.
Note:
See WAC ((296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156))296-842-14005 for medical evaluation requirements for employees using respirators.
(8) Protective work clothing and equipment.
(a) Where needed to prevent MC-induced skin or eye irritation, the employer ((shall))must provide clean protective clothing and equipment which is resistant to MC, at no cost to the employee, and ((shall))must ensure that each affected employee uses it. Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-800-160, as applicable.
(b) The employer ((shall))must clean, launder, repair and replace all protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
(c) The employer ((shall))must be responsible for the safe disposal of such clothing and equipment.
(Note to subsection (8)(c) of this section: See Appendix A for examples of disposal procedures that will satisfy this requirement.)
(9) Hygiene facilities.
(a) If it is reasonably foreseeable that employees' skin may contact solutions containing 0.1 percent or greater MC (for example, through splashes, spills or improper work practices), the employer ((shall))must provide conveniently located washing facilities capable of removing the MC, and ((shall))must ensure that affected employees use these facilities as needed.
(b) If it is reasonably foreseeable that an employee's eyes may contact solutions containing 0.1 percent or greater MC (for example through splashes, spills or improper work practices), the employer ((shall))must provide appropriate eyewash facilities within the immediate work area for emergency use, and ((shall))must ensure that affected employees use those facilities when necessary.
(10) Medical surveillance.
(a) Affected employees. The employer ((shall))must make medical surveillance available for employees who are or may be exposed to MC as follows:
(i) At or above the action level on thirty or more days per year, or above the eight-hour TWA PEL or the STEL on ten or more days per year;
(ii) Above the 8-TWA PEL or STEL for any time period where an employee has been identified by a physician or other licensed health care professional as being at risk from cardiac disease or from some other serious MC-related health condition and such employee requests inclusion in the medical surveillance program;
(iii) During an emergency.
(b) Costs. The employer ((shall))must provide all required medical surveillance at no cost to affected employees, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.
(c) Medical personnel. The employer ((shall))must ensure that all medical surveillance procedures are performed by a physician or other licensed health care professional, as defined in subsection (2) of this section.
(d) Frequency of medical surveillance. The employer ((shall))must make medical surveillance available to each affected employee as follows:
(i) Initial surveillance. The employer ((shall))must provide initial medical surveillance under the schedule provided by subsection (14)(b)(iii) of this section, or before the time of initial assignment of the employee, whichever is later. ((The employer need not provide the initial surveillance if medical records show that an affected employee has been provided with medical surveillance that complies with this section within twelve months before December 1.))
(ii) Periodic medical surveillance. The employer ((shall))must update the medical and work history for each affected employee annually. The employer ((shall))must provide periodic physical examinations, including appropriate laboratory surveillance, as follows:
(A) For employees forty-five years of age or older, within twelve months of the initial surveillance or any subsequent medical surveillance; and
(B) For employees younger than forty-five years of age, within thirty-six months of the initial surveillance or any subsequent medical surveillance.
(iii) Termination of employment or reassignment. When an employee leaves the employer's workplace, or is reassigned to an area where exposure to MC is consistently at or below the action level and STEL, medical surveillance ((shall))must be made available if six months or more have elapsed since the last medical surveillance.
(iv) Additional surveillance. The employer ((shall))must provide additional medical surveillance at frequencies other than those listed above when recommended in the written medical opinion. (For example, the physician or other licensed health care professional may determine an examination is warranted in less than thirty-six months for employees younger than forty-five years of age based upon evaluation of the results of the annual medical and work history.)
(e) Content of medical surveillance.
(i) Medical and work history. The comprehensive medical and work history ((shall))must emphasize neurological symptoms, skin conditions, history of hematologic or liver disease, signs or symptoms suggestive of heart disease (angina, coronary artery disease), risk factors for cardiac disease, MC exposures, and work practices and personal protective equipment used during such exposures.
(Note to subsection (10)(e)(i) of this section: See Appendix B of this section for an example of a medical and work history format that would satisfy this requirement.)
(ii) Physical examination. Where physical examinations are provided as required above, the physician or other licensed health care professional ((shall))must accord particular attention to the lungs, cardiovascular system (including blood pressure and pulse), liver, nervous system, and skin. The physician or other licensed health care professional ((shall))must determine the extent and nature of the physical examination based on the health status of the employee and analysis of the medical and work history.
(iii) Laboratory surveillance. The physician or other licensed health care professional ((shall))must determine the extent of any required laboratory surveillance based on the employee's observed health status and the medical and work history.
(Note to subsection (10)(e)(iii) of this section: See Appendix B of this section for information regarding medical tests. Laboratory surveillance may include before-and after-shift carboxyhemoglobin determinations, resting ECG, hematocrit, liver function tests and cholesterol levels.)
(iv) Other information or reports. The medical surveillance ((shall))must also include any other information or reports the physician or other licensed health care professional determines are necessary to assess the employee's health in relation to MC exposure.
(f) Content of emergency medical surveillance. The employer ((shall))must ensure that medical surveillance made available when an employee has been exposed to MC in emergency situations includes, at a minimum:
(i) Appropriate emergency treatment and decontamination of the exposed employee;
(ii) Comprehensive physical examination with special emphasis on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, lungs, liver and skin, including blood pressure and pulse;
(iii) Updated medical and work history, as appropriate for the medical condition of the employee; and
(iv) Laboratory surveillance, as indicated by the employee's health status.
(Note to subsection (10)(f)(iv) of this section: See Appendix B for examples of tests which may be appropriate.)
(g) Additional examinations and referrals. Where the physician or other licensed health care professional determines it is necessary, the scope of the medical examination ((shall))must be expanded and the appropriate additional medical surveillance, such as referrals for consultation or examination, shall be provided.
(h) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer ((shall))must provide the following information to a physician or other licensed health care professional who is involved in the diagnosis of MC-induced health effects:
(i) A copy of this section including its applicable appendices;
(ii) A description of the affected employee's past, current and anticipated future duties as they relate to the employee's MC exposure;
(iii) The employee's former or current exposure levels or, for employees not yet occupationally exposed to MC, the employee's anticipated exposure levels and the frequency and exposure levels anticipated to be associated with emergencies;
(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment, such as respirators, used or to be used; and
(v) Information from previous employment-related medical surveillance of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional.
(i) Written medical opinions.
(i) For each physical examination required by this section, the employer ((shall))must ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional provides to the employer and to the affected employee a written opinion regarding the results of that examination within fifteen days of completion of the evaluation of medical and laboratory findings, but not more than thirty days after the examination. The written medical opinion ((shall))must be limited to the following information:
(A) The physician's or other licensed health care professional's opinion concerning whether exposure to MC may contribute to or aggravate the employee's existing cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke) or dermal disease or whether the employee has any other medical condition(s) that would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to MC;
(B) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to MC, removal from MC exposure, or upon the employee's use of protective clothing or equipment and respirators;
(C) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician or other licensed health care professional that MC is a potential occupational carcinogen, of risk factors for heart disease, and the potential for exacerbation of underlying heart disease by exposure to MC through its metabolism to carbon monoxide; and
(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician or other licensed health care professional of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions resulting from MC exposure which require further explanation or treatment.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must instruct the physician or other licensed health care professional not to reveal to the employer, orally or in the written opinion, any specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on occupational exposure to MC.
(Note to subsection (10)(h)(ii) of this section: The written medical opinion may also include information and opinions generated to comply with other OSHA health standards.)
(j) Medical presumption. For purposes of this subsection (10), the physician or other licensed health care professional ((shall))must presume, unless medical evidence indicates to the contrary, that a medical condition is unlikely to require medical removal from MC exposure if the employee is not exposed to MC above the eight-hour TWA PEL. If the physician or other licensed health care professional recommends removal for an employee exposed below the eight-hour TWA PEL, the physician or other licensed health care professional ((shall))must cite specific medical evidence, sufficient to rebut the presumption that exposure below the eight-hour TWA PEL is unlikely to require removal, to support the recommendation. If such evidence is cited by the physician or other licensed health care professional, the employer must remove the employee. If such evidence is not cited by the physician or other licensed health care professional, the employer is not required to remove the employee.
(k) Medical removal protection (MRP).
(i) Temporary medical removal and return of an employee.
(A) Except as provided in (j) of this subsection, when a medical determination recommends removal because the employee's exposure to MC may contribute to or aggravate the employee's existing cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke), or skin disease, the employer must provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee and either:
(I) Transfer the employee to comparable work where methylene chloride exposure is below the action level; or
(II) Remove the employee from MC exposure.
(B) If comparable work is not available and the employer is able to demonstrate that removal and the costs of extending MRP benefits to an additional employee, considering feasibility in relation to the size of the employer's business and the other requirements of this standard, make further reliance on MRP an inappropriate remedy, the employer may retain the additional employee in the existing job until transfer or removal becomes appropriate, provided:
(I) The employer ensures that the employee receives additional medical surveillance, including a physical examination at least every sixty days until transfer or removal occurs; and
(II) The employer or PLHCP informs the employee of the risk to the employee's health from continued MC exposure.
(C) The employer ((shall))must maintain in effect any job-related protective measures or limitations, other than removal, for as long as a medical determination recommends them to be necessary.
(ii) End of MRP benefits and return of the employee to former job status.
(A) The employer may cease providing MRP benefits at the earliest of the following:
(I) Six months;
(II) Return of the employee to the employee's former job status following receipt of a medical determination concluding that the employee's exposure to MC no longer will aggravate any cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke), or dermal disease;
(III) Receipt of a medical determination concluding that the employee can never return to MC exposure.
(B) For the purposes of this subsection (10), the requirement that an employer return an employee to the employee's former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
(l) Medical removal protection benefits.
(i) For purposes of this subsection (10), the term medical removal protection benefits means that, for each removal, an employer must maintain for up to six months the earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and benefits of the employee as though the employee had not been removed from MC exposure or transferred to a comparable job.
(ii) During the period of time that an employee is removed from exposure to MC, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.
(iii) If a removed employee files a workers' compensation claim for a MC-related disability, the employer ((shall))must continue the MRP benefits required by this section until either the claim is resolved or the six-month period for payment of MRP benefits has passed, whichever occurs first. To the extent the employee is entitled to indemnity payments for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee shall be reduced by the amount of such indemnity payments.
(iv) The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee ((shall))must be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal from either a publicly or an employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
(m) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to MC or otherwise places any limitation on an employee due to the effects of MC exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer ((shall))must provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to those required by (l) of this subsection.
(n) Multiple health care professional review mechanism.
(i) If the employer selects the initial physician or licensed health care professional (PLHCP) to conduct any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under (k) of this subsection, the employer ((shall))must notify the employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion each time the employer provides the employee with a copy of the written opinion of that PLHCP.
(ii) If the employee does not agree with the opinion of the employer-selected PLHCP, notifies the employer of that fact, and takes steps to make an appointment with a second PLHCP within fifteen days of receiving a copy of the written opinion of the initial PLHCP, the employer ((shall))must pay for the PLHCP chosen by the employee to perform at least the following:
(A) Review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial PLHCP; and
(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the PLHCP deems necessary to facilitate this review.
(iii) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second PLHCP differ from those of the initial PLHCP, then the employer and the employee ((shall))must instruct the two health care professionals to resolve the disagreement.
(iv) If the two health care professionals are unable to resolve their disagreement within fifteen days, then those two health care professionals ((shall))must jointly designate a PLHCP who is a specialist in the field at issue. The employer ((shall))must pay for the specialist to perform at least the following:
(A) Review the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the first two PLHCPs; and
(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests and discussions with the prior PLHCPs as the specialist deems necessary to resolve the disagreements of the prior health care professionals.
(v) The written opinion of the specialist ((shall))must be the definitive medical determination. The employer ((shall))must act consistent with the definitive medical determination, unless the employer and employee agree that the written opinion of one of the other two PLHCPs shall be the definitive medical determination.
(vi) The employer and the employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use of any expeditious alternate health care professional determination mechanism in lieu of the multiple health care professional review mechanism provided by this section so long as the alternate mechanism otherwise satisfies the requirements contained in this section.
(11) Hazard communication - General.
(a) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors, and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for MC.
(b) In classifying the hazards of MC at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer, cardiac effects (including elevation of carboxyhemoglobin), central nervous system effects, liver effects, and skin and eye irritation.
(c) Employers ((shall))must include MC in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of MC and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and subsection (12) of this section.
(12) Employee information and training.
(a) The employer ((shall))must provide information and training for each affected employee prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to MC.
(b) The employer ((shall))must ensure that information and training is presented in a manner that is understandable to the employees.
(c) In addition to the information required under the Hazard Communication Standard at WAC 296-901-140:
(i) The employer ((shall))must inform each affected employee of the requirements of this section and information available in its appendices, as well as how to access or obtain a copy of it in the workplace;
(ii) Wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the action level, the employer ((shall))must inform each affected employee of the quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of MC and the specific operations in the workplace that could result in exposure to MC, particularly noting where exposures may be above the eight-hour TWA PEL or STEL;
(d) The employer ((shall))must train each affected employee as required under the Hazard Communication Standard at WAC 296-901-140, as appropriate.
(e) The employer ((shall))must retrain each affected employee as necessary to ensure that each employee exposed above the action level or the STEL maintains the requisite understanding of the principles of safe use and handling of MC in the workplace.
(f) Whenever there are workplace changes, such as modifications of tasks or procedures or the institution of new tasks or procedures, which increase employee exposure, and where those exposures exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the action level, the employer ((shall))must update the training as necessary to ensure that each affected employee has the requisite proficiency.
(g) An employer whose employees are exposed to MC at a multiemployer worksite ((shall))must notify the other employers with work operations at that site in accordance with the requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, WAC 296-901-140, as appropriate.
(h) The employer ((shall))must provide to the director, upon request, all available materials relating to employee information and training.
(13) Recordkeeping.
(a) Objective data.
(i) Where an employer seeks to demonstrate that initial monitoring is unnecessary through reasonable reliance on objective data showing that any materials in the workplace containing MC will not release MC at levels which exceed the action level or the STEL under foreseeable conditions of exposure, the employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record of the objective data relied upon in support of the exemption.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(A) The MC-containing material in question;
(B) The source of the objective data;
(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of MC;
(D) A description of the operation exempted under subsection (4)(b)(i) of this section and how the data support the exemption; and
(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
(b) Exposure measurements.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to MC as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.
(ii) Where the employer has twenty or more employees, this record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;
(B) The operation involving exposure to MC which is being monitored;
(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;
(E) Type of personal protective equipment, such as respiratory protective devices, worn, if any; and
(F) Name, Social Security number, job classification and exposure of all of the employees represented by monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.
(iii) Where the employer has fewer than twenty employees, the record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;
(B) Number, duration, and results of samples taken; and
(C) Name, Social Security number, job classification and exposure of all of the employees represented by monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.
(iv) The employer ((shall))must maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(c) Medical surveillance.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance under subsection (10) of this section.
(ii) The record ((shall))must include at least the following information:
(A) The name, Social Security number and description of the duties of the employee;
(B) Written medical opinions; and
(C) Any employee medical conditions related to exposure to MC.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(d) Availability.
(i) The employer, upon written request, ((shall))must make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the director for examination and copying in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(Note to subsection (13)(d)(i) of this section: All records required to be maintained by this section may be kept in the most administratively convenient form (for example, electronic or computer records would satisfy this requirement).)
(ii) The employer, upon request, ((shall))must make any employee exposure and objective data records required by this section available for examination and copying by affected employees, former employees, and designated representatives in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(iii) The employer, upon request, ((shall))must make employee medical records required to be kept by this section available for examination and copying by the subject employee and by anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(e) Transfer of records. The employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in WAC ((296-62-05215))296-802-600 Transfer and disposal of employee records.
(14) Dates.
(a) Engineering controls required under subsection (6)(a) of this section ((shall))must be implemented according to the following schedule:
(i) For employers with fewer than twenty employees, no later than April 10, 2000.
(ii) For employers with fewer than one hundred fifty employees engaged in foam fabrication; for employers with fewer than fifty employees engaged in furniture refinishing, general aviation aircraft stripping, and product formulation; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair, recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, and upholstering; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making and/or floor refinishing and resurfacing, no later than April 10, 2000.
(iii) For employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing with twenty or more employees, no later than October 10, 1999.
(b) Use of respiratory protection whenever an employee's exposure to MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the eight-hour TWA PEL, in accordance with subsections (3)(a), (5)(c), (6)(a) and (7)(a) of this section, ((shall))must be implemented according to the following schedule:
(i) For employers with fewer than one hundred fifty employees engaged in foam fabrication; for employers with fewer than fifty employees engaged in furniture refinishing, general aviation aircraft stripping, and product formulation; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair, recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, and upholstering; for employers with fewer than fifty employees using MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making and/or floor refinishing and resurfacing, no later than April 10, 2000.
(ii) For employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing with twenty or more employees, no later than October 10, 1999.
(c) Notification of corrective action under subsection (4)(e)(ii) of this section, no later than ninety days before the compliance date applicable to such corrective action.
(d) Transitional dates. The exposure limits for MC specified in WAC ((296-62-07515))296-307-62610 Table 1, ((shall))must remain in effect until the start up dates for the exposure limits specified in subsection (14) of this section, or if the exposure limits in this section are stayed or vacated.
(e) Unless otherwise specified in this subsection, all other requirements of this section ((shall))must be complied with immediately.
(15) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices does not, by itself, create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or detract from any existing obligation.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07473Appendix A.
Substance Safety Data Sheet and Technical Guidelines for Methylene Chloride
I. Substance Identification
A. Substance: Methylene chloride (CH2Cl2).
B. Synonyms: MC, Dichloromethane (DCM); Methylene dichloride; Methylene bichloride; Methane dichloride; CAS: 75-09-2; NCI-C50102.
C. Physical data:
1. Molecular weight: 84.9.
2. Boiling point (760 mm Hg): 39.8 deg. C (104 deg. F).
3. Specific gravity (water = 1): 1.3.
4. Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point): 2.9.
5. Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 350 mm Hg.
6. Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F) = 1.32.
7. Appearance and odor: colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor.
D. Uses: MC is used as a solvent, especially where high volatility is required. It is a good solvent for oils, fats, waxes, resins, bitumen, rubber and cellulose acetate and is a useful paint stripper and degreaser. It is used in paint removers, in propellant mixtures for aerosol containers, as a solvent for plastics, as a degreasing agent, as an extracting agent in the pharmaceutical industry and as a blowing agent in polyurethane foams. Its solvent property is sometimes increased by mixing with methanol, petroleum naphtha or tetrachloroethylene.
E. Appearance and odor: MC is a clear colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is slightly soluble in water and completely miscible with most organic solvents.
F. Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 25 parts MC per million parts of air (25 ppm) as an eight-hour time-weighted average (eight-hour TWA PEL) or 125 parts of MC per million parts of air (125 ppm) averaged over a fifteen-minute period (STEL).
II. Health Hazard Data
A. MC can affect the body if it is inhaled or if the liquid comes in contact with the eyes or skin. It can also affect the body if it is swallowed.
B. Effects of overexposure:
1. Short-term Exposure: MC is an anesthetic. Inhaling the vapor may cause mental confusion, light-headedness, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Continued exposure may cause increased light-headedness, staggering, unconsciousness, and even death. High vapor concentrations may also cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Exposure to MC may make the symptoms of angina (chest pains) worse. Skin exposure to liquid MC may cause irritation. If liquid MC remains on the skin, it may cause skin burns. Splashes of the liquid into the eyes may cause irritation.
2. Long-term (chronic) exposure: The best evidence that MC causes cancer is from laboratory studies in which rats, mice and hamsters inhaled MC six hours per day, five days per week for two years. MC exposure produced lung and liver tumors in mice and mammary tumors in rats. No carcinogenic effects of MC were found in hamsters. There are also some human epidemiological studies which show an association between occupational exposure to MC and increases in biliary (bile duct) cancer and a type of brain cancer. Other epidemiological studies have not observed a relationship between MC exposure and cancer. WISHA interprets these results to mean that there is suggestive (but not absolute) evidence that MC is a human carcinogen.
C. Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your employer if you develop any signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to MC.
D. Warning Properties:
1. Odor Threshold: Different authors have reported varying odor thresholds for MC. Kirk-Othmer and Sax both reported 25 to 50 ppm; Summer and May both reported 150 ppm; Spector reports 320 ppm. Patty, however, states that since one can become adapted to the odor, MC should not be considered to have adequate warning properties.
2. Eye Irritation Level: Kirk-Othmer reports that "MC vapor is seriously damaging to the eyes." Sax agrees with Kirk-Othmer's statement. The ACGIH Documentation of TLVs states that irritation of the eyes has been observed in workers exposed to concentrations up to 5000 ppm.
3. Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since a wide range of MC odor thresholds are reported (25-320 ppm), and human adaptation to the odor occurs, MC is considered to be a material with poor warning properties.
III. Emergency First-Aid Procedures
In the event of emergency, institute first-aid procedures and send for first-aid or medical assistance.
A. Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential for liquid MC to come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used. If liquid MC comes in contact with the eye, get medical attention. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
B. Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of MC, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible.
C. Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure immediately. If the exposed person has been overcome, notify someone else and put into effect the established emergency rescue procedures. Understand the facility's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises. Do not become a casualty yourself.
IV. Respirators, Protective Clothing, and Eye Protection
A. Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented. Respirators may also be used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and in emergency situations. If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Supplied-air respirators are required because air-purifying respirators do not provide adequate respiratory protection against MC. In addition to respirator selection, a complete written respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation. If you can smell MC while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air. If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.
B. Protective Clothing: Employees must be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid MC or contact with vessels containing liquid MC. Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid MC should be removed immediately and not reworn until the employer has ensured that the protective clothing is fit for reuse. Contaminated protective clothing should be placed in a regulated area designated by the employer for removal of MC before the clothing is laundered or disposed of. Clothing and equipment should remain in the regulated area until all of the MC contamination has evaporated; clothing and equipment should then be laundered or disposed of as appropriate.
C. Eye Protection: Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquid MC may contact the eyes.
V. Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities
For purposes of complying with WAC ((296-24-120,)) 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, the following items should be emphasized:
A. The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition. The employer should institute a leak and spill detection program for operations involving liquid MC in order to detect sources of fugitive MC emissions.
B. Emergency drench showers and eyewash facilities are recommended. These should be maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents should also be provided to assure the effective removal of MC from the skin.
C. Because of the hazardous nature of MC, contaminated protective clothing should be placed in a regulated area designated by the employer for removal of MC before the clothing is laundered or disposed of.
VI. Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage
A. Fire and Explosion Hazards: MC has no flash point in a conventional closed tester, but it forms flammable vapor-air mixtures at approximately 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), or higher. It has a lower explosion limit of 12%, and an upper explosion limit of 19% in air. It has an autoignition temperature of 556.1 deg. C (1033 deg. F), and a boiling point of 39.8 deg. C (104 deg. F). It is heavier than water with a specific gravity of 1.3. It is slightly soluble in water.
B. Reactivity Hazards: Conditions contributing to the instability of MC are heat and moisture. Contact with strong oxidizers, caustics, and chemically active metals such as aluminum or magnesium powder, sodium and potassium may cause fires and explosions. Special precautions: Liquid MC will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.
C. Toxicity: Liquid MC is painful and irritating if splashed in the eyes or if confined on the skin by gloves, clothing, or shoes. Vapors in high concentrations may cause narcosis and death. Prolonged exposure to vapors may cause cancer or exacerbate cardiac disease.
D. Storage: Protect against physical damage. Because of its corrosive properties, and its high vapor pressure, MC should be stored in plain, galvanized or lead lined, mild steel containers in a cool, dry, well ventilated area away from direct sunlight, heat source and acute fire hazards.
E. Piping Material: All piping and valves at the loading or unloading station should be of material that is resistant to MC and should be carefully inspected prior to connection to the transport vehicle and periodically during the operation.
F. Usual Shipping Containers: Glass bottles, 5- and 55-gallon steel drums, tank cars, and tank trucks.
Note: This section addresses MC exposure in marine terminal and longshore employment only where leaking or broken packages allow MC exposure that is not addressed through compliance with WAC 296-56.
G. Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be installed according to Article 501 of the code; and electrical equipment should be suitable for use in atmospheres containing MC vapors. See Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (NFPA No. 325M), Chemical Safety Data Sheet SD-86 (Manufacturing Chemists' Association, Inc.).
H. Firefighting: When involved in fire, MC emits highly toxic and irritating fumes such as phosgene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide. Wear breathing apparatus and use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from exposures. Extinguishing media are dry chemical, carbon dioxide, foam. For purposes of compliance with WAC ((296-24-956))296-24-957, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of MC shall be Class I.
I. Spills and Leaks: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed. If MC has spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:
1. Remove all ignition sources.
2. Ventilate area of spill or leak.
3. Collect for reclamation or absorb in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material.
J. Methods of Waste Disposal: Small spills should be absorbed onto sand and taken to a safe area for atmospheric evaporation. Incineration is the preferred method for disposal of large quantities by mixing with a combustible solvent and spraying into an incinerator equipped with acid scrubbers to remove hydrogen chloride gases formed. Complete combustion will convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Care should be taken for the presence of phosgene.
K. You should not keep food, beverage, or smoking materials, or eat or smoke in regulated areas where MC concentrations are above the permissible exposure limits.
L. Portable heating units should not be used in confined areas where MC is used.
M. Ask your supervisor where MC is used in your work area and for any additional plant safety and health rules.
VII. Medical Requirements
Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical surveillance program if you are exposed to MC at concentrations at or above the action level (12.5 ppm eight-hour TWA) for more than thirty days a year or at concentrations exceeding the PELs (25 ppm eight-hour TWA or 125 ppm fifteen-minute STEL) for more than ten days a year. If you are exposed to MC at concentrations over either of the PELs, your employer will also be required to have a physician or other licensed health care professional ensure that you are able to wear the respirator that you are assigned. Your employer must provide all medical examinations relating to your MC exposure at a reasonable time and place and at no cost to you.
VIII. Monitoring and Measurement Procedures
A. Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit:
1. Eight-hour exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this section are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift. Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone.
2. Monitoring techniques: The sampling and analysis under this section may be performed by collection of the MC vapor on two charcoal adsorption tubes in series or other composition adsorption tubes, with subsequent chemical analysis. Sampling and analysis may also be performed by instruments such as real-time continuous monitoring systems, portable direct reading instruments, or passive dosimeters as long as measurements taken using these methods accurately evaluate the concentration of MC in employees' breathing zones. OSHA method 80 is an example of a validated method of sampling and analysis of MC. Copies of this method are available from OSHA or can be downloaded from the internet at http://www.osha.gov. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a ninety-five percent confidence level, to plus or minus twenty-five percent for concentrations of MC at or above 25 ppm, and to plus or minus thirty-five percent for concentrations at or below 25 ppm. In addition to OSHA method 80, there are numerous other methods available for monitoring for MC in the workplace.
B. Since many of the duties relating to employee exposure are dependent on the results of measurement procedures, employers must assure that the evaluation of employee exposure is performed by a technically qualified person.
IX. Observation of Monitoring
Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to MC and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, protective clothing and equipment.
Access To Information
A. Your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this Appendix. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using MC, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.
B. Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to MC. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being over exposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits.
C. Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty years.
D. Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.
E. Your employer is required to provide labels and safety data sheets (SDS) for all materials, mixtures or solutions composed of greater than 0.1 percent MC. These materials, mixtures or solutions would be classified and labeled in accordance with WAC 296-901-140.
X. Common Operations and Controls
The following list includes some common operations in which exposure to MC may occur and control methods which may be effective in each case:
Operations
 
Controls
Use as solvent in paint and varnish removers cold cleaning and ultrasonic cleaning, and as a solvent in furniture stripping.
 
General dilution ventilation; local; manufacture of aerosols; cold cleaning exhaust ventilation; personal protective equipment; substitution.
Use as solvent in vapor degreasing.
 
Process enclosure; local exhaust ventilation; chilling coils; substitution.
Use as a secondary refrigerant in air scientific testing.
 
General dilution ventilation; local conditioning and exhaust ventilation; personal protective equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)
WAC 296-62-07519Thiram.
(1) Scope and application. This section applies to occupational exposure to thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide), in addition to those requirements listed in ((WAC 296-62-07515))chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne contaminants. Nothing in this section shall preclude the application of other appropriate standards and regulations to minimize worker exposure to thiram.
(2) Definitions. The following definitions are applicable to this section:
(a) ((Clean -))Clean. The absence of dirt or materials which may be harmful to a worker's health.
(b) ((Large seedlings -))Large seedlings. Those seedlings of such size, either by length or breadth, that it is difficult to avoid contact of the thiram treated plant with the mouth or face during planting operations.
(3) General requirements.
(a) Workers should not be allowed to work more than five days in any seven day period with or around the application of thiram or thiram treated seedlings.
(b) Washing and worker hygiene.
(i) Workers ((shall))must wash their hands prior to eating or smoking at the close of work.
(ii) Warm (at least 85°F, 29.4°C) wash water and single use hand wiping materials ((shall))must be provided for washing.
(iii) The warm water and hand wiping materials ((shall))must be at fixed work locations or at the planting unit.
(iv) Where warm water is not available within ((15))fifteen minutes travel time, nonalcoholic based waterless hand cleaner ((shall))must be provided.
(v) Every planter or nursery worker ((shall))must be advised to bathe or shower daily.
(vi) The inside of worker carrying vehicles ((shall))must be washed or vacuumed and wiped down at least weekly during the period of thiram use.
(c) Personal protective measures.
(i) Clothing ((shall))must be worn by workers to reduce skin contact with thiram to the legs, arms and torso.
(ii) For those workers who have thiram skin irritations, exposed areas of the body ((shall))must be protected by a suitable barrier cream.
(iii) Clothing worn by workers ((shall))must be washed or changed at least every other day.
(iv) Only impervious gloves may be worn by workers.
(v) Workers hands should be clean of thiram before placing them into gloves.
(vi) Thiram applicators ((shall))must be provided with and use respiratory protection in accordance with ((WAC 296-62-071))chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, disposable coveralls or rubber slickers or other impervious clothing, rubberized boots, head covers and rubberized gloves.
(vii) Nursery workers, other than applicators, who are likely to be exposed to thiram ((shall))must be provided with and use disposable coveralls or rubber slickers or other impervious clothing, impervious footwear and gloves, and head covers in accordance with WAC 296-800-160, unless showers have been provided and are used.
(viii) Eye protection according to WAC 296-800-160, ((shall))must be provided and worn by workers who may be exposed to splashes of thiram during spraying, plug bundling, belt line grading and plugging or other operations.
(ix) Item (viii) of this subdivision need not be complied with where pressurized emergency eye wash fountains are within 10 seconds travel time of the work location. (Approved respirator - See ((WAC 296-62-071))chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.)
(x) A dust mask ((shall))must be worn, when planting large seedlings, to avoid mouth and face contact with the thiram treated plant unless equally effective measures or planting practices have been established.
(d) Food handling.
(i) Food snacks, beverages, smoking materials, or any other item which is consumed ((shall))must not be stored or consumed in the packing area of the nursery.
(ii) Worker carrying vehicles ((shall))must have a clean area for carrying lunches.
(iii) The clean area of the vehicle ((shall))must be elevated from the floor and not used to carry other than food or other consumable items.
(iv) The carrying of lunches, food or other consumable items in tree planting bags is prohibited.
(v) Care ((shall))must be taken to ((insure))ensure that worker exposure to thiram spray, including downwind driftings, is minimized or eliminated.
(vi) When bags that contained thiram or thiram treated seedlings are burned, prevent worker exposure to the smoke.
(e) Thiram use and handling.
(i) Thiram treated seedlings ((shall))must be allowed to dry or stabilize prior to packing.
(ii) Seedlings ((shall))must be kept moist during packing and whenever possible during planting operations.
(iii) Floors, where thiram is used, ((shall))must not be dry swept but instead vacuumed, washed or otherwise cleaned at least daily.
(iv) Silica chips used to cover thiram treated seedling plugs ((shall))must be removed at the nursery.
(f) Training.
(i) Each worker engaged in operations where exposure to thiram may occur ((shall))must be provided training on the hazards of thiram, as well as the necessary precautions for its safe use and handling.
(ii) The training ((shall))must include instruction in:
(A) The nature of the health hazard(s) from exposure to thiram including specifically the potential for alcohol intolerance, drug interaction, and skin irritation;
(B) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to thiram and the necessary protective steps;
(C) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of protective devices including respirators and clothing;
(D) The necessity for and requirements of good personal hygiene; and
(E) A review of the thiram rules at the worker's first training and indoctrination, and annually thereafter.
(4) Effective date. This standard ((shall))must become effective ((30))thirty days after being filed with the code reviser.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 14-07-086, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14)
WAC 296-62-07521Lead.
(1) Scope and application.
(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to lead, except as provided in subdivision (1)(b).
(b) This section does not apply to the construction industry or to agricultural operations covered by chapter 296-307 WAC.
(2) Definitions as applicable to this part.
(a) (("Action level" -))Action level. Employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of thirty micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 µg/m3) averaged over an eight-hour period.
(b) (("Director" -))Director. The director of the department of labor and industries.
(c) (("Lead" -))Lead. Metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.
(3) General requirements.
(a) Employers will assess the hazards of lead in the work place and provide information to the employees about the hazards of the lead exposures to which they may be exposed.
(b) Information provided ((shall))must include:
(i) Exposure monitoring (including employee notification);
(ii) Written compliance programs;
(iii) Respiratory protection programs;
(iv) Personnel protective equipment and housekeeping;
(v) Medical surveillance and examinations;
(vi) Training requirements;
(vii) Recordkeeping requirements.
(4) Permissible exposure limit (PEL).
(a) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3) averaged over an eight-hour period.
(b) If an employee is exposed to lead for more than eight hours in any work day, the permissible exposure limit, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, ((shall))must be reduced according to the following formula:
Maximum permissible limit (in µg/m3) = 400 ÷ hours worked in the day.
(c) When respirators are used to supplement engineering and work practice controls to comply with the PEL and all the requirements of subsection (7) have been met, employee exposure, for the purpose of determining whether the employer has complied with the PEL, may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.
(5) Exposure monitoring.
(a) General.
(i) For the purposes of subsection (5), employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.
(ii) With the exception of monitoring under subdivision (5)(c), the employer ((shall))must collect full shift (for at least seven continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.
(iii) Full shift personal samples ((shall))must be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.
(b) Initial determination. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard ((shall))must determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level.
(c) Basis of initial determination.
(i) The employer ((shall))must monitor employee exposures and ((shall))must base initial determinations on the employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations:
(A) Any information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead;
(B) Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and
(C) Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead.
(ii) Monitoring for the initial determination may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead in the workplace.
(iii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding twelve months may be used to satisfy the requirement to monitor under item (5)(c)(i) if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subdivision (5)(i) of this section.
(d) Positive initial determination and initial monitoring.
(i) Where a determination conducted under subdivisions (5)(b) and (5)(c) of this section shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level, the employer ((shall))must conduct monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead.
(ii) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding twelve months may be used to satisfy this requirement if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subdivision (5)(i) of this section.
(e) Negative initial determination. Where a determination, conducted under subdivisions (5)(b) and (5)(c) of this section is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level, the employer ((shall))must make a written record of such determination. The record ((shall))must include at least the information specified in subdivision (5)(c) of this section and ((shall))must also include the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name and Social Security number of each employee monitored.
(f) Frequency.
(i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.
(ii) If the initial determination or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limit the employer ((shall))must repeat monitoring in accordance with this subsection at least every six months. The employer ((shall))must continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.
(iii) If the initial monitoring reveals that employee exposure is above the permissible exposure limit the employer ((shall))must repeat monitoring quarterly. The employer ((shall))must continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the PEL but at or above the action level at which time the employer ((shall))must repeat monitoring for that employee at the frequency specified in item (5)(f)(ii), except as otherwise provided in subdivision (5)(g) of this section.
(g) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to lead, additional monitoring in accordance with this subsection shall be conducted.
(h) Employee notification.
(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer ((shall))must notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.
(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without regard to respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer ((shall))must include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.
(i) Reserved.
(j) Accuracy of measurement. The employer ((shall))must use a method of monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of ninety-five percent) of not less than plus or minus twenty percent for airborne concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30 µg/m3.
(6) Methods of compliance.
(a) Engineering and work practice controls.
(i) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit for more than thirty days per year, the employer ((shall))must implement engineering and work practice controls (including administrative controls) to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead in accordance with the implementation schedule in Table I below, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer ((shall))must nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible level and ((shall))must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.
(ii) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit, but for thirty days or less per year, the employer ((shall))must implement engineering controls to reduce exposures to 200 µg/m3, but thereafter may implement any combination of engineering, work practice (including administrative controls), and respiratory controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below 50 µg/m3.
TABLE 1
Industry
Compliance dates:1
(50 µg/m3)
Lead chemicals, secondary copper smelting.
July 19, 1996
Nonferrous foundries. . . .
July 19, 1996.2
Brass and bronze ingot manufacture.
6 years.3
1
Calculated by counting from the date the stay on implementation of subsection (6)(a) was lifted by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, the number of years specified in the 1978 lead standard and subsequent amendments for compliance with the PEL of 50 µg/m3 for exposure to airborne concentrations of lead levels for the particular industry.
2
Large nonferrous foundries (20 or more employees) are required to achieve the PEL of 50 µg/m3 by means of engineering and work practice controls. Small nonferrous foundries (fewer than 20 employees) are required to achieve an 8-hour TWA of 75 µg/m3 by such controls.
3
Expressed as the number of years from the date on which the Court lifts the stay on the implementation of subsection (6)(a) for this industry for employers to achieve a lead in air concentration of 75 µg/m3. Compliance with subsection (6) in this industry is determined by a compliance directive that incorporates elements from the settlement agreement between OSHA and representatives of the industry.
(b) Respiratory protection. Where engineering and work practice controls do not reduce employee exposure to or below the 50 µg/m3 permissible exposure limit, the employer ((shall))must supplement these controls with respirators in accordance with subsection (7).
(c) Compliance program.
(i) Each employer ((shall))must establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, and interim levels if applicable, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls in accordance with the implementation schedule in subdivision (6)(a).
(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs ((shall))must include at least the following:
(A) A description of each operation in which lead is emitted; e.g., machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices;
(B) A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance, including engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead;
(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;
(D) Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions;
(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.;
(F) A work practice program which includes items required under subsections (8), (9) and (10) of this regulation;
(G) An administrative control schedule required by subdivision (6)(f), if applicable; and
(H) Other relevant information.
(iii) Written programs ((shall))must be submitted upon request to the director, and ((shall))must be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.
(iv) Written programs ((shall))must be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.
(d) Mechanical ventilation.
(i) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements which demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure ((shall))must be made at least every three months. Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure ((shall))must be made within five days of any change in production, process, or control which might result in a change in employee exposure to lead.
(ii) Recirculation of air. If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the employer ((shall assure))must ensure that (A) the system has a high efficiency filter with reliable back-up filter; and (B) controls to monitor the concentration of lead in the return air and to bypass the recirculation system automatically if it fails are installed, operating, and maintained.
(e) Administrative controls. If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, the employer ((shall))must establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:
(i) Name or identification number of each affected employee;
(ii) Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located; and
(iii) Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.
(7) Respiratory protection.
(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:
(i) Period necessary to install or implement engineering or work-practice controls;
(ii) Work operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit;
(iii) Periods when an employee requests a respirator.
(b) Respirator program.
(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.
(ii) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by subsection (11)(c)(ii)(C) of this section to determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duty.
(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:
(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.
(ii) Provide employees with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator selected when an employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.
(iii) Provide employees with full-facepiece respirators instead of half-facepiece respirators for protection against lead aerosols that cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentration.
(iv) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.
(8) Protective work clothing and equipment.
(a) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators or where the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, the employer ((shall))must provide at no cost to the employee and ((assure))ensure that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:
(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;
(ii) Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and
(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with WAC 296-800-160.
(b) Cleaning and replacement.
(i) The employer ((shall))must provide the protective clothing required in subdivision (8)(a) of this section in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to employees whose exposure levels without regard to a respirator are over 200 µg/m3 of lead as an eight-hour TWA.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide for the cleaning, laundering, or disposal of protective clothing and equipment required by subdivision (8)(a) of this section.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must repair or replace required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
(iv) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms provided for that purpose as prescribed in subdivision (10)(b) of this section.
(v) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of lead outside the container.
(vi) The employer ((shall))must inform in writing any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead.
(vii) The employer ((shall))must ensure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required by subdivision (8)(b)(v) are labeled as follows:
DANGER: CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD. MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD. CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE WHEN HANDLING. DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING. DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.
(viii) ((Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on bags or containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment in lieu of the labeling requirements in (b)(vii) of this subsection:
CAUTION: CLOTHING CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD.
DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING.
DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.
(ix))) The employer ((shall))must prohibit the removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means which disperses lead into the air.
(9) Housekeeping.
(a) Surfaces. All surfaces ((shall))must be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead.
(b) Cleaning floors.
(i) Floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.
(ii) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective.
(c) Vacuuming. Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums ((shall))must be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
(10) Hygiene facilities and practices.
(a) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that in areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators, food or beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except in change rooms, lunchrooms, and showers required under subdivision (10)(b) through (10)(d) of this section.
(b) Change rooms.
(i) The employer ((shall))must provide clean change rooms for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes which prevent cross-contamination.
(c) Showers.
(i) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators, shower at the end of the work shift.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-800-230.
(iii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees who are required to shower pursuant to item (10)(c)(i) do not leave the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift.
(d) Lunchrooms.
(i) The employer ((shall))must provide lunchroom facilities for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that lunchroom facilities have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and are readily accessible to employees.
(iii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL without regard to the use of a respirator wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
(iv) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method.
(e) Lavatories. The employer ((shall))must provide an adequate number of lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-800-230.
(11) Medical surveillance.
(a) General.
(i) The employer ((shall))must institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed at or above the action level for more than thirty days per year.
(ii) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must provide the required medical surveillance including multiple physician review under item (11)(c)(iii) without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.
(b) Biological monitoring.
(i) Blood lead and ZPP level sampling and analysis. The employer ((shall))must make available biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section on the following schedule:
(A) At least every six months to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section;
(B) At least every two months for each employee whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/100 g of whole blood. This frequency ((shall))must continue until two consecutive blood samples and analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 µg/100 g of whole blood; and
(C) At least monthly during the removal period of each employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level.
(ii) Follow-up blood sampling tests. Whenever the results of a blood lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level is at or above the numerical criterion for medical removal under item (12)(a)(i)(A), the employer ((shall))must provide a second (follow-up) blood sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test.
(iii) Accuracy of blood lead level sampling and analysis. Blood lead level sampling and analysis provided pursuant to this section ((shall))must have an accuracy (to a confidence level of ninety-five percent) within plus or minus fifteen percent or 6 µg/100 ml, whichever is greater, and ((shall))must be conducted by a laboratory licensed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare or which has received a satisfactory grade in blood lead proficiency testing from CDC in the prior twelve months.
(iv) Employee notification. Within five working days after the receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer ((shall))must notify in writing each employee whose blood lead level is at or above 40 µg/100g: (A) of that employee's blood lead level and (B) that the standard requires temporary medical removal with medical removal protection benefits when an employee's blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal under item (12)(a)(i) of this section.
(c) Medical examinations and consultations.
(i) Frequency. The employer ((shall))must make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered under item (11)(a)(i) of this section on the following schedule:
(A) At least annually for each employee for whom a blood sampling test conducted at any time during the preceding twelve months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/100 g;
(B) Prior to assignment for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area in which airborne concentrations of lead are at or above the action level;
(C) As soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on the employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during use; and
(D) As medically appropriate for each employee either removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited pursuant to a final medical determination.
(ii) Content. Medical examinations made available pursuant to subitems (11)(c)(i)(A) through (B) of this section ((shall))must include the following elements:
(A) A detailed work history and a medical history, with particular attention to past lead exposure (occupational and nonoccupational), personal habits (smoking, hygiene), and past gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurological problems;
(B) A thorough physical examination, with particular attention to teeth, gums, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Pulmonary status should be evaluated if respiratory protection will be used;
(C) A blood pressure measurement;
(D) A blood sample and analysis which determines:
(I) Blood lead level;
(II) Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and examination of peripheral smear morphology;
(III) Zinc protoporphyrin;
(IV) Blood urea nitrogen; and
(V) Serum creatinine;
(E) A routine urinalysis with microscopic examination; and
(F) Any laboratory or other test which the examining physician deems necessary by sound medical practice.
The content of medical examinations made available pursuant to subitems (11)(c)(i)(C) through (D) of this section ((shall))must be determined by an examining physician and, if requested by an employee, shall include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility.
(iii) Multiple physician review mechanism.
(A) If the employer selects the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee may designate a second physician:
(I) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial physician; and
(II) To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
(B) The employer ((shall))must promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee doing the following within fifteen days after receipt of the foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:
(I) The employee informing the employer that ((he or she))they intend((s)) to seek a second medical opinion, and
(II) The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.
(C) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee ((shall assure))must ensure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.
(D) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their respective physicians ((shall))must designate a third physician:
(I) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the prior physicians; and
(II) To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.
(E) The employer ((shall))must act consistent with the findings, determinations and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement which is otherwise consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the three physicians.
(iv) Information provided to examining and consulting physicians.
(A) The employer ((shall))must provide an initial physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under this section with the following information:
(I) A copy of this regulation for lead including all appendices;
(II) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;
(III) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level to lead and to any other toxic substance (if applicable);
(IV) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used;
(V) Prior blood lead determinations; and
(VI) All prior written medical opinions concerning the employee in the employer's possession or control.
(B) The employer ((shall))must provide the foregoing information to a second or third physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under this section upon request either by the second or third physician, or by the employee.
(v) Written medical opinions.
(A) The employer ((shall))must obtain and furnish the employee with a copy of a written medical opinion from each examining or consulting physician which contains the following information:
(I) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to lead;
(II) Any recommended special protective measures to be provided to the employee, or limitations to be placed upon the employee's exposure to lead;
(III) Any recommended limitation upon the employee's use of respirators, including a determination of whether the employee can wear a powered air purifying respirator if a physician determines that the employee cannot wear a negative pressure respirator; and
(IV) The results of the blood lead determinations.
(B) The employer ((shall))must instruct each examining and consulting physician to:
(I) Not reveal either in the written opinion, or in any other means of communication with the employer, findings, including laboratory results, or diagnoses unrelated to an employee's occupational exposure to lead; and
(II) Advise the employee of any medical condition, occupational or nonoccupational, which dictates further medical examination or treatment.
(vi) Alternate physician determination mechanisms. The employer and an employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use of any expeditious alternate physician determination mechanism in lieu of the multiple physician review mechanism provided by this subsection so long as the alternate mechanism otherwise satisfies the requirements contained in this subsection.
(d) Chelation.
(i) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that any person whom he retains, employs, supervises or controls does not engage in prophylactic chelation of any employee at any time.
(ii) If therapeutic or diagnostic chelation is to be performed by any person in item (11)(d)(i), the employer ((shall assure))must ensure that it be done under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring and that the employee is notified in writing prior to its occurrence.
(12) Medical removal protection.
(a) Temporary medical removal and return of an employee.
(i) Temporary removal due to elevated blood lead levels.
(A) The employer ((shall))must remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a periodic and a follow-up blood sampling test conducted pursuant to this section indicate that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 60 µg/100g of whole blood; and
(B) The employer ((shall))must remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that the average of the last three blood sampling tests conducted pursuant to this section (or the average of all blood sampling tests conducted over the previous six months, whichever is longer) indicates that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 50 µg/100g of whole blood; provided, however, that an employee need not be removed if the last blood sampling test indicates a blood lead level below 40 µg/100g of whole blood.
(ii) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination.
(A) The employer ((shall))must remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.
(B) For the purposes of this section, the phrase "final medical determination" shall mean the outcome of the multiple physician review mechanism or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section.
(C) Where a final medical determination results in any recommended special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, the employer ((shall))must implement and act consistent with the recommendation.
(iii) Return of the employee to former job status.
(A) The employer ((shall))must return an employee to ((his or her))their former job status:
(I) For an employee removed due to a blood lead level at or above 60 µg/100g, or due to an average blood lead level at or above 50 µg/100g, when two consecutive blood sampling tests indicate that the employee's blood lead level is below 40 µg/100g of whole blood;
(II) For an employee removed due to a final medical determination, when a subsequent final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.
(B) For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer return an employee to ((his or her))their former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
(iv) Removal of other employee special protective measure or limitations. The employer ((shall))must remove any limitations placed on an employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final medical determination indicates that the limitations or special protective measures are no longer necessary.
(v) Employer options pending a final medical determination. Where the multiple physician review mechanism, or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section, has not yet resulted in a final medical determination with respect to an employee, the employer ((shall))must act as follows:
(A) Removal. The employer may remove the employee from exposure to lead, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status.
(B) Return. The employer may return the employee to ((his or her))their former job status, end any special protective measures provided to the employee, and remove any limitations placed upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with two exceptions. If:
(I) The initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; or
(II) The employee has been on removal status for the preceding eighteen months due to an elevated blood lead level, then the employer ((shall))must await a final medical determination.
(b) Medical removal protection benefits.
(i) Provision of medical removal protection benefits. The employer ((shall))must provide to an employee up to eighteen months of medical removal protection benefits on each occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to lead or otherwise limited pursuant to this section.
(ii) Definition of medical removal protection benefits. For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that the employer ((shall))must maintain the earnings, seniority and other employment rights and benefits of an employee as though the employee had not been removed from normal exposure to lead or otherwise limited.
(iii) Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee removal or limitation. During the period of time that an employee is removed from normal exposure to lead or otherwise limited, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.
(iv) Workers' compensation claims. If a removed employee files a claim for workers' compensation payments for a lead-related disability, then the employer ((shall))must continue to provide medical removal protection benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's medical removal protection obligation ((shall))must be reduced by such amount. The employer ((shall))must not receive ((no)) credit for workers' compensation payments received by the employee for treatment related expenses.
(v) Other credits. The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
(vi) Employees whose blood lead levels do not adequately decline within eighteen months of removal. The employer ((shall))must take the following measures with respect to any employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level whose blood lead level has not declined within the past eighteen months of removal so that the employee has been returned to ((his or her))their former job status:
(A) The employer ((shall))must make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section to obtain a final medical determination with respect to the employee;
(B) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that the final medical determination obtained indicates whether or not the employee may be returned to ((his or her))their former job status, and if not, what steps should be taken to protect the employee's health;
(C) Where the final medical determination has not yet been obtained, or once obtained indicates that the employee may not yet be returned to ((his or her))their former job status, the employer ((shall))must continue to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee until either the employee is returned to former job status, or a final medical determination is made that the employee is incapable of ever safely returning to ((his or her))their former job status;
(D) Where the employer acts pursuant to a final medical determination which permits the return of the employee to ((his or her))their former job status despite what would otherwise be an unacceptable blood lead level, later questions concerning removing the employee again ((shall))must be decided by a final medical determination. The employer need not automatically remove such an employee pursuant to the blood lead level removal criteria provided by this section.
(vii) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to lead or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of lead exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer ((shall))must provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to that required by item (12)(b)(i) of this section.
(13) Employee information and training.
(a) Training program.
(i) Each employer who has a workplace in which there is a potential exposure to airborne lead at any level ((shall))must inform employees of the content of Appendices A and B of this regulation.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must train each employee who is subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level or for whom the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer ((shall))must institute a training program for and ((assure))ensure the participation of all employees.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must provide initial training by one hundred eighty days from the effective date for those employees covered by item (13)(a)(ii) on the standard's effective date and prior to the time of initial job assignment for those employees subsequently covered by this subsection.
(iv) The training program ((shall))must be repeated at least annually for each employee.
(v) The employer ((shall assure))must ensure that each employee is informed of the following:
(A) The content of this standard and its appendices;
(B) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level;
(C) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required by chapter ((296-62 WAC, Part E))296-842 WAC;
(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females);
(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;
(F) The contents of any compliance plan in effect; and
(G) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician.
(b) Access to information and training materials.
(i) The employer ((shall))must make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.
(ii) The employer ((shall))must provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.
(iii) In addition to the information required by item (13)(a)(v), the employer ((shall))must include as part of the training program, and ((shall))must distribute to employees, any materials pertaining to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the regulations issued pursuant to the act, and this lead standard, which are made available to the employer by the director.
(14) Communication of hazards.
(a) Hazard communication - General.
(i) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers ((shall))must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for lead.
(ii) In classifying the hazards of lead at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Reproductive/developmental toxicity; central nervous system effects; kidney effects; blood effects; and acute toxicity effects.
(iii) Employers ((shall))must include lead in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. Employers ((shall))must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of lead and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and subsection (13) of this section.
(b) Signs.
(i) The employer ((shall))must post the following warning signs in each work area where the PEL is exceeded:
DANGER
LEAD
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE IN THIS AREA
(ii) The employer ((shall))must ensure that no statement appears on or near any sign required by this section which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must ensure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.
(iv) The employer may use signs required by other statutes, regulations or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs required by this subsection.
(((v) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (b)(i) of this subsection:
WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
POISON
NO SMOKING OR EATING))
(15) Recordkeeping.
(a) Exposure monitoring.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required in subsection (5) of this section.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include:
(A) The date(s), number, duration, location and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;
(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;
(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and
(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of employee exposure.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain these monitoring records for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(b) Medical surveillance.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (11) of this section.
(ii) This record ((shall))must include:
(A) The name, Social Security number, and description of the duties of the employee;
(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;
(C) Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and
(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to lead.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must keep, or ((assure))ensure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:
(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under subsection (11) of this section;
(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information; and
(C) A copy of the results of biological monitoring.
(iv) The employer ((shall))must maintain or ((assure))ensure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least forty years, or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(c) Medical removals.
(i) The employer ((shall))must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee removed from current exposure to lead pursuant to subsection (12) of this section.
(ii) Each record ((shall))must include:
(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;
(B) The date on each occasion that the employee was removed from current exposure to lead as well as the corresponding date on which the employee was returned to his or her former job status;
(C) A brief explanation of how each removal was or is being accomplished; and
(D) A statement with respect to each removal indicating whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level.
(iii) The employer ((shall))must maintain each medical removal record for at least the duration of an employee's employment.
(d) Availability.
(i) The employer ((shall))must make available upon request all records required to be maintained by subsection (15) of this section to the director for examination and copying.
(ii) Environmental monitoring, medical removal, and medical records required by this subsection ((shall))must be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC. Medical removal records ((shall))must be provided in the same manner as environmental monitoring records.
(iii) Upon request, the employer ((shall))must make an employee's medical records required to be maintained by this section available to the affected employee or former employee or to a physician or other individual designated by such affected employee or former employees for examination and copying.
(e) Transfer of records.
The employer ((shall))must comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-802-60005.
(16) Observation of monitoring.
(a) Employee observation. The employer ((shall))must provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to lead conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.
(b) Observation procedures.
(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to lead requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer ((shall))must provide the observer with and ((assure))ensure the use of such respirators, clothing and such equipment, and ((shall))must require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers ((shall))must be entitled to:
(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;
(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of lead performed at the place of exposure; and
(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.
(17) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices to this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.
(a) Appendix A. Substance Data Sheet for Occupational Exposure to Lead.
(i) Substance identification.
(A) Substance. Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy metal at room temperature and pressure and is a basic chemical element. It can combine with various other substances to form numerous lead compounds.
(B) Compounds covered by the standard. The word "lead" when used in this standard means elemental lead, all inorganic lead compounds (except those which are not biologically available due to either solubility or specific chemical interaction), and a class of organic lead compounds called lead soaps. This standard does not apply to other organic lead compounds.
(C) Uses. Exposure to lead occurs in at least one hundred twenty different occupations, including primary and secondary lead smelting, lead storage battery manufacturing, lead pigment manufacturing and use, solder manufacturing and use, shipbuilding and ship repairing, auto manufacturing, and printing.
(D) Permissible exposure. The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) set by the standard is 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3), averaged over an eight-hour work day.
(E) Action level. The standard establishes an action level of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 µg/m3) time weighted average, based on an eight-hour work day. The action level initiates several requirements of the standard, such as exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, and training and education.
(ii) Health hazard data.
(A) Ways in which lead enters your body.
(I) When absorbed into your body in certain doses lead is a toxic substance. The object of the lead standard is to prevent absorption of harmful quantities of lead. The standard is intended to protect you not only from the immediate toxic effects of lead, but also from the serious toxic effects that may not become apparent until years of exposure have passed.
(II) Lead can be absorbed into your body by inhalation (breathing) and ingestion (eating). Lead (except for certain organic lead compounds not covered by the standard, such as tetraethyl lead) is not absorbed through your skin. When lead is scattered in the air as a dust, fume or mist, it can be inhaled and absorbed through your lungs and upper respiratory tract. Inhalation of airborne lead is generally the most important source of occupational lead absorption. You can also absorb lead through your digestive system if lead gets into your mouth and is swallowed. If you handle food, cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or make-up which have lead on them or handle them with hands contaminated with lead, this will contribute to ingestion.
(III) A significant portion of the lead that you inhale or ingest gets into your blood stream. Once in your blood stream lead is circulated throughout your body and stored in various organs and body tissues. Some of this lead is quickly filtered out of your body and excreted, but some remains in your blood and other tissue. As exposure to lead continues, the amount stored in your body will increase if you are absorbing more lead than your body is excreting. Even though you may not be aware of any immediate symptoms of disease, this lead stored in your tissues can be slowly causing irreversible damage, first to individual cells, then to your organs and whole body systems.
(B) Effects of overexposure to lead.
(I) Short-term (acute) overexposure. Lead is a potent, systemic poison that serves no known useful function once absorbed by your body. Taken in large enough doses, lead can kill you in a matter of days. A condition affecting the brain called acute encephalopathy may arise which develops quickly to seizures, coma, and death from cardiorespiratory arrest. A short-term dose of lead can lead to acute encephalopathy. Short-term occupational exposures of this magnitude are highly unusual, but not impossible. Similar forms of encephalopathy may, however arise from extended, chronic exposure to lower doses of lead. There is no sharp dividing line between rapidly developing acute effects of lead, and chronic effects which take longer to acquire. Lead adversely affects numerous body systems, and causes forms of health impairment and disease which arise after periods of exposure as short as days or as long as several years.
(II) Long-term (chronic) overexposure.
a) Chronic overexposure to lead may result in severe damage to your blood-forming, nervous, urinary and reproductive systems. Some common symptoms of chronic overexposure include loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic. In lead colic there may be severe abdominal pain.
b) Damage to the central nervous system in general and the brain (encephalopathy) in particular is one of the most severe forms of lead poisoning. The most severe, often fatal, form of encephalopathy may be preceded by vomiting, a feeling of dullness progressing to drowsiness and stupor, poor memory, restlessness, irritability, tremor, and convulsions. It may arise suddenly with the onset of seizures, followed by coma, and death. There is a tendency for muscular weakness to develop at the same time. This weakness may progress to paralysis often observed as a characteristic "wrist drop" or "foot drop" and is a manifestation of a disease to the nervous system called peripheral neuropathy.
c) Chronic overexposure to lead also results in kidney disease with few, if any, symptoms appearing until extensive and most likely permanent kidney damage has occurred. Routine laboratory tests reveal the presence of this kidney disease only after about two-thirds of kidney function is lost. When overt symptoms of urinary dysfunction arise, it is often too late to correct or prevent worsening conditions, and progression of kidney dialysis or death is possible.
d) Chronic overexposure to lead impairs the reproductive systems of both men and women. Overexposure to lead may result in decreased sex drive, impotence and sterility in men. Lead can alter the structure of sperm cells raising the risk of birth defects. There is evidence of miscarriage and stillbirth in women whose husbands were exposed to lead or who were exposed to lead themselves. Lead exposure also may result in decreased fertility, and abnormal menstrual cycles in women. The course of pregnancy may be adversely affected by exposure to lead since lead crosses the placental barrier and poses risks to developing fetuses. Children born of parents either one of whom were exposed to excess lead levels are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, behavioral disorders or die during the first year of childhood.
e) Overexposure to lead also disrupts the blood-forming system resulting in decreased hemoglobin (the substance in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells) and ultimately anemia. Anemia is characterized by weakness, pallor and fatigability as a result of decreased oxygen carrying capacity in the blood.
(III) Health protection goals of the standard.
a) Prevention of adverse health effects for most workers from exposure to lead throughout a working lifetime requires that worker blood lead (PbB) levels be maintained at or below forty micrograms per one hundred grams of whole blood (40 µg/100g). The blood lead levels of workers (both male and female workers) who intend to have children should be maintained below 30 µg/100g to minimize adverse reproductive health effects to the parents and to the developing fetus.
b) The measurement of your blood lead level is the most useful indicator of the amount of lead absorbed by your body. Blood lead levels (PbB) are most often reported in units of milligrams (mg) or micrograms (µg) of lead (1 mg = 1000 µg) per 100 grams (100g), 100 milliliters (100 ml) or deciliter (dl) of blood. These three units are essentially the same. Sometimes PbB's are expressed in the form of mg% or µg%. This is a shorthand notation for 100g, 100ml, or dl.
c) PbB measurements show the amount of lead circulating in your blood stream, but do not give any information about the amount of lead stored in your various tissues. PbB measurements merely show current absorption of lead, not the effect that lead is having on your body or the effects that past lead exposure may have already caused. Past research into lead-related diseases, however, has focused heavily on associations between PbBs and various diseases. As a result, your PbB is an important indicator of the likelihood that you will gradually acquire a lead-related health impairment or disease.
d) Once your blood lead level climbs above 40 µg/100g, your risk of disease increases. There is a wide variability of individual response to lead, thus it is difficult to say that a particular PbB in a given person will cause a particular effect. Studies have associated fatal encephalopathy with PbBs as low as 150 µg/100g. Other studies have shown other forms of disease in some workers with PbBs well below 80 µg/100g. Your PbB is a crucial indicator of the risks to your health, but one other factor is extremely important. This factor is the length of time you have had elevated PbBs. The longer you have an elevated PbB, the greater the risk that large quantities of lead are being gradually stored in your organs and tissues (body burden). The greater your overall body burden, the greater the chances of substantial permanent damage.
e) The best way to prevent all forms of lead-related impairments and diseases—both short-term and long-term—is to maintain your PbB below 40 µg/100g. The provisions of the standard are designed with this end in mind. Your employer has prime responsibility to ((assure))ensure that the provisions of the standard are complied with both by the company and by individual workers. You as a worker, however, also have a responsibility to assist your employer in complying with the standard. You can play a key role in protecting your own health by learning about the lead hazards and their control, learning what the standard requires, following the standard where it governs your own action, and seeing that your employer complies with the provisions governing his actions.
(IV) Reporting signs and symptoms of health problems. You should immediately notify your employer if you develop signs or symptoms associated with lead poisoning or if you desire medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on your ability to have a healthy child. You should also notify your employer if you have difficulty breathing during a respirator fit test or while wearing a respirator. In each of these cases your employer must make available to you appropriate medical examinations or consultations. These must be provided at no cost to you and at a reasonable time and place.
(b) Appendix B. Employee Standard Summary. This appendix summarizes key provisions of the standard that you as a worker should become familiar with. The appendix discusses the entire standard.
(i) Permissible exposure limit (PEL). The standard sets a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of fifty micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3), averaged over and eight-hour workday. This is the highest level of lead in air to which you may be permissibly exposed over an eight-hour workday. Since it is an eight-hour average it permits short exposures above the PEL so long as for each eight-hour workday your average exposure does not exceed the PEL.
(ii) Exposure monitoring.
(A) If lead is present in the work place where you work in any quantity, your employer is required to make an initial determination of whether the action level is exceeded for any employee. The initial determination must include instrument monitoring of the air for the presence of lead and must cover the exposure of a representative number of employees who are reasonably believed to have the highest exposure levels. If your employer has conducted appropriate air sampling for lead in the past year he may use these results. If there have been any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead or if there is any other information or observations which would indicate employee exposure to lead, this must also be considered as part of the initial determination. If this initial determination shows that a reasonable possibility exists that any employee may be exposed, without regard to respirators, over the action level (30 µg/m3) your employer must set up an air monitoring program to determine the exposure level of every employee exposed to lead at your work place.
(B) In carrying out this air monitoring program, your employer is not required to monitor the exposure of every employee, but ((he or she))they must monitor a representative number of employees and job types. Enough sampling must be done to enable each employee's exposure level to be reasonably represented by at least one full shift (at least seven hours) air sample. In addition, these air samples must be taken under conditions which represent each employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.
(C) If you are exposed to lead and air sampling is performed, your employer is required to quickly notify you in writing of air monitoring results which represent your exposure. If the results indicate your exposure exceeds the PEL (without regard to your use of respirators), then your employer must also notify you of this in writing, and provide you with a description of the corrective action that will be taken to reduce your exposure.
(D) Your exposure must be rechecked by monitoring every six months if your exposure is over the action level but below the PEL. Air monitoring must be repeated every three months if you are exposed over the PEL. Your employer may discontinue monitoring for you if two consecutive measurements, taken at least two weeks apart, are below the action level. However, whenever there is a production, process, control, or personnel change at your work place which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever there is any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, your employer must perform additional monitoring.
(iii) Methods of compliance. Your employer is required to ((assure))ensure that no employee is exposed to lead in excess of the PEL. The standard establishes a priority of methods to be used to meet the PEL.
(iv) Respiratory protection.
(A) Your employer is required to provide and ((assure))ensure your use of respirators when your exposure to lead is not controlled below the PEL by other means. The employer must pay the cost of the respirator. Whenever you request one, your employer is also required to provide you a respirator even if your air exposure level does not exceed the PEL. You might desire a respirator when, for example, you have received medical advice that your lead absorption should be decreased. Or, you may intend to have children in the near future, and want to reduce the level of lead in your body to minimize adverse reproductive effects. While respirators are the least satisfactory means of controlling your exposure, they are capable of providing significant protection if properly chosen, fitted, worn, cleaned, maintained, and replaced when they stop providing adequate protection.
(B) Your employer is required to select respirators from the seven types listed in Table II of the respiratory protection section of this standard (see subsection (7)(c) of this section). Any respirator chosen must be certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 C.F.R. part 84. This respirator selection table will enable your employer to choose a type of respirator which will give you a proper amount of protection based on your airborne lead exposure. Your employer may select a type of respirator that provides greater protection than that required by the standard; that is, one recommended for a higher concentration of lead than is present in your work place. For example, a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) is much more protective than a typical negative-pressure respirator, and may also be more comfortable to wear. A PAPR has a filter, cartridge or canister to clean the air, and a power source which continuously blows filtered air into your breathing zone. Your employer might make a PAPR available to you to ease the burden of having to wear a respirator for long periods of time. The standard provides that you can obtain a PAPR upon request.
(C) Your employer must also start a respiratory protection program. This program must include written procedures for the proper selection, use, cleaning, storage, and maintenance of respirators.
(D) Your employer must ((assure))ensure that your respirator facepiece fits properly. Proper fit of a respirator facepiece is critical to your protection against air borne lead. Obtaining a proper fit on each employee may require your employer to make available several different types of respirator masks. To ensure that your respirator fits properly and that facepiece leakage is minimal, your employer must give you either a qualitative or quantitative fit test as required in chapter 296-842 WAC.
(E) You must also receive from your employer proper training in the use of respirators. Your employer is required to teach you how to wear a respirator, to know why it is needed, and to understand its limitations.
(F) The standard provides that if your respirator uses filter elements, you must be given an opportunity to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected. You also must be permitted to periodically leave your work area to wash your face and respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation. If you ever have difficulty breathing during a fit test or while using a respirator, your employer must make a medical examination available to you to determine whether you can safely wear a respirator. The result of this examination may be to give you a positive pressure respirator (which reduces breathing resistance) or to provide alternative means of protection.
(v) Protective work clothing and equipment. If you are exposed to lead above the PEL, or if you are exposed to lead compounds such as lead arsenate or lead azide which can cause skin and eye irritation, your employer must provide you with protective work clothing and equipment appropriate for the hazard. If work clothing is provided, it must be provided in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if your airborne exposure to lead is greater than 200 µg/m3. Appropriate protective work clothing and equipment can include coveralls or similar full-body work clothing, gloves, hats, shoes or disposable shoe coverlets, and face shields or vented goggles. Your employer is required to provide all such equipment at no cost to you. ((He or she is))They are responsible for providing repairs and replacement as necessary and also is responsible for the cleaning, laundering or disposal of protective clothing and equipment. Contaminated work clothing or equipment must be removed in change rooms and not worn home or you will extend your exposure and expose your family since lead from your clothing can accumulate in your house, car, etc. Contaminated clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered or disposed of must be placed in closed containers in the change room. At no time may lead be removed from protective clothing or equipment by any means which disperses lead into the work room air.
(vi) Housekeeping. Your employer must establish a housekeeping program sufficient to maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of lead dust. Vacuuming is the preferred method of meeting this requirement, and the use of compressed air to clean floors and other surfaces is absolutely prohibited. Dry or wet sweeping, shoveling, or brushing may not be used except where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and do not work. Vacuums must be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the work place.
(vii) Hygiene facilities and practices.
(A) The standard requires that change rooms, showers and filtered air lunchrooms be constructed and made available to workers exposed to lead above the PEL. When the PEL is exceeded, the employer must ((assure))ensure that food and beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except in these facilities. Change rooms, showers and lunchrooms, must be used by workers exposed in excess of the PEL. After showering, no clothing or equipment worn during the shift may be worn home and this includes shoes and underwear. Your own clothing worn during the shift should be carried home and cleaned carefully so that it does not contaminate your home. Lunchrooms may not be entered with protective clothing or equipment unless surface dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth or other cleaning methods. Finally, workers exposed above the PEL must wash both their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
(B) All of the facilities and hygiene practices just discussed are essential to minimize additional sources of lead absorption from inhalation or ingestion of lead that may accumulate on you, your clothes or your possessions. Strict compliance with these provisions can virtually eliminate several sources of lead exposure which significantly contribute to excessive lead absorption.
(viii) Medical surveillance.
(A) The medical surveillance program is part of the standard's comprehensive approach to the prevention of lead-related disease. Its purpose is to supplement the main thrust of the standard which is aimed at minimizing airborne concentrations of lead and sources of ingestion. Only medical surveillance can determine if the other provisions of the standard have effectively protected you as an individual. Compliance with the standard's provision will protect most workers from the adverse effects of lead exposure, but may not be satisfactory to protect individual workers (I) who have high body burdens of lead acquired over past years, (II) who have additional uncontrolled sources of nonoccupational lead exposure, (III) who exhibit unusual variations in lead absorption rates, or (IV) who have specific nonwork related medical conditions which could be aggravated by lead exposure (e.g., renal disease, anemia). In addition, control systems may fail, or hygiene and respirator programs may be inadequate. Periodic medical surveillance of individual workers will help detect those failures. Medical surveillance will also be important to protect your reproductive ability - regardless of whether you are a man or a woman.
(B) All medical surveillance required by the standard must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician. The employer must provide required medical surveillance without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place. The standard's medical surveillance program has two parts - Periodic biological monitoring, and medical examinations.
(C) Your employer's obligation to offer medical surveillance is triggered by the results of the air monitoring program. Medical surveillance must be made available to all employees who are exposed in excess of the action level for more than thirty days a year. The initial phase of the medical surveillance program, which included blood lead level tests and medical examinations, must be completed for all covered employees no later than one hundred eighty days from the effective date of this standard. Priority within this first round of medical surveillance must be given to employees whom the employer believes to be at greatest risk from continued exposure (for example, those with the longest prior exposure to lead, or those with the highest current exposure). Thereafter, the employer must periodically make medical surveillance - both biological monitoring and medical examinations - available to all covered employees.
(D) Biological monitoring under the standard consists of blood lead level (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin tests at least every six months after the initial PbB test. A zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) test is a very useful blood test which measures an effect of lead on your body. If a worker's PbB exceeds 40 µg/100g, the monitoring frequency must be increased from every six months to at least every two months and not reduced until two consecutive PbBs indicate a blood lead level below 40 µg/100g. Each time your PbB is determined to be over 40 µg/100g, your employer must notify you of this in writing within five working days of the receipt of the test results. The employer must also inform you that the standard requires temporary medical removal with economic protection when your PbB exceeds certain criteria (see Discussion of Medical Removal Protection - subsection (12)). During the first year of the standard, this removal criterion is 80 µg/100g. Anytime your PbB exceeds 80 µg/100g your employer must make available to you a prompt follow-up PbB test to ascertain your PbB. If the two tests both exceed 80 µg/100g and you are temporarily removed, then your employer must make successive PbB tests available to you on a monthly basis during the period of your removal.
(E) Medical examinations beyond the initial one must be made available on an annual basis if your blood lead levels exceeds 40 µg/100g at any time during the preceding year. The initial examination will provide information to establish a baseline to which subsequent data can be compared. An initial medical examination must also be made available (prior to assignment) for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area where the airborne concentration of lead equals or exceeds the action level. In addition, a medical examination or consultation must be made available as soon as possible if you notify your employer that you are experiencing signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead poisoning or that you have difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator or during a respirator fit test. You must also be provided a medical examination or consultation if you notify your employer that you desire medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on your ability to procreate a healthy child.
(F) Finally, appropriate follow-up medical examinations or consultations may also be provided for employees who have been temporarily removed from exposure under the medical removal protection provisions of the standard (see item (ix) below).
(G) The standard specifies the minimum content of preassignment and annual medical examinations. The content of other types of medical examinations and consultations is left up to the sound discretion of the examining physician. Preassignment and annual medical examinations must include (I) a detailed work history and medical history, (II) a thorough physical examination, and (III) a series of laboratory tests designed to check your blood chemistry and your kidney function. In addition, at any time upon your request, a laboratory evaluation of male fertility will be made (microscopic examination of a sperm sample), or a pregnancy test will be given.
(H) The standard does not require that you participate in any of the medical procedures, tests, etc., which your employer is required to make available to you. Medical surveillance can, however, play a very important role in protecting your health. You are strongly encouraged, therefore, to participate in a meaningful fashion. Generally, your employer will choose the physician who conducts medical surveillance under the lead standard - unless you and your employer can agree on the choice of a physician or physicians. Some companies and unions have agreed in advance, for example, to use certain independent medical laboratories or panels of physicians. Any of these arrangements are acceptable so long as required medical surveillance is made available to workers.
(I) The standard requires your employer to provide certain information to a physician to aid in ((his or her))their examination of you. This information includes (I) the standard and its appendices, (II) a description of your duties as they relate to lead exposure, (III) your exposure level, (IV) a description of personal protective equipment you wear, (V) prior blood level results, and (VI) prior written medical opinions concerning you that the employer has. After a medical examination or consultation the physician must prepare a written report which must contain (I) the physician's opinion as to whether you have any medical conditions which places you at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead, (II) any recommended special protective measures to be provided to you, (III) any blood lead level determinations, and (IV) any recommended limitation on your use of respirators. This last element must include a determination of whether you can wear a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) if you are found unable to wear a negative pressure respirator.
(J) The medical surveillance program of the lead standard may at some point in time serve to notify certain workers that they have acquired a disease or other adverse medical condition as a result of occupational lead exposure. If this is true these workers might have legal rights to compensation from public agencies, their employers, firms that supply hazardous products to their employers, or other persons. Some states have laws, including worker compensation laws, that disallow a worker to learn of a job-related health impairment to sue, unless the worker sues within a short period of time after learning of the impairment. (This period of time may be a matter of months or years.) An attorney can be consulted about these possibilities. It should be stressed that WISHA is in no way trying to either encourage or discourage claims or lawsuits. However, since results of the standard's medical surveillance program can significantly affect the legal remedies of a worker who has acquired a job-related disease or impairment, it is proper for WISHA to make you aware of this.
(K) The medical surveillance section of the standard also contains provisions dealing with chelation. Chelation is the use of certain drugs (administered in pill form or injected into the body) to reduce the amount of lead absorbed in body tissues. Experience accumulated by the medical and scientific communities has largely confirmed the effectiveness of this type of therapy for the treatment of very severe lead poisoning. On the other hand it has also been established that there can be a long list of extremely harmful side effects associated with the use of chelating agents. The medical community has balanced the advantages and disadvantages resulting from the use of chelating agents in various circumstances and has established when the use of these agents is acceptable. The standard includes these accepted limitations due to a history of abuse of chelation therapy by some lead companies. The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium EDTA, (Ca Na2EDTA), Calcium Disodium Versenate (Versenate), and d-penicillamine (penicillamine or Cupramine).
(L) The standard prohibits "prophylactic chelation" of any employee by any person the employer retains, supervises or controls. "Prophylactic chelation" is the routine use of chelating or similarly acting drugs to prevent elevated blood levels in workers who are occupationally exposed to lead, or the use of these drugs to routinely lower blood lead levels to predesignated concentrations believed to be safe. It should be emphasized that where an employer takes a worker who has no symptoms of lead poisoning and has chelation carried out by a physician (either inside or outside of a hospital) solely to reduce the worker's blood lead level, that will generally be considered prophylactic chelation. The use of a hospital and a physician does not mean that prophylactic chelation is not being performed. Routine chelation to prevent increased or reduce current blood lead levels is unacceptable whatever the setting.
(M) The standard allows the use of "therapeutic" or "diagnostic" chelation if administered under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring. Therapeutic chelation responds to severe lead poisoning where there are marked symptoms. Diagnostic chelation, involves giving a patient a dose of the drug then collecting all urine excreted for some period of time as an aid to the diagnosis of lead poisoning.
(N) In cases where the examining physician determines that chelation is appropriate, you must be notified in writing of this fact before such treatment. This will inform you of a potentially harmful treatment, and allow you to obtain a second opinion.
(ix) Medical removal protection.
(A) Excessive lead absorption subjects you to increased risk of disease. Medical removal protection (MRP) is a means of protecting you when for whatever reasons, other methods, such as engineering controls, work practices, and respirators, have failed to provide the protection you need. MRP involves the temporary removal of a worker from his or her regular job to a place of significantly lower exposure without any loss of earnings, seniority, or other employment rights of benefits. The purpose of this program is to cease further lead absorption and allow your body to naturally excrete lead which has previously been absorbed. Temporary medical removal can result from an elevated blood lead level, or a medical opinion. Up to eighteen months of protection is provided as a result of either form of removal. The vast majority of removed workers, however, will return to their former jobs long before this eighteen month period expires. The standard contains special provisions to deal with the extraordinary but possible case where a long-term worker's blood lead level does not adequately decline during eighteen months of removal.
(B) During the first year of the standard, if your blood lead level is 80 µg/100g or above you must be removed from any exposure where your air lead level without a respirator would be 100 µg/m3 or above. If you are removed from your normal job you may not be returned until your blood lead level declines to at least 60 µg/100g. These criteria for removal and return will change according to the following schedule:
TABLE 1
Effective
Date
Removal Blood Level (µg/100g)
Air Lead
(µg/m3)
Return Blood Lead
(µg/100g)
9/6/81
At or
above 70
50 or above
At or
below 50
9/6/82
At or
above 60
30 or above
At or
below 40
9/6/84
At or
above 50
averaged over
six months
30 or above
At or
below 40
(C) You may also be removed from exposure even if your blood lead levels are below these criteria if a final medical determination indicates that you temporarily need reduced lead exposure for medical reasons. If the physician who is implementing your employer's medical program makes a final written opinion recommending your removal or other special protective measures, your employer must implement the physician's recommendation. If you are removed in this manner, you may only be returned when the physician indicates it is safe for you to do so.
(D) The standard does not give specific instructions dealing with what an employer must do with a removed worker. Your job assignment upon removal is a matter for you, your employer and your union (if any) to work out consistent with existing procedures for job assignments. Each removal must be accomplished in a manner consistent with existing collective bargaining relationships. Your employer is given broad discretion to implement temporary removals so long as no attempt is made to override existing agreements. Similarly, a removed worker is provided no right to veto an employer's choice which satisfies the standard.
(E) In most cases, employers will likely transfer removed employees to other jobs with sufficiently low lead exposure. Alternatively, a worker's hours may be reduced so that the time weighted average exposure is reduced, or he or she may be temporarily laid off if no other alternative is feasible.
(F) In all of these situations, MRP benefits must be provided during the period of removal - i.e., you continue to receive the same earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits you would have had if you had not been removed. Earnings include more that just your base wage; it includes overtime, shift differentials, incentives, and other compensation you would have earned if you had not been removed. During the period of removal you must also be provided with appropriate follow-up medical surveillance. If you were removed because your blood lead level was too high, you must be provided with a monthly blood test. If a medical opinion caused your removal, you must be provided medical tests or examinations that the physician believes to be appropriate. If you do not participate in this follow-up medical surveillance, you may lose your eligibility for MRP benefits.
(G) When you are medically eligible to return to your former job, your employer must return you to your "former job status." This means that you are entitled to the position, wages, benefits, etc., you would have had if you had not been removed. If you would still be in your old job if no removal had occurred, that is where you go back. If not, you are returned consistent with whatever job assignment discretion your employer would have had if no removal had occurred. MRP only seeks to maintain your rights, not expand them or diminish them.
(H) If you are removed under MRP and you are also eligible for worker compensation or other compensation for lost wages, your employer's MRP benefits obligation is reduced by the amount that you actually receive from these other sources. This is also true if you obtain other employment during the time you are laid off with MRP benefits.
(I) The standard also covers situations where an employer voluntarily removes a worker from exposure to lead due to the effects of lead on the employee's medical condition, even though the standard does not require removal. In these situations MRP benefits must still be provided as though the standard required removal. Finally, it is important to note that in all cases where removal is required, respirators cannot be used as a substitute. Respirators may be used before removal becomes necessary, but not as an alternative to a transfer to a low exposure job, or to a lay-off with MRP benefits.
(x) Employee information and training.
(A) Your employer is required to provide an information and training program for all employees exposed to lead above the action level or who may suffer skin or eye irritation from lead. This program must inform these employees of the specific hazards associated with their work environment, protective measures which can be taken, the danger of lead to their bodies (including their reproductive systems), and their rights under the standard. In addition, your employer must make readily available to all employees, including those exposed below the action level, a copy of the standard and its appendices and must distribute to all employees any materials provided to the employer under the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA).
(B) Your employer is required to complete this training for all employees by March 4, 1981. After this date, all new employees must be trained prior to initial assignment to areas where there is possibility of exposure over the action level. This training program must also be provided at least annually thereafter.
(xi) Signs. The standard requires that the following warning sign be posted in work areas where the exposure to lead exceeds the PEL:
DANGER LEAD
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE IN THIS AREA
((However, prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified above:
WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
NO SMOKING OR EATING))
(xii) Recordkeeping.
(A) Your employer is required to keep all records of exposure monitoring for airborne lead. These records must include the name and job classification of employees measured, details of the sampling and analytic techniques, the results of this sampling and the type of respiratory protection being worn by the person sampled. Your employer is also required to keep all records of biological monitoring and medical examination results. These must include the names of the employees, the physician's written opinion and a copy of the results of the examination. All of the above kinds of records must be kept for forty years, or for at least twenty years after your termination of employment, whichever is longer.
(B) Recordkeeping is also required if you are temporarily removed from your job under the MRP program. This record must include your name and Social Security number, the date of your removal and return, how the removal was or is being accomplished, and whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level. Your employer is required to keep each medical removal record only for as long as the duration of an employee's employment.
(C) The standard requires that if you request to see or copy environmental monitoring, blood lead level monitoring, or medical removal records, they must be made available to you or to a representative that you authorize. Your union also has access to these records. Medical records other than PbBs must also be provided to you upon request, to your physician or to any other person whom you may specifically designate. Your union does not have access to your personal medical records unless you authorize their access.
(xiii) Observations of monitoring. When air monitoring for lead is performed at your work place as required by this standard, your employer must allow you or someone you designate to act as an observer of the monitoring. Observers are entitled to an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. Since results will not normally be available at the time of the monitoring, observers are entitled to record or receive the results of the monitoring when returned by the laboratory. Your employer is required to provide the observer with any personal protective devices required to be worn by employees working in the areas that is being monitored. The employer must require the observer to wear all such equipment and to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(xiv) Effective date. The standard's effective date is September 6, 1980, and the employer's obligation under the standard begin to come into effect as of that date. The standard was originally adopted as WAC 296-62-07349 and later recodified to WAC 296-62-07521.
(c) Appendix C. Medical Surveillance Guidelines.
(i) Introduction.
(A) The primary purpose of the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973 is to ((assure))ensure, so far as possible, safe and healthful working conditions for every working man and woman. The occupational health standard for inorganic lead* was promulgated to protect workers exposed to inorganic lead including metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds and organic lead soaps.
*The term inorganic lead used throughout the medical surveillance appendices is meant to be synonymous with the definition of lead set forth in the standard.
(B) Under this final standard in effect as of September 6, 1980, occupational exposure to inorganic lead is to be limited to 50 µg/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter) based on an eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA). This level of exposure eventually must be achieved through a combination of engineering, work practice and other administrative controls. Periods of time ranging from one to ten years are provided for different industries to implement these controls which are based on individual industry considerations. Until these controls are in place, respirators must be used to meet the 50 µg/m3 exposure limit.
(C) The standard also provides for a program of biological monitoring and medical surveillance for all employees exposed to levels of inorganic lead above the action level of 30 µg/m3 for more than thirty days per year.
(D) The purpose of this document is to outline the medical surveillance provisions of the standard for inorganic lead, and to provide further information to the physician regarding the examination and evaluation of workers exposed to inorganic lead.
(E) Item (ii) provides a detailed description of the monitoring procedure including the required frequency of blood testing for exposed workers, provisions for medical removal protection (MRP), the recommended right of the employee to a second medical opinion, and notification and recordkeeping requirements of the employer. A discussion of the requirements for respirator use and respirator monitoring and WISHA's position on prophylactic chelation therapy are also included in this section.
(F) Item (iii) discusses the toxic effects and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning and effects of lead intoxication on enzymatic pathways in heme synthesis. The adverse effects on both male and female reproductive capacity and on the fetus are also discussed.
(G) Item (iv) outlines the recommended medical evaluation of the worker exposed to inorganic lead including details of the medical history, physical examination, and recommended laboratory tests, which are based on the toxic effects of lead as discussed in item (ii).
(H) Item (v) provides detailed information concerning the laboratory tests available for the monitoring of exposed workers. Included also is a discussion of the relative value of each test and the limitations and precautions which are necessary in the interpretation of the laboratory results.
(I) Airborne levels to be achieved without reliance or respirator protection through a combination of engineering and work practice or other administrative controls are illustrated in the following table:
Industry
Permissible Lead Level/Compliance Date
 
200µg/m3
100µg/m3
50µg/m3
Primary Lead Production
1973
06/29/84
06/29/91
Secondary Lead Production
1973
06/29/84
06/29/91
Lead Acid Battery Manufacturing
1973
06/29/83
06/29/91
Automobile Mfg./Solder, Grinding
1973
N/A
03/08/97
Electronics, Gray Iron Foundries, Ink Mfg., Paints and Coatings Mfg., Can Mfg., Wallpaper Mfg., and Printing.
1973
N/A
06/29/91
Lead Chemical Mfg., Nonferrous Foundries, Leaded Steel Mfg., Battery Breaking in the Collection and Processing of Scrap (when not a part of secondary lead smelter) Secondary Copper Smelter, Brass and Bronze Ingot Production.
1973
N/A
N/A1*
All Other Industries
1973
N/A
09/08/92
*
Feasibility of achieving the PEL by engineering and work practice controls for these industries has yet to be resolved in court, therefore no date has been scheduled.
(ii) Medical surveillance and monitoring requirements for workers exposed to inorganic lead.
(A) Under the occupational health standard for inorganic lead, a program of biological monitoring and medical surveillance is to be made available to all employees exposed to lead above the action level of 30 µg/m3 TWA for more than thirty days each year. This program consists of periodic blood sampling and medical evaluation to be performed on a schedule which is defined by previous laboratory results, worker complaints or concerns, and the clinical assessment of the examining physician.
(B) Under this program, the blood lead level of all employees who are exposed to lead above the action level of 30 µg/m3 is to be determined at least every six months. The frequency is increased to every two months for employees whose last blood lead level was between 40 µg/100g whole blood and the level requiring employee medical removal to be discussed below. For employees who are removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead, a new blood lead level must be measured monthly. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is required on each occasion that a blood lead level measurement is made.
(C) An annual medical examination and consultation performed under the guidelines discussed in item (iv) is to be made available to each employee for whom a blood test conducted at any time during the preceding twelve months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/100g. Also, an examination is to be given to all employees prior to their assignment to an area in which airborne lead concentrations reach or exceed the action level. In addition, a medical examination must be provided as soon as possible after notification by an employee that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice regarding lead exposure and the ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during respirator use. An examination is also to be made available to each employee removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited or specially protected pursuant to medical recommendations.
(D) Results of biological monitoring or the recommendations of an examining physician may necessitate removal of an employee from further lead exposure pursuant to the standard's medical removal program (MRP). The object of the MRP program is to provide temporary medical removals to workers either with substantially elevated blood lead levels or otherwise at risk of sustaining material health impairment from continued substantial exposure to lead. The following guidelines which are summarized in Table 10 were created under the standard for the temporary removal of an exposed employee and ((his or her))their subsequent return to work in an exposure area.
TABLE 10
EFFECTIVE DATE
 
 
Sept. 6, 1980
Sept. 6, 1981
Sept. 6, 1982
Sept. 6, 1983
Sept. 6, 1984
A.
Blood lead level requiring employee medical removal (level must be confirmed with second follow-up blood lead level within two weeks of first report).
˃80 µg/100g.
˃70 µg/100g.
˃60 µg/100g.
˃60 µg/100g.
˃60 µg/100g
or average of last three blood samples or all blood samples over previous 6 months (whichever is over a longer time period) is 50 µg/100g. or greater unless last sample is 40 µg/100g or less.
B.
Frequency which employees exposed is action level of lead (30 µg/m8 TWA) must have blood lead level checked. (ZPP is also required in each occasion that a blood test is obtained):
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.
Last blood lead level less than 40 µg/100g . . . .
Every 6 months.
Every 6 months.
Every 6 months.
Every 6 months.
Every 6
months.
 
2.
Last blood lead level between 40 µg/100g and level requiring medical removal (see A above) . . . .
Every 2 months.
Every 2 months.
Every 2 months.
Every 2 months.
Every 2
months.
 
3.
Employees removed from exposure to lead because of an elevated blood lead level . . . .
Every 1 month.
Every 1
month.
Every 1
month.
Every 1 month.
Every 1
month.
C.
Permissible airborne exposure limit for workers removed from work due to an elevated blood lead level (without regard to respirator protection).
100 µg/m3
8 hr TWA
50 µg/m3
8 hr TWA
30 µg/m3
8 hr TWA
30 µg/m3
8 hr TWA
30 µg/m3
8 hr TWA
D.
Blood lead level confirmed with a second blood analysis, at which employee may return to work. Permissible exposure without regard to respirator protection is listed by industry in Table 1.
60 µg/100g
50 µg/100g
40 µg/100g
40 µg/100g
40 µg/100g
Note:
Where medical opinion indicates that an employee is at risk of material impairment from exposure to lead, the physician can remove an employee from exposure exceeding the action level (or less) or recommend special protective measures as deemed appropriate and necessary. Medical monitoring during the medical removal period can be more stringent than noted in the table above if the physician so specifies. Return to work