LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed December 3, 2019, 4:09 p.m.]
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 19-06-070.
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Reinforcing steel and post-tensioning activities, chapter 296-155 WAC, Part O, concrete, concrete forms, shoring and masonry construction.
Hearing Location(s): On February 10, 2020, at 1:00 p.m., at the Department of Labor and Industries (L&I), 12806 Gateway Drive South, Tukwila, WA 98168; and on February 12, 2020, at 1:00 p.m., at the Enduris Training Center, 1610 South Technology Boulevard, #100, Spokane, WA 99224.
Date of Intended Adoption: March 17, 2020.
Submit Written Comments to: Carmyn Shute, Administrative Regulations Analyst, L&I, Division of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, email Carmyn.Shute@Lni.wa.gov, fax 360-902-5619, by February 28, 2020.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Carmyn Shute, phone 360-902-6081, fax 360-902-5619, email Carmyn.Shute@Lni.wa.gov, by January 10, 2020.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: This rule making was in response to a petition by the International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers received on November 20, 2018. Chapter 296-155 WAC, Part O, fell behind the newly revised 2018 – American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A10.9 (2013 and reaffirmed in 2018) standard when addressing hazards related to reinforcing steel and post-tensioning work. L&I has identified and amended relevant parts of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part O to reduce employee exposure to falls, struck by things, and impalement hazards associated with collapse of formwork.
The proposal includes clarifying language, new definitions, explanatory notes, and other changes needed to bring current safety standards up-to-date and easy to follow for the regulated community.
Significant changes include:
|•||A subsection to adopt the current requirement of fall protection at four feet or during form and rebar work; and|
|•||A subsection regarding written notification requirements on reinforcing steel installation and concrete placement; and|
|•||A subsection to require employers ensure that employees performing reinforcing steel and/or post-tensioning activities have been trained by a qualified person.|
WAC 296-155-675 Scope, application and definitions applicable to this part.
|•||Added several definitions, including controlling contractor and qualified person.|
WAC 296-155-680 General provisions.
|•||Added language regarding site access and layout.|
|•||Added language regarding written notifications prior to commencement of and immediately following reinforcing steel installation and concrete placement.|
|•||Added language regarding sustainability requirements for vertical and horizontal columns, walls, and other reinforcing assemblies.|
|•||Added language regarding impalement protection and custody.|
|•||Added language regarding post-tensioning operations.|
|•||Added language regarding fall protection.|
|•||Added language regarding training requirements and retraining.|
WAC 296-155-682 Requirements for equipment and tools.
WAC 296-155-689 Placing and removal of forms.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: The petitioner highlighted some points and rationale related to injury statistics and safety hazard concerns in which the L&I's division of occupational safety and health is responding to. Determination was made during the stakeholder process that the majority of the proposed changes are already considered industry standard practices. Implementation of the proposed rule may reduce the number of injured workers without adding significant costs to small businesses in the state of Washington.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Name of Proponent: International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers, public.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Chris Miller, Tumwater, Washington, 360-902-5516; Implementation and Enforcement: Anne Soiza, Tumwater, Washington, 360-902-5090.
A school district fiscal impact statement is not required under RCW 28A.305.135
A cost-benefit analysis is required under RCW 34.05.328
. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis may be obtained by contacting Carmyn Shute, Administrative Regulations Analyst, L&I, Division of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, phone 360-902-6081, fax 360-902-5619, email Carmyn.Shute@Lni.wa.gov
This rule proposal, or portions of the proposal, is exempt from requirements of the Regulatory Fairness Act because the proposal:
Is exempt under RCW 19.85.025
(3) as the rules only correct typographical errors, make address or name changes, or clarify language of a rule without changing its effect.
The proposed rule does not impose more-than-minor costs on businesses. Following is a summary of the agency's analysis showing how costs were calculated. L&I identified the following rule changes that will result in increased costs: changes to WAC 296-155-680(8) that require the controlling contractor provide the reinforcing steel contractor on the project with the written notification regarding written notifications prior to commencement of and immediately following reinforcing steel installation and concrete placement; and changes to WAC 296-155-680(15) that require that each employee who performs reinforcing steel and/or post tensioning activities be provided training by a qualified person in the following areas for the activities in which they are engaged: the hazards associated with reinforcing steel and post-tensioning activities, and the proper procedures and equipment to perform reinforcing steel and post-tensioning activities.
For the new written notification requirement, the costs were derived based on the estimated labor time value and cost of providing written notifications for an average of two thousand five hundred seventeen projects annually, resulting in a total annual cost of approximately $11,965 to $23,930 each year on the affected businesses. For the new training requirements, the costs are derived on an estimated number of workers who would require necessary training in a basic two-day workshop, resulting in an estimated annual cost of $36,627 - $60,728 to the affected employers.
L&I calculated the per business costs for affected employers and compared to the minor-cost threshold of one percent of annual payroll (see table below). The average costs were below the minor cost threshold.
Average Number of Firms
Per Business Cost
(low to high)
Construction of buildings
Utility system construction
Highway, street, and bridge construction
Specialty trade contractors
Other specialty trade contractors
A copy of the detailed cost calculations may be obtained by contacting Carmyn Shute, L&I, Division of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98504-4620, phone 360-902-6081, fax 360-902-5619, email Carmyn.Shute@Lni.wa.gov.
December 3, 2019
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 16-09-085, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16)
WAC 296-155-675Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this part.
(1) Scope and application. This part sets forth requirements to protect all construction employees from the hazards associated with concrete and masonry construction operations performed in workplaces covered under chapter 296-155 WAC.
(2) Definitions applicable to this part.
Bull float. A tool used to spread out and smooth the concrete.
Competent person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, who has authorization to take prompt corrective action to eliminate them.
Controlling contractor. A prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager, or any other legal entity that has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project, including planning, quality, and completion.
Dead load. A constant load, without load factors, due to the mass (weight) of members, the supported structure and permanent attachments or accessories.
Falsework. Formwork to support concrete and placing operations for supported slabs of concrete structures, including all supporting members, hardware, and bracing.
Formwork. The total system of support for freshly placed or partially cured concrete, including the mold or sheeting (form) that is in contact with the concrete as well as all supporting members including shores, reshores, hardware, braces, and related hardware.
Guy. A line that steadies a high piece or structure by pulling against an off-center load.
Jacking operation. The task of lifting a slab (or group of slabs) vertically from one location to another (e.g., from the casting location to a temporary (parked) location, or from a temporary location to another temporary location, or to its final location in the structure), during the construction of a building/structure where the lift-slab process is being used.
Lift slab. A method of concrete construction in which floor and roof slabs are cast on or at ground level and, using jacks, lifted into position.
Limited access zone. An area alongside a masonry wall, which is under construction, and which is clearly demarcated to limit access by employees.
Post-tensioning operations. A method of stressing reinforced concrete in which tendons running through the concrete are tensioned after the concrete has hardened.
Precast concrete. Concrete members (such as walls, panels, slabs, columns, and beams) which have been formed, cast, and cured prior to final placement in a structure.
Qualified. One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated their ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Reinforced concrete. A composite material in which the concrete provides the material's compressive strength, while the forcing in the form of additional embedded material provides the tensile strength and/or ductility.
Reinforcing ironworker. A worker primarily engaged in the hoisting, rigging, field fabrication, moving, and installation of reinforcing steel assemblies, members, post-tensioning cables, and related equipment. Reinforcing steel activities include, but are not limited to: Off-loading and material handling of reinforcing components; fabrication, preassembly, and placement of reinforcing steel columns, beams, joists, mats, welded wire mesh, and curtain-walls; and the placement of post-tensioning cables.
Reinforcing steel assemblies. Vertical and horizontal columns, caissons, walls, drilled piers, mats, and other similar structures. For purposes of this standard, reinforcing steel includes rods, bars, or mesh made from composite and/or other materials.
Reshoring. The construction operation in which shoring equipment (also called reshores or reshoring equipment) is placed, as the original forms and shores are removed, in order to support partially cured concrete and construction loads.
Shore. A supporting member that resists a compressive force imposed by a load.
Slip form. A form that is moved as concrete is placed and slides without being detached to form walls or other concrete structures.
Stressing jacks. Portable hydraulic devices that pull the tendons associated with post-tensioning concrete to create a permanent tension load.
Tendon. A metal element, usually of steel such as wire, stranded components (such as wires), bars or rods used in prestressing or post-tensioning concrete.
Vertical slip forms. Forms which are jacked vertically during the placement of concrete.
((Guy. A line that steadies a high piece or structure by pulling against an off-center load.))
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 16-09-085, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16)
WAC 296-155-680General provisions.
(1) General. All equipment, material and construction techniques used in concrete construction and masonry work must meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, inspection, testing, maintenance and operations as prescribed in ANSI A10.9-1997, Concrete and Masonry Work Safety Requirements.
(2) Construction loads. You must not place any construction loads on a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received from a person who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the loads.
(3) Vertical loads. Vertical loads consist of a dead load plus an allowance for live load. The weight of formwork together with the weight of freshly placed concrete is dead load. The live load consists of the weight of workers, equipment, runways and impact, and must be computed in pounds per square foot (psf) of horizontal projection.
(4) Lateral loads. Braces and shores must be designed to resist all foreseeable lateral loads such as wind, cable tensions, inclined supports, impact of placement, and starting and stopping of equipment. The assumed value of load due to wind, impact of concrete, and equipment acting in any direction at each floor line must not be less than 100 pounds per lineal foot of floor edge or two percent of total dead load of the floor, whichever is greater. Wall forms must be designed for a minimum wind load of 10 psf, and bracing for wall forms should be designed for a lateral load of at least 100 pounds per lineal foot of wall, applied at the top. Walls of unusual height require special consideration.
(5) Special loads. Formwork must be designed for all special conditions of construction likely to occur, such as unsymmetrical placement of concrete, impact of machine-delivered concrete, uplift, and concentrated loads.
(6) You must check form supports and wedges during concrete placement to prevent distortion or failure.
(7) ((Reinforcing steel.))Site access and layout. The controlling contractor must ensure that the following is provided and maintained:
(a) Adequate access roads into and through the site for the safe delivery and movement of derricks, cranes, trucks, other necessary equipment, the material to be erected, and the means and methods for pedestrian and vehicular control.
This requirement does not apply to roads outside of the construction site.
(b) A firm, properly graded, and drained area, that is readily accessible to the work with adequate space for the safe assembly, rigging and storage of reinforcing and post-tensioning materials, and the safe operation of the reinforcing contractor's equipment.
(c) Adequate exterior platform for landing materials on the floors of multi-tiered buildings.
Where the design, structure, or space constraint precludes the installation of exterior platforms.
Where the design of the structure allows for the safe landing of materials without the exterior platform.
(d) Adequate protective system designed and constructed in accordance with Chapter 155 Part N Excavation, Trenching, and Shoring prior to the commencement of reinforcing operations in excavations and/or trenches.
(8) Written notifications prior to commencement of and immediately following reinforcing steel installation and concrete placement.
The controlling contractor must ensure that the reinforcing steel contractor on the project is provided with the following written notifications at the times indicated:
(a) Prior to commencement of reinforcing steel installation, that formwork and falsework has been inspected by a competent person and determined to meet the design requirements of the installing formwork/falsework contractor as indicated in (b) and (c) of this subsection and immediately after the installation of reinforcing steel and placement of the concrete.
(b) Prior to commencement of reinforcing steel installation, that the vertical formwork, elevated decks, and other working/walking surfaces are structurally stable and remain adequately braced, guyed, or supported to allow safe access of reinforcing workers, materials, and equipment.
(c) Prior to commencement of reinforcing steel installation, that the protective system for excavations and/or trenches has been inspected by a competent person.
(9) Sustainability requirements for vertical and horizontal columns, walls, and other reinforcing assemblies.
(a) Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, prefabricated reinforcing steel assemblies, and similar vertical structures must be guyed, braced, or supported to prevent collapse.
(b) Guys, braces, or supports.
(i) Systems for guying, bracing, or supports must be designed by a qualified person.
(ii) Guys, braces, and supports must be installed and removed as directed by a competent person.
(c) Reinforcing steel must not be used as a guy or brace.
(d) The controlling contractor must prohibit other construction processes below or near the erection of reinforcement assemblies until they are adequately supported and/or secured to prevent structural collapse.
(e) The reinforcing steel contractor must flag specific areas of the erection level for their work activity. The guying and/or bracing must be in place before the release of the reinforcing assembly from the hoist rigging.
(10) Impalement protection and custody.
(a) You must guard all protruding reinforcing steel, onto and into which employees could fall, to eliminate the hazard of impalement.
(b) Wire mesh rolls: You must secure wire mesh rolls at each end to prevent dangerous recoiling action.
(c) ((Guying: You must guy or support reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical structures to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse.
(8) Post-tensioning operations.
(a) You must not permit any employee (except those essential to the post-tensioning operations) to be behind the jack during tensioning operations.
(b) You must erect signs and barriers to limit employee access to the post-tensioning area during tensioning operations.
(c)))When protective covers are provided by the reinforcing steel contractor, the protective covers must remain in place after reinforcing steel activities have been completed to protect workers from other trades only if the controlling contractor or its authorized representative:
(i) Had directed the reinforcing steel contractor to leave the protective covers in place; and
(ii) Has inspected and accepted control and responsibility for the protective covers; or
(iii) Has placed control and responsibility for the protective covers on another contractor other than the reinforcing steel contractor.
The responsibilities of the controlling contractor related to accepting the control and custody of protective covers does not relieve the individual employer or subcontractor from protecting their employees from impalement hazards in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.
(11) Post-tensioning operations. The controlling contractor must:
(a) Provide written documentation to the employer performing the stressing operation that the minimum specified initial concrete compressive strength has been achieved prior to commencement of stressing operations.
(b) Ensure no employees (except those essential to the post-tensioning operations) are permitted to be behind the jack or the fixed end anchorage during tensioning operations. No employees are permitted above or alongside the full length of the tendons during tensioning operations.
(c) Ensure signs and barricades are erected to limit access into the stressing area only to personnel engaged in stressing or de-tensioning operations.
(d) Prohibit other construction trades from working in the barricaded area during stressing operations.
(e) Ensure there is an adequate safe work platform of a minimum of three feet measured from the end of the floor slab to the platform toeboard, such as an extension of the formwork, for stressing tendons, cutting tendon tails, and grouting where tensioning operations are above grade.
Where the adjoining structure or other structural space constraint precludes the installation of exterior platforms.
(i) The work platform required in (e) of this subsection must include guardrails and toeboards meeting the requirements of WAC 296-880-40005; and
(ii) The work platform required in (e) of this subsection must be kept clear of any debris or materials not related to the stressing or de-tensioning operation.
(f) Ensure stressing equipment is secured to prevent accidental displacement during operation.
(g) Ensure stressing equipment calibrations specifications are available on site. Prior to stressing, a competent person must verify the adequacy of the stressing equipment calibrations.
(h) Ensure a competent person inspects the stressing equipment for damage or defects before stressing operations begin, and periodically during the stressing operations. The use of stressing equipment must conform to the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations.
(i) Ensure methods are employed to ensure that supporting forms, falsework or shoring does not fall due to cambering of the concrete during the stressing operations. Dead loads and construction loads (including those due to stressing) must be considered in the design of the forms, falsework, and shoring.
(12) Hoisting of stressed members.
(a) You must handle stressed members at pick points specifically designated ((on the manufacturer's drawings))by the manufacturer.
(((d)))(b) You must lift stressed members with lifting devices recommended by the manufacturer or the engineer in charge.
(((e) You must not allow anyone))(c) No one shall be allowed under stressed members during lifting and erecting.
(((9)))(13)Working under loads.
(a) You must not permit any employee to work under concrete buckets while buckets are being elevated or lowered into position.
(b) To the extent practical, you must route elevated concrete buckets so that no employee, or the fewest number of employees, are exposed to the hazards associated with falling concrete buckets.
(((10)))(c) Reinforcing assemblies:
(i) Routes for suspended loads must be preplanned to ensure that no employee is required to work directly below a suspended load except for:
(A) Employees engaged in the placing or initial connection of the reinforcement assemblies; and
(B) Employees necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load.
(ii) When working under suspended loads, the following criteria must be met:
(A) Materials being hoisted must be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement;
(B) Hooks with self-closing safety latches or their equivalent must be used to prevent components from slipping out of the hook; and
(C) The controlling contractor must prohibit all activities under or in the hazard area of hoisting operations, including unloading and staging areas for reinforcing assemblies.
(14)Personal protective equipment.
(a) You must not permit any employee to apply a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose unless the employee is wearing protective head and face equipment.
(b) ((You must not permit any employee to place or tie reinforcing steel more than 6 feet (1.8 m) above any adjacent working surface unless the employee is protected by personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, or positioning device systems meeting the criteria of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.
(c) You must protect each employee on the face of formwork or reinforcing steel from falling 6 feet (1.8 m) or more to lower levels by personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, or positioning device systems meeting the criteria of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.))Fall protection must be provided at four feet or more in accordance with WAC 296-880-20005(6).
(15) Training requirements.
Employers must ensure that each employee who performs reinforcing steel and/or post-tensioning activities has been provided training by a qualified person in the following areas for the activities in which they are engaged:
(a) The hazards associated with reinforcing steel and post-tensioning activities; and
(b) The proper procedures and equipment to perform reinforcing steel and post-tensioning activities.
When the employer has reason to believe that any employee who has already been trained does not have the understanding or skill required by subsection (15) of this section, you must retrain each such employee. Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:
(a) Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or
(b) Changes in the types of systems or equipment to be used render previous training obsolete; or
(c) Inadequacies in an employee's knowledge of procedures or use of equipment indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 16-09-085, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16)
WAC 296-155-682Requirements for equipment and tools.
(1) Bulk cement storage. Bulk storage bins, containers, and silos must be equipped with the following:
(a) Conical or tapered bottoms; and
(b) Mechanical or pneumatic means of starting the flow of material.
(2) You must not permit any employee to enter storage facilities unless the ejection system has been shut down and locked out in accordance with WAC 296-155-429.
(3) You must use harnesses, lanyards, lifelines or droplines, independently attached or attended, as prescribed in chapter ((296-155 WAC, Part C-1, Fall protection requirements for construction))296-880 WAC, Unified fall protection.
(4) Concrete mixers. Concrete mixers with one cubic yard (.8 m3) or larger loading skips must be equipped with the following:
(a) A mechanical device to clear the skip of materials; and
(b) Guardrails installed on each side of the skip.
(5) Power concrete trowels. Powered and rotating type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided must be equipped with a control switch that will automatically shut off the power whenever the hands of the operator are removed from the equipment handles.
(6) Concrete buggies. Concrete buggy handles must not extend beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy.
Installation of knuckle guards on buggy handles is recommended.
(a) Runways must be constructed to carry the maximum contemplated load with a safety factor of 4, have a smooth running surface, and be of sufficient width for two buggies to pass. Single runs to have a minimum width of 42 inches with turnouts. Runways to have standard railings. Where motor driven concrete buggies are used, a minimum 4-inches by 4-inches wheel guard must be securely fastened to outside edge of runways.
(b) All concrete buggy runways which are 12 inches or more above a work surface or floor, or ramps with more than 4 percent incline are considered "elevated" runways.
Small jobs utilizing only one concrete buggy, or larger jobs utilizing a "one-way traffic pattern" may be exempt from the requirements for "turnouts" or for "sufficient width for two buggies to pass."
Runways less than 12 inches above the floor or ground which are utilized by hard-powered buggies only, may be exempt from the requirements for guardrails and wheelguards.
(8) Concrete pumps and placing booms.
Concrete delivery hose. A flexible concrete delivery hose which has two end couplings.
Concrete pump. A construction machine that pumps concrete.
Controls. The devices used to operate a machine.
Delivery systems. The pipe, hoses and components, through which the concrete is pumped.
Grooved end. A pipe clamp pipe connection where a groove is machined or rolled directly into the outside of the pipe wall (for example: Victualic).
Material pressure. The pressure exerted on the concrete inside the delivery system.
Placing boom and placing unit. A manual or power driven, slewable working device which:
• Consists of one or more extendable or folding parts for supporting the concrete delivery system, and directs the discharge into the desired location; and
• May be mounted on trucks, trailers, or special vehicles.
Qualified person. Someone who:
• Possesses a recognized degree or certificate of professional standing; or
• Has extensive knowledge, training, and experience; or
• Successfully demonstrated the ability to resolve problems relating to the work.
Restraining devices. A sling, cable, or equivalent device used to minimize excess movement of a delivery system in case of separation.
Whip hoses. A suspended hose that has only one coupling and is used to direct the delivery of concrete.
(b) Equipment requirements.
(i) Equipment identification tag.
You must ensure the following identification is furnished if originally identified by the manufacturer and on all pumps manufactured after January 1, 1998:
• The manufacturer's name;
• The year of manufacture;
• The model and serial number;
• The maximum material pressure;
• The maximum allowable pressure in the hydraulic system; and
• The maximum weight per foot of delivery system including concrete.
(ii) Manufacturer's manual.
You must have the manufacturer's operation/safety manual or equivalent available for each concrete pump or placing boom.
(iii) Unsafe condition of equipment.
If during an equipment inspection a condition is revealed that might endanger workers, you must not return the equipment to service until the condition is corrected.
Controls must have their function clearly marked.
(v) Hydraulic systems.
(A) Concrete pumps and placing booms hydraulic systems must have pressure relief valves to prevent cylinder and boom damage.
(B) Hydraulic systems must have hydraulic holding valves if hose or coupling failure could result in uncontrolled vertical movement.
In the event of failure of a structural member, overloading, or contact with energized electric power lines and before return to service, the equipment must be certified safe by:
• The manufacturer; or
• An agent of the manufacturer; or
• A professional engineer.
(vii) Marking weight. A permanent, legible notice stating the total weight of the unit must be marked on:
• Trailer or skid mounted concrete pumps;
• Placing booms; and
• All major detachable components over 500 pounds.
(viii) Lifting a pump.
A concrete pump must be lifted using the lift points specified by the manufacturer or a professional engineer.
(ix) Emergency shutoff.
A concrete pump must have a clearly labeled emergency stop switch that stops the pumping action.
(x) Inlet and outlet guarding.
(A) The waterbox must have a fixed guard to prevent unintentional access to the moving parts.
(B) The agitator must be guarded with a point of operation guard in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, and the guard must be:
• Hinged or bolted in place;
• At least 3 inches distance from the agitator;
• Be capable of supporting a load of 250 pounds.
(C) A person must not stand on the guard when the pump or agitator is running.
(A) You must use outriggers in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.
(B) Concrete pump trucks manufactured after January 1, 1998, must have outriggers or jacks permanently marked to indicate the maximum loading they transmit to the ground.
(xii) Load on a placing boom.
(A) The manufacturer's or a licensed, registered, structural engineer's specifications for the placing boom must not be exceeded by:
• The weight of the load;
• The length and diameter of suspended hose;
• The diameter and weight of mounted pipe.
(B) A concrete placing boom must not be used to drag hoses or lift other loads.
(C) All engineering calculations regarding modifications must be:
• Recorded; and
• Available upon request.
(xiii) Pipe diameter thickness. The pipe wall thickness must be measured in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction, and:
• Be sufficient to maintain a burst pressure greater than the maximum pressure the pump can produce;
• The pipe sections must be replaced when measurements indicate wall thickness has been reduced to the limits specified by the manufacturer.
(xiv) Pipe clamps.
(A) You must not pump concrete through a delivery system with grooved ends, such as those for Victualic-type couplers.
(B) Pipe clamps must have a pressure rating at least equal to the pump pressure rating.
(C) Pipe clamps contact surfaces must be free of concrete and other foreign matter.
(D) If quick connect clamps are used, you must pin or secure them to keep them from opening when used in a vertical application.
(xv) Delivery pipe.
(A) Delivery pipe between the concrete pump and the placing system must be supported and anchored to prevent movement and excessive loading on clamps.
(B) Double ended hoses must not be used as whip hoses.
(C) Attachments must not be placed on whip hoses (i.e., "S" hooks, valves, etc.).
Table 1, Nonmandatory
Recommended maximum yards per hour through hose
Hose Length (12' and less) Max. yards per hour
Hose Length (12' and longer) Max. yards per hour
See manufacturer specs
See manufacturer specs
• The above figures are based on a minimum of a 4" slump and a 5 sack mix.
• Variables in mix design can have an effect on these ratings.
• Aggregate should not exceed 1/3 the diameter of the delivery system.
(xvi) Restraining. A restraining device must:
• Be used on attachments suspended from the boom tips; and
• Have a load rating not less than 1/5 of its ultimate breaking strength.
(xvii) Equipment inspection.
(A) An inspection must be conducted annually for the first 5 years and semiannually thereafter and must include the following:
• Nondestructive testing of all sections of the boom by a method capable of ensuring the structural integrity of the boom;
• Be conducted by a qualified person or by a private agency.
(B) The inspection report must be documented and a copy maintained by the employer and in each unit inspected. It must contain the following:
• The identification, including the serial numbers and manufacturer's name, of the components and parts inspected and tested;
• A description of the test methods and results;
• The names and qualifications of the people performing the inspection;
• A listing of necessary repairs; and
• The signature of the manufacturer, an agent of the manufacturer, or a qualified person.
See WAC 296-155-628 (8)(d) for the inspection worksheet criteria.
(xviii) Equipment repair.
(A) Replacement parts must meet or exceed the original manufacturer's specifications or be certified by a registered professional structural engineer.
(B) A properly certified welder must perform any welding on the boom, outrigger, or structural component.
(xix) Compressed air cleaning of the piping system. To clean the piping system:
(A) The pipe system must be securely anchored before it is cleaned out.
(B) The flexible discharge hose must be removed.
(C) Workers not essential to the cleaning process must leave the vicinity.
(D) The compressed air system must have a shutoff valve.
(E) Blow out caps must have a bleeder valve to relieve air pressure.
(F) A trap basket or containment device (i.e., concrete truck, concrete bucket) must be available and secured to receive the clean out device.
(G) Delivery pipes must be depressurized before clamps and fittings are released.
(c) Qualification and training requirements.
(i) Operator trainee—Qualification requirements. To be qualified to become a concrete pump operator, the trainee must meet the following requirements unless it can be shown that failure to meet the requirements will not affect the operation of the concrete pump boom.
(A) Vision requirements:
• At least 20/30 Snellen in one eye and 20/50 in the other. Corrective lenses may be used to fulfill this requirement;
• Ability to distinguish colors, regardless of position, if color differentiation is required;
• Normal depth perception and field of vision.
(B) Hearing requirements: Hearing adequate to meet operational demands. Corrective devices may be used to fulfill this requirement.
(ii) Operator trainee—Training requirements. Operator trainee training requirements include, but are not limited to, the following:
(A) Demonstrated their ability to read and comprehend the pump manufacturer's operation and safety manual.
(B) Be of legal age to perform the duties required.
(C) Received documented classroom training and testing (as applicable) on these recommended subjects:
• Driving, operating, cleaning and maintaining concrete pumps, placing booms, and related equipment;
• Jib/boom extensions;
• Boom length/angle;
• Manufacturer's variances;
• Range diagram, stability, tipping axis; and
• Structural/tipping determinations.
(D) Maintain and have available upon request a copy of all training materials and a record of training.
(E) Satisfactorily completed a written examination for the concrete pump boom for which they are becoming qualified. It will cover:
• Operational characteristics and limitations; and
(iii) Operator—Qualification requirements. Operators will be considered qualified when they have:
(A) Completed the operator trainee requirements listed in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection.
(B) Completed a program of training conducted by a qualified person, including practical experience under the direct supervision of a qualified person.
(C) Passed a practical operating examination of their ability to operate a specific model and type of equipment. Possess the knowledge and the ability to implement emergency procedures.
(D) Possess the knowledge regarding the restart procedure after emergency stop has been activated.
(E) Possess the proper class of driver's license to drive the concrete pump truck.
(F) Demonstrate the ability to comprehend and interpret all labels, safety decals, operator's manuals, and other information required to safely operate the concrete pump.
(G) Be familiar with the applicable safety requirements.
(H) Understand the responsibility for equipment maintenance.
(d) Concrete pump inspection worksheet criteria. Concrete pump trucks will be inspected using the following criteria: The manufacturer's required inspection criteria will be followed in all instances.
DOT requirements for inspections - Ref. 49.C.F.R.396.11, Driver Vehicle Inspections and 396.13, Driver Pre-Trip Inspections; and WAC 296-155-610.
(i) Hydraulic systems.
(A) Oil level;
(D) Holding valves;
(E) Pressure settings;
(F) Hydraulic cylinders;
(G) Ensure that the emergency stop system is functioning properly;
(H) All controls clearly marked.
(A) All systems functioning properly.
(B) All remote control functions are operating properly. Ensure that the emergency stop system is functioning properly.
(C) All controls clearly marked.
(A) Visual inspection for cracks, corrosion, and deformations of the concrete pump with placing boom structure, and all load carrying components such as outriggers, cross frames, torsion box beams, and delivery line support structures that may lead to nondestructive testing.
(B) Visual examination of all links, pivots, pins, and bolts.
(C) Vertical and horizontal movement at the turret, turntable, rotation gear lash, bearing tolerances, not to exceed manufacturer's specifications.
(iv) Piping systems.
(A) Wall thickness must not exceed original manufacturer's specifications.
(B) Mounting hardware for attaching delivery system.
(C) Correct clamps and safety pins.
(v) Safety decals.
All safety decals must be in place as required by the manufacturer.
(9) Concrete buckets.
(a) Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatic gates must have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed to prevent premature or accidental dumping.
(b) Concrete buckets must be designed to prevent concrete from hanging up on top and the sides.
(c) Riding of concrete buckets for any purpose is prohibited, and you must keep vibrator crews out from under concrete buckets suspended from cranes or cableways.
(d) When discharging on a slope, you must block the wheels of ready-mix trucks and set the brakes to prevent movement.
(10) Tremies. You must secure sections of tremies and similar concrete conveyances with wire rope (or equivalent materials in addition to the regular couplings or connections).
(11) Bull floats. Bull float handles, used where they might contact energized electrical conductors, must be constructed of nonconductive material or insulated with a nonconductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the equivalent protection of a handle constructed of nonconductive material.
(12) Masonry saws must be constructed, guarded, and operated in accordance with WAC 296-155-367 (1) through (4).
(13) Lockout/tagout procedures. You must not permit any employee to perform maintenance or repair activity on equipment (such as compressors, mixers, screens, or pumps used for concrete and masonry construction activities) where the inadvertent operation of the equipment could occur and cause injury, unless all potentially hazardous energy sources have been locked out and tagged in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part I.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 16-09-085, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16)
WAC 296-155-689Placing and removal of forms.
(1) When moved or raised by crane, cableway, A-frame, or similar mechanical device, forms must be securely attached to slings having a minimum safety factor of 5. Use of No. 9 tie wire, fiber rope, and similar makeshift lashing is prohibited.
(2) You must use taglines in moving panels or other large sections of forms by crane or hoist.
(3) All hoisting equipment, including hoisting cable used to raise and move forms must have a minimum safety factor incorporated in the manufacturer's design, and the manufacturer's recommended loading must not be exceeded. Field-fabricated or shop-fabricated hoisting equipment must be designed or approved by a registered professional engineer, incorporating a minimum safety factor of 5 in its design. Panels and built-up form sections must be equipped with metal hoisting brackets for attachment of slings.
(4) Forms intended for use where there is a free fall of over 10 feet must be equipped with adequate scaffolding and guardrails, or employees working on the forms must be protected from falls in accordance with chapter ((296-155 WAC, Part C-1))296-880 WAC during forming and stripping operations.
(5) You must not release vertical forms being raised or removed in sections until adequately braced or secured. You must not release overhead forms until adequately braced or secured.
(6) You must protect workers or others at lower levels from falling materials. You must erect appropriate warning signs along walkways.
(7) You must not remove forms until the concrete is cured. The concrete must be adequately set in order to permit safe removal of the forms, shoring, and bracing. You must adhere to engineer's specifications and local building codes in determining the length of time forms should remain in place following concrete placement. In addition, you must perform tests on field-cured concrete specimens in order to insure that concrete has obtained sufficient strength to safely support the load prior to removal of forms.