WSR 20-16-142
EXPEDITED RULES
DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed August 4, 2020, 12:15 p.m.]
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: eRules Phase 10: Chapter 296-307 WAC, Safety standards for agriculture, Parts B through H, J through N, P through Y-10.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: This rule making is part of the division of occupational safety and health (DOSH) eRules project. This rule making will not add or change any requirements; the purpose is to provide consistency in formatting, design and accessibility to the rules via mobile electronic devices.
This rule making will accomplish the following:
Consistent format for all DOSH rules.
Easy to access rules for smart phone and tablet users.
Easy navigation in PDF files provided through bookmarks in the rules.
Easier referencing by replacing bullets and dashes with numbers and letters.
Enhanced rule update efficiency for customers through electronic postings.
On March 18, 2020, the department withdrew the CR-102 (WSR 20-05-074) for eRules Phase 10 originally filed on February 18, 2020, canceling the public hearing set for March 24, 2020. On June 29, 2020, the department also withdrew the CR-101 (WSR 17-02-065) for eRules Phase 10 filed on January 3, 2017. This was due to the ongoing public health emergency caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, which has resulted in limited and restricted in-person gatherings, and the department of labor and industries (L&I) limiting the occurrence of public hearings for rule making.
Amended Sections:
WAC 296-307-030 (Part B) through 296-307-10025 (Part H), 296-307-145 (Part J) through 296-307-24036 (Part N); and 296-307-280 (Part P) through 296-307-70480 (Part Y-10).
Change "you" to "the employer" or "the operator" where applicable.
Change "you have" to "the employer has" where applicable.
Change bullets and other symbols to letters or numbers where applicable.
Change "shall" to "must" where applicable.
Remove numbers and quotation marks from all defined words.
Remove words/phrases such as "means," "as defined" or "is an" from all applicable definitions and replace it with a period, making all definitions complete sentences.
Website addresses and links corrected, where needed.
Update titles of WAC sections to remove question format.
WAC 296-307-039 First-aid rule summary.
Update titles of WAC sections embedded in the WAC to agree with updated titles noted.
WAC 296-307-03905 Make sure that first-aid trained personnel are available to provide quick and effective first aid.
This WAC has language from 29 C.F.R. 1910.151(b) embedded. Update the language to agree with the C.F.R. as currently written.
WAC 296-307-05505 How must orchard ladders be used?
Rearrange order of items. Prohibited behaviors are now listed together, and at the beginning of the section. Previously, prohibited behaviors were numbered 1 and 4, and are now 1 and 2.
WAC 296-307-085 When must ROPS be provided for material handling equipment?
The WAC has language from OSHA 1928.52 C.F.R. embedded. Update the language to agree with the C.F.R. as currently written.
WAC 296-307-18010 How must constant-running drives be guarded?
Definition of "constant-running drives" moved from end of section to beginning for better understanding.
WAC 296-307-24012 How must the potable water supply be maintained?
Rearrange order of items.
Prohibited behavior is now listed at the beginning of the section. Previously, prohibited behavior was the last item in the list.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: When the agency updated its website, DOSH rules in HTML were broken and DOSH began forwarding rule users to the office of the code reviser website, causing more confusion among customers. These amendments will resolve stakeholder issues that have caused confusion for rule users by bringing one clear and consistent format to all of our rules.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Name of Proponent: L&I, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Chris Miller, Tumwater, Washington, 360-902-5516; Implementation and Enforcement: Anne Soiza, Tumwater, Washington, 360-902-5090.
This notice meets the following criteria to use the expedited adoption process for these rules:
Corrects typographical errors, make address or name changes, or clarify language of a rule without changing its effect.
Explanation of the Reason the Agency Believes the Expedited Rule-Making Process is Appropriate: No requirements are being changed during this rule making, only clarifying language and updating errors, which fits within the parameters of RCW 34.05.353 Expedited rule making.
NOTICE
THIS RULE IS BEING PROPOSED UNDER AN EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS THAT WILL ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR THE AGENCY TO HOLD PUBLIC HEARINGS, PREPARE A SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT, OR PROVIDE RESPONSES TO THE CRITERIA FOR A SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATIVE RULE. IF YOU OBJECT TO THIS USE OF THE EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS, YOU MUST EXPRESS YOUR OBJECTIONS IN WRITING AND THEY MUST BE SENT TO Chris Miller, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44610, Olympia, WA 98504-4610, phone 360-902-5516, fax 360-902-5619, email Christopher.miller@Lni.wa.gov, AND RECEIVED BY October 5, 2020.
August 4, 2020
Joel Sacks
Director
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-07-098, filed 3/18/09, effective 5/1/09)
WAC 296-307-030((What are the))Required elements of an accident prevention program((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must instruct all employees in safe working practices at the beginning of employment. ((Your))Instruction must be tailored to the types of hazards to which employees are exposed.
(2) ((You))The employer must develop a written accident prevention program tailored to the needs of ((your))the employer's agricultural operation and to the types of hazards involved.
(3) ((Your))The employer's accident prevention program must contain at least the following elements:
(a) How, when, and where to report injuries and illnesses, and the location of first-aid facilities.
(b) How to report unsafe conditions and practices.
(c) The use and care of personal protective equipment.
(d) What to do in emergencies. See WAC 296-307-35015 for emergency action plan requirements.
(e) Identification of hazardous chemicals or materials and the instruction for their safe use.
(f) An on-the-job review of the practices necessary to perform job assignments in a safe and healthful manner.
(4) At least once a month, ((you))the employer must conduct a walk-around safety inspection of active job sites, the materials and equipment involved, and operating procedures. A representative chosen by employees must be invited and allowed to accompany ((you))the employer.
Note:
Additional requirements in Part G-1, WAC 296-307-097, Outdoor heat exposure, may apply. Employers may address their outdoor heat exposure safety program either in their written accident prevention program (APP) or as a stand-alone written document. See Part G-1.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-033Requirements for how often ((must)) safety meetings must be held((?)).
(1) Foreman-crew safety meetings:
(a) Must be held at least monthly; or
(b) Whenever there are significant changes in job assignments.
(c) These meetings must be tailored to the particular operation or activity occurring at the time.
(2) The meeting minutes must document subjects discussed and attendance.
(3) Short-term operations that last less than one month, such as harvesting, do not require foreman-crew safety meetings but only require initial safety orientation for the operations.
(4) ((You))The employer must maintain copies of the minutes of each foreman-crew safety meeting at the location where the majority of employees report to work each day.
(5) ((You))The employer must retain minutes of foreman-crew safety meetings for one year and be able to show us copies if we ask to see them.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-036((What))Items to go on the safety bulletin board((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must provide a bulletin board or posting area large enough to display the required safety and health poster, "Job Safety and Health Protection" (F416-081-000), and other safety education material.
(2) The bulletin board must be readily visible in a place where employees gather during some part of the work day. (For example, at the entrance to a field, a parking area, or in a farm building.)
(3) If for any reason any employee is unable to read the notices posted on the bulletin board, ((you))the employer must ensure that the message of the required poster explaining employee rights is communicated to the employee in terms he or she understands. This same requirement applies to variance applications, denials or grants, and to any other notice affecting the employee's rights under WISHA.
(4) Posting must be in the employees' language.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-01-166, filed 12/21/04, effective 4/2/05)
WAC 296-307-039First-aid rule summary.
((Your))Employer's responsibility: Make sure first-aid trained personnel are available to provide quick and effective first aid.
((You must:
Make sure that first-aid trained personnel are available to provide quick and effective first aid.
WAC 296-307-03905.
Make sure appropriate first-aid supplies are readily available.
WAC 296-307-03920.))
The employer must meet the requirements…
in this section:
Make sure that first-aid trained personnel are available to provide quick and effective first aid.
WAC 296-307-03905
Make sure appropriate first-aid supplies are readily available.
WAC 296-307-03920
Notes:
(())1. Employers who require their employees to provide first aid must comply with the bloodborne pathogen rule, chapter 296-823 WAC .
 
(())2. Additional requirements relating to first aid are also located in the following sections:
 
((-))a. WAC 296-307-07013(12), ((What))Rules that apply to vehicles used to transport employees((?)).
 
((-))b. WAC 296-307-16175, First-aid ((requirements for operators of temporary worker housing))and safety.
 
((-))c. WAC 296-307-16380, First-aid requirements for operators of cherry harvest camps.
Definitions:
 
First aid:
The extent of treatment ((you))the employer would expect from a person trained in basic first aid, using supplies from a first-aid kit.
Emergency medical service:
Medical treatment and care given at the scene of any medical emergency or while transporting any victim to a medical facility.
((You))The employer can get copies of these rules by calling 1-800-4BE SAFE (1-800-423-7233), or by going to http://www.lni.wa.gov.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-07-160, filed 3/23/04, effective 5/1/04)
WAC 296-307-03905Make sure that first-aid trained personnel are available to provide quick and effective first aid.
((You must:))
The employer must comply with the first-aid training requirements of 29 C.F.R. 1910.151(b) which states:
"In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, or hospital in near proximity to the workplace which is used for the treatment of all injured employees, a person or persons shall be adequately trained to render first aid. Adequate first-aid supplies shall be readily available."
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-01-166, filed 12/21/04, effective 4/2/05)
WAC 296-307-03920Make sure appropriate first-aid supplies are readily available.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must make sure first-aid supplies are readily available. (See first-aid kit table.)
(())(2) The employer must make sure first-aid supplies ((at your))in workplace are appropriate to:
((- Your))(a) The employer's occupational setting.
(())(b) The response time of ((your))the employer's emergency medical services.
First-Aid Kit Table
Number of employees normally assigned to worksite
Minimum first-aid supplies required at worksite
1 - 15 Employees
1 First-aid kit
16 - 30 Employees
2 First-aid kits
31 - 50 Employees
3 First-aid kits
Notes:
(())1. First-aid kits from ((your))a local retailer or safety supplier should be adequate for most nonindustrial employers.
 
(())2. The following is a list of suggested items for ((your))the first-aid kit:
 
(())a. 1 absorbent compress, 4 x 8 inches.
 
(())b. 16 adhesive bandages, 1 x 3 inches.
 
(())c. 1 adhesive tape, 5 yards long.
 
(())d. 10 antiseptic single-use packages, 0.5 g application.
 
(())e. 6 burn treatment single-use packages, 0.5 g application.
 
(())f. 1 eye covering (for two eyes).
 
(())g. 1 eye wash, 1 fluid ounce.
 
(())h. 4 sterile pads, 3 x 3 inches.
 
(())i. 2 pair of medical exam gloves.
 
(())j. 1 triangular bandage, 39 x 39 x 55 inches.
 
3. Optional first-aid kit contents:
 
(())a. Bandage compresses, 2 x 2 inches, 3 x 3 inches and 5 x 5 inches.
 
(())b. Self-activating cold packs, 4 x 5 inches.
 
(())c. Roller bandages, 6 yards long.
 
(())d. Mouth-to-mouth barrier for CPR.
 
(())4. Kits should be checked at least weekly to ensure adequate number of needed items are available.
 
(())5. Kits may be carried in any motor vehicle that is used near the crew.
((You must:
))(3) The employer must make sure that first-aid supplies are:
((-))(a) Easily accessible to all ((your)) employees.
((-))(b) Stored in containers that protect them from damage, deterioration, or contamination. Containers must be clearly marked, not locked, and may be sealed.
((-))(c) Able to be moved to the location of an injured or acutely ill worker.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-10-068, filed 5/6/03, effective 8/1/03)
WAC 296-307-03930Make sure emergency washing facilities are functional and readily accessible.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must provide an emergency shower:
(())(a) When there is potential for major portions of an employee's body to contact corrosives, strong irritants, or toxic chemicals.
(())(b) That delivers water to cascade over the user's entire body at a minimum rate of 20 gallons (75 liters) per minute for fifteen minutes or more.
(())(2) The employer must provide an emergency eyewash:
(())(a) When there is potential for an employee's eyes to be exposed to corrosives, strong irritants, or toxic chemicals.
(())(b) That irrigates and flushes both eyes simultaneously while the user holds their eyes open.
(())(c) With an on-off valve that activates in one second or less and remains on without user assistance until intentionally turned off.
(())(d) That delivers at least 0.4 gallons (1.5 liters) of water per minute for fifteen minutes or more.
Note:
Chemicals that require emergency washing facilities:
 
((• You))1. The employer can determine whether chemicals in ((your))the workplace require emergency washing facilities by looking at the material safety data sheet (MSDS) or similar documents. The MSDS contains information about first-aid requirements and emergency flushing of skin or eyes.
 
(())2. For chemicals developed in the workplace, the following resources provide information about first-aid requirements:
 
(())a. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards;
 
((.))b. *DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140;
 
((.*http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/ggdstart.html))c. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg;
 
(())d. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
((You must:
))(3) The employer must make sure emergency washing facilities:
(())(a) Are located so that it takes no more than ten seconds to reach;
(())(b) Are kept free of obstacles blocking their use;
(())(c) Function correctly; and
(())(d) Provide the quality and quantity of water that is satisfactory for emergency washing purposes.
Notes:
(())1. If water in emergency washing facilities is allowed to freeze, they will not function correctly. Precautions need to be taken to prevent this from happening.
 
(())2. The travel distance to an emergency washing facility should be no more than fifty feet (15.25 meters).
 
(())3. For further information on the design, installation, and maintenance of emergency washing facilities, see American National Standards Institute (ANSI) publication Z358.1 - 1998, Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment. Emergency washing facilities that are designed to meet ANSI Z358.1 - 1998 also meet the requirements of this standard. The ANSI standard can be obtained from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018.
Reference:
(()) Training in the location and use of ((your))the employer's emergency washing facilities is required under the employer chemical hazard communication rule, WAC 296-307-550, and the accident prevention program rule, WAC 296-307-030.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-10-068, filed 5/6/03, effective 8/1/03)
WAC 296-307-03935Inspect and activate ((your)) emergency washing facilities.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must make sure all plumbed emergency washing facilities are inspected once a year to make sure they function correctly.
Note:
Inspections should include:
 
(())1. Examination of the piping.
 
(())2. Making sure that water is available at the appropriate temperature and quality.
 
(())3. Activation to check that the valves and other hardware work properly.
 
(())4. Checking the water flow rate.
((You must:
))(2) The employer must make sure plumbed emergency eyewashes and hand-held drench hoses are activated weekly to check the proper functioning of the valves, hardware, and availability of water.
(())(3) The employer must make sure all self-contained eyewash equipment and personal eyewash units are inspected and maintained according to manufacturer instructions.
(())(a) Inspections to check proper operation must be done once a year.
(())(b) Sealed personal eyewashes must be replaced after the manufacturer's expiration date.
Note:
Most manufacturers recommend replacing fluid in open self-contained eyewashes every six months. The period for sealed containers is typically two years.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-10-068, filed 5/6/03, effective 8/1/03)
WAC 296-307-03940Make sure supplemental flushing equipment provides sufficient water.
Note:
Supplemental flushing equipment cannot be used in place of required emergency showers or eyewashes.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must make sure hand-held drench hoses deliver at least 3.0 gallons (11.4 liters) of water per minute for fifteen minutes or more.
Note:
Why use a drench hose? A drench hose is useful when:
 
(())1. The spill is small and does not require an emergency shower.
 
(())2. Used with a shower for local rinsing, particularly on the lower extremities.
((You must:
))(2) The employer must make sure personal eyewash equipment delivers only clean water or other medically approved eye flushing solutions.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-10-068, filed 5/6/03, effective 8/1/03)
WAC 296-307-03945Definitions.
Corrosive(as used in first aid, WAC 296-307-039((, is))). A substance that causes destruction of living tissue by chemical action, including acids with a pH of 2.5 or below or caustics with a pH of 11.0 or above.
Emergency washing facilities. Emergency washing facilities are emergency showers, eyewashes, eye/face washes, hand-held drench hoses, or other similar units.
Hand-held drench hoses. Hand-held drench hoses are single-headed emergency washing devices connected to a flexible hose that can be used to irrigate and flush the face or other body parts.
Personal eyewash units. Personal eyewash units are portable, supplementary units that support plumbed units or self-contained units, or both, by delivering immediate flushing for less than fifteen minutes.
Strong irritant(as used in first aid, WAC 296-307-039((, is))). A chemical that is not corrosive, but causes a strong, temporary inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.
Toxic chemical(as used in first aid, WAC 296-307-039((, is))). A chemical that produces serious injury or illness when absorbed through any body surface.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-045((What are the))Requirements ((of the))for safe place standard((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must furnish to each employee a place of employment free from recognized controllable hazards likely to cause serious injury or death.
(2) ((You))The employer must furnish and require employees to use any safety devices and safeguards that are needed to control recognized hazards. All agricultural methods, operations, and processes must be designed to promote the safety and health of employees.
(3) ((You))The employer must not require an employee to engage in any duty or enter any place that is not safe.
(4) The following are prohibited:
(a) Removing, displacing, damaging, destroying or carrying off any safety device, safeguard, notice or warning intended for use in any place of employment.
(b) Interfering in any way with the use of any safety device, method or process adopted for the protection of any employee.
(5) Intoxicating beverages or narcotics in or around worksites.
Employees under the influence of alcohol or narcotics are prohibited from the worksite.
Exception:
This rule does not apply to anyone taking prescription drugs and/or narcotics as directed by a physician providing such use does not endanger the employee or others.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-050((What))Requirements that apply to hand tools((?)).
(1) Using hoes with handles less than four feet long or any hand tool used for weeding or thinning crops in a stooped position, is prohibited.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that hand tools are in good condition. Using defective hand tools is prohibited.
(3) ((You))The employer must ensure that hand tools are stored safely when not in use.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-05501((How must ladders be cared for and maintained?))Ladder care and maintenance.
(1) Ladders must be checked for defects before use, and thoroughly inspected periodically. Ladders ((shall))must be inspected immediately in the following situations:
(a) If a ladder tips over, inspect for side rails dents or bends, or excessively dented rungs; check all rung-to-side-rail connections; check hardware connections; check rivets for shear.
(b) If a ladder is exposed to excessive heat, inspect visually for damage and test for deflection and strength characteristics. If ((you are))the employer is unsure about the ladder's condition, seek help from the manufacturer.
(2) Ladders must be maintained in good condition at all times. Joints between steps and side rails must be tight. All hardware and fittings must be securely attached, and the moveable parts must operate freely without binding or with too much play.
(3) Defective ladders must be withdrawn from service for repair or destruction and tagged as "Dangerous—Do not use."
(4) Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equipment must not be used; improvised repairs must not be made.
(5) Ladders must be handled with care. Avoid unnecessary dropping, jarring, or misuse.
(6) Ladder storage must:
(a) Protect the ladder when not in use;
(b) Provide sufficient support to prevent excessive sagging;
(c) Provide ease of access or inspection; and
(d) Prevent danger of accidents when withdrawing a ladder for use.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-05503((How must an employer instruct employees to use ladders?))Instructing employees on the use of ladders.
(1) At the beginning of employment, ((you))the employer must provide employees with orientation and training on the proper use of ladders, including how to set a ladder and properly dismount with a full load.
(2) To prevent ladder upset, ((you))the employer must instruct employees to avoid overreaching while standing on the ladder.
(3) ((You))The employer must instruct employees that before climbing ladders; rungs, shoes, and boots must be clean of substances that would make them hazardous.
(4) Employees must not climb up or down ladders while carrying tools or materials that interfere with the free use of both hands.
(5) Ladders must not be placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.
(6) Stepladders must not be used as single ladders.
(7) When working from a ladder over twenty-five feet from the ground or floor, the ladder must be secured at both top and bottom. When work on a ladder over twenty-five feet from the ground or floor requires the use of both hands, a safety belt must be worn and the safety lanyard secured to the ladder.
(8) Portable ladders must be placed so that the side rails have a secure footing. The top rest for portable rung and cleat ladders must be reasonably rigid and strong enough to support the applied load. The top of the ladder must be placed with the two rails supported, unless equipped with a single support attachment. Such an attachment should be substantial and large enough to support the ladder under load.
(9) Ladders carried on vehicles should be adequately supported to avoid sagging and securely fastened in position to minimize chafing and the effects of road shocks.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-05505((How must))Use of orchard ladders ((be used?)).
(1) Orchard ladders longer than sixteen feet are prohibited.
(2) Standing on the top two steps of the orchard ladder is prohibited.
(3) Employers must instruct employees to not stand on the top two steps (the top cap and the next step down) of orchard ladders.
(((3)))(4) Employers must instruct employees to not step off the ladder onto branches of trees except onto the main crotch.
(((4) Standing on the top two steps of the orchard ladder is prohibited.))
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-05507((What other))Ladder requirements ((apply to ladders?)).
(1) Ladders made by fastening cleats across a single rail are prohibited.
(2) Wood ladders, when not in use, should be stored where they will not be exposed to the elements, but where there is good ventilation. They must be stored away from radiators, stoves, steam pipes, or other excessive heat or dampness.
(3) Wooden ladders should be kept coated with a suitable protective material. Painted ladders are acceptable if the ladders are carefully inspected prior to painting by competent and experienced inspectors acting for, and responsible to, the purchaser, and if the ladders are not for resale.
(4) A ladder must have feet that are appropriate for the surface on which it will be used.
For example: A ladder used on a slippery surface must have steel points or other nonslip material on its feet.
(5) Ladders must not be placed in front of doors opening toward the ladder unless the door is blocked open, locked, or guarded.
(6) Ladder safety devices may be used on tower, water tank and chimney ladders over twenty feet long in place of cage protection. No landing platform is required in these cases. All ladder safety devices such as lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments must meet the design requirements of the ladders that they serve.
(7) See chapter 296-307 WAC Part K for requirements related to working near overhead lines.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-060((What))Requirements that apply to job-made ladders((?)).
((A "))Job-made ladder((" is)). A ladder that ((you or your))the employer or employees build.
Job-made ladders must meet the following requirements:
(1) All cleats must be made of one-by-four-inch nominal lumber, or stronger.
(2) Cleats must be inset into the edges of side rails to a depth of one-half inch, or filler blocks must be used on the rails between the cleats.
(3) Each cleat must be fastened to each rail with three 8d common wire nails or other fasteners of equal strength.
(4) Cleats must be uniformly spaced approximately 12 inches from the top of one cleat to the top of the next.
(5) Side rails must be continuous, unless splices develop the full strength of a continuous rail of equal length.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-01-166, filed 12/21/04, effective 4/2/05)
WAC 296-307-061((What))Requirements that apply to working around bins, bunkers, hoppers, tanks, pits, and trenches((?)).
(1) Employees must be prohibited from entering any bin, bunker, hopper, or similar area when loose materials (such as chips, sand, grain, gravel, sawdust, etc.) may collapse, unless the employee wears a safety belt with a lifeline attached and is attended by a helper.
Note:
Silage pits are exempt from this section.
Reference:
For requirements relating to confined spaces, see WAC 296-307-642 through 296-307-656.
(2) When employees are required to work in a trench or a pit 4 feet deep or more, the trench or the pit must be shored or sloped according to the following table:
SOIL OR ROCK TYPE
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
SLOPES (H:V) (1) FOR
EXCAVATIONS LESS
THAN 20 FEET DEEP (2)
STABLE ROCK
VERTICAL (90°)
TYPE A
3/4:1 (53°)
TYPE B
1:1 (45°)
TYPE C
1 1/2:1 (34°)
1
Numbers in parentheses next to maximum allowable slopes are angles in degrees from the horizontal. Angles have been rounded off.
2
Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep must be designed by a registered professional engineer.
(3) Each soil and rock deposit must be classified by a competent person as Stable Rock, Type A, B, or C according to the definitions in WAC 296-155-66401.
(("))Competent person((" means)). Someone who is able to identify working conditions that are hazardous to employees, and has authority to take prompt action to eliminate the hazards.
(4) Classification of the deposits must be based on the results of at least one visual and at least one manual analysis. The analyses must be conducted by a competent person using tests in recognized methods of soil classification and testing such as those adopted by the American Society for Testing Materials, or the U.S. Department of Agriculture textural classification system.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-065((How must))Identification of slow-moving vehicles ((be marked?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that all farm tractors and other slow-moving farm vehicles and equipment used on public roads have lamps, reflectors, and a slow-moving vehicle emblem. From one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise, slow-moving vehicles must have lights and reflectors.
(2) The slow-moving vehicle emblem is a fluorescent yellow-orange triangle with a dark red reflective border. (See figure.) The emblem must be used on public roads only by vehicles designed to move slowly (25 M.P.H. or less).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-07001((How must))Motor vehicle((s be maintained?))maintenance.
(1) ((You))The employer must maintain all motor vehicles and their parts in good repair and safe condition.
(2) ((You))The employer must not use tires that are worn beyond the point of safety.
(3) Employees must report to ((you))the employer any motor vehicle or other farm equipment that is in unsafe operating condition. ((You))The employer must ensure that the vehicle or equipment is removed from service and repaired before use.
(4) Before an employee performs service or repair work under hydraulic or mechanical raised dump truck beds, blades, discs, or other equipment, the raised portion of the equipment must be manually pinned or blocked to prevent falling.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-07003((How must))Motor vehicle((s be operated?))operation.
(1) Vehicles must be driven at safe operating speed.
(2) Truck drivers must operate equipment at a safe speed for roadway conditions.
(3) When an employee backing a truck has obstructed vision, the employee must be assisted by a signaler. The signaler must have a clear view of the rear of the truck and the operator of the truck.
(4) Truck drivers must sound their horn before starting to back, and intermittently while backing.
(5) Shut off motors before refueling. Take care to prevent fuel from spilling on hot parts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-07005((Who may))Qualifications to operate motor vehicle((s?)).
Only qualified drivers may operate motor vehicles and must have a current motor vehicle operator's license.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-07007((What))Requirements that apply to motor vehicle brakes((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that motor vehicles have brakes that will safely hold the maximum load on maximum grades.
(2) Trucks parked on an incline must have the steered wheels turned into the curb and must have at least one "driver" wheel chocked on each side, independent of the braking system.
Exception:
If the truck has a functioning secondary braking system, the turned wheels and chock are not required.
(3) ((You))The employer must ensure that trailers have working air brakes, or another approved type. Air must be cut into the trailer brake system at the time that the trailer is coupled to the truck.
(4) The driver must test truck and trailer brakes before driving down a steep grade.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-07009((How must motor vehicles be loaded and unloaded?))Loading and unloading motor vehicles.
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that employees load and unload motor vehicles safely.
(2) All loads transported on trucks or truck and trailer combinations must be properly secured and distributed. Loads must not exceed the safe operating load for the roadway condition and the capacity of the bridges, trestles, and other structures.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-07011((What))Required safety equipment ((must))for motor vehicles ((have?)).
All motor vehicles must have standard lights, horn, flags, flares, and other safety equipment that conforms to the state of Washington motor vehicles laws.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-01-166, filed 12/21/04, effective 4/2/05)
WAC 296-307-07013((What))Rules that apply to vehicles used to transport employees((?)).
((You))The employer must ensure that motor vehicles used regularly to transport employees meet the following requirements:
(1) The vehicles are well equipped, covered against the weather, and maintained in good mechanical condition at all times.
(2) A sufficient number of properly secured seats are provided in each vehicle to accommodate the number of employees transported. When emergency conditions make it necessary to transport more employees than the seating capacity can accommodate, all employees must ride within the vehicle. No employee may ride on fenders or running boards of the vehicle.
(3) No employees may ride in or on any vehicle with their legs hanging over the end or sides. All trucks without tail gates should have safety bars.
(4) The vehicles have storage strong enough to retain sharp tools that could present a hazard to employees being transported.
(5) All dump-trucks used to transport employees have an adequate safety chain or locking device to ensure that the body of the truck is not raised while employees are riding in it.
(6) Explosives or highly inflammable materials are not carried in or on the vehicle while it is used to transport employees.
(7) Exhaust systems are installed and maintained in proper condition, and are designed to eliminate the employee exposure to exhaust gases and fumes.
(8) Within the cab, crew trucks must carry only the number of passengers for which they are designed. In any seating arrangement, the driver must be able to maintain full freedom of motion. The driver's normal vision must be free from obstruction by passengers or the seating arrangement.
(9) All enclosed crew trucks have an emergency exit in addition to the regular entrance.
(10) Trucks used for hauling gravel may be used as crew trucks if they meet the following requirements:
(a) Steps in proper places;
(b) Wooden floors;
(c) Securely fastened seats;
(d) Truck is properly covered; and
(e) Compliance with all other general regulations covering crew trucks.
(11) Half-ton vehicles must haul no more than six persons including driver. Three-quarter-ton vehicles must haul no more than eight persons including driver.
(12) The vehicle is equipped with the first-aid supplies required by WAC 296-307-03920, two blankets, and a fire extinguisher.
Note:
Additional requirements relating to first aid are located in WAC 296-307-039.
(13) Heating units with open fires are not used in vehicles transporting crews.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-073((What))Requirements that apply to changing and charging, and storage of batteries((?)).
(1) Battery changing installations must be located in areas designated for that purpose.
(2) Facilities must be provided for:
(())(a) Flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte;
(())(b) Fire protection;
(())(c) Protecting charging apparatus from damage by trucks; and
(())(d) Adequate ventilation of fumes from gassing batteries.
(3) Racks used to support batteries should be made of or covered with materials that will not create sparks.
(4) A conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent material handling equipment must be provided for handling batteries.
(5) Reinstalled batteries must be properly positioned and secured in the vehicle.
(6) A carboy tilter or siphon must be provided for handling electrolyte.
(7) When mixing water and acid for charging batteries, pour acid into water; do not pour water into acid.
(8) Vehicles must be properly positioned and the brake applied before attempting to change or charge batteries.
(9) When charging batteries, the vent caps should be kept in place to avoid electrolyte spray. ((You))The employer must ensure that vent caps function. The battery (or compartment) cover(s) must be open for cooling.
(10) Precautions ((shall))must be taken to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in battery charging areas.
(11) Tools and other metallic objects must be kept away from the tops of uncovered batteries.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-076((How must))Guarding farm field equipment ((be guarded?)).
(("))Farm field equipment((" means)). Tractors or implements, including self-propelled implements, used in agricultural operations.
(1) All power transmission components must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-280.
(2) The manufacturer's instruction manual, if published by the manufacturer and currently available, must be the source of information for the safe operation and maintenance of field equipment.
(3) ((You))The employer must ensure that all power takeoff shafts, including rear, mid-mounted or side-mounted shafts, are guarded by a master shield, as follows:
(a) The rear power takeoff has a master shield. The master shield is strong enough to prevent permanent deformation of the shield when a 250-pound operator mounts or dismounts the tractor using the shield as a step.
(b) Power takeoff driven equipment is guarded to prevent employee contact with rotating members of the power drive system. When the tractor master shield must be removed to use specific power takeoff driven equipment, the equipment must provide protection from the part of the tractor power takeoff shaft that protrudes from the tractor.
(c) Signs are placed at prominent locations on the tractor and on power takeoff driven equipment requiring that safety shields are kept in place.
(4) The following functional components must be shielded to a degree consistent with the intended function and operator's vision of the component((.
)):
(a) Snapping or husking rolls;
(())(b) Straw spreaders and choppers;
(())(c) Cutterbars;
(())(d) Flail rotors;
(())(e) Rotary beaters;
(())(f) Mixing augers;
(())(g) Feed rolls;
(())(h) Conveying augers;
(())(i) Rotary tillers; and
(())(j) Similar units that must be exposed for proper function.
(5) Where removing a guard or access door will expose an employee to any component that continues to rotate after the power is disengaged, ((you))the employer must provide, in the immediate area:
(a) A safety sign warning the employee to look and listen for evidence of rotation and to wait until all components have stopped before removing the guard or access door.
(b) A readily visible or audible warning of rotation on equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976.
(6) If the mounting steps or ladder and the handholds of the propelling vehicle are made inaccessible by installation of other equipment, other steps and handholds must be provided on the equipment.
(7) ((You))The employer must ensure that the operator's steps and platform have a slip-resistant covering to minimize the possibility of slipping.
(8) Powered machines not driven by an individual motor must have a clutch or other effective means of stopping.
(9) All friction clutches must have sufficient clearance and be kept adjusted to prevent drag or creeping when disengaged.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-08003((Which))Agricultural tractors ((are)) covered by this section((?)).
All agricultural tractors manufactured after October 25, 1976, must meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-080. An agricultural tractor manufactured on or before October 25, 1976, must meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-080 if:
(1) The tractor was built or sold with rollover protective structures (ROPS) as an optional accessory; or
(2) According to the manufacturer, the tractor was designed to accommodate the addition of ROPS.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-08006((What))Definitions that apply to rollover protective structures (ROPS) for agricultural tractors((?)).
(("))Agricultural tractor((" means)). A two-wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive vehicle, or a track vehicle of more than twenty net engine horsepower, designed to furnish the power to pull, carry, propel, or drive implements that are designed for agriculture. All human-powered implements are excluded.
(("))Low profile tractor((" means)). A wheel or track-equipped vehicle with the following characteristics:
(())(a) The front wheel spacing is equal to the rear wheel spacing, as measured between the centerlines of the wheels;
(())(b) The clearance from the bottom of the tractor chassis to the ground is eighteen inches or less;
(())(c) The highest point of the hood is sixty inches or less((,)); and
(())(d) The tractor is designed so that the operator straddles the transmission when seated.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-12-098, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02)
WAC 296-307-08009((What))Requirements that apply to the testing and performance of ROPS used on agricultural tractors((?)).
((You))The employer must provide a rollover protective structure (ROPS) for each employee-operated tractor that is covered by WAC 296-307-080. ROPS used on wheel-type tractors must meet the test and performance requirements of OSHA 1928.51 C.F.R. Protective frames for wheel type agricultural tractors, and ROPS used on track-type tractors must meet the test and performance requirements of SAE Standard J334a (July 1970) and the portions of SAE Standard J167 (1971) pertaining to overhead protection requirements.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-08012((What))Requirements that apply to seatbelts used with ROPS on agricultural tractors((?)).
(1) Where ROPS are required by WAC 296-307-080, ((you))the employer must:
(a) Provide each tractor with a seatbelt;
(b) Require that each employee use the seatbelt while the tractor is moving; and
(c) Require that each employee tighten the seatbelt sufficiently to confine the employee to the ROPS protected area.
(2) Each seatbelt and seatbelt anchorage must meet the requirements of ANSI/SAE J800 April 1986, Motor Vehicle Seat Belt Assemblies.
(a) Where a suspended seat is used, the seatbelt must be fastened to the movable portion of the seat.
(b) The seatbelt webbing material must be at least as resistant to acids, alkalis, mildew, aging, moisture and sunlight as untreated polyester fiber.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-08015((When are)) ROPS ((not required on))requirements that apply to agricultural tractors((?)).
ROPS are not required on agricultural tractors that are used as follows:
(1) Low profile tractors used in orchards, vineyards or hop yards where the vertical clearance requirements would substantially interfere with normal operations, and for work related to these uses.
(2) Low profile tractors while used inside a farm building or greenhouse in which the vertical clearance is insufficient to allow a ROPS equipped tractor to operate.
(3) Tractors while used with mounted equipment that is incompatible with ROPS (for example, cornpickers, cotton strippers, vegetable pickers, and fruit harvesters).
(4) Track-type agricultural tractors whose overall width (measured between the outside edges of the tracks) is at least three times the height of the rated center of gravity, and whose rated maximum speed in forward or reverse is not greater than seven miles per hour, when used only for tillage or harvesting operations, and which:
(a) Does not involve operating on slopes in excess of forty percent from horizontal; and
(b) Does not involve operating on piled crop products or residue (for example: Silage in stacks or pits); and
(c) Does not involve operating in close proximity to irrigation ditches, streams or other excavations more than two feet deep that contain slopes of more than forty percent from horizontal; and
(d) Does not involve construction-type operation, such as bulldozing, grading, or land clearing.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-08018((What))Required employee training ((requirements))that apply to ROPS used on agricultural tractors((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that every employee who operates an agricultural tractor is informed of the operating practices listed below and of any other practices dictated by the work environment. ((You))The employer must provide the information at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.
EXHIBIT A
EMPLOYEE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
1.
Securely fasten ((your))the seat belt if the tractor has a ROPS.
2.
Where possible, avoid operating the tractor near ditches, embankments and holes.
3.
Reduce speed when turning, crossing slopes and on rough, slick or muddy surfaces.
4.
Stay off slopes too steep for safe operation.
5.
Watch where ((you are)) going, especially at row ends, on roads and around trees.
6.
Passengers, other than persons required for instruction or machine operation, ((shall))must not be permitted to ride on equipment unless a passenger seat or other protective device is provided.
7.
Operate the tractor smoothlyno jerky turns, starts, or stops.
8.
Hitch only to the drawbar and hitch points recommended by tractor manufacturers.
9.
When tractor is stopped, set brakes securely and use park lock if available.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that every employee who operates an agriculture tractor is trained specifically in the operation of the tractor to be used. The training must include an orientation of the operator to the topographical features of the land where the tractor will be operated. Training must emphasize safe operating practices to avoid rollover.
(3) The tractor training program must be described in the written accident prevention program required by WAC 296-307-030.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-08021((What other))Requirements that apply to ROPS used on agricultural tractors((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that batteries, fuel tanks, oil reservoirs, and coolant systems are constructed and located or sealed to ensure that no spillage comes in contact with the operator in the event of an upset.
(2) All sharp edges and corners at the operator's station must be designed to minimize operator injury in the event of an upset.
(3) When ROPS are removed, they must be remounted to meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-080.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that each ROPS has a label, permanently affixed to the structure, that states:
(a) Manufacturer's or fabricator's name and address;
(b) ROPS model number, if any;
(c) Tractor makes, models, or series numbers that the structure is designed to fit; and
(d) That the ROPS model was tested in accordance with the requirements of this section.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-085((When must))Requirements for ROPS to be provided for material handling equipment((?)).
(1) This section applies to the following types of material handling equipment: Rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers; rubber-tired front-end loaders; rubber-tired dozers; wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors; crawler tractors; crawler-type loaders; and motor graders, with or without attachments, that are used in agricultural work. This section does not apply to side-boom pipelaying tractors.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that material handling equipment manufactured on or after October 25, 1976, is equipped with ROPS that meet the minimum performance standards of WAC 296-307-08009.
(3) ROPS and supporting attachments must meet the minimum performance standards of OSHA 1928.52 C.F.R., Protective Frames for Wheel Type Agricultural Tractors-Test Procedures and Performance Requirements, or must be designed, fabricated, and installed in a manner that will support, based on the ultimate strength of the metal, at least two times the weight of the prime mover applied at the point of impact.
(a) The ROPS must be designed to minimize the likelihood of a complete overturn and to minimize the possibility of the operator being crushed in a rollover.
(b) The design must provide a vertical clearance of at least fifty-two inches from the work deck to the ROPS at the entrance.
(4) When ROPS are removed, they must be remounted so as to meet the requirements of this section.
(5) Each ROPS must have a label, permanently affixed to the structure, that states:
(a) Manufacturer's or fabricator's name and address;
(b) ROPS model number, if any;
(c) Tractor makes, models, or series numbers that the structure is designed to fit; and
(d) That the ROPS model was tested in accordance with the requirements of this section.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-090((What))Requirements that apply to overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors((?)).
This section applies to wheel-type agricultural tractors used in construction work and to wheel-type industrial tractors used in agriculture work.
(1) If grid or mesh is used for overhead protection, the largest permissible opening is 1.5 in. (38 mm.) in diameter. The overhead protection must not be installed in such a way as to become a hazard in the case of upset.
(2) All equipment used in site clearing operations must have rollover guards meeting the requirements of this chapter. ((You))The employer must ensure that rider-operated equipment is equipped with an overhead and rear canopy guard meeting the following requirements:
(a) The overhead covering is at least eighth-inch steel plate or quarter-inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than one inch, or equivalent.
(b) The opening in the rear of the canopy structure is covered with not less than quarter-inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than one inch.
(3) Overhead protection that meets the provisions of SAE Standard J334 (July 1970) for rubber-tired dozers and rubber-tired loaders also meets the requirements of this standard.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-09503((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-095 applies to any agricultural employer with one or more employees engaged in any hand-labor operations in the field.
Exception:
WAC 296-307-09515 (handwashing facilities) and 296-307-09518 (toilet facilities) do not apply if ((your)) employees:
 
(1) Are engaged in field activities for the production of grains, livestock, or livestock feed; or
 
(2) Use vehicles, machinery, or animals as part of their field activities and, when needed, can transport themselves to and from toilet and handwashing facilities.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 12-24-071, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13)
WAC 296-307-09506((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Accessible((" means)). A maximum of one-quarter mile or five minutes travel time from the worksite.
(("))Hand-labor operations((" means)). Agricultural operations performed by hand or with hand tools.
For example: The hand cultivation, weeding, planting or harvesting of vegetables, nuts, fruit, seedlings or other crops, including mushrooms, and hand packing into containers.
Exception:
Hand-labor does not include logging operations, the care or feeding of livestock, or hand-labor operations in permanent structures (e.g., canning facilities or packing houses).
(("))Handwashing facility((" means)). A facility that meets the requirements of WAC 296-307-09515 and is approved by the local health authority.
(("))Potable water((" means)). Water that is suitable for drinking by the public and meets the requirements of chapter 246-290 or 246-291 WAC.
(("))Toilet((" means)). A fixed or portable facility designed for the purpose of adequate collection and containment of both defecation and urination. "Toilet" includes biological, chemical, flush, and combustion toilets, or sanitary outhouses.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-09509((What orientation must employers provide for))Required field sanitation((?))training.
((You))The employer must provide each employee with verbal orientation on field sanitation facilities. The orientation must be understandable to each employee and must include:
(1) The location of potable water supplies and the importance of drinking water frequently, especially on hot days;
(2) Identification of all nonpotable water at the worksite and prohibition of the use of nonpotable water for sanitation purposes with an explanation of the hazards associated with using nonpotable water;
(3) The location of handwashing facilities and the importance of handwashing:
(a) Before and after using the toilet; and
(b) Before eating and smoking; and
(4) The location of toilet facilities; an explanation that facilities are for employee convenience and health considerations; the necessity to keep them sanitary; and that using the fields, orchards, or forests is not an option.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-07-098, filed 3/18/09, effective 5/1/09)
WAC 296-307-09512((What))The employer must provide potable water sources ((must an employer provide?)).
((You))The employer must provide potable water for employees engaged in hand-labor operations in the field, without cost to the employee. Potable water must meet the following requirements:
(1) Potable water is in locations that are accessible to all employees.
(2) Potable water containers are refilled daily or more often as necessary.
(3) Potable water dispensers are designed, constructed, and serviced so that sanitary conditions are maintained. They are closeable and equipped with a tap.
(4) Open containers such as barrels, pails, or tanks for drinking water from which water must be dipped or poured, whether or not they are fitted with a cover, are prohibited.
(5) Any container used to distribute drinking water is clearly marked in English and with the appropriate international symbol describing its contents.
(6) Any container used to distribute drinking water is only used for that purpose.
(7) Potable water is suitably cool and provided in sufficient amounts, taking into account the air temperature, humidity, and the nature of the work performed, to meet employees' needs.
Note:
Suitably cool water should be sixty degrees Fahrenheit or less. During hot weather, employees may require up to three gallons of water per day. Additional requirements may be found in the outdoor heat exposure standard in Part G-1, WAC 296-307-09740 Drinking water, which applies between May 1st and September 30th of each year.
(8) The use of common drinking cups or dippers is prohibited. Water is dispensed in single-use drinking cups, personal containers, or by water fountains.
(("))Single-use drinking cups((" means)). Containers of any type or size, disposable or not, and including personal containers if the choice to use a personal container is made by the employee, not the employer.
(9) Employees must be prohibited from drinking from irrigation ditches, creeks or rivers. Potable water must meet the quality standards for drinking purposes of the state or local authority, or must meet quality standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Interim—Primary Drinking Water Regulations, published in 40 C.F.R. Part 141 and 40 C.F.R. 147.2400.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-09515((What))Handwashing facilities ((must an employer provide?)).
((You))The employer must provide handwashing facilities for employees engaged in hand-labor operations in the field, without cost to the employee. Handwashing facilities must meet the following requirements:
(1) One handwashing facility with a tap and an adequate supply of water, soap, single-use hand towels, and either a basin or other suitable container for washing is provided for each twenty employees or fraction of twenty.
Note:
Nonpotable water must not be used for washing any part of a person, except as permitted by the local health authority.
(2) Each facility has running water.
(3) Each facility has a dispenser containing handsoap or a similar cleansing agent.
(4) Each facility has individual single-use hand towels.
(5) Facilities are maintained in a clean and sanitary condition according to appropriate public health sanitation practices.
(6) Waste receptacles are provided. Disposal of wastes from the facilities does not create a hazard nor cause an unsanitary condition.
(7) Employees are allowed reasonable time during the work period to use the facilities.
(8) Handwashing facilities are near toilet facilities and within one-quarter mile of each employee's worksite in the field.
Exception:
Where it is not feasible to locate facilities as required above, the facilities must be located at the point of closest vehicular access.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-09518((What))Toilet facilities ((must an employer provide?)).
((You))The employer must provide toilet facilities for employees engaged in hand-labor operations in the field, without cost to the employee. Toilet facilities must meet the following requirements:
(1) One toilet facility is provided for each twenty employees or fraction of twenty.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure, at the beginning of each day, that the toilets are inspected. If any toilet facility fails to meet the requirements of this section, immediate corrective action is taken. Inspections are documented and the record maintained at the worksite for at least seventy-two hours.
(3) Toilet facilities are adequately ventilated; appropriately screened, and have self-closing doors that can be closed and latched from the inside. Toilet facilities are constructed to ensure privacy.
(4) Facilities are maintained in a clean, sanitary, and functional condition and according to appropriate public health sanitation practices.
(5) Toilets are supplied with toilet paper.
(6) Disposal of wastes from the facilities does not create a hazard or cause an unsanitary condition.
(7) Employees are allowed reasonable time during the work period to use the facilities.
(8) Facilities are near handwashing facilities and within one-quarter mile of each employee's worksite in the field.
Exception:
Where it is not feasible to locate facilities as required above, the facilities must be located at the point of closest vehicular access.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-07-098, filed 3/18/09, effective 5/1/09)
WAC 296-307-09710Scope and purpose.
(1) WAC 296-307-097 through 296-307-09760 applies to all employers with employees performing work in an outdoor environment.
(2) The requirements of WAC 296-307-097 through 296-307-09760 apply to outdoor work environments from May 1 through September 30, annually, only when employees are exposed to outdoor heat at or above an applicable temperature listed in Table 1.
Table 1
To determine which temperature applies to each worksite, select the temperature associated with the general type of clothing or personal protective equipment (PPE) each employee is required to wear.
Outdoor Temperature Action Levels
All other clothing
89°
Double-layer woven clothes including coveralls, jackets and sweatshirts
77°
Nonbreathing clothes including vapor barrier clothing or PPE such as chemical resistant suits
52°
Note:
There is no requirement to maintain temperature records. The temperatures in Table 1 were developed based on Washington state data and are not applicable to other states.
(3) WAC 296-307-097 through 296-307-09760 does not apply to incidental exposure which exists when an employee is not required to perform a work activity outdoors for more than fifteen minutes in any sixty-minute period. This exception may be applied every hour during the work shift.
(4) WAC 296-307-097 through 296-307-09760 supplement all industry-specific standards with related requirements. Where the requirements under these sections provide more specific or greater protection than the industry-specific standards, the employer ((shall))must comply with the requirements under these sections. Additional related requirements are found in chapter 296-305 WAC, Safety standards for firefighters and chapter 296-307 WAC, Safety standards for agriculture.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-07-098, filed 3/18/09, effective 5/1/09)
WAC 296-307-09720Definitions.
(((1)))Acclimatization((means)). The body's temporary adaptation to work in heat that occurs as a person is exposed to it over time.
(((2)))Double-layer woven clothing((means)). Clothing worn in two layers allowing air to reach the skin. For example, coveralls worn on top of regular work clothes.
(((3)))Drinking water((means)). Potable water that is suitable to drink. Drinking water packaged as a consumer product and electrolyte-replenishing beverages (i.e., sports drinks) that do not contain caffeine are acceptable.
(((4)))Engineering controls((means)). The use of devices to reduce exposure and aid cooling (i.e., air conditioning).
(((5)))Environmental factors for heat-related illness((means)). Working conditions that increase susceptibility for heat-related illness such as air temperature, relative humidity, radiant heat from the sun and other sources, conductive heat sources such as the ground, air movement, workload (i.e., heavy, medium, or low) and duration, and personal protective equipment worn by employees. Measurement of environmental factors is not required by WAC 296-307-097.
(((6)))Heat-related illness((means)). A medical condition resulting from the body's inability to cope with a particular heat load, and includes, but is not limited to, heat cramps, heat rash, heat exhaustion, fainting, and heat stroke.
(((7)))Outdoor environment((means)). An environment where work activities are conducted outside. Work environments such as inside vehicle cabs, sheds, and tents or other structures may be considered an outdoor environment if the environmental factors affecting temperature are not managed by engineering controls. Construction activity is considered to be work in an indoor environment when performed inside a structure after the outside walls and roof are erected.
(((8)))Vapor barrier clothing((means)). Clothing that significantly inhibits or completely prevents sweat produced by the body from evaporating into the outside air. Such clothing includes encapsulating suits, various forms of chemical resistant suits used for PPE, and other forms of nonbreathing clothing.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-10005((Who must provide))Personal protective equipment((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that employees are protected from injury or impairment of any bodily function that might occur through absorption, inhalation or physical contact of any substance, vapor, radiation, or physical hazard. Wherever appropriate, ((you))the employer must ensure that employees use protective clothing; respiratory devices; shields; barriers; and adequate protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities.
(2) ((You))The employer must provide personal protective equipment at no cost to employees, including replacement due to normal wear and tear. The equipment must be maintained in sanitary and reliable condition.
Exception:
((You))The employer may require employees to provide their own normal work clothing, including long-sleeved shirts, long-legged pants, and socks.
(3) If employees provide their own protective equipment, then ((you))the employer must ensure that the equipment is adequate, properly maintained, and sanitary.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-10010((What))Requirements that apply to eye protection((?)).
((You))The employer must require eye protection wherever employees are exposed to flying objects, welding or cutting glare, injurious liquids, or injurious radiation. Eye protectors must meet the criteria of the American National Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-10015((How must))Requirements for personal protective equipment ((be used?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that employees use personal protective equipment according to the manufacturer's instructions.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that, before each use, employees inspect all personal protective equipment for leaks, holes, tears, or worn places, and any damaged equipment is repaired or discarded.
(3) The employee must use personal protective equipment according to instructions and training received.
(4) The employee shall notify ((you))the employer of any defects in personal protective equipment or when the equipment becomes contaminated.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-10020((What must an employer do to prevent))Preventing heat-related ((illness?))illnesses.
((You))The employer must take appropriate measures to prevent heat-related illness that may be caused by employees wearing any required personal protective equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-10025((What instruction on))Training for personal protective equipment ((must an employer give to employees?)).
((You))The employer must instruct each employee in the proper use of personal protective equipment. The instruction must include any special limitations or precautions indicated by the manufacturer.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-13-129, filed 6/22/04, effective 8/1/04)
WAC 296-307-14505((What records must an employer keep))Recordkeeping for pesticide applications((?)).
(1) If ((you apply))the employer applies pesticides, or ((have))has pesticides applied ((for you)), related to the production of an agricultural crop, ((you))the employer must keep records for each application. The records must include the following:
(a) The address or exact location where the pesticide was applied or stored;
Note:
If ((you apply))the employer applies pesticides to one acre or more, the location must be shown on the map on the required form for at least the first application.
(b) The year, month, day, and time the pesticide was applied or stored;
(c) The product name on the registered label and the United States Environmental Protection Agency registration number, if applicable, of the pesticide that was applied or stored;
(d) The crop or site to which the pesticide was applied (application crop or site);
(e) The amount of pesticide applied per acre, or other appropriate measure;
(f) The concentration of pesticide applied;
(g) The total area to which pesticide was applied;
(h) If applicable, the licensed applicator's name, address, and telephone number and the name of the individual(s) making the application;
(i) The direction and estimated velocity of the wind at the time the pesticide was applied;
Exception:
Wind information does not have to be recorded for applications of baits in bait stations and pesticide applications within structures.
(j) Any other reasonable information required by the department.
(2) A commercial pesticide applicator must provide a copy of the pesticide application records to the owner or lessee of the lands to which the pesticide is applied. Pesticide application records may be provided on any form that includes all required information.
(3) ((You))The employer must update records on the same day that a pesticide is applied. ((You))The employer may use a copy as the record of the pesticide application. ((You))The employer must maintain the records for at least seven years after the date of the application.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that pesticide application records are readily accessible to employees and their designated representatives in a central location in the workplace. The records must be available beginning on the day the application is made and for at least thirty days after. ((You))The employee may view the pesticide application records and make ((your))their own record from that information.
(5) New or newly assigned employees must be made aware of the accessibility of the application records before working with pesticides or in an area containing pesticides.
(6) When storing pesticides, ((you))the employer must, at least once a year, perform an inventory of the pesticides stored in any work area.
(7) The pesticide inventory records must include the following information:
(a) The location where the pesticide is stored;
(b) The year, month, day, and time the pesticide was first stored;
(c) The product name used on the registered label and the United States Environmental Protection Agency registration number, if applicable, of the pesticide that is stored; and
(d) The amount of pesticide in storage at the time of the inventory.
(8) ((You))The employer must maintain a record of pesticide purchases made between the annual inventory dates.
(a) Instead of this purchase record, ((you))the employer may obtain from distributors from whom ((you buy)) pesticides are purchased, a statement obligating the distributor to maintain the purchase records on ((your))the employer's behalf to meet the requirements of this section.
(b) ((We))The department may require ((you))the employer to submit all purchase records covering the purchases during a specified period of time or in a specified geographical area.
(9) When ((you))the employer ends all pesticide activities, ((you))the employer must file the records with ((us))the department. Anyone who succeeds or replaces ((you))the employer must retain the records required by this section, but that person is not liable for any violations ((you))the employer commits.
(10) ((You))The employer must ensure that the records required under this section are readily accessible to ((us))the department of labor and industries for inspection. ((You))The employer must also provide copies of the records on request, to:
(a) An employee or the employee's designated representative in the case of an industrial insurance claim filed under Title 51 RCW with the department of labor and industries;
(b) Treating health care personnel; or
(c) The pesticide incident reporting and tracking review panel.
(11) The designated representative or treating health care personnel are not required to identify the employee represented or treated.
(12) ((We))The department of labor and industries will keep the name of any affected employee confidential according to RCW 49.17.080(1).
(13) When treating health care personnel request records under this section, and the record is required to determine treatment, ((you))the employer must provide copies of the record immediately. Information for treating health care personnel must be made immediately available by telephone, if requested, with a copy of the records provided within twenty-four hours. For all other requests, ((you))the employer must provide copies of the records within seventy-two hours.
(14) If requested, ((you))the employer must provide copies of records on a form provided by the department.
(15) If ((you))the employer suspects that an employee is ill or injured because of an exposure to one or more pesticides, ((you))the employer must immediately provide the employee with a copy of the relevant pesticide application records.
(16) If ((you))the employer refuses to provide a copy of a requested record, the ((requester))requestor may notify the department of the request and ((your))the employer's refusal.
(a) Within seven working days, ((we))the department of labor and industries will request that ((you))the employer provide ((us))the department with all pertinent copies of the records, except that in a medical emergency ((we))the department will request within two working days.
(b) ((You))The employer must provide copies of the records to ((us))the department within twenty-four hours after we request.
(17) ((We))The department of labor and industries will inspect for the records required under this section as part of any on-site inspection of a workplace conducted under this chapter or chapter 49.17 RCW. ((We))The department will determine, during the inspection, whether the records are readily transferable to a form adopted by the department, and readily accessible to employees. However, ((your))the employer's records will not be inspected more than once in any calendar year, unless a previous inspection has found recordkeeping violations. If recordkeeping violations are found, ((we))the department may conduct reasonable multiple inspections, according to department rules. Nothing in this section limits ((our))the department's inspection of records pertaining to pesticide-related injuries, illnesses, fatalities, accidents, or complaints.
(18) If ((you))the employer fails to maintain the records, or provide access to or copies of the records required under this section, ((you))the employer will be subject to penalties authorized under RCW 49.17.180.
(19) The department of labor and industries and the department of agriculture will jointly adopt by rule, forms that satisfy the information requirements of this section and RCW 17.21.100. Pesticide application record forms can be found in chapter 16-228 WAC, General pesticide rules.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-24-105, filed 12/3/03, effective 2/1/04)
WAC 296-307-148Scope and summary.
((Your))Employer responsibility:
To implement a monitoring program for ((your)) employees who, as part of their job duties, handle category I or II organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides with the words "DANGER" or "WARNING" on the label.
Definition:
((The terms))Handle and handler((refer to)). Employees who are engaged in the job duties listed in the definition of "handler" contained in WAC 296-307-11005, Pesticides (worker protection standard).
IMPORTANT:
Whenever there is reason to believe that an employee has been poisoned or injured by exposure to pesticides while on the job, ((you need))the employer needs to provide the medical services required by WAC 296-307-13055.
((You must:
Maintain handling records for covered pesticides
WAC 296-307-14805.
Implement a medical monitoring program
WAC 296-307-14810.
Identify a physician or licensed health care professional
WAC 296-307-14815.
Make cholinesterase testing available
WAC 296-307-14820.
Respond to depressed cholinesterase levels
WAC 296-307-14825.
Provide medical removal protection benefits
WAC 296-307-14830.
Maintain records
WAC 296-307-14835.
Provide training
WAC 296-307-14840.
Implementation plan
WAC 296-307-14845.))
The employer must meet the requirements…
in this section:
Maintain handling records for covered pesticides
WAC 296-307-14805
Implement a medical monitoring program
WAC 296-307-14810
Identify a physician or licensed health care professional
WAC 296-307-14815
Make cholinesterase testing available
WAC 296-307-14820
Respond to depressed cholinesterase levels
WAC 296-307-14825
Provide medical removal protection benefits
WAC 296-307-14830
Maintain records
WAC 296-307-14835
Provide training
WAC 296-307-14840
Implementation plan
WAC 296-307-14845
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-01-074, filed 12/20/05, effective 2/1/06)
WAC 296-307-14805Maintain handling records for covered pesticides.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must maintain accurate records of all time that each employee spends handling category I or II organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides (this includes employees who do not meet the handling hour thresholds in WAC 296-307-14810).
(())(2) The employer must provide a completed CHOLINESTERASE MONITORING HANDLING HOURS REPORT (F413-065-000) to the physician or other licensed health care professional (LHCP) for each employee receiving a periodic cholinesterase blood test and make sure the report is submitted to the laboratory with each periodic cholinesterase test.
(())(3) The employer must provide the employee with a copy of the CHOLINESTERASE MONITORING HANDLING HOURS REPORT upon request.
(())(4) The employer must retain pesticide handling records for seven years.
(())(5) The employer must make sure that pesticide-handling records are readily accessible to employees, their designated representatives, and treating health care professionals.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-01-074, filed 12/20/05, effective 2/1/06)
WAC 296-307-14810Implement a medical monitoring program.
((You must:
))The employer must implement a medical monitoring program for ((your))their employees who handle or will be expected to handle category I or II organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides for thirty or more hours in any consecutive thirty-day period.
Notes:
((• You do))1. The employer does not need to count time spent mixing and loading using closed systems (as defined in WAC 296-307-13045 (4)(d)) in determining the need for periodic testing. Closed cabs are not "closed systems." Time using closed systems is still counted for purposes of establishing coverage under this rule and determining the need for obtaining baseline cholinesterase levels.
 
(())2. The first thirty consecutive day period begins on the first day of handling organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides after obtaining the baseline cholinesterase test.
 
(())3. There is nothing in this rule that prohibits employers from providing cholinesterase monitoring to employees who handle organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides for fewer than thirty hours in any consecutive thirty-day period.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-01-074, filed 12/20/05, effective 2/1/06)
WAC 296-307-14815Identify a physician or other licensed health care professional.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must identify a physician or other licensed health care professional (LHCP) who will:
(())(a) Provide baseline and periodic cholinesterase testing through the department of health public health laboratory or a laboratory approved by the department of labor and industries.
(())(b) Interpret cholinesterase tests.
(())(c) Provide ((you))the employer with a written recommendation for each employee's blood test and evaluation.
(())(2) The employer must obtain the LHCP's written recommendation for each employee's blood test and evaluation (including baseline tests) and make sure that the employee receives a copy of the LHCP's written recommendation, either through ((you))the employer or directly through the LHCP, within five business days after ((you))the employer receives the recommendation.
(())(3) The employer must make sure the LHCP's written recommendation for each employee's blood test and evaluation is limited to the following information:
(())(a) The employee's cholinesterase status based on the LHCP's evaluation.
(())(b) Identification of changes in cholinesterase levels requiring a work practice evaluation for the employee.
(())(c) Identification of changes in cholinesterase levels requiring the employee to be removed from handling and other exposure to organophosphate and N-methyl-carbamate pesticides.
(())(d) Guidance on medical monitoring.
(())(e) Any other relevant information concerning an employee's workplace exposure to organophosphate and N-methyl-carbamate pesticides.
Note:
All testing for an employee should be conducted through the same laboratory. This will allow for accurate comparison between baseline and periodic tests.
((You must:
))(4) The employer must instruct the LHCP to NOT reveal in writing or in any other communication with ((you))the employer any other personally identifiable medical information.
Note:
If the LHCP written recommendation contains specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure, ((you))the employer should send it back and obtain a revised version without the additional information.
((You must:
))(5) The employer must make sure the LHCP is familiar with the requirements of this rule (for example, by providing a copy of the rule or by confirming that the provider has attended training on the rule).
(())(6) The employer must post the name, address, and telephone number of the LHCP ((you have))the employer has identified at the locations where employees usually start their work day.
(())(7) The employer must make sure written recommendations from the LHCP are maintained for seven years.
Note:
((You))The employer may only obtain the employee's actual test results if the employee provides the LHCP with written consent to share these results with ((you))the employer.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-01-074, filed 12/20/05, effective 2/1/06)
WAC 296-307-14820Make cholinesterase testing available.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must make medical monitoring available to employees who will meet the handling hour threshold of thirty or more hours in any consecutive thirty-day period (WAC 296-307-14810) at no cost and at a reasonable time and place, as follows:
(())(a) Provide annual baseline red blood cell (RBC) and serum cholinesterase tests that are taken at least thirty days after the employee last handled organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides.
(())(b) Provide periodic RBC and serum cholinesterase testing:
(())(i) Within three days after the end of each thirty-day period where the employee meets the handling hour threshold in WAC 296-307-14810; however, testing is not required more often than every thirty days;
OR
(())(ii) At least every thirty days for those employees who may meet the handling hour threshold in WAC 296-307-14810.
(())(c) Follow the recommendations of the LHCP regarding continued employee pesticide handling or removal from handling until a thirty-day exposure free baseline can be established.
Exemption:
((You do))The employer does not need to provide baseline or periodic testing for those employees whose work exposure is limited to handling only N-methyl-carbamate pesticides.
Notes:
(())1. For employees who have had exposure to organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides in the thirty days prior to the test obtain a working baseline. For example, a worker who initially declines cholinesterase testing and later chooses to participate in testing would obtain a "working baseline."
 
(())2. For new employees, the LHCP may accept previous baselines, if they are obtained according to this rule.
((You must:
))(2) The employer must obtain a signed declination statement from the LHCP for each employee who declines cholinesterase testing.
(())(a) Employees may decline cholinesterase testing only after they receive training about cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides and discuss the risks and benefits of participation with the LHCP.
(())(b) An employee may change his or her mind and elect to participate or decline to continue participation in the testing program at any time.
(())(3) The employer must make sure the employee receives a copy of the signed declination statement, either through ((you))the employer or directly through the LHCP, within five business days after ((you))the employer receives the declination statement.
Note:
If employers discourage participation in cholinesterase monitoring, or in any way interfere with an employee's decision to continue with this program, this interference may represent unlawful discrimination under RCW 49.17.160, Discrimination against employee filing, instituting proceedings, or testifying prohibited—Procedure—Remedy.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-01-074, filed 12/20/05, effective 2/1/06)
WAC 296-307-14825Respond to depressed cholinesterase levels.
((You must:
))The employer must respond to an employee's depressed cholinesterase levels by:
(())(1) Taking the actions required in Table 1;
AND
(())(2) Following any additional occupational health recommendations from the LHCP.
Table 1
Required Responses to an Employee's
Depressed Cholinesterase Levels
When:
Action to be
taken:
Methods:
An employee's RBC or serum cholinesterase levels fall more than twenty percent below the baseline
Evaluate the employee's workplace and work practices to identify and correct potential sources of pesticide exposure
Review:
Personal protective equipment (PPE) and its condition
Employees' PPE usage
General sanitation and decontamination practices and availability of decontamination facilities required by WAC 296-307-13050
Pesticide handling practices
Pesticide label requirements
An employee's RBC cholinesterase level falls thirty percent or more from the baseline
OR
An employee's serum cholinesterase level falls forty percent or more from the baseline
Remove the employee from handling and other work exposures to organophosphate and N-methyl-carbamate pesticides such as thinning and harvesting in recently treated areas
AND
Evaluate the employee's work practices to identify and correct potential sources of pesticide exposure
When available, provide the employee with other duties that do not include handling and other work exposures to organophosphate and N-methyl-carbamate pesticides
Provide medical monitoring and cholinesterase testing as recommended by the LHCP
Provide salary and benefits as if employee was continuing pesticide application activities
A removed employee's cholinesterase levels return to twenty percent or less below baseline
The employee may return to handling class I and II organophosphate and N-methyl-carbamate pesticides
Continue periodic cholinesterase monitoring
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-01-074, filed 12/20/05, effective 2/1/06)
WAC 296-307-14830Provide medical removal protection benefits.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must provide medical removal protection benefits for a maximum of three months on each occasion:
(())(a) An employee is temporarily removed from work due to depressed cholinesterase levels;
OR
(())(b) Assigned to other duties due to depressed cholinesterase levels.
(())(2) The employer must provide medical removal protection benefits that include maintenance of the same pay, seniority and other employment rights and benefits of an employee as though the employee had not been removed from normal exposure to organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides or otherwise limited.
Note:
The following are examples of how a worker's pay could be maintained while medically removed from exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides:
 
(())1. A removed worker is assigned to work eight hours a day but the employer's pesticide handlers are working ten hours a day. The removed worker would be paid for ten hours at the handler's pay rate.
 
(())2. The farmer pays workers two dollars more per hour when they are handling organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides. The removed worker will be paid this premium when the pesticides are being handled on the farm; however, the worker will be paid at their usual pay rate when the pesticides are not being handled on the farm.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-24-105, filed 12/3/03, effective 2/1/04)
WAC 296-307-14835Maintain records.
((You must:
))(1) The employer must make sure that the following records are maintained:
(())(a) The name, address, and telephone number of the physician or LHCP.
(())(b) Written recommendations and opinions received from the physician or LHCP.
(())(c) Findings of all work practice investigations.
(())(d) Dates when employees were medically removed from their duties and dates when employees are returned to duties that include handling organophosphate or N-methyl-carbamate pesticides.
(())(e) Signed declination statements.
(())(2) The employer must maintain records for seven years.
(())(3) The employer must make sure that all records are readily accessible to the employee and his or her designated representative.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-24-105, filed 12/3/03, effective 2/1/04)
WAC 296-307-14840Provide training.
((You must:
))The employer must make sure employees have received training before initial medical monitoring. The training must include at least the following:
(())(1) The human health hazards and physical symptoms of overexposure to organophosphate and N-methyl-carbamate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides.
(())(2) The purpose and requirements for medical monitoring.
Note:
Training required by this rule may be combined with other pesticide handler training as required by WAC 296-307-13025, Pesticide safety training—Standards for pesticide handlers.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-24-105, filed 12/3/03, effective 2/1/04)
WAC 296-307-14845Implementation plan.
The department will implement and complete an evaluation of this rule by doing the following:
(())(1) Organize a scientific team to oversee collection and analysis of data collected during 2004 and 2005. L&I will select representatives of the University of Washington, Washington State University, as well as other interested members of the academic and scientific communities, to participate on the team. The team will provide an initial analysis of testing data and any appropriate recommendations directly to L&I and to the cholinesterase monitoring advisory committee by November 1, 2004, and a further analysis and any appropriate recommendations by November 1, 2005. A final report and recommendations will be completed by September 30, 2006.
(())(2) Establish a cholinesterase stakeholder advisory committee to evaluate issues related to rule implementation and provide recommendations to the department regarding implementation of the rule and any possible modifications to it. L&I will invite representatives of growers, labor and other affected state agencies to participate on the advisory committee. The committee will have an opportunity to comment on the analysis completed by the scientific team and to make any appropriate recommendations before December 1, 2004, and again before December 1, 2005. In addition, the committee will review the scientific committee's final report and recommendations and provide advice to L&I prior to December 1, 2006.
(())(3) Review reports from the scientific team and stakeholder advisory committee, and other relevant information and make modifications to the rule as appropriate.
(())(4) Make efforts to defray the costs of medical testing during 2004.
(())(5) Prepare and distribute provider guidelines.
(())(6) Develop and make available a model employee training program.
(())(7) Publish a list of trained providers and certified laboratories on the internet.
(())(8) Coordinate recordkeeping requirements with the department of agriculture.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-15003((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-150 does not apply to the construction, reconstruction, operation, or maintenance of overhead electrical conductors (and their supporting structures and associated equipment) by authorized and qualified electrical employees. It also does not apply to authorized and qualified employees engaged in the construction, reconstruction, operations and maintenance of overhead electrical circuits or conductors (and their supporting structures and associated equipment) of rail transportation systems, or electrical generating, transmission, distribution, and communication systems.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-15006((What))Clearance and safeguards ((are)) required to protect employees working near overhead lines((?)).
(1) All exposed overhead conductors must be isolated from accidental contact by employees or equipment.
(2) Irrigation pipe must not be stored within one hundred feet of overhead conductors.
(3) Upending irrigation pipe within one hundred feet of overhead conductors is prohibited.
(4) Water and irrigation systems, and other devices that discharge a conductive liquid, must be set up and operated so that the discharge from the system is directed more than ten feet away from overhead high-voltage lines, and avoids contact with any exposed electrical power conductor.
(5) Employees are prohibited from entering or working in proximity to high-voltage lines, unless there are guards to prevent accidental contact.
Note:
Voltage 600V and higher is considered high voltage.
(6) The following are prohibited if it is possible to bring these objects within ten feet of high-voltage lines:
(a) Operating, erecting, or transporting tools, equipment, or a moving part;
(b) Handling, transporting, or storing materials; or
(c) Moving a building near high-voltage lines.
(7) Equipment or machines must be operated near power lines according to the following:
(a) For lines rated 50 kv. or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the object must be ten feet;
(b) For lines rated over 50 kv. minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the object must be ten feet plus four tenths of an inch for each 1 kv., over 50 kv., or twice the length of the line insulator but never less than ten feet;
(c) In transit, the clearance must be a minimum of four feet for voltages less than 50 kv., ten feet for voltages over 50 kv. up to and including 345 kv., and sixteen feet for voltages up to and including 750 kv.;
(d) ((You))The employer must designate someone to observe clearance and give warning for operations where it is difficult for the operator to see well enough to maintain the necessary clearance.
Exception:
((You are))The employer is exempt from this requirement if electrical distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work; or if insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-15009((What))Signs ((must)) an employer must post to warn employees working near overhead lines((?)).
((You))The employer must post and maintain in plain view of the operator on each derrick, power-shovel, drilling-rig, hay loader, hay stacker, or similar apparatus with parts that are capable of vertical, lateral or swinging motion, a durable warning sign legible at twelve feet that says, "unlawful to operate this equipment within ten feet of high-voltage lines."
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-15012((When must an))The employer must notify the utility ((of))when employees are working near overhead lines((?)).
The employer must notify the operator of high-voltage lines when any operations are to be performed, tools or materials handled, or equipment is to be moved or operated within ten feet of any high-voltage line. All required safety measures must be completed before proceeding with any work that would reduce the clearance requirements of this section.
Part L
Temporary Worker Housing (TWH)
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16101Purpose and applicability.
(1) Purpose. This part is adopted by the Washington state department of labor and industries to implement the provisions of chapter 49.17 RCW and establish minimum health and safety requirements for temporary worker housing and cherry harvest camps.
(2) Applicability. This part applies to:
(a) Temporary worker housing, including cherry harvest camps, provided by agricultural employers or operators in the state of Washington; and
(b) Operators of temporary worker housing ((shall))must be licensed under this chapter if the housing meets the criteria identified in WAC 296-307-161.
For licensing requirements, see WAC 246-358-025, Licensure. For self-survey requirements, see WAC 246-358-027, Requirements for self-survey program. For enforcement requirements, see WAC 246-358-028, Enforcement.
Note:
The requirements in this part only apply to residents of the TWH facility who are also employees of the TWH facility owner. Requirements that would apply to other TWH residents, such as family members, who are not employees of the TWH facility owner, are in chapter 246-358 WAC, Temporary worker housing.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16103Definitions.
The following definitions apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
Agricultural employee. Any person who renders personal services to, or under the direction of, an agricultural employer in connection with the employer's agricultural activity.
Agricultural employer. Any person engaged in agricultural activity, including the growing, producing, or harvesting of farm or nursery products, or engaged in the forestation or reforestation of lands, which includes, but is not limited to, the planting, transplanting, tubing, precommercial thinning, and thinning of trees and seedlings, the clearing, piling, and disposal of brush and slash, the harvest of Christmas trees, and other related activities.
Bathing facility. An enclosed area provided by the operator for workers to bathe or shower, and may be located within a family shelter or a common facility.
Building. Any structure used or intended by the operator to be used by workers for cooking, eating, sleeping, sanitation, or other facilities.
Cherry harvest camp. A place where housing and related facilities are provided to agricultural employees by agricultural employers or TWH operators for their use while employed for the harvest of cherries in the state of Washington. Cherry harvest camps are the only TWH site allowing tents.
Common. A shared facility provided by the operator for all workers of the TWH.
Common areas. Housing areas shared or used by one or more families or unrelated individuals.
Current certificate (first aid). A first-aid training certificate that has not expired.
Dining hall. A cafeteria-type eating place with food furnished by and prepared under the direction of the operator for consumption, with or without charge, by workers.
Drinking fountain. A fixture equal to a nationally recognized standard or a designed-to-drain faucet, which provides potable drinking water under pressure. A "drinking fountain" does not mean a bubble-type water dispenser.
Dwelling unit. A shelter, building, or portion of a building, which may include cooking and eating facilities, that are:
(a) Provided and designated by the operator as either a sleeping area, living area, or both, for occupants; and
(b) Physically separated from other sleeping and common areas. "Physically separated" means a physical wall separating rooms.
Family shelter. A dwelling unit with sleeping facilities for up to fifteen workers that may include toilet or cooking facilities. If services such as bathing, food-handling, or toilet facilities are provided in the family shelter, they are for the sole use of the occupants of the family shelter.
First-aid trained. The person holds a current certificate of first-aid training.
Floor space. The area within a dwelling unit with a minimum ceiling height of seven feet.
Food-handling facility. An enclosed area provided by the operator for workers to prepare their own food, and may be within a family shelter or common facility.
Group A public water system. A public water system as defined and referenced under WAC 246-290-020.
Group B public water system. A public water system that is not a Group A public water system, and is defined and referenced under WAC 246-291-050.
Habitable room. A room or space in a structure used for living, sleeping, eating, or cooking. Bathing facilities, toilet facilities, closets, halls, storage or utility space, and similar areas are not considered habitable rooms.
Health officer. The individual appointed as such for a local health department under chapter 70.05 RCW or appointed as the director of public health of a combined city-county health department under chapter 70.08 RCW.
Livestock. Horses, cows, pigs, sheep, goats, poultry, etc.
Livestock operation. Any place, establishment, or facility consisting of pens or other enclosures in which livestock is kept for purposes including, but not limited to, feeding, milking, slaughter, watering, weighing, sorting, receiving, and shipping. Livestock operations include, among other things, dairy farms, corrals, slaughterhouses, feedlots, and stockyards. Operations where livestock can roam on a pasture over a distance may be treated as outside the definition.
MSPA. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (96 Stat. 2583; 29 U.S.C. Sec. 1801 et seq.).
Occupant. A temporary employee or a person who resides with a temporary worker at the TWH or camp.
Operating license or license. A document issued annually by the department of health.
Operator. A person holding legal title to the land on which the TWH or camp is located. However, if the legal title and the right to possession are in different persons, "operator" means a person having the lawful control or supervision over the TWH.
Recreational park trailers. A trailer-type unit that is primarily designed to provide temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or seasonal use, that meets the following criteria:
(a) Built on a single chassis, mounted on wheels;
(b) Having a gross trailer area not exceeding 400 square feet (37.15 square meters) in the set-up mode;
(c) Certified by the manufacturer as complying with ANSI A119.5; and
(d) Chapter 296-150P WAC.
Recreational vehicle. A vehicular-type unit that is compliant with chapter 296-150R WAC and primarily designed as temporary living quarters for recreational camping, travel, or seasonal use that either has its own motive of power or is mounted on, or towed by, another vehicle. Recreational vehicles include: Camping trailers, fifth-wheel trailers, motor homes, travel trailers, and truck campers, but does not include pickup trucks with camper shells, canopies, or other similar coverings.
Refuse. Solid wastes, rubbish, or garbage.
Temporary worker or worker. An agricultural employee employed intermittently and not residing year-round at the same TWH site.
TWH, temporary worker housing or housing. A place, area, or piece of land where sleeping places or housing sites are provided by an agricultural employer for agricultural employees or by another person, including a temporary worker housing operator, who is providing such accommodations for employees for temporary, seasonal occupancy. TWH includes cherry harvest camps.
Tent. An enclosure or shelter constructed of fabric or pliable material composed of rigid framework to support tensioned membrane that provides the weather barrier.
WISHA. The Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act, chapter 49.17 RCW, administered by the Washington state department of labor and industries.
Worker-supplied housing. Housing owned by the worker and made available to the same worker on the operator's TWH site. Worker-supplied housing includes recreational park trailers, recreational vehicles, tents, or other structures that meet the requirements of this chapter.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16104Technical assistanceNotice of violation.
(1) The department of health or the department of labor and industries may provide technical assistance to assist in compliance with this chapter if requested by an operator.
(2) The department of labor and industries will only provide technical assistance to cherry harvest camps if requested by an operator.
(3) During a consultative technical assistance visit, or within a reasonable time thereafter, the department ((shall))must inform the owner or operator of the TWH on any violations of law or agency rules as follows:
(a) A description of the condition that is not in compliance and the text of the specific section or subsection of the applicable law or rule;
(b) A statement of what is required to achieve compliance;
(c) The date by which the agency requires compliance to be achieved;
(d) Notice of the means to contact any technical assistance services provided by the agency or others; and
(e) Notice of when, where, and to whom a request to extend the time to achieve compliance for good cause may be filed with the agency.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16120Variance and procedure.
(1) Conditions may exist in operations that a state standard will not have practical use. The director of the department of labor and industries may issue a variance from the requirements of the standard when another means of providing equal protection is provided. The substitute means must provide equal protection in accordance with the requirements of chapter 49.17 RCW and chapter 296-900 WAC, Administrative rules.
(2) A temporary variance may be requested under chapter 296-900 WAC, Administrative rules, when an operator cannot comply with new requirements by the effective date(s) of this chapter because:
(a) The construction or alteration to a building cannot be completed in time;
(b) Materials or equipment are not available; or
(c) Professional or technical assistance is not available.
(3) Applications for variances will be reviewed and may be investigated by the department of labor and industries and the department of health. Variances granted will be limited to the specific case or cases covered in the application and may be revoked for cause. The variance must remain prominently posted on the premises while in effect.
(4) Variance application forms may be obtained from the Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44650, Olympia, Washington 98504-4650 or the Department of Health, P.O. Box 47852, Olympia, Washington 98504-7852, upon request. Requests for variances from safety and health standards ((shall))must be made in writing to the director or the assistant director, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44650, Olympia, Washington 98504-4650. (Reference RCW 49.17.080 and 49.17.090.)
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16125Temporary worker housing sites and cherry harvest campsites.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must locate and operate a TWH site to prevent a health or safety hazard that is:
(a) Adequately drained and any drainage from and through the TWH must not endanger any domestic or public water supply;
(b) Free from periodic flooding and depressions in which water may become a nuisance;
(c) At least two hundred feet from a swamp, pool, sink hole, or other surface collection of water unless there is a mosquito prevention program for those areas;
(d) Large enough to prevent overcrowding of necessary structures. The principal housing area for sleeping and for food preparation and eating must be at least five hundred feet from where livestock are kept; and
(e) The grounds and open areas surrounding the shelters must be in a clean and sanitary condition.
(2) The operator must ensure the principal TWH area for sleeping and for food preparation and eating are at least five hundred feet from where livestock are kept or congregate.
(3) The operator must ensure the TWH grounds and open areas surrounding the buildings are kept in a clean and sanitary condition free from refuse.
(4) The operator must ensure all worker-supplied housing is maintained in good working condition.
(5) The operator must restrict the number of occupants in the TWH to the capacity as determined by the department of health.
(6) When closing housing permanently or for the season:
(a) The operator must dispose of all refuse to prevent nuisance; and
(b) The operator must leave the grounds and buildings in a clean and sanitary condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16130Water supply.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must provide a safe and reliable supply of drinking water from an approved Group A or Group B public water system meeting the requirements of:
(a) WAC 246-358-025 (2)(d), chapters 246-290 and 246-291 WAC; or
(b) Local board of health rules.
(2) The operator must ensure that the distribution lines are able to maintain the working pressure of the water piping system at not less than twenty pounds per square inch after allowing for friction and other pressure losses.
(3) When water is not piped to each dwelling unit, the operator must provide cold, potable, running water under pressure within one hundred feet of each dwelling unit.
(4) When water sources are not available in each individual dwelling unit or tent, the operator must provide one or more drinking fountains for each one hundred occupants or fraction thereof. The use of common drinking cups or containers from which water is dipped or poured is prohibited.
(5) The operator must provide an adequate supply of hot and cold running water under pressure in bathing, food-handling, and laundry facilities.
(6) The operator must provide an automatically controlled hot water supply of one hundred to one hundred twenty degrees Fahrenheit in bathing, food-handling, and laundry facilities.
(7) When water within one hundred feet of a dwelling unit is unsafe for drinking purposes and accessible to workers, the operator must post a sign by each nonpotable water source that:
(a) Reads "Do not drink. Do not use for washing. Do not use for preparing food.";
(b) Is printed in English and in the native language of the workers;
(c) Is printed on material colored to indicate unsafe; and
(d) Is marked with easily understood pictures or symbols.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16135Sewage disposal.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must provide sewage disposal systems in accordance with local health jurisdictions.
(2) The operator must connect all drain, waste, and vent systems from buildings to:
(a) Public sewers, if available; or
(b) Approved on-site sewage disposal systems that are designed, constructed, and maintained as required in chapters 246-272A and 173-240 WAC, and local ordinances.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16140Electricity and lighting.
((The operator must ensure that:))
(1) The operator must ensure that electricity is supplied to all dwelling units, family shelters, and common facilities, except chemical toilets;
(2) The operator must ensure that all electrical wiring, fixtures, and electrical equipment must:
(a) Comply with the electric standards of the department of labor and industries regulations, chapters 19.28 RCW, 296-46B WAC, and local ordinances; and
(b) Be maintained in a safe condition.
(3) The operator must ensure that each habitable room must have at least:
(a) One ceiling-type light fixture; and
(b) At least one separate floor-type or wall-type convenience outlet.
(4) The operator must ensure that laundry, toilet facilities, and bathing facilities have at least one ceiling-type or wall-type light fixture;
(5) The operator must ensure that general lighting and task lighting within all facilities is adequate to carry on normal daily activities;
(6) The operator must ensure that adequate lighting is provided for safe passage for workers to handwashing sinks and toilets. Lighting requirements may be met by natural or artificial means;
(7) For lighting requirements in tents, please see WAC 296-307-16147.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16145Building requirements and maintenance.
((An operator must:))
(1) An operator must construct, if provided TWH dwelling units, including common facilities, which must meet the following requirements:
(a) Protect against the elements;
(b) The State Building Code, chapter 19.27 RCW, or TWH construction standard, chapter 246-359 WAC; and
(c) State and local ordinances, codes, and regulations.
(2) An operator must prevent condensation in dwelling units and common facilities to the degree that it does not contribute to a health risk or safety issue to occupants.
(3) An operator must prevent mold in dwelling units and common facilities.
(4) An operator must provide a locking mechanism on the exterior door(s) of each family shelter. The mechanism must not prevent egress and must be easily opened from the inside without use of a key or special knowledge.
(5) An operator must provide a locking mechanism on all bedroom doors, excluding doors to bedrooms housing more than fifteen occupants. The mechanism must not prevent egress and must be easily opened from the inside without use of a key or special knowledge.
(6) An operator must provide a locking mechanism on:
(a) Each toilet stall door, if provided; and
(b) Each shower stall door, if provided.
(7) An operator must identify each dwelling unit and space used for shelter by posting a number at each site.
(8) An operator must maintain buildings in good repair and sanitary condition.
(9) An operator must comply with all applicable state and federal laws and rules for lead based paint. For more information on lead, go to ((http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Topics/AtoZ/Lead/Default.asp))http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Topics/AtoZ/Lead.
(10) An operator must provide exits that are unobstructed and remain free of any material or matter where its presence would obstruct or render the exit hazardous.
(11) An operator must provide habitable rooms with:
(a) Windows covering a total area equal to at least one-tenth of the total floor space; and
(b) At least one-half of each window can be opened to the outside for ventilation; or
(c) Mechanical ventilation in accordance with applicable standards from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).
(12) An operator must provide each room used for sleeping purposes with:
(a) At least fifty square feet of floor space for each worker, not including any floor space in any portion of a room less than seven feet from the finished floor to the finished ceiling; and
(b) Windows covering a total area equal to at least one-tenth of the floor space within the surrounding walls of the sleep room.
(13) An operator must provide each room used for sleeping and cooking purposes:
(a) Meet the requirements of subsection (12) of this section;
(b) At least one hundred square feet of floor space per temporary worker; and
(c) For a family shelter constructed or approved for construction under chapter 246-359 WAC before January 1, 2016, one hundred square feet of floor space per temporary worker is required by January 1, 2019. Upon the operator's request, the department of health may grant an extension(s) for up to three additional years. Requests must:
(i) Include a schedule and work plan for achieving compliance;
(ii) Be on a form provided by the department of health; and
(iii) Be submitted to the department of health prior to January 1, 2019.
(14) An operator must ensure wooden floors are at least one foot above ground level or meet the requirements in the State Building Code, chapter 19.27 RCW or Temporary worker housing construction standard, chapter 246-359 WAC.
(15) An operator must provide sixteen-mesh screening on all exterior openings and screen doors with self-closing devices.
(16) An operator must provide and maintain screen doors on all exterior entrances that:
(a) Have self-closing devices; and
(b) Close without gaps that would allow entry of pests.
(17) An operator must install all heating, cooking, and water heating equipment according to state and local ordinances, codes, and regulations and maintain in a safe condition.
(18) An operator must provide habitable rooms with equipment capable of maintaining a temperature of at least seventy degrees Fahrenheit during cold weather.
(19) An operator must ensure that all recreational vehicles and park trailers meet the requirements as defined in this chapter.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16147Tents.
(1) Each tent must be constructed to sleep no more than fifteen workers.
(2) Tents must provide protection from the elements, insects, and animals.
(3) Structural stability and floors.
(a) Tents and their supporting framework must be adequately braced and anchored to prevent weather related collapse. Documentation of the structural stability must be furnished to the department of health.
(b) Floors must be smooth, sloped from a raised center towards the lower outer edges. Floors must be without breaks or holes to provide a hard, stable walking surface. Nonridged flooring supported by grass, dirt, soil, gravel, or other uneven surfaces is not acceptable. Floors that are constructed of wood or concrete must comply with the building code, chapter 19.27 RCW and this chapter.
(c) Floor systems must be designed to prevent the entrance of snakes, rodents, and other nuisances.
(4) Flame-retardant treatments.
(a) The sidewalls, drops, and tops of tents ((shall))must be composed of flame-resistant material or treated with a flame-retardant in an approved manner.
(b) Floor coverings, which are integral to the tent, and the bunting, ((shall))must be composed of flame-resistant material or treated with a flame retardant in an approved manner and in accordance with Uniform Building Code, Standard 31.1.
(c) All tents must have a permanently affixed label bearing the following information:
(i) Identification of tent size and fabric or material type;
(ii) For flame-resistant materials, the necessary information to determine compliance with this section and National Fire Protection Association Standard 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame-resistant Textiles and Films;
(iii) For flame-retardant materials, the date that the tent was last treated with an approved flame-retardant;
(iv) The trade name and type of flame-retardant used in the flame-retardant treatment; and
(v) The name of the person and firm that applied the flame-retardant.
(5) Means of egress.
(a) Tents must have a primary entrance door. At least one door must lead to the outside of the tent. The door must not be obstructed in any manner and must remain free of any material or matter where its presence would obstruct or render the exit hazardous.
(b) The area designated for refuge must be accessible and remain clear of storage materials or hazards.
(c) If food-handling facilities are provided in tents, or the tent occupancy capacity is for ten or more workers, a window must be located opposite the door and must have a means to open the window or provide an easily opened space, for example, a zipper which opens downward to the floor, must be provided.
(6) Floor area. ((The operator must:))
(a) If food-handling facilities are provided in the tent, the operator must provide an additional twenty square feet of floor space;
(b) The operator must provide at least fifty square feet of floor space for each worker in rooms used for sleeping purposes.
(7) Ceiling height.
(a) A ceiling height of at least seven feet is required in fifty percent of the total floor area.
(b) No portion of the tent measuring less than six feet from the flooring to the ceiling will be included in any computation of the floor area.
(8) Windows and ventilation.
(a) Provide a window area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area in each habitable room which opens at least halfway or more directly to the outside for cross-ventilation and has a minimum of sixteen-mesh screens on all exterior openings.
(b) The windows must have weather-resistant flaps, which will cover the window area and a means of fastening the flaps to provide protection from the elements and allow privacy for the workers.
(9) Electrical and lighting. ((The operator must ensure that:))
(a) The operator must ensure that electricity is supplied to all tents used as habitable room.
(b) The operator must ensure that all electrical wiring, fixtures and electrical equipment must comply with the electrical standards of the department of labor and industries regulations, chapter 19.28 RCW, and local ordinances, and be maintained in a safe condition.
(c) The operator must ensure that each tent used as a habitable room has at least one ceiling-type light fixture and at least one separate floor-type or wall-type convenience outlet.
(d) If cooking is provided in the tent, the operator must ensure that appropriate wiring and electrical equipment is provided.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16150Laundry facilities.
((An operator must:))
(1) An operator must provide laundry facilities that include:
(a) One laundry tray or tub or one mechanical washing machine for every thirty occupants;
(b) Adequate facilities for drying clothes; and
(c) Sloped, coved floors of nonslip impervious materials with screened floor drains.
(2) An operator must maintain laundry facilities in a clean and sanitary condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16155Handwashing and bathing facilities.
((An operator must:))
(1) An operator must provide handwashing and bathing facilities adequate for the maximum capacity of the TWH according to Table 1 of WAC 296-307-16115.
(2) An operator must meet the following general requirements for all handwashing and bathing facilities:
(a) Provide cleanable, nonabsorbent waste containers;
(b) Provide all showers, baths, or shower rooms with screened floor drains to remove waste water;
(c) Maintain fixtures and drains in good working order;
(d) Separate showers with partitions or walls.
(i) Partitions and walls must ensure privacy and be smooth, cleanable, and nonabsorbent.
(ii) For a bathing facility constructed or approved for construction under chapter 246-359 WAC before January 1, 2016, partitions or walls are required by January 1, 2017.
(e) All showers separated by partitions must ensure privacy.
(3) An operator must meet the following requirements for common facilities:
(a) One handwash sink for every six occupants. Of these handwash sinks, locate adjacent to toilets at least one handwash sink for every fifteen occupants;
(b) One showerhead for every ten occupants;
(c) One "service sink" in each building used for common laundry, handwashing, or bathing;
(d) Sloped, coved floors of nonslip impervious materials with floor drains;
(e) Shower and bathing facilities must provide privacy from the opposite sex and the public;
(f) Maintain common bathing and handwashing facilities in a clean and sanitary condition, cleaned at least daily; and
(g) Bathing and shower facilities must be available at all times during operation of the TWH.
(4) An operator must meet the following requirements for family shelters:
(a) At least one handwash sink per family shelter. If an operator provides a family shelter with toilet facilities, at least one handwash sink located in the toilet room or immediately adjacent to the toilet room; and
(b) Request occupants in family shelters to maintain bathing and handwashing facilities in a clean and sanitary condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16160Toilet facilities.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must provide toilet facilities adequate for the maximum capacity of the TWH according to Table 1 of WAC 296-307-16115.
(2) The operator must not provide or allow the use of pit privies.
(3) The operator must fill abandoned pit privies with earth.
(4) The operator must meet the following general requirements for all toilet facilities:
(a) Provide flush toilets unless chemical toilets are specifically approved by the department of health according to requirements in chapter 246-272 WAC;
(b) Flush toilets, chemical toilets, and urinals must not be located in any sleeping room, dining room, cooking or food-handling facility or in any tent;
(c) Toilet rooms must be provided with:
(i) Handwashing sinks located in or immediately adjacent to the toilet room;
(ii) Either a window of at least six square feet opening directly to the outside or adequate ventilation;
(iii) Sixteen-mesh screens on all outside openings;
(iv) Fixtures maintained in good working order, including toilet(s) and sink(s); and
(v) Drains maintained in good working order, including floor drains with screens.
(d) When chemical toilets are approved, they must be:
(i) Located at least fifty feet from any dwelling unit or food-handling facility;
(ii) Maintained by a licensed waste disposal company;
(iii) Comply with local ordinances; and
(iv) Located immediately adjacent to a handwash sink(s); and
(e) When urinals are provided:
(i) There must be one urinal or two linear feet of urinal trough for each twenty-five men;
(ii) The floors and the walls surrounding a urinal and extending out at least fifteen inches on all sides must be constructed of materials which will not be adversely affected by moisture; and
(iii) The urinal must have an adequate water flush.
(5) The operator must meet the following requirements for common toilet facilities:
(a) Where common toilet facilities are provided, the number of toilets for each sex must be based on the maximum number of occupants of that sex which the camp is designed to house at any one time, in the ratio of one such toilet for every fifteen occupants, with a minimum of two toilets according to Table 1 of WAC 296-307-16115;
(b) Locate toilet rooms so that:
(i) Toilets are within two hundred feet of the door of each sleeping room; and
(ii) No person has to pass through a sleeping room to reach a toilet room.
(c) Maintain toilets in a clean and sanitary condition, cleaned at least daily;
(d) Provide each toilet compartment with an adequate supply of toilet paper at all times;
(e) Separate toilets by partitions or walls. For the purposes of this section, partitions do not include curtains.
(i) Partitions and walls must ensure privacy, and must have smooth, cleanable, and nonabsorbent surfaces;
(ii) For a common toilet facility constructed or approved for construction under chapter 246-359 WAC before January 1, 2016, partitions or walls are required by January 1, 2017.
(f) Ensure the area surrounding common toilet facilities are adequately lighted; and
(g) When common facilities will be used for both men and women:
(i) Provide separate toilet rooms for each sex with a minimum of one toilet room for each sex and meet the required ratio as defined in (a) of this subsection;
(ii) Identify each room for "men" and "women" with signs printed in English and in the native language of the persons occupying the camp, or identified with easily understood pictures or symbols; and
(iii) Separate facilities by solid walls or partitions extending from the floor to the roof or ceiling when facilities for each sex are located in the same building.
(6) The operator must meet the following requirements for family shelters if common toilet facilities are not provided:
(a) One toilet for each individual family shelter;
(b) Ensure toilet facilities are cleaned prior to occupancy; and
(c) Request occupants to maintain the facilities in a clean and sanitary condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16165Cooking and food-handling facilities.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must provide sanitary facilities for storing and preparing food;
(2) ((Provided))The operator must provide all food-handling facilities with:
(a) Covered and enclosed or screened cooking and food-handling facilities for all occupants;
(b) Covered and enclosed or screened eating facilities with adequate tables and seating for the occupants;
(c) If provided, hotplates that meet WAC 296-307-16140(2);
(d) A sink with hot and cold running potable water under pressure;
(e) At least two cubic feet of dry food storage space per occupant;
(f) Nonabsorbent, and easily cleanable food preparation surfaces situated off the floor;
(g) Mechanical refrigeration conveniently located and able to maintain a temperature of forty degrees Fahrenheit or below, with at least two cubic feet of storage space per occupant;
(h) Fire-resistant, nonabsorbent, nonasbestos, and easily cleanable wall coverings adjacent to cooking areas;
(i) Nonabsorbent, easily cleanable floors;
(j) Adequate ventilation for cooking facilities; and
(k) Cooking facilities, including fixtures and drains, maintained in good working order.
(3) In common food-handling facilities, the operator must provide:
(a) A room, building, or space within a building adequate in size, separate from any sleeping quarters or tent for workers to prepare and cook their own food;
(b) No direct openings to living or sleeping areas from the common food-handling facility;
(c) An operable cook stove or electric hotplate with four cooking surfaces for every ten workers through any combination of cooking surfaces including burners, one foot in length of burner surface, microwave ovens, stove ovens, or convection ovens.
(4) In family shelter food-handling facilities, the operator ((shall))must provide an operable cook stove or electric hotplate with four cooking surfaces for every ten workers through any combination of cooking surfaces including burners, one foot in length of burner surface, microwave ovens, stove ovens, or convection ovens.
(5) The operator must ensure that common dining hall facilities comply with chapter 246-215 WAC, Food service.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16170Cots, beds, bedding, and personal storage.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must provide beds, cots, or bunks in good condition for the maximum occupancy approved by the department of health for operator-supplied housing;
(2) The operator must allow the use of cots in tents for cherry harvest camps only. Cots must be sturdy and stable and without:
(a) Visible mold;
(b) Rips or tears;
(c) Insect infestation;
(d) Stains from bodily fluids; and
(e) Rodents or rodent droppings.
(3) In TWH other than cherry harvest camps, the operator must provide beds and bunks with clean mattresses in good repair and without:
(a) Mold;
(b) Rips or tears;
(c) Insect infestation;
(d) Stains from bodily fluids; or
(e) Rodents or rodent droppings.
(4) If provided by the operator, the operator must maintain bedding((, if provided by the operator,)) in a clean and sanitary condition;
(5) The operator must locate all beds, cots, and bedding at least thirty-six inches from cooking surfaces;
(6) The operator must provide a minimum of twelve inches of clearance between each cot, bed or bunk and the floor;
(7) The operator must allow space to separate beds or cots laterally and end-to-end by at least thirty-six inches when single beds or cots are used;
(8) The operator must meet the following requirements when bunk beds are used:
(a) Allow space to separate beds laterally and end-to-end by at least forty-eight inches;
(b) Maintain a minimum space of twenty-seven inches between the upper and lower bunks; and
(c) Prohibit triple bunks.
(9) The operator must provide all occupants suitable storage space for clothing and personal articles. Storage space must be located in the occupant's room used for sleeping;
(10) Effective January 1, 2017, for each temporary worker housed in a common sleeping facility, the operator must provide suitable storage space that must:
(a) Ensure all or a portion of the storage space is enclosed and lockable;
(b) Be anchored in a manner which adequately prevents the storage space from being removed from the building; and
(c) Be accessible to the temporary worker.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16175First aid and safety.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must comply with chapters 15.58 and 17.21 RCW and chapters 16-228 and 296-307 WAC, Parts I and J, and pesticide label instructions when using pesticides in and around the TWH;
(2) The operator must prohibit, in the TWH area, the use, storage, or mixing of flammable, volatile, or toxic substances other than those intended for household use;
(3) The operator must provide readily accessible first-aid equipment;
(4) The operator must ensure that a first-aid trained person is readily accessible to administer first aid at all times;
(5) The operator must remove unused refrigerator units or other appliances to prevent access by children.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 1/1/16)
WAC 296-307-16180Refuse (waste) disposal.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must comply with local sanitation codes for removing and disposing of refuse from TWH areas;
(2) The operator must protect against rodent harborage, insect breeding, and other health hazards while storing, collecting, transporting, and disposing of refuse;
(3) The operator must store refuse in fly-tight, rodent-tight, impervious, and cleanable or reusable containers or in single-use containers;
(4) The operator must keep refuse containers clean;
(5) The operator must provide at least one reusable container for each dwelling unit that is:
(a) Located within one hundred feet of each dwelling unit;
(b) Placed on a solid, flat, and level stand made of wood, metal, or concrete; and
(c) Secured to prevent falling over or spilling.
(6) The operator must empty refuse containers at least twice each week, and when full.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 15-13-092, filed 6/15/15, effective 7/16/15)
WAC 296-307-16190Disease prevention and control.
((The operator must:))
(1) The operator must report immediately to the local health officer the name and address of any individual in the camp known to have or suspected of having a communicable disease;
(2) The operator must report immediately to the local health officer:
(a) Suspected food poisoning;
(b) An unusual prevalence of fever, diarrhea, sore throat, vomiting, or jaundice;
(c) Productive cough; or
(d) When weight loss is a prominent symptom among workers.
(3) The operator must prohibit any individual with a communicable disease from preparing, cooking, serving, or handling food, foodstuffs, or materials in dining halls.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18005((How must))Guarding fan blades ((be guarded?)).
((You))The employer must guard the blades of a fan located less than seven feet above the floor or working level. The guard must have maximum openings of one-half inch.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18010((How must))Guarding constant-running drives ((be guarded?)).
Constant-running drives. Drives that continue to rotate when the engine is running and all clutches are disengaged.
Shields, guards, and access doors that will prevent accidental contact with rotating machine parts on constant-running drives must be in place when the machine is running.
Exception:
This requirement does not apply to combines when guards could create fire hazards.
(("Constant-running drives" means drives that continue to rotate when the engine is running and all clutches are disengaged.))
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18015((What))Training ((must)) an employer must provide for employees who use agricultural equipment((?)).
At the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter, ((you))the employer must instruct every employee in the safe operation and servicing of all equipment that the employee will use, including at least the following:
(1) Keep all guards in place when the machine is in operation.
(2) Only persons required for instruction or machine operation may ride on equipment, unless a passenger seat or other protective device is provided.
(3) Stop engine, disconnect the power source, and wait for all machine movement to stop before servicing, adjusting, cleaning, or unclogging the equipment.
Exception:
When the machine must be running to be properly serviced or maintained, ((you))the employer must instruct employees in the steps and procedures necessary to safely service or maintain the equipment.
(4) Make sure everyone is clear of machinery before starting the engine, engaging power, or operating the machine.
(5) Lock out electrical power before performing maintenance or service on farmstead equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18020((What requirements apply to))Machine controls((?)).
(1) If machine operation requires the presence of an operator on the machine, a "stop button" must be provided on the machine within reach of the operator.
(2) Power control devices must be marked to indicate the function and machine they control. "On" and "off" must be marked.
(3) "Stop" buttons must be red or orange. Each machine must have one or more stop buttons according to the working position of the operators.
(4) Power control devices must be located or guarded to prevent unexpected or accidental movement of the control. "Start" buttons must be recessed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18025((How must))Steam pipe((s be guarded?))guarding.
(1) All steam pipes or pipes hot enough to burn a person (other than coil pipes, radiators for heating rooms or buildings, or pipes on portable steam engines and boilers) must be guarded with a standard safeguard, unless guarded by location.
(2) All exposed hot pipes within seven feet of the floor or working platform, or within fifteen inches measured horizontally from stairways, ramps, or fixed ladders, must be covered with insulating material or be guarded to prevent contact.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18503((What general requirements apply to))Powered saws((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that all cracked saw blades are removed from service, except as indicated in WAC 296-307-18515(6).
(2) Inserting a wedge between a saw disk and its collar to form a "wobble saw" for rabbeting or dadoing is prohibited.
Exception:
This does not apply to properly designed adjustable rabbeting blades.
(3) ((You))The employer must provide and ensure that employees use push sticks or push blocks in sizes and types suitable for the work to be done.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18506((How must))Guarding band saws ((be guarded?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that all band wheels are completely encased or guarded on both sides. Guards must be constructed of at least No. 14 U.S. gauge metal, nominal two-inch wood material, or mesh or perforated metal of at least U.S. gauge No. 20 with maximum openings of three-eighths inch.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that all nonworking portions of the band saw blade are enclosed or guarded. The working side of the blade between the guide and the table may be left open to work on the stock.
(3) ((You))The employer must ensure that the guard for the portion of the blade between the sliding guide and the upper-saw-wheel guard protects the saw blade at the front and outer side.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18509((How must))Guarding radial arm saws ((be guarded?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that the upper hood completely encloses the upper portion of the blade, including the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood must be constructed to protect the operator from flying material, and to deflect sawdust. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade must be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock. ((You))The employer may use an alternative lower blade guard if it provides equivalent protection.
(2) ((You))The employer must provide an adjustable stop to prevent the forward travel of the blade beyond the position necessary to complete the cut.
(3) ((You))The employer must equip a radial arm-saw with a mechanism to return the saw and keep it in position at the back of the table or behind the rip fence.
For example: ((You))The employer may use a counter-weight or a saw retractor device, or tilt the front of the radial arm saw unit up enough to maintain the blade at the back of the table or behind the rip fence when the pull handle is released by the operator.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that ripping and ploughing are permitted only against the direction in which the saw turns. Mark the direction of the saw rotation on the hood, and attach a permanent warning sign to the rear of the guard that prohibits ripping or ploughing from that position. (Where the blade teeth exit the upper hood when set up for ripping would be the rear of the saw in this case.) Each radial arm saw used for ripping must be provided with antikickback fingers or dogs to prevent the saw from throwing the material or stock back at the operator.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18512((How must))Guarding table saws ((be guarded?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that each circular blade table saw used for ripping or crosscutting is guarded by a standard hood that covers the saw blade above the material completely at all times during the cut. The hood must adjust itself automatically to the thickness of, and must remain in contact with, the material being cut.
Exception:
When finished surfaces of stock may be marred by the guard, it may be raised slightly to avoid contact. The hood must be designed to protect the operator from flying material.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that any table saw used for ripping has antikickback fingers or dogs and a spreader.
(3) While used for rabbeting, ploughing, grooving or dadoing a table saw may be used without an antikickback device and a spreader. Upon completion, the antikickback device and spreader must be replaced immediately.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that the part of the table saw that is beneath the table is fully guarded to prevent employee contact with the portion of the blade below the table.
(5) Power transmission components of table saws must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-280.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-18515((How must))Guarding circular fuel-wood saws ((be guarded?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that fuel-wood saws are guarded by a standard guard that completely encloses the blade to the depth of the teeth, except for the area where material is fed into the blade.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that the tables of fuel-wood saws is constructed so that material being sawed is supported on both sides of the blade.
(3) ((You))The employer must provide a mechanism that will prevent the leading edge of the saw from passing the front edge of the table or roll case.
(4) ((You))The employer must provide tilting tables of fuel-wood saws with a backrest for the full length of the table. The backrest must extend upward from the table platform at least to the height of the saw opening. An opening in a backrest must be a maximum of two inches. The backrest frame and filler must be constructed of material strong and rigid enough to prevent distortion under normal use.
(5) Power transmission components of fuel-wood saws must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-280.
(6) When a circular fuel-wood saw blade develops a crack, ((you))the employer must discontinue its use until properly repaired, according to the following measurements.
Length of
crack
Diameter of saw
in inches
1/2"
12"
1"
24"
1-1/2"
36"
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-19003((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Abrasive wheel((" means)). A cutting tool consisting of abrasive grains held together by organic or inorganic bonds. This includes diamond and reinforced wheels.
(("))Flanges((" means)). Collars, discs, or plates between which wheels are mounted. Also referred to as adapter, sleeve, or back.
(("))Mounted wheels((" means)). Wheels of various dimensions that are usually 2 inches in diameter or smaller. They can be either organic or inorganic bonded abrasive wheels. They are secured to plain or threaded steel mandrels.
(("))Off-hand grinding((" means)). Grinding material or a part that is held in the operator's hand.
(("))Portable grinding((" means)). The grinding machine is hand-held and may be easily moved from one location to another.
(("))Reinforced wheels((" means)). A class of organic wheels that contain strengthening fabric or filament. "Reinforced" does not mean wheels using such mechanical additions as steel rings, steel cup backs, or wire or tape winding.
(("))Safety guard((" means)). An enclosure designed to restrain the pieces of the grinding wheel and protect the operator in the event that the wheel is broken in operation.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-19006((What rules apply to))Guarding abrasive wheels((?)).
(1) Abrasive wheels must be used only on machines provided with safety guards.
Exception:
This requirement does not apply to the following:
 
(((a)))1. Wheels used for internal work while the wheel is within the work being ground.
 
(((b)))2. Mounted wheels 2 inches and smaller in diameter, used in portable operations.
 
(((c)))3. Types 16, 17, 18, 18R, and 19 cones, plugs, and threaded hole pot balls where the work offers protection.
 
(((d)))4. Specially shaped "sickle grinding" wheels mounted in mandrel-type bench or floor stands.
(2) The safety guard must cover the spindle end, nut, and flange projections.
Exceptions:
(((a)))1. When the work provides protection to the operator, the spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed. When the work entirely covers the side of the wheel, the side covers of the guard may be omitted.
 
(((b)))2. The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on portable machines designed for, and used with, type 6, 11, 27, and 28 abrasive wheels, cutting off wheels, and tuck pointing wheels.
 
(((c)))3. The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws.
(3) The guard must cover the sides and periphery of the wheel.
Exceptions:
(((a)))1. Bench and floor stands((;)):
 
(((i)))a. The maximum permissible angle of exposure is 90°. This exposure must begin at a point not more than 65° above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle.
 
(((ii)))b. Wherever the nature of the work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the exposure must not exceed 125°. This exposure must begin at a point not more than 65° above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle.
 
(((b)))2. Swing-frame grinders may only be exposed on the bottom half; the top half of the wheel must be enclosed at all times.
 
(((c)))3. Where the work is applied to the top of the wheel, the exposure of the grinding wheel periphery must not exceed 60°.
 
(((d)))4. When the work entirely covers the side of the wheel, the side covers of the guard may be omitted.
(4) The safety guard must be mounted to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the strength of the fastenings must exceed the strength of the guard.
(5) Take care to see that the safety guard is properly positioned before starting the mounted wheel.
(6) Abrasive wheel machinery guards must meet the design specifications of ANSI B7.1-1970.
(7) Exception: WAC 296-307-19006 does not apply to natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or paper discs, with a layer of abrasive on the surface.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-19009((What are))The use, mounting, and guarding rules for abrasive wheels((?)).
(1) Immediately before mounting, the operator must closely inspect and sound (ring test) all wheels to make sure they are not damaged. Before mounting the wheel, the operator must check the spindle speed of the machine to be certain that it does not exceed the maximum operating speed marked on the wheel.
(("))Ring test((" means)). To tap the wheel gently with a light nonmetallic implement, such as the handle of a screwdriver for light wheels, or a wooden mallet for heavier wheels.
(2) Grinding wheels must fit freely on the spindle and remain free under all grinding conditions. The wheel hole must be made suitably oversized to ensure that heat and pressure do not create a hazard.
(3) All contact surfaces of wheels, blotters, and flanges must be flat and free of foreign matter.
(4) Bushings used in the wheel hole must not exceed the width of the wheel and must not contact the flanges.
(5) On offhand grinding machines, work rests must be used to support the work. The work rest must be rigid and adjustable to compensate for wheel wear. Work rests must be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of one-eighth inch to prevent the work from jamming between the wheel and the rest. The work rest must be securely clamped after each adjustment and ((shall))must not be adjusted with the wheel in motion.
(6) Goggles or face shields must be used when grinding.
(7) Nonportable grinding machines must be securely mounted on substantial floors, benches, foundations, or other adequate structures.
(8) After mounting, abrasive wheels must be run at operating speed with the safety guard in place and properly adjusted, or in a protected enclosure for at least one minute before applying work. During this time, no one may stand in front of or in line with the wheel.
(9) Grinders or abrasive wheels that vibrate or are out of balance must be repaired before use.
(10) Abrasive wheels not designed for the machine or guard must not be mounted on a grinder.
(11) Side grinding must only be performed with wheels designed for this purpose.
Note:
Light grinding on the side of straight wheels is permitted only when very delicate pressure is applied.
(12) Where the operator may stand in front of the opening, safety guards must be adjustable to compensate for wheel wear. The distance between the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue or the guard above the wheel must not exceed one-quarter inch.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-19012((What requirements apply to))Flanges((?)).
(1) Grinding machines must have flanges.
(2) All abrasive wheels must be mounted between flanges that are at least one-third the diameter of the wheel. Regardless of flange type used, the wheel must always be guarded. Blotters must be used according to this section.
(3) Design and material requirements include:
(a) Flanges must be designed to transmit the driving torque from the spindle to the grinding wheel.
(b) Flanges must be made of steel, cast iron, or other material of equal or greater strength and rigidity.
(4) An abrasive wheel that is designed to be held by flanges must not be operated without them. Except for those types requiring flanges of a special design, flanges must be at least one-third the diameter of the wheel.
(5) Facings of compressible material (blotters) must be inserted between the abrasive wheel and flanges to ensure uniform distribution of flange pressure.
(6) All flanges must be maintained in good condition. When the bearing surfaces become damaged, they should be trued or refaced. When refacing or truing, exercise care to make sure that proper relief and rigidity is maintained before starting the wheel.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-19015((How must))Guarding vertical portable grinders ((be guarded?)).
Safety guards on right angle head or vertical portable grinders must have a maximum exposure angle of 180°, and the guard must be between the operator and the wheel during use. The guard must be adjusted so that pieces of an accidentally broken wheel will be deflected away from the operator.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-19018((How must))Guarding other portable grinders ((be guarded?)).
Other portable grinding machines must be guarded so that only the bottom half of the wheel is exposed. The top half of the wheel must be enclosed at all times.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-195((What rules apply to))Grounding and "dead man" controls for hand-held portable power tools((?)).
(1) Each hand-held, power-driven tool must have a "dead man" control, such as a spring-actuated switch, valve, or equivalent device, so that the power will be automatically shut off whenever the operator releases the control.
(2) The frames and all exposed, noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable electric machinery, operated at more than fifty volts to ground, must be grounded. Other hand-held portable motors driving electric tools must be grounded if they operate at more than fifty volts to ground. The ground must use a separate ground wire and polarized plug and receptacle.
Exception:
Double insulated tools that are designed and used according to the requirements of Article 250-45 of the National Electrical Code (1971 edition) are exempt from the grounding requirements.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-20005((May))Compressed air ((be used)) for cleaning((?)).
Using compressed air for cleaning purposes is prohibited, except where the pressure is reduced to less than 30 psi and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-20010((What requirements apply to))Compressed air tools((?)).
(1) When using compressed air tools, use care to prevent the tool from being shot from the gun.
(2) When momentarily out of use, the gun should be laid so that the tool cannot fly out if the pressure is accidentally released. When not in use, all tools should be removed from the gun.
(3) When disconnecting a compressed air tool from the air line, first shut off the pressure and then operate the tool to release the pressure remaining in the hose.
(4) Compressed air hose or guns must not be pointed at or brought into contact with the body of any person.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-20505((What requirements apply to))Guarding portable powered tools((?)).
(1) All portable, power-driven circular saws with a blade diameter greater than 2 inches must have guards above and below the base plate or shoe.
(a) The upper guard must cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts.
(b) The lower guard must cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work.
(c) When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard must automatically and instantly return to covering position.
(2) Portable belt sanding machines must have guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs onto a pulley. These guards must prevent the hands or fingers of the operator from coming in contact with the nip points. The unused run of the sanding belt must be guarded against accidental contact.
(3) Portable electric powered tools must meet the electrical requirements of chapter 296-307 WAC Part T.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-20510((What requirements apply to))Switches and controls on portable powered tools((?)).
(1) The following powered tools must have a constant pressure switch or control that will shut off the power when the pressure is released:
(())(a) All hand-held powered circular saws with a blade diameter-greater than 2 inches;
(())(b) Electric, hydraulic or pneumatic chain saws; and
(())(c) Percussion tools without positive accessory holding means.
All hand-held gasoline powered chain saws must have a constant pressure throttle control that will shut off the power to the saw chain when the pressure is released.
(2) The following powered tools must have a constant pressure switch or control:
(())(a) All hand-held powered drills, tappers, fastener drivers, and horizontal, vertical, and angle grinders with wheels greater than 2 inches in diameter;
(())(b) Disc sanders with discs greater than 2 inches in diameter;
(())(c) Belt sanders;
(())(d) Reciprocating saws;
(())(e) Saber, scroll, and jig saws with blade shanks greater than a nominal 1/4 inch; and
(())(f) Other similarly operating powered tools.
These tools may have a lock-on control if they can be turned off by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on.
(3) The following powered tools must have either a positive on-off control, or other controls as described above:
(())(a) All other hand-held powered tools, including:
(())(b) Platen sanders;
(())(c) Grinders with wheels 2 inches in diameter or less;
(())(d) Disc sanders with discs 2 inches in diameter or less;
(())(e) Routers;
(())(f) Planers;
(())(g) Laminate trimmers;
(())(h) Nibblers;
(())(i) Shears; and
(())(j) Saber, scroll, and jig saws with blade shanks a nominal 1/4 inch wide or less.
(((a)))(i) Saber, scroll, and jig saws with nonstandard blade holders may use blades with shanks that are nonuniform in width, if the narrowest portion of the blade shank is an integral part in mounting the blade.
(((b)))(ii) Blade shank width must be measured at the narrowest portion of the blade shank when saber, scroll, and jig saws have nonstandard blade holders.
(((c)))(iii) "Nominal" in this section means +0.05 inch.
(4) The operating control on hand-held power tools must be located to minimize the possibility of accidental operation that would constitute a hazard to employees.
Exception:
This section does not apply to concrete vibrators, concrete breakers, powered tampers, jack hammers, rock drills, garden appliances, household and kitchen appliances, personal care appliances, or to fixed machinery.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-20515((What requirements apply to))Pneumatic powered tools and hose((?)).
(1) The operating trigger on portable pneumatic powered tools must be located to minimize the possibility of accidental operation and arranged to close the air inlet valve automatically when the operator removes pressure.
(2) A tool retainer must be installed on each tool that would otherwise be ejected from the hose.
(3) Hose and hose connections used for conducting compressed air to utilization equipment must be designed for the pressure and service to which they are subjected.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-22003((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Blade tip circle((" means)). The path described by the outermost point of the blade as it rotates about its shaft axis.
(("))Catcher assembly((" means)). A part that provides a means for collecting grass clippings or debris.
(("))Deadman control((" means)). A control designed to automatically interrupt power to a drive when the operator releases the control.
(("))Guard((" means)). A part for shielding a hazardous area of a machine.
(("))Lowest blade position((" means)). The lowest blade position when the mower is not in use.
(("))Operator area((")) (walk-behind mowers) ((means)). A circular area behind the mower that is no smaller than 30 inches in diameter, the center of which is 30 inches behind the nearest blade tip circle.
(("))Power reel mower((" means)). A lawn-cutting machine with a power source that rotates one or more helically formed blades about a horizontal axis and creates a shearing action with a stationary cutter bar or bed knife.
(("))Power rotary mower((" means)). A lawn-cutting machine with a power source that rotates one or more cutting blades about a vertical axis.
(("))Riding mower((" means)). A powered, self-propelled lawn-cutting vehicle on which the operator rides and controls the machine.
(("))Sulky type mower((" means)). A walk-behind mower that has been converted to a riding mower by the addition of a sulky.
(("))Walk-behind mower((" means)). A mower either pushed or self-propelled and normally guided by the operator walking behind the unit.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-22006((What are the general))Guarding ((requirements for)) power lawnmowers((?)).
(1) Walk-behind, riding-rotary, and reel power lawnmowers designed for use by employees must meet the design specifications in ANSI B71.1-1968.
Exception:
These specifications do not apply to sulky-type mowers, flail mowers, sickle-bar mowers, or mowers designed for commercial use.
(2) All power-driven chains, belts, and gears must be positioned or guarded to prevent accidental contact with the operator during normal starting, mounting, and operation of the machine.
(3) The motor must have a shutoff device that requires manual and intentional reactivation to restart the motor.
(4) All positions of the operating controls must be clearly identified.
(5) The words, "Caution — Be sure the operating control(s) is in neutral before starting the engine," or similar wording must be clearly visible at an engine starting control point on self-propelled mowers.
(6) All power lawn mowers must be used according to the manufacturer's instructions.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-22009((What rules apply to))Walk-behind and riding rotary mowers((?)).
(1) The mower blade must be enclosed except on the bottom and the enclosure must extend to or below the lowest blade position.
(2) Guards that must be removed to install a catcher assembly must meet the following requirements:
(a) Warning instructions are attached to the mower near the opening stating that the mower must not be used without either the catcher assembly or the guard in place.
(b) The mower is used only with either the catcher assembly or the guard in place.
(c) The catcher assembly is properly and completely installed.
(3) The word "caution" or stronger wording must be placed on the mower at or near each discharge opening.
(4) Blade(s) must stop rotating from the manufacturer's specified maximum speed within 15 seconds after declutching, or shutting off power.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-22012((What rules apply to))Walk-behind rotary mowers((?)).
(1) The horizontal angle of the grass discharge opening(s) in the blade enclosure must not contact the operator area.
(2) There must be one of the following at all grass discharge openings:
(a) A minimum of 3 inches between the end of the discharge chute and the blade tip circle; or
(b) A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening, secured to prevent removal without the use of tools. The bottom of the bar must be no higher than the bottom edge of the blade enclosure.
(3) The highest point(s) on the blade enclosure front, except discharge-openings, must be a maximum of 1-1/4 inches above the lowest blade position. Mowers with a swingover handle are considered to have no front in the blade enclosure and therefore must comply with WAC 296-307-22009(1).
(4) The mower handle must be fastened to the mower to prevent loss of control by unintentional uncoupling while in operation.
(5) Mower handles must be locked in the normal operating position(s) so that they cannot be accidentally disengaged during normal mower operation.
(6) A swingover handle must meet the requirements of this section.
(7) Wheel drive disengaging controls, except deadman controls, must move opposite to the direction of the vehicle motion in order to disengage the drive. Deadman controls may operate in any direction to disengage the drive.
(8) ((You))The employer must ensure that each walk-behind rotary mower has a positive constant-pressure device that requires the operator to hold the device in the "on" position to operate the mower. Using rope or string or other material to tie the constant pressure device in the "on" position is prohibited.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-22015((What rules apply to))Riding rotary mowers((?)).
(1) The highest point(s) of all openings in the blade enclosure front must be a maximum of 1 1/4 inches above the lowest blade position.
(2) Opening(s) must not allow grass or debris to discharge directly toward the operator seated in normal operator position.
(3) There must be one of the following at all grass discharge openings:
(a) A minimum of 6 inches between the end of the discharge chute and the blade tip circle; or
(b) A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening secured to prevent removal without the use of tools. The bottom of the bar must be no higher than the bottom edge of the blade enclosure.
(4) Mowers must have stops to prevent jackknifing or locking of the steering mechanism.
(5) The mower must have brakes.
(6) Hand-operated wheel drive disengaging controls must move opposite to the direction of vehicle motion in order to disengage the drive. Foot-operated wheel drive disengaging controls must be depressed to disengage the drive. Deadman controls, both hand and foot operated, may operate in any direction to disengage the drive.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-22503((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Jack((" means)). An appliance for lifting and lowering or moving horizontally a load using a pushing force.
Note:
Jack types include lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.
(("))Rating((" means)). The maximum working load for which a jack is designed to lift the load safely throughout its travel.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-22506((How shall))The rated load must be marked on a jack((?)).
(1) The operator must make sure that the jack used has a load rating sufficient to lift and sustain the load.
(2) The rated load must be legibly and permanently marked in a prominent location on the jack by casting, stamping, or other suitable means.
Note:
((You))The operator should follow the manufacturer's specifications to raise the rated load of a jack.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-22509((What rules apply to the))Operation and maintenance of jacks((?)).
(1) If the foundation is not firm, ((you))the operator must block the base of the jack. If the cap might slip, ((you))the operator must place a block in between the cap and the load.
(2) The operator must watch the stop indicator, which must be kept clean, in order to determine the limit of travel. The indicated limit must not be overrun.
(3) After the load has been raised, it must immediately be cribbed, blocked, or otherwise secured. Working under a load raised only with jacks is prohibited.
(4) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures must be supplied with an adequate antifreeze liquid.
(5) All jacks must be properly lubricated at regular intervals. The lubricating instructions of the manufacturer should be followed, and only lubricants recommended by the manufacturer should be used.
(6) ((You))The operator must ensure that each jack is thoroughly inspected according to the service conditions and at least:
(a) For constant or intermittent use at one locality, once every 6 months;
(b) For jacks sent out of shop for special work, when sent out and when returned;
(c) For a jack subjected to abnormal load or shock, immediately before and immediately thereafter.
(7) Repair or replacement parts must be examined for possible defects.
(8) Jacks that are out of order must be tagged, and not be used until repaired.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-230((What are the))General requirements for materials handling and storage((?)).
(1) Safe clearances of three feet must be allowed for aisles, loading docks, doorways, and wherever turns or passage must be made. Passageways must be kept clear and in good repair, with no obstructions.
(2) Bags, bales, boxes, and other containers stored in tiers must be made secure against sliding or collapse.
(3) Storage areas must be kept free from any accumulation of materials that could cause tripping, fire, or explosion.
(4) Employees must be instructed in proper lifting or moving techniques and methods. Mechanical devices or assistance in lifting must be used when moving heavy objects.
(5) When removing material stored in piles, employees must remove material in a manner that maintains the stability of the pile and prevents collapse.
(6) Storage areas must have proper drainage.
(7) ((You))The employer must provide clearance signs to warn of clearance limits.
(8) For powered industrial truck (forklift) requirements, see WAC 296-307-520.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-232((What requirements apply to))Conveyors((?)).
Conveyors must be constructed, operated, and maintained according to ANSI B 20.1-1957.
(1) When the return strand of a conveyor operates within seven feet of the floor, there must also be a trough strong enough to carry the weight resulting from a broken chain.
(2) If the strands are over a passageway, a means must be provided to catch and support the ends of the chain in the event of a break.
(3) When the working strand of a conveyor crosses within three feet of the floor level in passageways, a bridge must be provided for employees to cross over the conveyor.
(4) Whenever conveyors pass adjacent to or over working areas or passageways, protective guards must be installed. These guards must be designed to catch and hold any load or materials that may fall off or dislodge and injure an employee.
(5) Employees must be prohibited from walking on the rolls of roller-type conveyors. If employees must walk on roller-type conveyors because of an emergency, the conveyor must be shut off first.
(6) Guards, screens, or barricades that are strong enough to prevent material from falling must be installed on all sides of the shaftway of elevator-type conveyors except at openings where material is loaded or unloaded. Automatic shaftway gates or suitable barriers must be installed at each floor level where material is loaded or unloaded from the platform.
(7) Conveyors must have an emergency stopping device that can be reached from the conveyor. The device must be located near the material entrance to each chopper, mulcher, saw, or similar equipment. The device must be located so that it can stop the conveyor before an employee enters the point of operation of the machine fed by the conveyor.
Exception:
The emergency stopping device is not required where the conveyor leading into the equipment is under constant control of an operator with full view of the material entrance and the conveyor is located where the operator cannot fall onto it.
(8) Where conveyors are over seven feet high, means must be provided to safely permit essential inspection and maintenance operations.
(9) Any part showing signs of significant wear must be inspected carefully and replaced before it creates a hazard.
(10) Replacement parts must be equal to or exceed the manufacturer's specifications.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24001((Must an))The employer must comply with state health regulations((?)).
((You))The employer must comply with the rules and regulations of the state board of health governing sanitation in the workplace. We enforce these regulations according to RCW 43.20.050.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-24003((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-240 covers sanitation for employees who normally work in fixed, indoor places of agricultural employment.
((A "))Fixed, indoor workplace((" is)). One where the employees perform a majority of their duties at that site.
This does not cover field employees who only occasionally enter a shop or other farm building as part of their normal duties. Field employees are covered by the field sanitation requirements of WAC 296-307-095.
This section does not cover measures for the control of toxic materials.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24006((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Lavatory((" means)). A basin used exclusively for washing hands, arms, face, and head.
(("))Personal service room((" means)). A room used for activities not directly connected with the business function of the employer. Such activities include, but are not limited to, first aid, medical services, dressing, showering, toilet use, washing, and eating.
(("))Potable water((" means)). Water that meets state or local quality standards for drinking water, or water that meets the quality standards of the Environmental Protection Agency's "National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations," published in 40 C.F.R., Part 141, and 40 C.F.R. 147.2400.
(("))Toilet facility((" means)). A fixture maintained within a toilet room for the purpose of defecation or urination, or both.
(("))Toilet room((" means)). A room maintained within or on the premises of any place of employment, containing toilet facilities for employee use.
(("))Toxic material((" means)). A material that exceeds a regulatory limit (such as in chapter 296-62 WAC), or toxicity that causes or is likely to cause death or serious physical harm.
(("))Urinal((" means)). A toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the sole purpose of urination.
(("))Water closet((" means)). A toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the purpose of both defecation and urination and which is flushed with water.
(("))Wet process((" means)). Any process or operation in a workroom that normally results in walking or standing surfaces becoming wet.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24009((What))Housekeeping requirements that apply to fixed, indoor workplaces((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that all places of employment are kept clean to the extent that the work allows.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that the floor of every workroom is kept as dry as possible. Where wet processes are used, ((you))the employer must maintain drainage. ((You))The employer must provide false floors, platforms, mats, or other dry standing places where practical, or provide appropriate waterproof footgear.
(3) To facilitate cleaning, every floor, working place, and passageway must be kept free from protruding nails, splinters, loose boards and unnecessary holes and openings.
(4) Cleaning and sweeping must be done to minimize dust in the air and when practical, done outside of working hours.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24012((How must the))Maintenance of potable water supply ((be maintained?)).
(1) ((You))A common drinking cup and other common utensils are prohibited.
(2) The employer must provide potable water in all places of employment, for drinking, washing of the person, cooking, washing food, washing cooking or eating utensils, washing food preparation or processing premises, and for personal service rooms.
(((2)))(3) Potable drinking water dispensers must be maintained in sanitary condition, be closeable, and have a tap.
(((3)))(4) Open containers for drinking water from which the water must be dipped or poured, even if fitted with a cover, are prohibited.
(((4) A common drinking cup and other common utensils are prohibited.))
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24015((How must the))Maintenance of nonpotable water supply ((be maintained?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that nonpotable water is marked as unsafe and is not used for drinking, washing of the person, cooking, washing food, washing cooking or eating utensils, washing food preparation or processing premises, or personal service rooms, or for washing clothes.
(2) Nonpotable water used for cleaning any other work premises must be free of concentrations of chemicals, fecal coliform, or other substances that could create unsanitary conditions or be harmful to employees.
(3) Nonpotable water systems or systems carrying any other nonpotable substance must be constructed to prevent backflow or backsiphonage into a potable water system.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24018((What))Toilet facilities ((must an employer provide?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must provide toilet facilities, with separate toilet rooms for each sex, according to the requirements in the table below. ((You))The employer must provide facilities for each sex based on the number of employees of that sex for whom facilities are furnished.
(2) Where single-occupancy rooms have more than one toilet facility, only one facility in each toilet room counts toward these requirements.
In this table, "number of employees" means the maximum number of employees present at any one time on a regular shift.
Number of
employees
Minimum number
of water closets
1 to 15
1
16 to 35
2
36 to 55
3
56 to 80
4
81 to 110
5
111 to 150
6
Over 150
One additional
fixture for each
additional 40
employees
(3) Where toilet rooms are occupied by one person at a time, can be locked from the inside, and contain at least one water closet, separate toilet rooms for each sex need not be provided.
(4) Where toilet facilities will not be used by women, urinals may be provided instead of water closets, except that the number of water closets must not be less than 2/3 of the minimum specified.
(5) The sewage disposal method must not endanger the health of employees.
(6) Toilet paper with holder must be provided for every water closet.
(7) Each water closet must occupy a separate compartment with a door and walls or partitions between fixtures high enough to ensure privacy.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24021((What))Employer provided washing facilities ((must an employer provide?)).
((You))The employer must provide facilities for maintaining personal cleanliness in the workplace. The facilities must be convenient for employees and maintained in a sanitary condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24024((What requirements apply to))Lavatories((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that lavatories are available in all workplaces.
(2) Each lavatory must have hot and cold running water, or tepid running water.
(3) ((You))The employer must provide hand soap or similar cleansing agent.
(4) ((You))The employer must provide individual hand towels, warm air blowers, or clean individual sections of continuous cloth toweling convenient to the lavatories.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24027((When must an))Employer ((provide))provided change rooms((?)).
(1) Whenever employees are required by a WISHA standard to wear protective clothing because of the possibility of contamination with toxic materials, ((you))the employer must provide change rooms with separate storage facilities for street clothes and for the protective clothing.
(2) If ((you))the employer provides work clothes for employees, they must be dry.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24030((What requirements apply to))Consumption of food and beverages in the workplace((?)).
(1) This section applies to workplaces where employees may consume food, beverages, or both on the premises.
(2) No employee may consume food or beverages in a toilet room nor in any area exposed to a toxic material.
(3) If ((your))the workplace exposes employees to injurious dusts or other toxic materials, ((you))the employer must provide a separate lunchroom unless it is convenient for employees to lunch away from the premises. The size of the lunchroom must be based on the maximum number of persons using the room at one time, according to the following table.
Number of
persons
Square feet
per person
25 and less
13
26 - 74
12
75 - 149
11
150 and over
10
(4) ((You))The employer must provide receptacles of smooth, corrosion resistant, easily cleanable, or disposable materials for the disposal of waste food. ((You))The employer must provide enough receptacles to encourage their use and to prevent overfilling. Receptacles must be emptied at least once a working day and maintained in sanitary condition. Receptacles must have a solid tight-fitting cover unless sanitary condition can be maintained without a cover.
(5) No food or beverages may be stored in toilet rooms or in an area exposed to toxic material.
(6) All employee food service facilities and operations must follow sound hygienic principles. If all or part of the food service is provided, the food dispensed must be wholesome and free from spoilage. Food must be processed, prepared, handled, and stored so as to prevent contamination.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24033((How must waste be stored and removed?))Waste storage and removal.
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that any receptacle used for waste or garbage that may rot is constructed so that it does not leak and can be thoroughly cleaned and maintained in a sanitary condition. A receptacle must have a solid tight-fitting cover, unless it can be maintained in a sanitary condition without a cover. Receptacles designed to maintain sanitary condition may be used in place of this requirement.
(2) All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage must be removed to avoid creating a health menace, and as often as necessary to maintain the workplace in a sanitary condition.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-24036((When must an))Employer ((have a)) vermin control programs((?)).
Every building with personal service, food preparation, or eating rooms must be constructed, equipped, and maintained to restrict infestation by rodents, insects, and other vermin. ((You))The employer must have a continuing and effective extermination program where vermin are present.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28002((What))Power transmission belts ((are)) covered by this section((?)).
WAC 296-307-280 covers all types and shapes of power transmission belts.
Exception:
The following power transmission belts are exempt from WAC 296-307-280 when operating at 250 feet per minute or less:
 
(1) Flat belts that are one inch wide or less.
 
(2) Flat belts that are 2" wide or less and are free from metal lacings or fasteners.
 
(3) Round belts that are 1/2" in diameter or less.
 
(4) Single strand V-belts that are 13/32" wide or less.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28004((What does "))Definition of guarded by location((" mean?)).
(("))Guarded by location((" means)). That the location of a component eliminates potential hazards. A component seven feet or more above a working surface is considered guarded by location.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28006((What))General requirements that apply to machine guarding((?)).
(1) All power transmission components must be guarded according to the requirements of this section.
(2) ((You))The employer must protect employees from coming into contact with moving machinery parts by:
(a) A guard or shield or guarding by location; or
(b) A guardrail or fence whenever a guard or shield or guarding by location is infeasible.
(3) Strength and design of guards.
(a) Guards must be designed and located to prevent inadvertent contact with the hazard.
(b) Unless otherwise specified, each guard and its supports must be strong enough to withstand the force that a 250 pound person would exert leaning on or falling against the guard.
(c) Guards must be securely fastened to the equipment or building.
(4) A guard or shield on stationary equipment must be provided at the mesh point or pinch point where the chain or belt contacts the sprocket or pulley.
(5) Machines that will throw stock, material, or objects must be covered or provided with a device designed and constructed to minimize this action. (Machines such as rip saws, rotary mowers and beaters, rotary tillers are included in this classification.)
(6) For requirements relating to the control of hazardous energy (lockout-tagout) see WAC 296-307-320.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28014((What))Requirements that apply to prime-mover guards((?)).
(("))Flywheels((")). Include flywheels, balance wheels, and flywheel pulleys mounted and revolving on crankshaft of engine or other shafting.
(("))Prime movers((")). Include steam, gas, oil, and air engines, motors, steam and hydraulic turbines, and other equipment used as a source of power.
(1) Unless guarded by location, flywheels must be guarded according to the following requirements:
(a) Guard enclosures are made of sheet, perforated, or expanded metal, or woven wire.
(b) Guard rails are between 15 and 20 inches from the rim. When a flywheel extends into a pit or is within 12 inches of the floor, a standard toeboard is provided.
(c) When the upper rim of a flywheel extends through a working floor, it is surrounded by a guardrail and toeboard.
(d) Exception: When a flywheel with a smooth rim 5 feet or less in diameter cannot be guarded by the above methods, ((you))the employer must guard by meeting the following requirements:
On the exposed side, cover the flywheel spokes with a disk that makes a smooth surface and edge, and provides for inspection. ((You))The employer may leave an open space, less than 4 inches wide, between the outside edge of the disk and the rim of the wheel, to turn the wheel over. If ((you use)) a disk is used, keys or other projections left uncovered by the projections ((shall))must be cut off or covered.
Note:
This exception does not apply to flywheels with solid web centers.
(e) At the flywheel of a gas or oil engine, ((you))the employer may provide an adjustable guard for starting the engine or for running adjustment. A slot opening for a jack bar is permitted.
(f) For flywheels above working areas, ((you))the employer must install guards that are strong enough to hold the weight of the flywheel if the shaft or wheel mounting fails.
(2) Cranks and connecting rods, when exposed to contact, must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28048, or by a guardrail according to WAC 296-307-28060.
(3) Tail rods or extension piston rods must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28048, or by a guardrail on the sides and end, with a clearance of between 15 and 20 inches when rod is fully extended.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28016((What requirements apply to))Guarding shafting((?)).
Revolving shafts must be guarded by a standard safeguard unless guarded by location.
(1) All shafting must be secured against excessive end movement.
(2) Guarding horizontal shafting.
(a) Unless guarded by location, all exposed parts of horizontal shafting, must be enclosed in a guard that covers the shafting completely or by a trough that covers the sides and top or sides and bottom of the shafting as location requires.
(b) Shafting under bench machines must be enclosed by a guard that covers the shafting completely or by a trough that covers the sides and top or sides and bottom of the shafting as location requires. The sides of the trough must extend to at least 6 inches from the underside of table. If shafting is near the floor, the trough must extend to at least 6 inches from the floor. In every case, the sides of trough must extend at least 2 inches beyond the shafting or projection.
Exception:
Maintenance runways are exempt from this requirement. "Maintenance runway" means any permanent runway or platform used for oiling, maintenance, running adjustment, or repair work, but not for passageway.
(3) Unless guarded by location, vertical and inclined shafting must be enclosed according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through 296-307-28060.
Exception:
Maintenance runways are exempt from this requirement.
(4) Projecting shaft ends.
(a) Projecting shaft ends must have a smooth edge and end and must not project more than one-half the diameter of the shaft unless guarded by nonrotating caps or safety sleeves.
(b) Unused keyways must be filled up or covered.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28018((What requirements apply to))Guarding pulleys((?)).
(1) Unless guarded by location, pulleys must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through 296-307-28060. Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on which the point of contact between belt and pulley is more than 6 feet 6 inches from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disk covering the spokes.
(2) If the distance to the nearest fixed pulley, clutch, or hanger is equal to or less than the width of the belt, then ((you))the employer must provide a guide to prevent the belt from leaving the pulley on the side where insufficient clearance exists.
(3) Where there are overhanging pulleys on line, jack, or countershafts with no bearing between the pulley and the outer end of the shaft, ((you))the employer should provide a guide to prevent the belt from running off the pulley.
(4) Pulleys with cracks, or pieces broken out of rims are prohibited.
(5) Pulleys must be designed and balanced for the operating speed.
(6) Composition or laminated wood pulleys must not be installed where they are likely to deteriorate.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28020((What requirements apply to))Guarding horizontal belt, rope, and chain drives((?)).
(("))Belts((")). Include all power transmission belts, such as flat belts, round belts, V-belts, etc., unless otherwise specified.
(1) Where both runs of horizontal belts are 7 feet or less from the floor level, the guard must extend to at least 15 inches above the belt or to a standard height. (See Table P-1.)
Exception:
Where both runs of a horizontal belt are 42 inches or less from the floor, the belt must be fully enclosed according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through 296-307-28060.
(2) In power development rooms, a guardrail may be used instead of the guard.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28022((What requirements apply to))Guarding overhead horizontal belt, rope, and chain drives((?)).
(1) Unless guarded by location, overhead horizontal belts must be guarded on the sides and bottom according to WAC 296-307-28054.
(2) Unless guarded by location, horizontal overhead belts must be guarded for their entire length when:
(a) Located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet or more per minute.
(b) The center to center distance between pulleys is 10 feet or more.
(c) The belt is 8 inches wide or more.
(3) Where the upper and lower runs of horizontal belts are located so that employees can pass between them, the passage must be either:
(a) Completely barred according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through 296-307-28060; or
(b) In a passage that employees must use, there must be a platform over the lower run guarded on either side by a railing that is completely filled in with wire mesh or other filler, or by a solid barrier. The upper run must be guarded to prevent contact by the employee or by objects carried by the employee.
(4) Overhead chain and link belt drives must be guarded according to the same requirements as overhead horizontal belts.
(5) American or continuous system rope drives located where the condition of the rope (particularly the splice) cannot be constantly and conveniently observed, must have an alarm (preferably electric-bell type) that will warn when the rope begins to fray.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28024((What requirements apply to))Guarding vertical and inclined belts((?)).
(1) Vertical and inclined belts must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28044 and 296-307-28050 through 296-307-28060.
(2) All guards for inclined belts must provide a minimum clearance of 7 feet between belt and floor at any point outside of the guard.
(3) A vertical or inclined belt may be guarded with a nip-point belt and pulley guard, if it is:
(a) 2-1/2 inches wide or less;
(b) Running at a speed of less than one thousand feet per minute; and
(c) Free from metal lacings or fastenings.
(("))Nip-point belt and pulley guard((" means)). A device that encloses the pulley and has rounded or rolled edge slots through which the belt passes.
(4) Vertical belts running over a lower pulley more than seven feet above floor or platform must be guarded according to the same requirements as horizontal overhead belts, if the belt is:
(a) Located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet or more per minute;
(b) Eight inches wider or more.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28026((What requirements apply to))Guarding cone-pulley belts((?)).
(1) The cone belt and pulley must have a belt shifter that adequately guards the nip point of the belt and pulley. If the frame of the belt shifter does not adequately guard the nip point of the belt and pulley, the nip point must be protected by a vertical guard in front of the pulley that extends at least to the top of the largest step of the cone.
(("))Belt shifter((" means)). A device for mechanically shifting belts from tight to loose pulleys or vice versa, or for shifting belts on cones of speed pulleys.
(2) If the belt is endless or laced with rawhide laces, and no belt shifter is used, the belt may be guarded according to the following:
(a) The nip point of the belt and pulley is protected by a nip point guard in front of the cone;
(b) The guard extends at least to the top of the largest step of the cone; and
(c) The guard is formed to show the contour of the cone.
(3) If the cone is less than 3 feet from the floor or working platform, the cone pulley and belt must be guarded to a height of 3 feet regardless of whether the belt is endless or laced with rawhide.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28028((What requirements apply to))Guarding belt tighteners((?)).
(1) Suspended counterbalanced belt tighteners and all components must be substantially constructed and securely fastened. The bearings must be securely capped. ((You))The employer must provide a mechanism to prevent the tightener from falling in case the belt breaks.
(2) Unless guarded by location, suspended counterweights must be encased to prevent accident.
(3) Belt tighteners used for starting and stopping machinery, unless held by gravity in the "off" or "out of service" position, must have a mechanism that will hold the belt tightener away from the belt when not in use. The mechanism must automatically grip, latch or otherwise fasten itself to and hold the belt tightener in "off" or "out of service" position until released by hand.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28030((What requirements apply to))Guarding gears, sprockets, and chains((?)).
(1) Gears must be guarded by one of the following methods:
(a) A complete enclosure; or
(b) A standard guard according to WAC 296-307-28050 through 296-307-28060, at least 7 feet high extending 6 inches above the mesh point of the gears; or
(c) A band guard covering the face of gear. The guard must have flanges extended inward beyond the root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides. If a part of the train of gears guarded by a band guard is less than 6 feet from the floor, the gear must be guarded by a disk guard or by a complete enclosure at least 6 feet tall.
(2) Hand-operated gears used only to adjust hand-powered machine parts may be unguarded. However, we recommend guarding these gears.
(3) Unless guarded by location, all sprocket wheels and chains must be enclosed. Where the drive extends over other machine or working areas, ((you))the employer must provide protection against falling parts.
Exception:
This section does not apply to manually operated sprockets.
(4) When gears require frequent oiling, ((you))the employer must provide openings with hinged or sliding self-closing covers. All points not readily accessible must have oil feed tubes if lubricant is added while machinery is in motion.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28032((What requirements apply to))Guarding friction drives((?)).
When exposed to contact, the driving point of all friction drives must be guarded. All arm or spoke friction drives and all web friction drives with holes in the web must be entirely enclosed. When exposed to contact, all projecting belts on friction drives must be guarded.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28034((What requirements apply to))Guarding keys, set screws, and other projections((?)).
(1) All projecting keys, set screws, and other projections in revolving parts must be removed, or made flush, or guarded by metal covers.
(2) Projections, such as exposed bolts, keys, or set screws that are part of sprockets, grooved pulleys or pulleys on stationary equipment must be shielded unless guarded by location.
Exception:
This section does not apply to keys or set screws within gear or sprocket casings or other enclosures, nor to keys, set screws, or oilcups in hubs of pulleys less than 20 inches in diameter where they are within the plane of the rim of the pulley.
Note:
We recommend that you not use projecting set screws or oilcups in any revolving pulley or part of machinery.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28036((What requirements apply to))Guarding collars and couplings((?)).
(1) All revolving collars, including split collars, must be cylindrical.
(2) Screws or bolts used in collars must not project beyond the largest periphery of the collar.
(((2)))(3) Shaft couplings must be constructed to prevent hazard from bolts, nuts, set screws, or revolving surfaces. Bolts, nuts, and set screws are permitted where they are covered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shafting and are countersunk or where they do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28038((Must))Self-lubricating bearings ((be used?)).
((We recommend that you))The department recommends the employer use self-lubricating bearings. All drip cups and pans must be securely fastened.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28040((What requirements apply to))Guarding clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys((?)).
(1) Unless guarded by location, clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys with projecting parts must be enclosed by a stationary guard constructed according to WAC 296-307-28046. ((You))The employer may use a "U" type guard.
(2) In enginerooms, a guardrail, preferably with toeboard, may be used instead of the guard if the room is only occupied by engineroom attendants.
(3) A bearing support next to a friction clutch or cutoff coupling must have self-lubricating bearings that require infrequent maintenance.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28042((What requirements apply to))Guarding belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners((?)).
(("))Belt pole((")) (sometimes called a (("))belt shipper((")) or (("))shipper pole((") means))). A device used in shifting belts on and off fixed pulleys on line or countershaft where there are no loose pulleys.
(1) Tight and loose pulleys must have a permanent belt shifter with a mechanical means to prevent the belt from creeping from loose to tight pulley.
(2) Belt shifter and clutch handles must be rounded. They must be as far as possible from danger of accidental contact, but within easy reach of the operator. Where belt shifters are not directly over a machine or bench, the handles must be cut off 6 feet 6 inches above floor level.
(3) All belt and clutch shifters of the same type in each shop should move in the same direction to stop machines, i.e., either all right or all left.
Exception:
This requirement does not apply to a friction clutch on a countershaft carrying two clutch pulleys with open and crossed belts. In this case the shifter handle has three positions and the machine is at a standstill when the clutch handle is in the neutral or center position.
(4) When belt poles must be used as a substitute for mechanical shifters, they must be big enough for employees to grasp them securely. Poles must be smooth and preferably of straight grain hardwood, such as ash or hickory. The edges of rectangular poles should be rounded. Poles should extend from the top of the pulley to within approximately 40 inches of the floor or working platform.
(5) Where loose pulleys or idlers are not practical, belt perches such as brackets, rollers, etc., must be used to keep idle belts away from the shafts. Perches should be substantial and designed for safe belt shifting.
(6) Belts that must be shifted by hand and belts within seven feet of the floor or working platform that are not guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046 must not be fastened with metal, nor with any other fastening that creates a hazard.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28044((What materials must be used for))Materials required to use standard guards((?)).
(1) Standard guards must be made of the following materials:
(a) Expanded metal;
(b) Perforated or solid sheet metal;
(c) Wire mesh on a frame of angle iron; or
(d) Iron pipe securely fastened to the floor or the frame of the machine.
(2) Wire mesh should have wires that are securely fastened at every cross point either by welding, soldering, or galvanizing.
Exception:
Diamond or square wire mesh made of No. 14 gauge wire, 3/4-inch mesh or heavier is exempt from this requirement.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28046((How must))Manufacturing standard guards ((be manufactured?)).
(1) Guards must be free from burrs, sharp edges, and sharp corners.
(2) Expanded metal, sheet or perforated metal, and wire mesh must be securely fastened to the frame by one of the following methods:
(a) Rivets or bolts spaced not more than five inches center to center. In case of expanded metal or wire mesh, metal strips or clips must be used to form a washer for rivets or bolts.
(b) Welding to frame every four inches.
(c) Weaving through channel or angle frame, or, if No. 14 gauge 3/4-inch mesh or heavier is used, by bending entirely around rod frames.
(d) To fill openings in pipe railing with expanded metal, wire mesh, or sheet metal, make the filler material into panels with rolled edges or edges bound with "V" or "U" edging. The edging must be of at least No. 24 gauge sheet metal fastened to the panels with bolts or rivets spaced a maximum of 5 inches center to center. The bound panels must be fastened to the railing by sheet-metal clips spaced a maximum of 5 inches center to center.
(e) Diamond or square mesh made of crimped wire fastened into channels, angle iron, or round-iron frames may also be used as a filler in guards. Size of mesh must correspond to Table P-1.
(3) Where guard design requires filler material greater than 12 square feet, additional frame members must be provided to ensure that the panel area is a maximum of 12 square feet.
(4) All joints of framework must be as strong as the material of the frame.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28048((What requirements apply to))Disk, shield, and U-guards((?)).
(1) A disk guard must have a sheet-metal disk of at least No. 22 gauge fastened by U-bolts or rivets to the spokes of pulleys, flywheels, or gears. To prevent contact with sharp edges of the disk, the edge must be rolled or wired. In all cases, the nuts must have locknuts on the unexposed side of the wheel.
(2) A shield guard must have a frame filled in with wire mesh or expanded, perforated, or solid sheet metal.
(3) If the shield area is less than six square feet, the wire mesh or expanded metal may be fastened in a framework of 3/8-inch solid rod, 3/4-inch by 3/4-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron, or a metal construction of equivalent strength. Metal shields may have edges entirely rolled around a 3/8-inch solid iron rod.
(4) A U-guard consisting of a flat surface with edge members must cover the under surface and lower edge of a belt, multiple chain, or rope drive. It must be constructed of materials specified in Table P-1, and must meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-28054 through 296-307-28058. Edges must be smooth and, if the size of the guard requires, be reinforced by rolling, wiring, or by binding with angle or flat iron.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28050((What))Materials ((must be)) used for guards((?)).
The materials and dimensions specified in this section apply to all guards. The materials and dimensions specified are minimum requirements. ((You))The employer may choose to provide stronger guards.
Exception:
Horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain guards more than 7 feet above floor, or platform must meet the requirements outlined in Table P-2.
(1) The framework of all guards must have minimum dimensions of 1-inch by 1-inch by 1/8-inch for angle iron, 3/4-inch inside diameter for metal pipe, or metal construction of equivalent strength.
Exception:
Guards thirty inches tall or less with a total surface area of ten square feet or less may have a framework of 3/8-inch solid rod, 3/4-inch by 3/4-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron, or metal construction of equivalent strength. The filling material must correspond to the requirements of Table 1.
(a) All guards must be rigidly braced every 3 feet of their height to some fixed part of machinery or building structure. Where a guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment additional strength may be necessary.
(b) The framework for all guards fastened to the floor or working platform and without other support or bracing must consist of 1-1/2-inch by 1-1/2-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron, metal pipe of 1-1/2-inch inside diameter, or metal construction of equivalent strength. All rectangular guards must have at least four upright frame members that extend to the floor and are securely fastened. Cylindrical guards must have at least three supporting members that extend to the floor.
(2) Where guards are exposed to unusual wear, deterioration, or impact, heavier material and construction should be used to protect against the specific hazards involved.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28052((When may))Wood guards ((be used?)).
Wood guards may be used where fumes would cause rapid deterioration of metal guards and outdoors where extreme cold or extreme heat make metal guards and railings undesirable.
(1) Wood must be sound, tough, and without loose knots.
(2) Guards must be made of planed lumber not less than 1-inch rough board measure, with rounded edges and corners.
(3) Wood guards must be securely fastened together with wood screws, hardwood dowel pins, bolts, or rivets.
(4) Wood guards must be equal in strength and rigidity to metal guards specified in WAC 296-307-28050 and Table P-1.
Note:
Requirements for the construction of standard wood railings are in WAC 296-307-28060.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28054((What))Materials ((may be)) used for guarding horizontal overhead belts((?)).
(1) Guards for horizontal overhead belts must run the entire length of the belt and follow the line of the pulley to the ceiling or extend to the nearest wall.
Exception:
Where belts are located so that it is impractical to extend the guard to wall or ceiling, the guard must completely enclose the top and bottom runs of the belt and the face of pulleys.
(2) The guard and its supporting parts must be securely fastened to the wall or ceiling by gimlet-point lag screws or through bolts. In masonry, expansion bolts must be used. We recommend using bolts placed horizontally through floor beams or ceiling rafters.
(3) When necessary, suitable reinforcement must be provided for the ceiling rafters or overhead floor beams to sustain safely the weight and stress imposed by the guard.
(4) The interior surface of all guards must be smooth and free from projections.
Exception:
Where construction demands it, protruding shallow roundhead rivets may be used.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28056((What))Clearance ((must be)) maintained between guards and power transmission machinery((?)).
(1) Overhead belt guards must be at least one-quarter wider than the belt they protect, with a maximum clearance of 6 inches on each side. Overhead rope-drive and block and roller-chain-drive guards must be at least ((six))6 inches wider than the drive on each side.
(2) Overhead silent chain-drive guards with the chain held on sprockets must have side clearance of:
(a) On drives of 20-inch centers or less, at least 1/4 inch from the nearest moving chain part, and
(b) On drives of over 20-inch centers, a minimum of 1/2 inch from the nearest moving chain part.
(3) Table 2 gives the sizes of materials and construction specifications for guards for belts that are 10 inches wide or more. All materials for overhead belt guards must be at least the size specified in Table 2 for belts 10 to 14 inches wide, even if the overhead belt is less than 10 inches wide. However, No. 20 gauge sheet metal may be used as a filler on guards for belts less than 10 inches wide. Expanded metal, because of the sharp edges, should not be used as a filler in horizontal belt guards.
(4) For clearance between guards and belts, ropes, or chains see Table P-2.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28058((How must))Construction of overhead rope and chain-drive guards ((be constructed?)).
(1) Overhead-rope and chain-drive guard construction must meet the requirements for overhead-belt guard construction of similar width.
Exception:
The filler material must be solid, according to Table P-2, unless fire hazard demands the use of open construction.
(2) A side guard member of the same solid filling material should extend 2 inches above the level of the lower run of the rope or chain drive and 2 inches within the periphery of the pulleys that the guard encloses, forming a trough.
(3) The side filler members should be reinforced on the edges with 1-1/2-inch by 1/4-inch flat steel, riveted to the filling material at 8 inch centers or less. The reinforcing strip should be fastened or bolted to all guard supporting members with at least one 3/8-inch rivet or bolt at each intersection, and the ends should be secured to the ceiling with lag screws or bolts.
(4) The filling material must be fastened to the framework of the guard and the filler supports by 3/16-inch rivets spaced on 4-inch centers. Measure the width of a multiple drive from the outside of the first to the outside of the last rope or chain in the group accommodated by the pulley.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-28060((What))Materials ((must be)) used for guardrails and toeboards((?)).
(1) A guardrail used to guard power transmission parts must be 42 inches tall, with a midrail between the top rail and the floor.
(2) Posts must be 8 feet apart or less. They must be permanent and substantial, smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts, and splinters. If made of pipe, the post must be at least 1-1/4 inches inside diameter. If posts are made of metal shapes or bars, the section must be as strong as posts made of 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 3/16-inch angle iron. If posts are made of wood, the posts must be at least 2 by 4 inches. The upper rail must be 2 by 4 inches, or two 1 by 4 inch strips, one at the top and one at the side of the posts. The midrail must be at least 1 by 4 inches.
(3) The rails (metal shapes, metal bars, or wood), should be on the side of the posts that gives the best protection and support. Where panels are fitted with expanded metal or wire mesh (as noted in Table 1) the middle rails may be omitted. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment, additional strength may be necessary.
(4) Toeboards must be at least 4 inches tall, of wood, metal, or metal grill of a maximum 1-inch mesh. Toeboards at flywheel pits should be placed as close to edge of the pit as possible.
Table P-1
TABLE OF STANDARD MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS
Material
Clearance from
moving part at
all points
(inches)
Largest mesh
or opening
allowable
(inches)
Minimum gauge
(U.S. Standard) or
thickness
(inches)
Minimum height of
guard from floor or
platform level (feet)
Woven wire
Under 2
2-4
Under 4
4-15
3/8
1/2
1/2
2
No. 16
No. 16
No. 16
No. 12
7
7
7
7
Expanded metal
Under 4
4-15
1/2
2
No. 18
No. 13
7
7
Perforated metal
Under 4
4-15
1/2
2
No. 20
No. 14
7
7
Sheet metal
Under 4
4-15
 
No. 22
No. 22
7
7
Wood or metal
strip crossed
Under 4
4-15
3/8
2
Wood 3/4
Metal No. 16
Wood 3/4
Metal No. 16
7
7
Wood or metal
strip not
crossed
Under 4
4-15
1/2 width
1 width
Wood 3/4
Metal No. 16
Wood 3/4
Metal No. 16
7
7
Standard rail
Min. 15
Max. 20
 
 
 
Table P-2
HORIZONTAL OVERHEAD BELTS, ROPES, AND CHAINS
7 FEET OR MORE ABOVE FLOOR OR PLATFORM
 
Width 0"-14" inclusive
Material
MEMBERS
Framework
1 1/2" x 1 1/2" x 1/4"
Angle iron
Filler (belt guards)
1 1/2" x 3/16"
Flat iron
Filler and vertical side member
No. 20 A.W.G.
Solid sheet metal
Filler supports
2" x 5/16" flat iron
Flat and angle
Guard supports
2" x 5/16"
Flat iron
FASTENINGS
 
 
Filler supports to framework
(2) 3/16"
Rivets
Filler flats to supports (belt guards)
(1) 5/16"
Flush rivets
Filler to frame and supports (chain guards)
3/16"
Rivets spaced
Guard supports to framework
(2) 3/6"
Rivets or bolts
Guard and supports to overheard ceiling
1/4" x 3 1/2" lag screws
or 1/2" bolts
Lag screws or bolts
DETAILS-SPACING, ETC.
Width of guards
One-quarter wider than belt, rope, or chain drive
Spacing between filler supports
20" center to center
Spacing between filler flats (belt guards)
2" apart
Spacing between guard supports
36" center to center
OTHER BELT GUARD FILLING PERMITTED
Sheet metal fastened as in chain guards
No. 20 A.W.G.
Solid or perforated
Woven Wire, 2" mesh
No. 12 A.W.G.
 
CLEARANCE FROM OUTSIDE OF BELT, ROPE, OR CHAIN DRIVE TO GUARD
Distance center to center of shafts
Up to 15' inclusive
Over 40'
Clearance from belt, or chain to guard
16"
120"
 
Width over 14" to 24"
inclusive
Material
MEMBERS
Framework
2" x 2" x 5/16"
Angle iron
Filler (belt guards)
2" x 3/16"
Flat iron
Filler and vertical side member
No. 18 A.W.G.
Solid sheet metal
Filler supports
2" x 3/8" flat iron
Flat and angle
Guard supports
2" x 3/8"
Flat iron
FASTENINGS
Filler supports to framework
(2) 3/6"
Rivets
Filler flats to supports (belt guards)
(1) 5/16"
Flush rivets
Filler to frame and supports (chain guards)
8" centers on sides and 4"
centers on bottom
 
Guard supports to framework
(2) 7/16"
Rivets or bolts
Guard and supports to overheard ceiling
5/8" x 4" lag screws
or 5/8" bolts
Lag screws or bolts
DETAILS-SPACING, ETC.
Width of guards
 
Spacing between filler supports
16" C. to C
Spacing between filler flats (belt guards)
2 1/2" apart
Spacing between guard supports
36" C. to C
OTHER BELT GUARD FILLING PERMITTED
Sheet metal fastened as in chain guards
No. 18 A.W.G.
Solid or perforated
Woven wire, 2" mesh
No. 10 A.W.G.
 
CLEARANCE FROM OUTSIDE OF BELT, ROPE, OR CHAIN DRIVE TO GUARD
Distance center to center of shafts
Over 15' to 25'
Over 40' inclusive
Clearance from belt/chain to guard
10"
20"
 
Width over 24"
Material
MEMBERS
Framework
3" x 3" x 3/8"
Angle iron
Filler (belt guards)
2" x 5/16"
Flat iron
Filler and vertical side member
No. A.W.G.
Solid sheet metal
Filler supports
2 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 1/4" angle
Flat and angle
Guard supports
2 1/2" x 3/8"
Flat iron
FASTENINGS
Filler supports to framework
(3) 1/2"
Rivets
Filler flats to supports (belt guards)
(2) 3/8"
Flush rivets
Filler to frame and supports (chain guards)
 
 
Guard supports to frame work
(2) 5/8"
Rivets or bolts
Guard and supports to overhead ceiling
3/4" x 6" lag screws or 3/4" bolt
Lag screws or bolts
DETAILS-SPACING, ETC.
Width of guards
 
Spacing between filler supports
16" C. to C.
Spacing between filler flats (belt guards)
4" apart
Spacing between guard supports
36" C. to C.
OTHER BELT GUARD FILLING PERMITTED
Sheet metal fastened as in chain guards
No. 18 A.W.G.
Solid or perforated
Woven wire, 2" mesh
No. 8 A.W.G.
 
CLEARANCE FROM OUTSIDE OF BELT, ROPE, OR CHAIN DRIVE TO GUARD
Distance center to center of shafts
Over 25' to 40' inclusive
Over 40'
Clearance from belt, or chain to guard
15"
20"
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28062((How must))Shafting ((be maintained?))maintenance.
(1) Shafting must be kept in alignment, and free from rust and excess oil or grease.
(2) Where explosives, explosive dusts, flammable vapors or flammable liquids exist, guards must take into account the hazard of static sparks from shafting.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28064((How must))Pulley((s be maintained?))maintenance.
(1) Pulleys must be kept in proper alignment to prevent belts from running off.
(2) Any pulley carrying a nonshifting belt should have a crowned face.
(3) Cast-iron pulleys should be tested frequently with a hammer to detect cracks in rim or spokes. The sound is different depending on whether the belt is or is not on the pulley.
(4) Split pulleys should be inspected to be sure that all bolts holding together the sections of the pulley are tight.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28066((How must belts be maintained?))Belt maintenance.
(1) Quarter-twist belts without an idler can be used on drives running in one direction only. They will run off a pulley when direction is reversed.
(2) ((You))The employer must inspect belts, lacings, and fasteners to be sure they are kept in good repair.
(3) Dressing should not be applied when the belt or rope is in motion; but, when necessary, it should be applied where belts or rope leave the pulley, not where they approach. The same precautions apply to lubricating chains. In the case of V-belts, belt dressing is neither necessary nor advisable.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-28068((How must))Maintenance for other equipment ((be maintained?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must inspect all power-transmission equipment at least every sixty days and ensure that it is kept in good working condition at all times.
(2) Bearings must be kept in alignment and properly adjusted.
(3) Hangers must be inspected to ensure that all supporting bolts and screws are tight and that supports of hanger boxes are adjusted properly.
(4) The oilers must wear tightfitting clothing and should use cans with long spouts to keep their hands out of danger. Machinery must be oiled when not in motion, wherever possible.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-29005((What))Requirements that apply to auger conveying equipment((?)).
(("))Augers((" means)). Screw conveyors and related accessories designed primarily for conveying agricultural materials on farms.
(1) Power take-off shafts must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046.
(2) All augers must be covered or guarded when exposed to contact.
(3) ((You))The employer must ensure that each sweep auger has its top half shielded by a guard. All guard openings must be no larger than 4 3/4 inches across.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that the exposed auger at the hopper and the intake is guarded or designed to prevent accidental contact with the rotating inlet area. The guard must extend at least 2 1/2 inches above and below the exposed auger. Openings in the guard, for the free flow of material, must be no larger than 4 3/4 inches across and must be strong enough to support 250 pounds at mid span.
(5) The hand raising winch must have a control that will hold the auger at any angle, and that will only respond to the control. ((You))The employer must ensure that the operator is able to lower the auger without disengaging the control. The maximum force required on the handle to raise or lower the auger manually must be 50 pounds.
(6) The wire rope lifting pulleys must be grooved to fit the wire rope used.
(7) In order to avoid separation, ((you))the employer must provide a positive restraint between the auger tube and the under-carriage lifting arm. ((You))The employer must provide stops that restrict the maximum raised angle and minimum lowered angle.
(8) Wire ropes (cables) must be rust resistant and selected for the design load and service intended.
(9) ((You))The employer must provide the auger operator with service and operation instructions that include safe operation and servicing practices.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-29010((What))Other requirements that apply to auger conveying equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976((?)).
((You))The employer must ensure that auger conveying equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976, is guarded as follows:
(1) Sweep-arm material-gathering mechanisms used on the top surface of materials within silo structures are guarded. The lower or leading edge of the guard is no more than 12 inches above the material surface and no less than 6 inches in front of the leading edge of the rotating member of the gathering mechanism. The guard is parallel to and extends the fullest practical length of the material gathering mechanism.
(2) Exposed auger flighting on portable grain augers is guarded with either grating type guards or solid baffle style covers as follows:
(a) The largest dimensions or openings in grating type guards through which materials flow is 4-3/4 inches. The opening area is a maximum of 10 square inches. The opening is least 2-1/2 inches from the rotating flighting.
(b) Slotted openings in solid baffle style covers are a maximum of 1-1/2 inches wide, or less than 3-1/2 inches from the exposed flighting.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-30003((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-300 applies to the guarding and care of farmstead equipment.
(("))Farmstead equipment((" means)). Agricultural equipment normally used in a stationary manner. This includes, but is not limited to, materials handling equipment and accessories for such equipment whether or not the equipment is an integral part of a building.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-30006((How must))Guarding power takeoff shafts of farmstead equipment ((be guarded?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that all power takeoff shafts, including rear-mounted, mid-mounted or side-mounted shafts, are guarded either by a master shield or by other protective guarding. The master shield must be strong enough to prevent damaging the shield when a 250-pound operator mounts or dismounts the tractor using the shield as a step.
(2) Power takeoff driven equipment must be guarded to prevent employee contact with rotating parts of the power drive system. Where power takeoff driven equipment requires removal of the tractor master shield, the equipment must also include protection from any portion of the tractor power takeoff shaft that protrudes from the tractor.
(3) Signs must be placed at prominent locations on power takeoff driven equipment specifying that power drive system safety shields must be kept in place.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-30009((How must))Guarding other power transmission components of farmstead equipment ((be guarded?)).
(1) All power transmission parts must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-280.
(2) Smooth shafts and shaft ends (without any projecting bolts, keys, or set screws) may be unguarded if they:
(a) Revolve at less than 10 RPM; and
(b) Are part of feed handling equipment used on the top surface of materials in bulk storage facilities.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-30012((How must))Guarding functional components of farmstead equipment ((be guarded?)).
The following functional components must be shielded to a degree consistent with the intended function and operator's vision of the component:
(())(1) Snapping or husking rolls;
(())(2) Straw spreaders and choppers;
(())(3) Cutterbars;
(())(4) Flail rotors;
(())(5) Rotary beaters;
(())(6) Mixing augers;
(())(7) Feed rolls;
(())(8) Rotary tillers; and
(())(9) Similar units that must be exposed for proper function.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-30015((When may))Removing guards ((be removed)) on farmstead equipment((?)).
(1) Guards, shields and access doors must be in place when the equipment is in operation.
(2) Where removal of a guard or access door will expose an employee to any component that continues to rotate after the power is disengaged, ((you))the employer must provide in the immediate area, a safety sign warning the employee:
(a) To look and listen for evidence of rotation; and
(b) To refrain from removing the guard or access door until all components have stopped.
(3) On equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976, a readily visible or audible warning of rotation is required.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-30018((What))Requirements that apply to electrical control used for maintaining and servicing farmstead equipment((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that only the employee maintaining or servicing equipment has control of the electrical power source by:
(a) Providing an exclusive, positive locking means on the main switch that can be operated only by the employee performing the maintenance or service; or
(b) For material handling equipment in a bulk storage structure, by providing on the equipment an electrical or mechanical means to disconnect the power. Minimum lockout means must meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-320.
(2) All circuit protection devices, including those that are an integral part of a motor, must have a manual reset, except where:
(a) A manual reset is infeasible because of the nature of the operation, distances involved, and the amount of time normally spent by employees in the area of the affected equipment;
(b) An electrical disconnect switch is available to the employee within fifteen feet of the equipment being maintained or serviced; and
(c) A sign, prominently posted near each hazardous component, warns the employee that unless the electrical disconnect switch is utilized, the motor could automatically reset while the employee is working on the hazardous component.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-30021((What))Additional guarding requirements that apply to farmstead equipment((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that carton or bag stitching machines are properly safeguarded to prevent anyone from coming in contact with the stitching head and other pinch or nip points.
(2) The point of operation of all machines must be guarded. The guard must be designed and constructed to prevent the operator from having any part of the body in the danger zone during the operating cycle.
Note:
The distance from the point-of-operation guards to the danger line depends on the size of the opening. The required distances are outlined in the table below:
Guarding line or
distance of opening
from point of operation
hazard (inches)
Maximum
width of
opening
(inches)
1/2 to 1 1/2
1/4
1 1/2 to 2 1/2
3/8
2 1/2 to 3 1/2
1/2
3 1/2 to 5 1/2
5/8
5 1/2 to 6 1/2
3/4
6 1/2 to 7 1/2
7/8
7 1/2 to 12 1/2
1 1/4
12 1/2 to 15 1/2
1 1/2
15 1/2 to 17 1/2
1 7/8
17 1/2 to 31 1/2
2 1/8
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-32001((What does this section cover?))Scope.
(1) WAC 296-307-320 covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected start up of the machine or equipment or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees. This standard establishes minimum performance requirements for the control of such hazardous energy.
(2) Normal production operations are not covered by this standard. Servicing and/or maintenance that takes place during normal production operations is covered by this standard only if:
(a) An employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device; or
(b) An employee is required to place a body part into a point of operation or where an associated danger zone exists during a machine operating cycle.
Exception:
Minor servicing activities, that take place during normal production operations, are not covered by this standard if they are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the equipment for production, provided that the work is performed using alternative measures that provide effective protection.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-32003((When does this section not apply?))Operations not in scope.
(1) WAC 296-307-320 does not apply to work on cord and plug connected electric equipment when:
(a) Unexpected energization or start up of the equipment is controlled by unplugging the equipment from the energy source; and
(b) The plug is under the exclusive control of the employee performing the servicing or maintenance.
(2) WAC 296-307-320 does not apply to hot tap operations involving transmission and distribution systems for substances such as gas, steam, water, or petroleum products when they are performed on pressurized pipelines, when:
(a) Continuity of service is essential;
(b) Shutdown of the system is impractical; and
(c) Documented procedures are followed, and special equipment is used that will provide proven effective protection for employees.
(3) WAC 296-307-320 does not cover exposure to electrical hazards from work on, near, or with conductors or equipment in electric utilization installations. These hazards are covered in chapter 296-307 WAC Part T.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32005((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Affected employee((" means)). An employee who uses a machine or equipment while it is serviced or maintained under lockout or tagout, or who works where such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
(("))Authorized employee((" means)). A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this part.
(("))Capable of being locked out((" means)). An energy isolating device that has a hasp or other means for a lock to be affixed, or has a locking mechanism built into it. It also means that the device can be locked out without dismantling, rebuilding, or replacing the energy isolating device or permanently altering its energy control capability.
(("))Energized((" means)). Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy.
(("))Energy isolating device((" means)). A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following:
(())(a) A manually operated electrical circuit breaker;
(())(b) A disconnect switch;
(())(c) A manually operated switch with conductors of circuit that can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors and allows no pole to operate independently;
(())(d) A line valve;
(())(e) A block; and
(())(f) Any similar device used to block or isolate energy.
Push buttons, selector switches, and other control circuit devices are not energy isolating devices.
(("))Energy source((" means)). Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy, including gravity.
(("))Hot tap((" means)). A procedure used in repair, maintenance, and service activities that involves welding on a piece of equipment (pipelines, vessels, or tanks) under pressure, in order to install connections or accessories. It is commonly used to replace or add sections of pipeline without the interruption of service for air, gas, water, steam, and petrochemical distribution systems.
(("))Lockout((" means)). Placing a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to ensure that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
(("))Lockout device((" means)). A device with a positive means such as a lock (key or combination type) to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevents the energizing of a machine or equipment. Blank flanges and bolted slip blinds are included.
(("))Normal production operations((" means)). Using a machine or equipment for its intended production function.
(("))Servicing and/or maintenance((" means)). Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubrication, cleaning, or unjamming of machines or equipment and making adjustments or tool changes, where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
(("))Setting up((" means)). Any work performed to prepare a machine or equipment to perform its normal production operation.
(("))Tagout((" means)). Placing a tagout device on an energy isolating device, according to an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled must not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
(("))Tagout device((" means)). A prominent warning device, such as a tag and attachment, that can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device according to an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled must not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32007((What are the))Required elements of an energy control program((?)).
((You))The employer must establish a written energy control program consisting of:
(())(1) An energy control procedure;
(())(2) Employee training; and
(())(3) Periodic inspections.
The purpose of the program is to ensure that before any employee services or maintains a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up, or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source, and rendered inoperative.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-32009((How does an employer determine))Employer requirements for determining when to use lockout vs. tagout((?)).
(1) If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, ((your))the employer's energy control program must use a tagout system.
(2) If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, ((your))the employer's energy control program must use lockout unless a tagout system will provide full employee protection according to WAC 296-307-32011.
(3) Whenever major replacement or major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machines or equipment must be designed to accept a lockout device.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32011((What))Requirements that must be met to substitute tagout for lockout((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that when a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device that is capable of being locked out, the tagout device is attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached. ((You))The employer must also ensure that the tagout program will provide safety that is equivalent to a lockout program.
(2) To demonstrate that a tagout program provides safety that is equivalent to a lockout program, ((you))the employer must demonstrate full compliance with all tagout requirements and any other measures necessary to provide equivalent safety. Other measures include:
(a) Implementing additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element;
(b) Blocking a controlling switch;
(c) Opening an extra disconnecting device; or
(d) Removing a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energization.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32013((What are the))Required elements ((of))for energy control procedures((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must develop, document, and use procedures to control potentially hazardous energy when employees are engaged in activities covered by this section.
Exception:
((You are))The employer is exempt from documenting procedures for a particular machine or equipment only when all of the following elements exist:
 
(a) The machine or equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy or reaccumulation of stored energy after shut down that could endanger employees;
 
(b) The machine or equipment has a single energy source that can be readily identified and isolated;
 
(c) The isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely deenergize and deactivate the machine or equipment;
 
(d) The machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance;
 
(e) A single lockout device will achieve lockout;
 
(f) The lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the servicing or maintenance;
 
(g) The servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees; and
 
(h) The worksite has experienced no accidents involving the unexpected activation or reenergization of the machine or equipment during servicing or maintenance.
(2) The procedures must clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, authorization, rules, and techniques for the control of hazardous energy, and the means to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) A specific statement of the intended use of the procedure;
(b) Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking, and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy;
(c) Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them; and
(d) Specific requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32015((What))Requirements that apply to lockout and tagout devices and materials((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must provide locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware for isolating, securing, or blocking machines or equipment from energy sources.
(2) Lockout and tagout devices must be singularly identified; must be the only device(s) used for controlling energy; must not be used for other purposes.
(3) Lockout and tagout devices must be durable and meet the following requirements:
(a) Lockout and tagout devices must be able to withstand the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
(b) Tagout devices must be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations will not deteriorate the tag or make the tag's message illegible.
(c) Tags must not deteriorate when used in corrosive environments such as areas where acid and alkali chemicals are handled and stored.
(4) Lockout and tagout devices must be the same within the facility in at least color, shape, or size. Also, tagout devices must have the same print and format.
(5) Lockout and tagout devices must be substantial and meet the following requirements:
(a) Lockout devices must be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or other metal cutting tools.
(b) Tagout devices and their means of attachment must be substantial enough to prevent accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means must be single-use, attachable by hand, self-locking, releasable with an unlocking strength of at least 50 pounds, and having the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
(c) Lockout and tagout devices must indicate the name of employee applying the device(s).
(6) Tagout devices must warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and must include a message such as: "Do not start," "do not open," "do not close," "do not energize," "do not operate."
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-32017((How often must))Inspecting the energy control procedure ((be inspected?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must conduct an inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the requirements of this standard are followed.
(a) An authorized employee, other than the one(s) using the energy control procedure, must perform the inspection.
(b) The inspection must be conducted to correct any deviations or inadequacies identified.
(c) Where lockout is used for energy control, the inspection must include a review, between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure.
(d) Where tagout is used for energy control, the inspection must include a review, between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure, and the elements of WAC 296-307-32021.
(2) ((You))The employer must certify that the inspections have been performed. The certification must identify the machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being used, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32019((What))General requirements that apply to energy control program training and communication((?)).
((You))The employer must provide training to ensure that employees understand the purpose and function of the energy control program, and that employees have the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, use, and removal of the energy controls. The training must include the following:
(1) Each authorized employee must receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of the energy available in the workplace, and the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
(2) Each affected employee must be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
(3) All other employees who work in an area where energy control procedures must be used, must be instructed about the procedure and the prohibition against attempting to restart or reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out or tagged out.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32021((What))Additional requirements that apply to tagout training and communication((?)).
When tagout systems are used, employees must also be trained in the following limitations of tags:
(1) Tags are warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices, and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
(2) When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without approval of the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
(3) Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized, affected, and other employees working in the area.
(4) Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials that will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
(5) Tags may create a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
(6) Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be accidentally detached during use.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32023((What requirements apply to))Employee retraining((?)).
(1) Authorized and affected employees must be retrained whenever there is a change in job assignments, machines, equipment, or processes that present a new hazard, or when there is a change in the energy control procedures.
(2) Additional retraining must also be provided whenever an inspection reveals, or whenever ((you))the employer believes, that the employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures is inadequate.
(3) Retraining must reestablish employee proficiency and introduce new or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32025((What))Retention of training records ((must an employer keep?)).
((You))The employer must keep records that certify that employee training has been completed and is up to date. The records must contain each employee's name and dates of training.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32027((Who may))Qualifications to perform lockout or tagout((?)).
Lockout or tagout must be performed only by authorized employees performing the service or maintenance.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32029((Who must be notified))Notification of lockout and tagout((?)).
Affected employees must be notified of the application and removal of lockout or tagout devices. Notification must be given before controls are applied and after they are removed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32031((What))Order of events ((must))for lockout or tagout procedures ((follow?)).
The established lockout or tagout procedures must cover the following elements in the following sequence:
Machinery or equipment shutdown before lockout or tagout:
(1) Before an authorized or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee must have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.
(2) The machine or equipment must be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine or equipment. The shutdown must be done in the prescribed order to avoid increased hazards to employees.
(3) All necessary energy isolating devices must be physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate the machine or equipment from the energy source.
Application of the lockout or tagout device:
(4) Lockout or tagout devices must be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized employees.
(5) Lockout devices, where used, must be affixed in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe" or "off" position.
(6) Tagout devices, where used, must be affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited.
(a) Where tagout devices are used with energy isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked, the tag attachment must be fastened at the same point at which the lock would have been attached.
(b) Where a tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag must be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.
Eliminating the hazards of stored energy:
(7) After applying lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy must be relieved, disconnected, restrained, and otherwise rendered safe.
(8) If there is a possibility of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation must be continued until the servicing or maintenance is completed, or until the possibility of such accumulation no longer exists.
Before beginning service or maintenance:
(9) Prior to starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, the authorized employee must verify that the machine or equipment has been isolated and deenergized.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32033((What))Order of events ((must))to be followed to remove lockout or tagout devices((?)).
(1) Before removing lockout or tagout devices, the authorized employee must complete the following procedures:
(a) Inspect the work area to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and to ensure that machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
(b) Check the work area to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
(2) After lockout or tagout devices have been removed and before a machine or equipment is started, affected employees must be notified that the lockout or tagout device(s) have been removed.
(3) Each lockout or tagout device must be removed from each energy isolating device by the authorized employee who applied the device.
Exception:
When the authorized employee who applied the lockout or tagout device is not available to remove it, that device may be removed under ((your))the employer's direction, if specific procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented, and incorporated into the energy control program.
((You))The employer must ensure that the specific procedure provides equivalent safety to the removal of the device by the authorized employee who applied it. The specific procedure must include at least the following elements:
(a) Verification by the employer that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility;
(b) Making all reasonable efforts to inform the authorized employee that the lockout or tagout device has been removed; and
(c) Ensuring that the authorized employee has this knowledge before resuming work at that facility.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-32035((What requirements apply to))Testing and positioning machines and equipment((?)).
When lockout or tagout devices must be temporarily removed from the energy isolating device and the machine or equipment energized to test or position the machine or equipment, the following sequence of actions must be followed:
(1) Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials according to WAC 296-307-32033 (1)(a).
(2) Remove employees from the machine or equipment area according to WAC 296-307-32033 (1)(b).
(3) Remove the lockout or tagout devices as specified in WAC 296-307-32033(3).
(4) Energize and proceed with testing or positioning.
(5) Deenergize all systems and reapply energy control measures in accordance with WAC 296-307-32031 to continue the servicing and/or maintenance.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32037((What requirements apply to))Outside servicing contractors((?)).
(1) Whenever outside servicing contractors are to be engaged in activities covered by this standard, ((you))the employer and the outside employer must inform each other of ((your))the employer's respective lockout or tagout procedures.
(2) The outside employer must ensure that employees understand and comply with the restrictions and prohibitions of ((your))the employer's energy control program.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-32039((What requirements apply to))Group lockout or tagout((?)).
(1) When servicing and/or maintenance is performed by a crew or other group, they must use a procedure that provides a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.
(2) Group lockout or tagout devices must be used according to the procedures required by WAC 296-307-32013 including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) An authorized employee has primary responsibility for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock); and
(b) A method for the authorized employee to determine if individual group members are exposed to release of stored energy hazards; and
(c) When more than one crew or group is involved, assignment of overall lockout or tagout control responsibility to an authorized employee designated to coordinate individual group members and ensure continuity of protection; and
(d) Each authorized employee must affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device when beginning work, and must remove those devices when the work is complete.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-32041((What requirements apply to))Lockout/tagout during shift changes((?)).
During shift or personnel changes, ((you))the employer must ensure that employees follow specific procedures to ensure the continuity of lockout or tagout protection. The procedures must include orderly transfer of lockout or tagout protection between off-going and oncoming employees, to minimize exposure to hazards from the unexpected energization or start up of the machine or equipment, or release of stored energy.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-33001((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Accident prevention sign((" ("sign") means))(sign). A surface with text or pictographs, meant to warn or instruct employees who may be exposed to hazards. Safety posters and education bulletins are not included in this definition.
(("))Accident prevention tag((" ("tag") means))(tag). A card that identifies a hazardous condition, generally related to unsafe equipment.
(("))Major message((" means)). The sign's or tag's text that is more specific than the signal word and that identifies the specific hazardous condition or safety instruction. Examples include: "High Voltage," "Close Clearance," "Do Not Start," or "Do Not Use" or a corresponding pictograph.
(("))Pictograph((" means)). A pictorial representation that identifies a specific hazardous condition or safety instruction.
(("))Signal word((" means)). The sign's or tag's text that contains the word, usually "danger" or "caution" that is intended to capture the employee's immediate attention.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-33003((What does))Use of red ((identify)) in safety color coding((?)).
Use red to identify:
(1) Fire protection equipment;
(2) Safety cans or other portable containers of flammable liquids;
(3) Danger signs and tags;
(4) Emergency stop bars on hazardous machines; and
(5) Stop buttons or electrical switches used to stop machinery in an emergency((;)).
Red lights must be provided at barricades and at temporary obstructions, as specified in ANSI Safety Code for Building Construction, A10.2-1944.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-33005((What does))Use of yellow ((identify)) in safety color coding((?)).
Use yellow to identify:
(1) Caution signs and tags; and
(2) Physical hazards.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-33007((When should signs and tags))Use of "danger" versus "caution"((?))on signs and tags.
(1) Danger signs and tags.
(a) Use danger signs and tags when an immediate hazard presents a threat of death or serious injury to employees.
(b) Instruct all employees that danger signs and tags indicate immediate danger and that special precautions are necessary.
(2) Caution signs and tags.
(a) Use caution signs and tags to warn against potential hazards or to caution against unsafe practices.
(b) Instruct all employees that caution signs and tags indicate a possible hazard against which proper precaution should be taken.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-33009((What are the))Design and color specifications for accident prevention signs((?)).
(1) All signs must have rounded or blunt corners and be free from sharp edges. The ends or heads of bolts or other fastening devices must be located so that they do not constitute a hazard.
(2) Danger, caution, directional, informational, exit, and safety instruction signs must comply with the specification of safety colors of the ANSI Z53.1-1971.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-33011((What are the))Proper uses of accident prevention tags((?)).
(1) Use tags as a temporary means of warning employees of a hazardous condition, especially defective equipment. Tags are not a complete warning method, but should be used until the hazard can be eliminated.
For example: ((You))The employer may use a "do not start" tag on power equipment for a short time until the switch in the system can be locked out; ((you))the employer may use a "defective equipment" tag on a damaged ladder while arrangements are made for the ladder to be taken out of service and repaired.
(2) Use of accident prevention tags.
(a) Use tags as a warning to prevent accidental injury or illness to employees who are exposed to hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions, equipment or operations that are out of the ordinary, unexpected or not readily apparent.
(b) Use tags until the identified hazard is eliminated or the hazardous operation is completed. Tags are not necessary if signs, guarding, or other protection is used.
(c) Place "do not start" tags in a conspicuous location and, if possible, so that they block the starting mechanism that would cause hazardous conditions if the equipment was energized.
(3) General accident prevention tag specifications.
(a) Tags must contain a signal word and a major message. The signal word must be either "danger" or "caution."
(b) The signal word must be readable at least five feet from the hazard.
(c) The signal word and the major message must be understandable to all employees who may be exposed to the identified hazard.
(d) Inform all employees of the meaning of the tags used throughout the workplace and what special precautions are necessary.
(e) Attach tags as closely as is safely possible to the hazard. Attach the tags so as to prevent loss or unintentional removal.
(f) The tag and attachment method must be constructed of material that is not likely to deteriorate.
(4) ((You))The employer may use warning tags to represent a hazard level between "caution" and "danger," instead of the required "caution" tag, if they have a signal word of "warning" and an appropriate major message.
(5) Use "out of order" tags only to indicate that a piece of equipment, machinery, etc., is out of order and that it might present a hazard if used.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-34003((What does this section cover?))Scope.
(1) WAC 296-307-340 applies to the placement, use, maintenance, and testing of portable fire extinguishers provided for employee use. WAC 296-307-34012 does not apply to extinguishers provided for employee use on the outside of workplace buildings or structures. If ((you do))the employer does not intend for employees to use extinguishers, and ((your))the employer's emergency action plan and fire prevention plan meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-35018, then only the requirements of WAC 296-307-34015 and 296-307-34018 apply.
(2) All standpipe and hose systems, automatic sprinkler systems, fixed extinguishing systems, dry-chemical fixed extinguishing systems, water-spray and foam, and fire detection systems, must be installed according to state and local ordinances, codes, and regulations governing such installations.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-34006((Who is exempt))Exemption from the requirements of this section((?)).
(1) ((You are))The employer is exempt from all requirements of this section, if:
(a) ((You have))The employer has implemented a written fire safety policy that requires all employees to evacuate immediately when the fire alarm sounds; and
(b) ((You have))The employer has an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan meeting the requirements of WAC 296-307-35015 and 296-307-35018; and
(c) Extinguishers are not available for employee use in the workplace.
Note:
If ((you are))the employer is covered by one of the following sections requiring ((you))the employer to provide a portable fire extinguisher, then ((you))the employer may not apply this exemption:
 
(())1. WAC 296-307-07013(12)—Transporting employees;
 
(())2. WAC 296-307-34009(8)—Storage of flammables; or
 
(())3. WAC 296-307-49503(2)—Welding.
(2) ((You are))The employer is exempt from the distribution requirements in WAC 296-307-34012, if:
(a) ((You have))The employer has an emergency action plan meeting the requirements of WAC 296-307-35015 that authorizes only certain employees to use the available portable fire extinguishers; and
(b) The plan requires all other employees to evacuate immediately when the fire alarm sounds.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34009((What general requirements apply to))Portable fire extinguishers((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must provide portable fire extinguishers that are readily accessible to employees without subjecting the employees to possible injury.
(2) ((You))The employer must only use approved portable fire extinguishers.
(3) Portable fire extinguishers using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents are prohibited.
(4) Water type fire extinguishers with a soldered or riveted shell that use self-generating soda acid or self-generating foam or gas cartridges are prohibited.
(5) ((You))The employer must ensure that all portable fire extinguishers are fully charged, operable, and kept in their designated places at all times except during use.
(6) ((You))The employer must ensure that all portable fire extinguishers are tested, constructed, and used according to the National Fire Protection Association's pamphlet No. 10A-1970.
Note:
The supplier of the extinguisher or local fire official can furnish this information.
(7) ((You))The employer must post "no smoking" signs in areas where fire or explosion hazards exist. ((You))The employer must prohibit smoking within fifty feet of all refueling operations. Take precautions to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in refueling areas.
(8) ((You))The employer must keep a portable fire extinguisher with a rating of at least 12-B units outside the door of any room used to store flammables or combustibles. This extinguisher must not be more than ten feet from the door.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34012((How should))Selection and distribution of portable fire extinguishers ((be selected and distributed?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must select and distribute portable fire extinguishers based on the classes of anticipated workplace fires and on the size and degree of hazard that would affect their use.
(2) Distribution of portable fire extinguishers.
(a) For Class A fires: ((You))The employer must distribute portable fire extinguishers so that no employee must travel more than 75 feet (22.9 m) to a fire extinguisher.
Exception:
((You))The employer may use uniformly spaced standpipe systems or hose stations connected to a sprinkler system for emergency use by employees instead of Class A portable fire extinguishers, if:
 
(())1. The system meets all regulatory requirements governing total coverage of the area to be protected; and
 
(())2. Employees are trained at least annually in their use.
(b) For Class B fires: ((You))The employer must distribute portable fire extinguishers so that no employee must travel more than 50 feet (15.2 m) to a fire extinguisher.
(c) For Class C fires: ((You))The employer must distribute portable fire extinguishers on the basis of the appropriate pattern for the existing Class A or Class B hazards.
(d) For Class D fires: ((You))The employer must distribute portable fire extinguishers or other containers of Class D extinguishing agent so no employee must travel more than 75 feet (22.9 m) from the combustible metal working area to any extinguishing agent. Portable fire extinguishers for Class D hazards are required in those combustible metal working areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, or similarly sized products are generated at least once every two weeks.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34015((What are the requirements for))Inspection, maintenance and testing of portable fire extinguishers((?)).
(1) ((You are))The employer is responsible for the inspection, maintenance, and testing of all portable fire extinguishers in the workplace.
(2) ((You))The employer must visually inspect portable extinguishers or hose at least once a month.
(3) ((You))The employer must ensure that portable fire extinguishers receive an annual maintenance check. ((You))The employer must keep records of the maintenance dates for one year after the previous entry or the life of the shell, whichever comes first. ((You))The employer must provide us with a copy of the record if we ask for it.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that stored-pressure dry chemical extinguishers that require a twelve-year hydrostatic test are emptied and undergo applicable maintenance procedures every six years.
Exception:
Dry chemical extinguishers with nonrefillable disposable containers are exempt from this requirement.
The six years begins when recharging or hydrostatic testing is performed.
(5) ((You))The employer must ensure that alternate equivalent protection is provided when portable fire extinguishers are removed from service for maintenance and recharging.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34018((What requirements apply to))Hydrostatic testing((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that a trained person performs hydrostatic testing with suitable testing equipment and facilities.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that portable extinguishers are hydrostatically tested at the intervals listed in the table below.
Type of Extinguishers
Test
interval
(years)
Soda acid (stainless steel shell)
5
Cartridge operated water and/or antifreeze
5
Stored pressure water and/or antifreeze
5
Wetting agent
5
Foam (stainless steel shell)
5
Aqueous film forming form (AFFF)
5
Loaded stream
5
Dry chemical with stainless steel
5
Carbon dioxide
5
Dry chemical, stored pressure, with mild steel, brazed brass or aluminum shells
12
Dry chemical, cartridge or cylinder operated, with mild steel shells
12
Halon 1211
12
Halon 1301
12
Dry powder, cartridge or cylinder operated, with mild steel shell
12
Exception:
Extinguishers must not be hydrostatically tested if the following conditions exist:
 
(a) When the unit has been repaired by soldering, welding, brazing, or use of patching compounds;
 
(b) When the cylinder or shell threads are damaged;
 
(c) When there is corrosion that has caused pitting, including corrosion under removable name plate assemblies;
 
(d) When the extinguisher has been burned in a fire; or
 
(e) When a calcium chloride extinguishing agent has been used in a stainless steel shell.
(3) In addition to an external visual examination, ((you))the employer must ensure that the cylinders and shells are examined internally before the hydrostatic testing.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that portable fire extinguishers are hydrostatically tested whenever they show new evidence of corrosion or mechanical injury.
(5) ((You))The employer must ensure that hydrostatic tests are performed on extinguisher hose assemblies that are equipped with a shut-off nozzle at the discharge end of the hose. The test interval must be the same as specified for the extinguisher on which the hose is installed.
(6) Carbon dioxide hose assemblies with a shut-off nozzle must be hydrostatically tested at 1,250 psi (8,620 kPa).
(7) Dry chemical and dry powder hose assemblies with a shut-off nozzle must be hydrostatically tested at 300 psi (2,070 kPa).
(8) Hose assemblies passing a hydrostatic test do not require any type of recording or stamping.
(9) ((You))The employer must ensure that hose assemblies for carbon dioxide extinguishers that require a hydrostatic test are tested within a protective cage device.
(10) ((You))The employer must ensure that carbon dioxide extinguishers and nitrogen or carbon dioxide cylinders used with wheeled extinguishers are tested every five years at 5/3 of the service pressure as stamped into the cylinder. Nitrogen cylinders that comply with 29 C.F.R. 173.34(e)(15) may be hydrostatically tested every ten years.
(11) ((You))The employer must ensure that all stored pressure and Halon 1211 types of extinguishers are hydrostatically tested at the factory test pressure not to exceed two times the service pressure.
(12) ((You))The employer must ensure that self-generating type soda acid and foam extinguishers are tested at 350 psi (2,410 kPa).
(13) Air or gas pressure used for hydrostatic testing is prohibited.
(14) ((You))The employer must remove from the workplace all extinguisher shells, cylinders, or cartridges that fail a hydrostatic pressure test, or that are not fit for testing.
(15)(a) Water-jacket equipment must be used for testing compressed gas type cylinders. The equipment must have an expansion indicator that operates with an accuracy within one percent of the total expansion or 0.1 cc (.1 mL) of liquid.
(b) The following equipment must be used to test noncompressed gas type cylinders:
(i) A hydrostatic test pump, hand or power operated, capable of producing not less than one hundred fifty percent of the test pressure, which must include appropriate check valves and fittings;
(ii) A flexible connection for attachment to fittings to test through the extinguisher nozzle, test bonnet, or hose outlet, as is applicable; and
(iii) A protective cage or barrier for personal protection of the tester, designed to provide visual observation of the extinguisher under test.
(16) ((You))The employer must maintain records of the hydrostatic testing. ((Your))Their records must include:
(())(a) The date of test;
(())(b) The test pressure used;
(())(c) The serial number, or other identifier of the fire extinguisher that was tested; and
(())(d) The person or agency performing the test.
((You))The employer must keep the records until the next testing, or until the extinguisher is taken out of service, whichever comes first. ((You))The employer must provide us with copies of the records if we ask for them.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34021((What are the))Training requirements for portable fire extinguishers((?)).
(1) If ((you))the employer provides portable fire extinguishers for employee use, then ((you))the employer must also provide training to familiarize employees with the general principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved in fighting fires when they first appear.
((You))The employer must provide the training when the employee is first hired and at least annually thereafter.
(2) For employees who have been designated to use firefighting equipment as part of an emergency action plan, ((you))the employer must provide training in the use of the appropriate equipment.
((You))The employer must provide the training upon initial assignment to the designated group of employees and at least annually thereafter.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-34503((What does this section cover?))Scope.
(1) WAC 296-307-345 applies to all emergency employee alarms required by a specific WAC chapter. This section does not apply to discharge or supervisory alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression, alarm or detection systems unless they are intended to be employee alarm systems.
(2) The maintenance, testing, and inspection requirements of this section apply to all local fire alarm signaling systems used for alerting employees regardless of the other functions of the system.
(3) All predischarge employee alarms required by this chapter must meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-34506 and 296-307-34512.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34506((What general requirements apply to))Employee alarm systems((?)).
(1) ((Your))The employer's employee alarm system must provide warning for necessary emergency action called for in the emergency action plan, or safe escape of employees from the workplace.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that all employees can see or hear ((your))their employee alarm above normal noise or light levels in the workplace. ((You))The employer may use tactile devices to alert employees who can not see or hear the alarm.
(3) ((You))The employer must ensure that ((your))their employee alarm is recognizable as an evacuation signal or signal to perform actions designated under the emergency action plan.
(4) ((You))The employer must explain to each employee how to report emergencies. For example: They may use manual pull box alarms, public address systems, radio or telephones. ((You))The employer must post emergency telephone numbers near telephones, or employee notice boards when telephones serve as a means of reporting emergencies. When ((your))the employer's communication system also serves as the employee alarm system, ((you))the employer must ensure that all emergency messages have priority over all nonemergency messages.
(5) ((You))The employer must establish procedures for sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. If ((you have))the employer has ten or fewer employees in a workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm if all employees can hear it. In this case, ((you do))the employer does not need a back-up system.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34509((What are the))Installation and restoration requirements for employee alarm systems((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that all systems installed to comply with this standard are approved. Steam whistles, air horns, strobe lights or similar lighting devices, or tactile devices meeting the requirements of this section must also be approved.
(2) After each test or alarm, ((you))the employer must ensure that all employee alarm systems are restored to normal operating condition as soon as possible. ((You))The employer must ensure that ((you have)) spare alarm components are available in sufficient quantities and locations for prompt restoration of the system.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34512((How must))Employee alarm system((s be maintained and tested?))maintenance and testing.
(1) ((You))The employer must ensure that all employee alarm systems are maintained in operating condition except when undergoing repairs or maintenance.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that a test of the reliability and adequacy of nonsupervised employee alarm systems is made every two months. ((You))The employer must use a different actuation device in each test of a multiactuation device system so that no individual device is used for two consecutive tests.
(3) ((You))The employer must maintain or replace power supplies as often as necessary to ensure fully operational condition. ((You))The employer must provide back-up alarms, such as employee runners or telephones, when systems are out of service.
(4) ((You))The employer must ensure that supervised employee alarm circuitry is supervised and that it will provide positive notification to assigned personnel whenever a deficiency exists in the system. ((You))The employer must ensure that all supervised employee alarm systems are tested at least annually for reliability and adequacy.
(5) ((You))The employer must ensure that employee alarms are serviced, maintained, and tested by someone trained in the operation and functions necessary for reliable and safe operation of the system.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-34515((Where must))Location(s) of manually operated devices ((be located?)).
((You))The employer must ensure that manually operated actuation devices used with employee alarms are easy to find and accessible.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-35003((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-350 requires ((you))the employer to provide exit routes for employees to leave the workplace safely during emergencies. This section does not apply to mobile workplaces, such as vehicles or vessels.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-35006((What))Definitions apply to this section((?)).
(("))Exit((" means)). The portion of an exit route that is generally separated from other areas to provide a protected way of travel out of the workplace.
(("))Exit route((" means)). A continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to safety outside. An exit route generally consists of three parts: Access to an exit; the area which provides a way of travel out of the workplace; and the way from the exit to the outside. An exit route includes all vertical and horizontal areas.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 11-04-080, filed 2/1/11, effective 4/1/11)
WAC 296-307-35009((What are the))Design requirements for exit routes((?)).
((You))The employer must ensure that each workplace meets each of the following requirements:
(1) Each exit is a permanent part of the workplace.
(2) Two exit routes, remote from one another, are available to provide alternate means for employees to safely leave the workplace during an emergency.
(a) A single exit route is permitted where the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace indicate that a single exit will allow all employees to exit safely during an emergency. Other means of escape, such as fire exits or accessible windows, should be available where fewer than two exit routes are provided.
(b) More than two exit routes are available to allow employees to safely leave the workplace during an emergency where the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace reasonably suggest that reliance on two exit routes could endanger employees.
(3) An exit has only those openings necessary to permit access to, or exit from, occupied areas of the workplace. An opening into an exit is protected by a self-closing fire door that remains closed. Each fire door, its frame, and hardware are listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(4) Construction materials used to separate an exit have a 1-hour fire resistance rating if the exit connects three or fewer stories. Construction materials used to separate an exit have a 2-hour fire resistance rating if the exit connects 4 or more stories.
(5) Free and unobstructed access to each exit route is provided to ensure safe exit during an emergency.
(a) The exit route is free of material or equipment.
(b) Employees are not required to travel through a room that can be locked, such as a bathroom, or toward a dead end to reach an exit.
(c) Stairs or a ramp are used if the exit route is not substantially level.
(6) An exit leads directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, or to an open space with access to the outside.
(a) The street, walkway, refuge area, or open space to which an exit leads is large enough to accommodate all building occupants likely to use that exit.
(b) A refuge area is:
(i) A space along an exit route protected from the effects of fire either by separation from other spaces within the building or by its location; or
(ii) A floor with at least two spaces separated by smoke-resistant partitions, in a building where each floor is protected by an automatic sprinkler system. An automatic sprinkler system complies with NFPA No. 13, Automatic Sprinkler Systems.
(c) Exit stairs that continue beyond the floor of exit discharge are interrupted by doors, partitions, or other effective means.
(7) Where a doorway or corner of a building is located near a railroad or trolley track so that an employee is liable to walk upon the track in front of an approaching engine or cars, a standard safeguard must be installed with a warning sign.
(8) An exit door can be readily opened from the inside without keys, tools, or special knowledge. A device, such as a panic bar, that locks only from the outside is permitted. An exit door is free of any device or alarm that, if it fails, can restrict emergency use of an exit.
Note:
An exit door may be locked or blocked from the inside in a mental, penal, or correctional institution, if supervisory personnel are continually on duty and a plan exists to remove occupants during an emergency.
(9) The opening device on all doors of walk-in refrigerated or freezer rooms must be the type, when locked from the outside with a lock, can be opened from inside.
(10) A side-hinged exit door is used to connect any room to an exit route. A door that connects any room to an exit route swings out if the room may be occupied by more than 50 persons or highly flammable or explosive materials may be used inside.
(11) Each exit route supports the maximum-permitted occupant load for each floor served by the exit route. The capacity of an exit does not decrease with the direction of exit travel.
(12) Minimum height and width requirements:
(a) Make sure the exit route has a minimum ceiling height of 7 feet 6 inches and that no projection from the ceiling is less than 6 feet 8 inches from the floor.
(b) Objects that stick out into the exit route, such as fans hanging from the ceilings or cabinets on walls, must not reduce the minimum height of the exit route to less than 6 feet 8 inches from the floor.
(c) The width of an exit route is at least 28 inches wide at all points between handrails. An exit route is wider than 28 inches if necessary to accommodate the expected occupant load.
(d) Objects that project into the exit route do not reduce the minimum height and width of an exit route.
(13) An outdoor exit route is permitted if it meets the requirements for an indoor exit route and the following additional requirements.
(a) The exit has guardrails to protect exposed sides.
(b) The exit route is covered if accumulation of snow or ice is likely and is not removed regularly.
(c) The exit route is reasonably straight with smooth, solid, substantially level floors.
(d) The exit route has no dead ends longer than 20 feet.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-35012((What are the))Operation and maintenance requirements for exit routes((?)).
((You))The employer must ensure that each workplace meets the following requirements:
(1) The workplace exit route is maintained to minimize danger to employees during an emergency.
(a) The workplace exit route is free of explosive or highly flammable furnishings or decorations.
(b) Accumulations of flammable or combustible waste materials are controlled.
(c) An exit route does not require employees to travel toward materials that burn very quickly, emit poisonous fumes, or are explosive, unless those materials are effectively shielded from the exit route.
(2) Each exit route is adequately lit.
(3) Each exit is clearly visible and is marked by a distinctive sign reading "exit."
(a) An exit door is free of signs or decorations that obscure its visibility.
(b) Signs are posted along the exit route indicating the direction of travel to the nearest exit.
(c) The line-of-sight to an exit sign is uninterrupted.
(d) Any doorway or passage that might be mistaken for an exit is marked "not an exit" or with an indication of its actual use.
(e) An exit sign is illuminated to a surface value of at least 5 foot candles by a reliable light source and shows a designated color. Self-luminous or electroluminescent signs have a minimum luminance surface value of .06 footlamberts.
(4) Fire retardant paints or other coatings used in the workplace are maintained.
(5) Each safeguard to protect employees during an emergency is maintained in proper working order.
(6) Employees do not occupy a workplace under construction until an exit route that meets these requirements is available for the portion of the workplace to be occupied.
(a) Employees do not occupy a workplace during repair or alteration unless either all exits and existing fire protection are maintained or alternate fire protection is provided that ensures an equivalent level of safety.
(b) Flammable or explosive materials used during construction or repair do not expose employees to hazards not otherwise present in the workplace or impede emergency escape from the workplace.
(7) An operable employee alarm system with a distinctive signal to warn employees of fire or other emergencies is installed and maintained. No employee alarm system is required if employees can see or smell a fire or other hazard so that it would provide adequate warning to them. The employee alarm system complies with the requirements of WAC 296-307-345.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-35015((What are the requirements for an))Emergency action plan((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must develop an emergency action plan for each part of the workplace as required by WAC 296-307-030 (3)(d).
(a) The plan must be in writing, kept in the workplace, and made available to employees on request.
(b) An employer of 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees rather than develop a written plan.
(2) An emergency action plan must include:
(a) Procedures for emergency evacuation, including exit route assignments;
(b) Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation;
(c) Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency;
(d) Procedures to follow for emergency operation or shut down of critical equipment before evacuation;
(e) Procedures to follow for rescue and medical duties;
(f) Procedures for operating and maintaining an emergency alarm system; and
(g) Names or job titles of employees to be contacted to get more information about what to do in an emergency.
(3) ((You))The employer must designate employees to assist in the safe emergency evacuation of other employees. ((You))The employer must ensure that the designated employees receive training in emergency evacuation procedures.
(4) ((You))The employer must review the emergency action plan with each employee covered by the plan:
(a) When the plan is developed or the employee is assigned initially to the job;
(b) When the employee's responsibilities under the plan change; and
(c) When the plan is changed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-35018((What are the requirements for a))Fire prevention plan((?)).
(1) ((You))The employer must develop a fire prevention plan for each part of the workplace if required by WAC 296-307-34006(1).
(a) The plan must be in writing, kept in the workplace, and made available to employees on request.
(b) An employer of ten or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees rather than develop a written plan.
(2) A fire prevention plan must include:
(a) A list of all major fire hazards, including proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their control, and the type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each major hazard;
(b) Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials;
(c) Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards installed on heat producing equipment to prevent accidental ignition of combustible materials;
(d) Names or job titles of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition or fires;
(e) Names or job titles of employees responsible for control of fuel source hazards.
(3) ((You))The employer must:
(a) Inform employees of the fire hazards to which they are exposed; and
(b) Review with each employee those parts of the fire prevention plan necessary for self-protection upon initial assignment to a job.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-36005((What does this part cover?))Scope.
(1) Chapter 296-307 WAC Part T covers methods to protect against electrical hazards in agricultural workplaces.
(2) Chapter 296-307 WAC Part T does not cover:
(())(a) Installations in watercraft, or automotive vehicles; or
(())(b) Electric welding. (See chapter 296-307 WAC Part V.)
(3) Unless otherwise provided in this chapter all electrical work, installation, and wire capacities must be according to the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1973; ANSI C1-1971, and all other applicable standards administered by the department of labor and industries.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36010((What))Definitions that apply to this part((?)).
The following definitions apply to this part:
(("))Acceptable((" means)). An installation or equipment that is acceptable to the department and meets the requirements of this section. An installation or equipment is acceptable if:
(1) It is accepted, certified, listed, labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or
(2) For installations or equipment that no nationally recognized testing laboratory accepts, certifies, lists, labels, or determines to be safe, it is inspected or tested by another federal agency, or by state, municipal, or other local authority responsible for enforcing occupational safety provisions of the National Electrical Code, and complies with the provisions of the National Electrical Code, and complies with the provisions of the National Electrical Code as applied in this section; or
(3) For custom-made equipment or related installations that are designed, fabricated for, and intended for use by a particular customer, it is determined to be safe for its intended use by its manufacturer on the basis of test data that ((you))the employer keeps and make available for our inspection.
(("))Accepted((" means)). An installation that has been inspected and certified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet specified plans or procedures of applicable codes.
(("))Bonding jumper((" means)). A reliable conductor that provides the correct electrical conductivity between metal parts that are required to be electrically connected.
(("))Branch circuits((" means)). The part of a wiring system extending beyond the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit. A device not approved for branch circuit protection, such as thermal cutout or motor overload protective device, is not considered as the overcurrent device protecting the circuit.
(("))Certified((" means)). Equipment that:
(())(a) Has been tested and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet nationally recognized standards, or to be safe for use in a specified manner; or
(())(b) Is a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; and
(())(c) Bears a label, tag, or other record of certification.
(("))Exposed((" means)). A live part that can be accidentally touched or approached nearer than a safe distance. This term applies to parts that are not suitably guarded, isolated, or insulated.
(("))Fixed equipment((" means)). Equipment fastened or connected by permanent wiring methods.
(("))Ground((" means)). A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
(("))Grounded((" means)). Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
(("))Isolated((" means)). Equipment that is not readily accessible except through special means of access.
(("))Labeled((" means)). Equipment that has an attached label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory that:
(())(a) Makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment; and
(())(b) Whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests to determine safe use in a specified manner.
(("))Qualified person((" means)). A person who is familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved.
Note 1:
Whether an employee is considered a "qualified person" depends on various circumstances in the workplace. It is possible and likely for an individual to be considered "qualified" with regard to certain equipment in the workplace, but "unqualified" as to other equipment.
Note 2:
An employee undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person is considered a qualified person for the performance of those duties.
(("))Shock hazard((")). Exists at an accessible part in a circuit between the part and ground, or other accessible parts if the potential is more than 42.4 volts peak and the current through a 1,500 ohm load is more than 5 milliamperes.
(("))Weatherproof((" means)). Constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather does not interfere with successful operation. Rainproof, raintight, or watertight equipment may be considered weatherproof where weather conditions other than wetness, such as snow, ice, dust, or temperature extremes, are not a factor.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36203((What))The following electrical equipment must be approved((?)).
The conductors and equipment required or permitted by this section must be approved.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36206((How must))Determining electrical equipment safety ((be determined?)).
(1) Electrical equipment must be free from hazards to employees. Safety of equipment must be determined using the following considerations:
(a) Suitability for installation and use according to the requirements of this part. Suitability of equipment for a specific purpose may be shown by listing or labeling for that purpose.
(b) Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts designed to enclose and protect other equipment, the adequacy of the protection provided.
(c) Electrical insulation.
(d) Heating effects under conditions of use.
(e) Arcing effects.
(f) Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, specific use.
(g) Other factors that contribute to the practical safeguarding of employees using or likely to come in contact with the equipment.
(2) Listed or labeled equipment must be used or installed according to any instructions included in the listing or labeling.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36209((What requirements apply to))Guarding live parts((?)).
(1) Unless otherwise indicated, live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more must be guarded against accidental contact by an approved cabinet or other form of approved enclosure, or by any of the following:
(a) Location in a room, vault, or similar enclosure that is accessible only to qualified persons.
(b) Suitable permanent substantial partitions or screens arranged so that only qualified persons have access to the area within reach of the live parts. Any openings in such partitions or screens must be small enough and located so that employees are not likely to come into accidental contact with live parts or to bring conducting objects into contact with them.
(c) Location on a suitable balcony, gallery, or platform elevated and accessible only to qualified persons.
(d) Elevation of eight feet or more above the floor or other working surface.
(2) In locations where electric equipment would be exposed to physical damage, enclosures or guards must be arranged and be strong enough to prevent damage.
(3) Entrances to rooms and other guarded locations containing exposed live parts must be marked with conspicuous warning signs forbidding unqualified persons to enter.
(4) Electrical repairs must be made only by qualified persons ((that you authorize))authorized by the employer.
(5) Fuse handling equipment, insulated for the circuit voltage, must be used to remove or install fuses when the fuse terminals are energized.
(6) Employees must be prohibited from working closely enough to an electric power circuit to contact it unless the employee is protected against electric shock.
Note:
The circuit must be protected by deenergizing the circuit and grounding it, by guarding it, by effective insulation, or other means.
(7) In work areas where the exact location of underground electric power lines is unknown, employees using jack-hammers, bars or other hand tools that may contact a line must have insulated protective gloves.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36212((What))Workspace that must be provided((?))by the employer.
(1) When parts are exposed, the minimum clearance for the workspace must be at least six feet six inches high, or at least a radius of three feet wide.
(2) There must be enough clearance to permit at least a 90° opening of all doors or hinged panels.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36215((What general requirements apply to))Splices((?)).
Conductors must be spliced or joined with splicing devices suitable for the use or by brazing, welding, or soldering with a fusible metal or alloy. Soldered splices must first be spliced or joined so they are mechanically and electrically secure without solder and then soldered. (Rosin-core solder should be used instead of acid core solder when joining electrical conductors.) All splices and joints and the free ends of conductors must be covered with an insulation equivalent to that of the conductors or with an insulating device suitable for the purpose.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36218((What))Protection ((must be)) provided against combustible materials((?)).
Parts of electric equipment that in ordinary operation produce arcs, sparks, flames, or molten metal must be enclosed or separated and isolated from all combustible material.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36221((How must))Marking electrical equipment ((be marked?)).
All electrical equipment in use must have the manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking of the organization responsible for the product on the equipment. Other markings must be provided giving voltage, current, wattage, or other ratings as necessary. The marking must be durable enough to withstand the environment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36224((How must))Marking disconnecting means ((be marked?)).
Each disconnecting means required by this part for motors and appliances must be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. Each service, feeder, and branch circuit, at its disconnecting means or overcurrent device, must be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. These markings must be durable enough to withstand the environment involved.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36227((What))Access and working space ((must be provided)) for electrical equipment of 600 volts, nominal, or less((?)).
Sufficient access and working space must be provided and maintained about all electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.
(1) Unless otherwise indicated, the dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts operating at 600 volts or less and likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive must be at least that indicated in the table below. Also, workspace must be at least 30 inches wide in front of the electric equipment. Distances must be measured from the live parts if they are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if the live parts are enclosed. Concrete, brick, or tile walls are considered grounded. Working space is not required behind assemblies such as dead-front switchboards or motor control centers where there are no renewable or adjustable parts such as fuses or switches on the back and where all connections are accessible from other directions.
Working Clearances
Nominal voltage
to ground
Minimum clear distance
for condition (ft)
(a)
(b)
(c)
0-150
13
13
3
151-600
13
3-1/2
4
Conditions:
(a) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides guarded by suitable wood or other insulating material. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at 300 volts or less are not considered live parts.
 
(b) Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side.
 
(c) Exposed live parts on both sides of the workspace (not guarded as in (a)) with the operator between.
(2) Working space required by this part must not be used for storage. When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for inspection or servicing, the working space, if in a passageway or general open space, must be suitably guarded.
(3) At least one entrance of sufficient area must be provided to give access to the working space about electric equipment.
(4) Where there are live parts normally exposed on the front of switchboards or motor control centers, the working space in front of such equipment must be at least 3 feet.
(5) All working spaces around service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, and motor control centers installed indoors must be adequately lit.
(6) The minimum headroom of working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, or motor control centers must be 6 feet 3 inches.
(("))Motor control center((" means)). An assembly of one or more enclosed sections having a common power bus and principally containing motor control units.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-36230((What))Access and working space ((must be provided)) for electrical equipment over 600 volts, nominal((?)).
(1) Conductors and equipment used on circuits exceeding 600 volts, nominal, must meet all requirements of WAC 296-307-36221 and the additional requirements of this section. This section does not apply to equipment on the supply side of the service conductors.
(2) Electrical installations in a vault, room, closet or area surrounded by a wall, screen, or fence, with access controlled by lock and key or other approved means, are considered accessible to qualified persons only. A wall, screen, or fence less than 8 feet high is not considered to prevent access unless it has other features that provide a degree of isolation equivalent to an 8 foot fence. The entrances to all buildings, rooms, or enclosures containing exposed live parts or exposed conductors operating at over 600 volts, nominal, must be kept locked or under the observation of a qualified person at all times.
(a) Electrical installations with exposed live parts must be accessible to qualified persons only.
(b) Electrical installations that are open to unqualified persons must be made with metal-enclosed equipment or enclosed in a vault or in an area, with access controlled by a lock. If metal-enclosed equipment is installed so that the bottom of the enclosure is less than 8 feet above the floor, the door or cover must be kept locked. Metal-enclosed switchgear, unit substations, transformers, pull boxes, connection boxes, and other similar associated equipment must be marked with appropriate caution signs. If equipment is exposed to physical damage from vehicular traffic, guards must be provided to prevent damage. Ventilating or similar openings in metal-enclosed equipment must be designed so that foreign objects inserted through these openings will be deflected from energized parts.
(3) ((You))The employer must provide and maintain enough space around electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of equipment. Where energized parts are exposed, the minimum clear workspace must be at least 6 feet 6 inches high (measured vertically from the floor or platform), or less than 3 feet wide (measured parallel to the equipment). The depth must meet the requirements of Table T. The workspace must be adequate to permit at least a 90-degree opening of doors or hinged panels.
(a) The minimum clear working space in front of electric equipment such as switchboards, control panels, switches, circuit breakers, motor controllers, relays, and similar equipment must be at least that specified in Table T unless otherwise indicated. Distances must be measured from the live parts if they are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if the live parts are enclosed. However, working space is not required in back of equipment such as deadfront switchboards or control assemblies where there are no renewable or adjustable parts (such as fuses or switches) on the back and where all connections are accessible from another direction. Where rear access is required to work on deenergized parts on the back of enclosed equipment, a minimum working space of 30 inches horizontally ((shall))must be provided.
Table T
Minimum Depth of Clear Working Space in Front of Electric Equipment
 
Conditions (ft)
Nominal voltage
to ground
(a)
(b)
(c)
601 to 2,500
3
4
5
2,501 to 9,000
4
5
6
9,001 to 25,000
5
6
9
25,001 to 75kV1
6
8
10
Above 75kV1
8
10
12
Note:
Minimum depth of clear working space in front of electric equipment with a nominal voltage to ground above 25,000 volts may be the same as for 25,000 volts under conditions (a), (b) and (c) for installations built prior to April 16, 1981.
Conditions:
(a) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides guarded by suitable wood or other insulating materials. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at 300 volts or less are not considered live parts.
 
(b) Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side. Concrete, brick, or tile walls will be considered grounded surfaces.
 
(c) Exposed live parts on both sides of the workspace (not guarded as in (a)) with the operator between.
(b) All working spaces around electric equipment must be adequately lit. The lighting outlets ((shall))must be arranged so that anyone changing lamps or making repairs on the lighting system will not be endangered by live parts or other equipment. The points of control must be located so that no one is likely to come in contact with any live part or moving part of the equipment while turning on the lights.
(c) Unguarded live parts above working space must be elevated to at least the height specified below:
Elevation of Unguarded
Energized Parts Above Working Space
Nominal voltage
between phases
 
 
Minimum
elevation
601 to 7,500
 
8 feet 6 inches
7,501 to 35,000
 
9 feet
Over 35kV
 
9 feet + 0.37
inches per kV
above 35kV
Note:
Minimum elevation may be 8 feet for installations built prior to April 16, 1981, if the nominal voltage between phases is in the range of 601-6600 volts.
(4) Entrance and access to workspace must meet the following requirements:
(a) At least one entrance that is at least 24 inches wide and 6 feet 6 inches high must be provided to give access to the working space around electric equipment. On switchboard and control panels over 48 inches wide, there must be one entrance at each end of the board where practical. Where bare energized parts at any voltage or insulated energized parts above 600 volts are located adjacent to the entrance, they must be suitably guarded.
(b) Permanent ladders or stairways must be provided to give safe access to the working space around electric equipment installed on platforms, balconies, mezzanine floors, or in attic or roof rooms or spaces.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36403((How must))Installation and maintenance of flexible cords and cables ((be installed and maintained?)).
(1) Extension cords used with portable electric tools and appliances must be three wire and must be fitted with an approved grounding attachment plug and receptacle providing ground continuity.
Exception:
This does not apply to cords used with portable tools and equipment provided by an approved system of double insulation or its equivalent.
(2) Worn or frayed electric cables are prohibited.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36406((How must))Installation and maintenance of attachment plugs and receptacles ((be installed and maintained?)).
(1) Attachment plugs used in work areas must be constructed so that they will endure rough use and have a suitable cord grip to prevent strain on the terminal screws.
(2) Attachment plugs must be approved grounding plugs.
(3) Receptacles for attachment plugs must have approved concealed contacts with a contact for extending ground continuity. Receptacles must be designed and constructed to ensure that the plug can be pulled out without leaving any live parts exposed to accidental contact.
(4) Polarized attachment plugs, receptacles, and cord connectors must be wired to maintain continuity.
(5) Polarized attachment plugs, receptacles, and cord connectors for plugs and polarized plugs must have the terminal intended for connection to the grounded (white) conductor identified by a metal coating that is mostly white. If the terminal is not visible, its entrance hole must be marked with the word "white," or the color white.
(6) The terminal for the connection of the equipment grounding conductor must be:
(a) A green colored, not easily removed terminal screw with hexagonal head; or
(b) A green colored, hexagonal, not easily removed terminal nut; or
(c) A green colored pressure wire connector.
If the terminal for the grounding conductor is not visible, the conductor entrance hole must be marked with the word "green" or the color green.
Note:
Two-wire attachment plugs, unless of the polarity type, need not have their terminals marked for identification.
(7) Where different voltages, or types of current (A.C. or D.C.) are to be supplied by portable cords, receptacles must be designed so that attachment plugs used on the circuits are not interchangeable.
(8) Attachment plugs or other connectors supplying equipment at more than 300 volts must be skirted or otherwise designed so that arcs are confined.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36409((What must))Safety measures employees ((do))must take when equipment causes electrical shock((?)).
Employees must report all shocks received from electrical equipment, no matter how slight, immediately to ((you))the employer. The equipment causing the shock must be checked and any necessary corrective action taken immediately.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36412((What))Grounding and bonding requirements that apply to equipment installation and maintenance((?)).
(1) The path to ground must have enough carrying capacity to conduct safely the currents likely to be imposed on it; and have low enough impedance to limit the potential above ground and to result in the operation of the overcurrent devices in the circuit.
(2) Driven rod electrodes must, where practical, have a resistance to ground of a maximum of 25 ohms. Where the resistance is over 25 ohms, two electrodes connected in parallel ((shall))must be used.
(3) Grounding circuits must be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor has a resistance that is low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
(4) Conductors used for bonding and grounding equipment must be large enough to carry the anticipated current.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36415((What requirements apply to))Disconnecting means((?)).
(1) Disconnecting means must be located or shielded so that employees will not be injured. Using open knife switches is prohibited.
(2) Boxes for disconnecting means must be securely and rigidly fastened to the surface upon which they are mounted, and fitted with covers.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36418((What requirements apply to))Identification and load rating of electrical equipment((?)).
(1) Name plates, rating data, and marks of identification on electrical equipment and electrically operated machines must not be removed, defaced or obliterated.
(2) In existing installations, no changes in circuit protection must be made to increase the load beyond the load rating of the circuit wiring, as specified in the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1973; ANSI C1-1972, Article 310.
(3) Tampering with, bridging, or using oversize fuses is prohibited. If fuses blow repeatedly, employees must immediately report the trouble to ((you))the employer or to an authorized electrician.
(4) Attempting to start electric motors that kick out repeatedly is prohibited.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36421((How must equipment be installed))Installing equipment in wet locations((?)).
(1) Cabinets, cutout boxes, fittings, boxes, and panelboard enclosures in damp or wet locations must be installed to prevent moisture or water from entering and accumulating within the enclosures. In wet locations the enclosures must be weatherproof.
(2) Switches, circuit breakers, and switchboards installed in wet locations must be enclosed in weatherproof enclosures.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36603((How must))Use and identification of grounded and grounding conductors ((be used and identified?)).
(1) A conductor used as a grounded conductor must be identified separately from all other conductors. A conductor used as an equipment grounding conductor must be identified separately from all other conductors.
(2) A grounded conductor must not be attached to any terminal or lead to reverse the designated polarity.
(3) Using a grounding terminal or grounding-type device on a receptacle, cord connector, or attachment plug for anything other than grounding is prohibited.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36606((What))Ampere rating ((must))for outlet devices ((have?)).
Outlet devices must have an ampere rating at least equal to the load served.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36609((What requirements apply to))Conductors((?)).
This section applies to branch circuit, feeder, and service conductors rated 600 volts, nominal, or less and run outdoors as open conductors.
(1) Conductors supported on poles must provide a horizontal climbing space of at least the following:
(a) For power conductors below communication conductors, 30 inches.
(b) For power conductors alone or above communication conductors:
(())(i) 300 volts or less, 24 inches;
(())(ii) More than 300 volts, 30 inches.
(c) For communication conductors below power conductors with power conductors of:
(())(i) 300 volts or less, 24 inches;
(())(ii) More than 300 volts, 30 inches.
(2) Open conductors must provide at least the following minimum clearances:
(a) 10 feet, above finished grade, sidewalks, or from any platform or projection from which they might be reached;
(b) 12 feet, over areas subject to vehicular traffic other than truck traffic;
(c) 15 feet, over areas that are subject to truck traffic; except
(d) 18 feet, over public streets, alleys, roads, and driveways.
(3) Conductors must have a clearance of at least 3 feet from windows, doors, porches, fire escapes, or similar locations. Conductors run above the top level of a window are considered to be out of reach from that window and, therefore, do not have to be 3 feet away.
(4) Conductors must have a clearance of at least 8 feet from the highest point of roofs they pass over.
Exceptions:
(a) Where the voltage between conductors is 300 volts or less and the roof has a slope of at least 4 inches in 12, the clearance from the roofs must be at least 3 feet; or
 
(b) Where the voltage between conductors is 300 volts or less, the conductors do not pass over more than 4 feet of the overhang portion of the roof, and they are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support, the clearance from the roofs must be at least 18 inches.
(5) Lamps for outdoor lighting must be located below all live conductors, transformers, or other electric equipment, unless such equipment is controlled by a disconnecting means that can be locked in the open position or unless adequate clearances or other safeguards are provided for relamping operations.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36612((What))Design and protection requirements that apply to service-entrances((?)).
(1) Disconnecting means for service-entrances must meet the following requirements:
(a) Means must be provided to disconnect all conductors in a building or other structure from the service-entrance conductors. The disconnecting means must plainly indicate whether it is in the open or closed position and must be installed at a readily accessible location nearest the point of entrance of the service-entrance conductors.
(b) Each service disconnecting means must disconnect all ungrounded conductors at the same time.
(2) The following additional requirements apply to services over 600 volts, nominal.
(a) Service-entrance conductors installed as open wires must be guarded to make them accessible only to qualified persons.
(b) Signs warning of high voltage must be posted where other than qualified employees might come in contact with live parts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36615((What))Overcurrent protection ((must be provided?)).
(1) The following requirements apply to overcurrent protection of circuits rated 600 volts, nominal, or less.
(a) Conductors and equipment must be protected from overcurrent according to their ability to safely conduct current.
(b) Except for motor running overload protection, overcurrent devices must not interrupt the continuity of the grounded conductor unless all conductors of the circuit are opened at the same time.
(c) Except for service fuses, all cartridge fuses that are accessible to other than qualified persons and all fuses and thermal cutouts on circuits over 150 volts to ground must have disconnecting means. This disconnecting means must be installed so that the fuse or thermal cutout can be disconnected from its supply without disrupting service to equipment and circuits unrelated to those protected by the overcurrent device.
(d) Overcurrent devices must be readily accessible to each employee or authorized building management personnel. These overcurrent devices must be located where they will be protected against physical damage and away from easily ignitable material.
(e) Fuses and circuit breakers must be located or shielded so that employees will not be burned or otherwise injured by their operation.
(f) Circuit breakers must meet the following requirements:
(i) Circuit breakers must clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.
(ii) Where circuit breaker handles on switchboards are operated vertically rather than horizontally or rotationally, the up position of the handle must be the closed (on) position.
(iii) If used as switches in 120-volt, fluorescent lighting circuits, circuit breakers must be approved for the purpose and marked "SWD."
(2) Feeders and branch circuits over 600 volts, nominal, must have short-circuit protection.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36618((What))Grounding for premises wiring systems ((must be grounded?)).
The following systems that supply premises wiring must be grounded:
(1) All 3-wire DC systems must have their neutral conductor grounded.
(2) Two-wire DC systems operating at 50-300 volts between conductors must be grounded.
Exception((s)):
This requirement does not apply if:
 
(((a)))1. They supply only industrial equipment in limited areas and are equipped with a ground detector; or
 
(((b)))2. They are rectifier-derived from an AC system that meets the requirements of subsections (3), (4), and (5) of this section; or
 
(((c)))3. They are fire-protective signaling circuits with a maximum current of 0.030 amperes.
(3) AC circuits of less than 50 volts must be grounded if they are installed as overhead conductors outside of buildings or if they are supplied by transformers and the transformer primary supply system is ungrounded or exceeds 150 volts to ground.
(4) AC systems of 50-1000 volts must be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(a) If the system can be grounded so that the maximum voltage to ground on the ungrounded conductors is a maximum of 150 volts;
(b) If the system is nominally rated 480Y/277 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire in which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor;
(c) If the system is nominally rated 240/120 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire in which the midpoint of one phase is used as a circuit conductor; or
(d) If a service conductor is uninsulated.
(5) Exceptions: AC systems of 50-1000 volts are not required to be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(a) If the system is used exclusively to supply industrial electric furnaces for melting, refining, tempering, and the like.
(b) If the system is separately derived and is used exclusively for rectifiers supplying only adjustable speed industrial drives.
(c) If the system is separately derived and is supplied by a transformer that has a primary voltage rating less than 1000 volts, if all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The system is used exclusively for control circuits;
(ii) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installation;
(iii) Continuity of control power is required; and
(iv) Ground detectors are installed on the control system.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36621((Must the conductor be grounded for))Grounding the conductor in AC premises wiring((?)).
For AC premises wiring systems the identified conductor must be grounded.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36624((What))General requirements that apply to grounding conductors((?)).
(1) For a grounded system, a grounding electrode conductor must be used to connect both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounded circuit conductor to the grounding electrode. Both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounding electrode conductor must be connected to the grounded circuit conductor on the supply side of the service disconnecting means, or on the supply side of the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices if the system is separately derived.
(2) For an ungrounded service-supplied system, the equipment grounding conductor must be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at the service equipment. For an ungrounded separately derived system, the equipment grounding conductor must be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at, or ahead of, the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices.
(3) On extensions of existing branch circuits that do not have an equipment grounding conductor, grounding-type receptacles may be grounded to a grounded cold water pipe near the equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36627((Must the))Continuous path to ground ((be continuous?)).
The path to ground from circuits, equipment, and enclosures must be permanent and continuous.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36630((What))Grounding supports, enclosures, and equipment ((must be grounded?)).
(1) Metal cable trays, metal raceways, and metal enclosures for conductors must be grounded.
Exceptions:
(((a)))1. Metal enclosures such as sleeves that are used to protect cable assemblies from physical damage need not be grounded; or
 
(((b)))2. Metal enclosures for conductors added to existing installations of open wire, knob-and-tube wiring, and nonmetallic-sheathed cable need not be grounded if all of the following conditions are met:
 
(((i)))a. Runs are less than 25 feet;
 
(((ii)))b. Enclosures are free from probable contact with ground, grounded metal, metal laths, or other conductive materials; and
 
(((iii)))c. Enclosures are guarded against employee contact.
(2) Metal enclosures for service equipment must be grounded.
(3) Frames of electric ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, clothes dryers, and metal outlet or junction boxes that are part of the circuit for these appliances must be grounded.
(4) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment that may become energized must be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(a) If within 8 feet vertically or 5 feet horizontally of ground or grounded metal objects and subject to employee contact;
(b) If located in a wet or damp location and not isolated;
(c) If in electrical contact with metal;
(d) If in a hazardous (classified) location;
(e) If supplied by a metal-clad, metal-sheathed, or grounded metal raceway wiring method;
(f) If equipment operates with any terminal at over 150 volts to the ground; however, the following need not be grounded:
(i) Enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used for other than service equipment and accessible to qualified persons only;
(ii) Metal frames of electrically heated appliances that are permanently and effectively insulated from ground; and
(iii) The cases of distribution apparatus such as transformers and capacitors mounted on wooden poles that are over 8 feet above ground or grade level.
(5) Under any of the conditions below, exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of cord-connected and plug-connected equipment that may become energized must be grounded.
(a) When equipment is in hazardous (classified) locations.
(b) When equipment is operated at over 150 volts to ground.
Exception:
Guarded motors and metal frames of electrically heated appliances need not be grounded if the appliance frames are permanently and effectively insulated from ground.
(c) When equipment is one of the following:
(())(i) Refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners;
(())(ii) Clothes-washing, clothes-drying and dishwashing machines, sump pumps, and electrical aquarium equipment;
(())(iii) Hand-held motor-operated tools;
(())(iv) The following motor-operated appliances: Hedge clippers, lawn mowers, snow blowers, and wet scrubbers;
(())(v) Cord-connected and plug-connected appliances used in damp or wet locations or by employees standing on the ground or on metal floors or working inside of metal tanks or boilers;
(())(vi) Tools likely to be used in wet and conductive locations; and
(())(vii) Portable hand lamps.
Tools likely to be used in wet and conductive locations need not be grounded if supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of a maximum of 50 volts. Listed or labeled portable tools and appliances protected by an approved system of double insulation, or its equivalent, need not be grounded. The equipment must be distinctively marked to indicate that the tool or appliance uses an approved system of double insulation.
(6) The metal parts of the following nonelectrical equipment must be grounded: Frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes; frames of nonelectrically driven elevator cars to which electric conductors are attached; hand operated metal shifting ropes or cables of electric elevators, and metal partitions, grill work, and other metal enclosures around equipment of over 750 volts between conductors.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36633((How must))Grounding fixed equipment ((be grounded?)).
(1) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment, if required to be grounded by this section, must be grounded by an equipment grounding conductor that is contained within the same raceway, cable, or cord, or runs with or encloses the circuit conductors. For DC circuits only, the equipment grounding conductor may be run separately from the circuit conductors.
(2) Electric equipment is considered grounded if it is secured to, and in electrical contact with, a metal rack or structure that is provided for its support and the metal rack or structure is grounded as described above.
For installations made before May 30, 1982, electric equipment is also considered grounded if it is secured to, and in metallic contact with, the grounded structural metal frame of a building. Metal car frames supported by metal hoisting cables attached to or running over metal sheaves or drums of grounded elevator machines are also considered grounded.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-36636((How must))Grounding high voltage systems ((be grounded?)).
Grounded high voltage (1000 volts or more) systems and circuits must meet all requirements of WAC 296-307-366 and the additional requirements of this section.
(1) Systems supplying portable or mobile high voltage equipment, other than substations installed on a temporary basis, must meet the following requirements:
(a) Portable and mobile high voltage equipment must be supplied from a system having its neutral grounded through an impedance. If a delta-connected high voltage system is used to supply the equipment, a system neutral must be derived.
(b) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable and mobile equipment must be connected by an equipment grounding conductor to the point at which the system neutral impedance is grounded.
(c) Ground-fault detection and relaying must be provided to automatically deenergize any high voltage system component that has developed a ground fault. The continuity of the equipment grounding conductor must be continuously monitored to deenergize automatically the high voltage feeder to the portable equipment on loss of continuity of the equipment grounding conductor.
(d) The grounding electrode to which the portable or mobile equipment system neutral impedance is connected must be isolated from and separated in the ground by at least 20 feet from any other system or equipment grounding electrode. There must be no direct connection between the grounding electrodes, such as buried pipe, fence, etc.
(2) All noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable equipment and fixed equipment including their associated fences, housings, enclosures, and supporting structures ((shall))must be grounded. However, equipment that is guarded by location and isolated from ground need not be grounded. Additionally, pole-mounted distribution apparatus over 8 feet above ground or grade level need not be grounded.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-36803((Does this section apply to))Factory-assembled equipment((?)).
WAC 296-307-368 does not apply to conductors that are an integral part of factory-assembled equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36806((What wiring methods must be used for))Temporary wiring((?)).
Temporary electrical power and lighting wiring methods may be of a class less than would be required for a permanent installation. All requirements for permanent wiring apply to temporary wiring installations, except as indicated in this section.
(1) Temporary electrical power and lighting installations 600 volts, nominal, or less must only be used:
(a) During and for remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition of buildings, structures, or equipment, and similar activities;
(b) For experimental or development work; and
(c) For a maximum of 90 days for Christmas lighting and similar purposes.
(2) Temporary wiring over 600 volts, nominal, must only be used during periods of tests, experiments, or emergencies.
(3) General requirements for temporary wiring.
(a) Working spaces, walkways, and similar locations must be kept clear of power cords.
(b) All temporary wiring must be grounded. (See NFPA 70 Art. 250.)
(c) All wiring equipment must be maintained as vapor-tight, dust-tight, or fiber-tight as their approval requires. There must be no loose or missing screws, gaskets, threaded connections, or other conditions that impair the required tightness.
(d) Take precautions to make necessary open wiring accessible only to authorized personnel.
(e) Feeders must originate in an approved distribution center. The conductors must be run as multiconductor cord or cable assemblies, or, where not subject to physical damage, they may be run as open conductors on insulators not more than 10 feet apart.
(f) Branch circuits must originate in an approved power outlet or panelboard. Conductors must be multiconductor cord or cable assemblies or open conductors. If run as open conductors they must be fastened at ceiling height every 10 feet. A branch-circuit conductor must not be laid on the floor. Each branch circuit that supplies receptacles or fixed equipment must have a separate equipment grounding conductor if run as open conductors.
(g) Receptacles must be of the grounding type. Unless installed in a complete metallic raceway, each branch circuit must have a separate equipment grounding conductor and all receptacles must be electrically connected to the grounding conductor.
(h) A bare conductor or an earth return must not be used to wire any temporary circuit.
(i) Suitable disconnecting switches or plug connectors must be installed to permit the disconnection of all ungrounded conductors of each temporary circuit.
(j) Lamps for general illumination must be protected from accidental contact or breakage. Lamps must be elevated at least 7 feet from normal working surface or by a suitable fixture or lampholder with a guard.
(k) Flexible cords and cables must be protected from accidental damage. Sharp corners and projections must be avoided. Where passing through doorways or other pinch points, flexible cords and cables must be protected to avoid damage.
(4) General requirements for temporary lighting.
(a) Temporary lights must have guards to prevent accidental contact with the bulb.
Note:
Guards are not required when the entire bulb is below the rim and completely surrounded and protected by the reflector.
(b) Temporary lights must have heavy duty electric cords with connections and insulation maintained in safe condition.
(c) Temporary lights must not be suspended by their electric cords unless cords and lights are designed for suspension.
(d) Brass shell, paper-lined lamp holders are prohibited.
(e) Portable extension lamps used where flammable vapors or gases, combustible dusts, or easily ignitable fibers or flyings are present, must be specifically approved as complete assemblies for the type of hazard.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36809((When may))Cable trays ((be used?)).
(1) Only the following may be installed in cable tray systems:
(a) Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable (Type MI);
(b) Armored cable (Type AC);
(c) Metal-clad cable (Type MC);
(d) Power-limited tray cable (Type PLTC);
(e) Nonmetallic-sheathed cable (Type NM or NMC);
(f) Shielded nonmetallic-sheathed cable (Type SNM);
(g) Multiconductor service-entrance cable (Type SE or USE);
(h) Multiconductor underground feeder and branch-circuit cable (Type UF);
(i) Power and control tray cable (Type TC);
(j) Other factory-assembled, multiconductor control, signal, or power cables that are specifically approved for installation in cable trays; or
(k) Any approved conduit or raceway with its contained conductors.
(2) In industrial establishments only, where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installed cable tray system, the following cables may also be installed in ladder, ventilated trough, or 4 inch ventilated channel-type cable trays:
Single conductor cables that are 250 MCM or larger and are Types RHH, RHW, MV, USE, or THW, and other 250 MCM or larger single conductor cables if specifically approved for installation in cable trays. Where exposed to direct rays of the sun, cables must be sunlight-resistant.
(3) Cable trays in hazardous (classified) locations must contain only the cable types permitted in such locations.
Exception:
Cable tray systems must not be used in hoistways or where subjected to severe physical damage.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36812((What requirements apply to))Open wiring on insulators((?)).
(1) Open wiring on insulators is only permitted on systems of 600 volts, nominal, or less for industrial or agricultural establishments and for services.
(2) Conductors must be rigidly supported on noncombustible, nonabsorbent insulating materials and must not contact any other objects.
(3) In dry locations with no exposure to severe physical damage, conductors may be separately enclosed in flexible nonmetallic tubing. The tubing must be in continuous lengths a maximum of 15 feet and secured to the surface by straps at maximum intervals of 4 feet 6 inches.
(4) Open conductors must be separated from contact with walls, floors, and wood cross members, or partitions through which they pass by tubes or bushings of noncombustible, nonabsorbent insulating material. If the bushing is shorter than the hole, a waterproof sleeve of nonconductive material must be inserted in the hole and an insulating bushing slipped into the sleeve at each end to keep the conductors completely out of contact with the sleeve. Each conductor must be carried through a separate tube or sleeve.
(5) Conductors within 7 feet of the floor are considered exposed to physical damage. Where open conductors cross ceiling joints and wall studs and are exposed to physical damage, they must be protected.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36815((What))Wiring requirements that apply to cabinets, boxes, and fittings((?)).
(1) Conductors entering boxes, cabinets, or fittings must be protected from abrasion, and openings through which conductors enter must be closed. Unused openings in cabinets, boxes, and fittings must also be closed.
(2) All pull boxes, junction boxes, and fittings must have covers approved for the purpose. All metal covers must be grounded. In completed installations each outlet box must have a cover, faceplate, or fixture canopy. A cover of an outlet box with holes through which a flexible cord pendant passes must have bushings designed for the purpose or have a smooth, well-rounded surface for the cord to run on.
(3) All pull and junction boxes for systems over 600 volts, nominal, must meet the following requirements:
(a) Boxes must provide a complete enclosure for the contained conductors or cables.
(b) Boxes must be closed by suitable covers securely fastened in place. Underground box covers that weigh over 100 pounds meet this requirement. Covers for boxes must be permanently marked "HIGH VOLTAGE." The marking must be on the outside of the box cover and must be readily visible and legible.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36818((What requirements apply to))Switches((?)).
(1) Single-throw knife switches must be connected so that the blades are dead when the switch is in the open position. Single-throw knife switches must be placed so that gravity will not tend to close them. Single-throw knife switches approved for use in the inverted position must have a locking device that keeps the blades open when set. Double-throw knife switches may be mounted so that the throw will be either vertical or horizontal. However, if the throw is vertical a locking device must be provided to ensure that the blades remain open when so set.
(2) Flush snap switches that are mounted in ungrounded metal boxes and located within reach of conducting floors or other conducting surfaces must have faceplates of nonconducting, noncombustible material.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36821((Where must))Location of switchboards and panelboards ((be located?)).
Switchboards that have any exposed live parts must be located in permanently dry locations and accessible only to qualified persons. Panelboards must be mounted in cabinets, cutout boxes, or enclosures approved for the purpose and must be dead front. However, panelboards other than the dead front externally operable type are permitted where accessible only to qualified persons. Exposed blades of knife switches must be dead when open.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36824((When must))Insulating conductors ((be insulated?)).
All conductors used for general wiring must be insulated unless otherwise permitted in this section. The conductor insulation must be approved for the voltage, operating temperature, and location of use. Insulated conductors must be distinguishable by appropriate color or other means as grounded conductors, ungrounded conductors, or equipment grounding conductors.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36827((When may))Use of flexible cords and cables ((be used?)).
(1) Flexible cords and cables must be approved and suitable for conditions of use and location. Flexible cords and cables must be used only for:
(a) Pendants;
(b) Wiring of fixtures;
(c) Connection of portable lamps or appliances;
(d) Elevator cables;
(e) Wiring of cranes and hoists;
(f) Connection of stationary equipment to facilitate frequent interchange;
(g) Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration;
(h) Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are designed to permit removal for maintenance and repair; or
(i) Data processing cables approved as a part of the data processing system.
(2) If used as permitted above, the flexible cord must have an attachment plug and ((shall))must be energized from an approved receptacle outlet.
(3) Unless permitted in subsection (1) of this section, flexible cords and cables must not be used:
(a) As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure;
(b) Where run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors;
(c) Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings;
(d) Where attached to building surfaces; or
(e) Where concealed behind building walls, ceilings, or floors.
(4) Flexible cords used in show windows and showcases must be Type S, SO, SJ, SJO, ST, STO, SJT, SJTO, or AFS except for the wiring of chain-supported lighting fixtures and supply cords for portable lamps and other merchandise being displayed or exhibited.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36830((How must))Identification, splicing and termination of flexible cords and cables ((be identified, spliced, and terminated?)).
(1) A conductor of a flexible cord or cable that is used as a grounded conductor or an equipment grounding conductor must be distinguishable from other conductors. Types SJ, SJO, SJT, SJTO, S, SO, ST, and STO must be durably marked on the surface with the type designation, size, and number of conductors.
(2) Flexible cords must be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap. Vulcanized splices or equivalent means such as systems using shrinkable materials may be used to repair flexible cords. Hard service flexible cords No. 12 or larger may be repaired by splice if the splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced.
(3) Flexible cords must be connected to devices and fittings so that strain relief is provided to prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36833((What requirements apply to))Multiconductor portable cable((?)).
Multiconductor portable cable for use in supplying power to portable or mobile equipment at over 600 volts, nominal, must consist of No. 8 or larger conductors employing flexible stranding. Cables operated at over 2,000 volts must be shielded to confine the voltage stresses to the insulation. Grounding conductors must be provided. Connectors for these cables must be locking with provisions to prevent their opening or closing while energized. Strain relief must be provided at connections and terminations. Portable cables must not be operated with splices unless the splices are permanent molded, vulcanized, or other approved type. Termination enclosures must be suitably marked with a high voltage hazard warning, and terminations must be accessible only to authorized and qualified personnel.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36836((When may))Use of fixture wires ((be used?)).
(1) A fixture wire must be approved for the voltage, temperature, and location of use. A fixture wire used as a grounded conductor must be identified.
(2) Fixture wires may be used:
(a) For installation in lighting fixtures and in similar equipment where enclosed or protected and not subject to bending or twisting in use; or
(b) For connecting lighting fixtures to the branch-circuit conductors supplying the fixtures.
(3) Fixture wires must not be used as branch-circuit conductors except as permitted for Class 1 power limited circuits.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36839((What requirements apply to))Wiring for lighting fixtures, lampholders, lamps, and receptacles((?)).
(1) Fixtures, lampholders, lamps, rosettes, and receptacles must have no live parts normally exposed to employee contact. However, rosettes and cleat-type lampholders and receptacles located at least 8 feet above the floor may have exposed parts.
(2) Handlamps of the portable type supplied through flexible cords must have a handle of molded composition or other material approved for the purpose, and a substantial guard must be attached to the lampholder or the handle.
(3) Lampholders of the screw-shell type must be installed for use as lampholders only. Lampholders installed in wet or damp locations must be weatherproof.
(4) Fixtures installed in wet or damp locations must be approved for the purpose and must be constructed or installed so that water cannot enter or accumulate in wireways, lampholders, or other electrical parts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36842((What requirements apply to))Wiring for receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (caps)((?)).
(1) Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs must be constructed so that no receptacle or cord connector will accept an attachment plug with a different voltage or current rating than that for which the device is intended. However, a 20-ampere T-slot receptacle or cord connector may accept a 15-ampere attachment plug of the same voltage rating.
(2) A receptacle installed in a wet or damp location must be suitable for the location.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36845((What requirements apply to))Wiring for appliances((?)).
(1) Appliances, other than those in which the current-carrying parts at high temperatures are necessarily exposed, must have no live parts normally exposed to employee contact.
(2) Each appliance must have a disconnecting means.
(3) Each appliance must be marked with its rating in volts and amperes or volts and watts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36848((What requirements apply to))Wiring for motors, motor circuits, and controllers((?)).
(1) If specified that one piece of equipment must be "in sight from" another piece of equipment, one ((shall))must be visible and not more than 50 feet from the other.
(2) Disconnecting means must meet the following requirements:
(a) A disconnecting means must be located in sight from the controller location. However, a single disconnecting means may be located adjacent to a group of coordinated controllers mounted adjacent to each other or a multimotor continuous process machine. The controller disconnecting means for motor branch circuits over 600 volts, nominal, may be out of sight of the controller, if the controller is marked with a warning label giving the location and identification of the disconnecting means which is to be locked in the open position.
(b) The disconnecting means must disconnect the motor and the controller from all ungrounded supply conductors and must be designed so that no pole can be operated independently.
(c) If a motor and the driven machinery are not in sight from the controller location, the installation must meet one of the following conditions:
(i) The controller disconnecting means must be able to be locked in the open position.
(ii) A manually operable switch that will disconnect the motor from its source of supply must be placed in sight from the motor location.
(d) The disconnecting means must plainly indicate whether it is in the open (off) or closed (on) position.
(e) The disconnecting means must be readily accessible. If more than one disconnect is provided for the same equipment, only one need be readily accessible.
(f) An individual disconnecting means must be provided for each motor, but a single disconnecting means may be used for a group of motors under any of the following conditions:
(i) If a number of motors drive special parts of a single machine or piece of apparatus, such as a metal or woodworking machine, crane, or hoist; or
(ii) If a group of motors is under the protection of one set of branch-circuit protective devices; or
(iii) If a group of motors is in a single room in sight from the location of the disconnecting means.
(3) Motors, motor-control apparatus, and motor branch-circuit conductors must be protected against overheating from motor overloads or failure to start, and against short-circuits or ground faults. Overload protection is not required if it will stop a motor where a shutdown is likely to introduce additional or increased hazards, as in the case of fire pumps, or where continued operation of a motor is necessary for a safe shutdown of equipment or process and motor overload sensing devices are connected to a supervised alarm.
(4) Live parts of all voltages must be protected according to the following:
(a) Stationary motors with commutators, collectors, and brush rigging located inside of motor end brackets and not conductively connected to supply circuits operating at more than 150 volts to ground may have those parts unguarded. Exposed live parts of motors and controllers operating at 50 volts or more between terminals must be guarded against accidental contact by any of the following:
(i) By installation in a room or enclosure that is accessible only to qualified persons;
(ii) By installation on a suitable balcony, gallery, or platform, elevated and arranged to exclude unqualified persons; or
(iii) By elevation 8 feet or more above the floor.
(b) Where live parts of motors or controllers operating at over 150 volts to ground are guarded against accidental contact only by location, and where adjustment or other attendance may be necessary during the operation of the apparatus, suitable insulating mats or platforms must be provided so that the attendant cannot readily touch live parts unless standing on the mats or platforms.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36851((What requirements apply to))Wiring for transformers((?)).
(1) This section applies to the installation of all transformers.
Exceptions:
(((a)))1. Current transformers;
 
(((b)))2. Dry-type transformers installed as a component part of other apparatus;
 
(((c)))3. Transformers that are an integral part of a high frequency or electrostatic-coating apparatus;
 
(((d)))4. Transformers used with Class 2 and Class 3 circuits, sign and outline lighting, electric discharge lighting, and power-limited fire-protective signaling circuits; and
 
(((e)))5. Liquid-filled or dry-type transformers used for research, development, or testing, where effective safeguard arrangements are provided.
(2) The operating voltage of exposed live parts of transformer installations must be indicated by warning signs or visible markings on the equipment or structure.
(3) Dry-type, high fire point liquid-insulated, and askarel-insulated transformers installed indoors and rated over 35kV must be in a vault.
(4) If they present a fire hazard to employees, oil-insulated transformers installed indoors must be in a vault.
(5) Combustible material, combustible buildings and parts of buildings, fire escapes, and door and window openings must be safeguarded from fires that may originate in oil-insulated transformers attached or adjacent to a building or combustible material.
(6) Transformer vaults must be constructed to contain fire and combustible liquids within the vault and to prevent unauthorized access. Locks and latches must be arranged so that a vault door can be readily opened from the inside.
(7) Any pipe or duct system foreign to the vault installation must not enter or pass through a transformer vault.
(8) Materials must not be stored in transformer vaults.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36854((What requirements apply to))Wiring for capacitors((?)).
(1) All capacitors, except surge capacitors or capacitors included as a component part of other apparatus, must have an automatic means of draining the stored charge after the capacitor is disconnected from its source of supply.
(2) Capacitors rated over 600 volts, nominal, must meet the following additional requirements:
(a) Isolating or disconnecting switches (with no interrupting rating) must be interlocked with the load interrupting device or must have prominently displayed caution signs to prevent switching load current.
(b) For series capacitors, the proper switching must be ensured by any of the following:
(i) Mechanically sequenced isolating and bypass switches;
(ii) Interlocks; or
(iii) Switching procedure prominently displayed at the switching location.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36857((How must storage))Ventilation for stored batteries ((be ventilated?)).
((You))The employer must ensure that there is sufficient diffusion and ventilation of gases from storage batteries to prevent the accumulation of explosive mixtures.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-36860((What other))Miscellaneous requirements that apply to wiring methods((?)).
(1) Metal raceways, cable armor, and other metal enclosures for conductors must be metallically joined into a continuous electric conductor and must be connected to all boxes, fittings, and cabinets to provide effective electrical continuity.
(2) All wiring systems are prohibited from being installed in ducts used to transport dust, loose stock or flammable vapors. All wiring system are prohibited from being installed in any duct used for vapor removal or for ventilation of commercial-type cooking equipment, or in any shaft containing only such ducts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37003((What requirements apply to))Cranes, hoists, and runways((?)).
The installation of electric equipment and wiring used with cranes, monorail hoists, hoists, and all runways must meet the following requirements:
(1) Disconnecting means must meet the following requirements:
(a) A readily accessible disconnecting means is provided between the runway contact conductors and the power supply.
(b) Another disconnecting means, capable of being locked in the open position, is provided in the leads from the runway contact conductors or other power supply on any crane or monorail hoist.
(i) If this additional disconnection means is not readily accessible from the crane or monorail hoist operating station, means is provided at the operating station, to open the power circuit to all motors of the crane or monorail hoist.
(ii) The additional disconnect may be omitted if a monorail hoist or hand-propelled crane bridge installation meets all of the following:
(A) The unit is floor controlled;
(B) The unit is within view of the power supply disconnecting means; and
(C) No fixed work platform has been provided for servicing the unit.
(2) A limit switch or other device ((shall))must be provided to prevent the load block from passing the safe upper limit of travel of any hoisting mechanism.
(3) The dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts that may require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive must be a minimum of 2 feet 6 inches. Where controls are enclosed in cabinets, the door must either open at least 90 degrees or be removable.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37006((What requirements apply to))Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks((?)).
(1) Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks must have a single means for disconnecting all ungrounded main power supply conductors for each unit.
(2) If interconnections between control panels are necessary for operation of the system on a multicar installation that remains energized from a source other than the disconnecting means, a warning sign must be mounted on or adjacent to the disconnecting means. The sign must be clearly legible and ((shall))must read "Warning—Parts of the control panel are not deenergized by this switch."
(3) If control panels are not located in the same space as the drive machine, they must be located in cabinets with doors or panels capable of being locked closed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37009((What requirements apply to the))Disconnecting means for electric welders((?)).
(1) A disconnecting means must be provided in the supply circuit for each motor-generator arc welder, and for each AC transformer and DC rectifier arc welder that is not equipped with a disconnect mounted as an integral part of the welder.
(2) A switch or circuit breaker must be provided by which each resistance welder and its control equipment can be isolated from the supply circuit. The ampere rating of this disconnecting means must not be less than the supply conductor ampacity.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37012((What requirements apply to))Electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines((?)).
(1) If an electrically driven or controlled irrigation machine has a stationary point, a driven ground rod must be connected to the machine at the stationary point for lightning protection.
(2) The main disconnecting means for a center pivot irrigation machine must be located at the point of connection of electrical power to the machine and must be readily accessible and capable of being locked in the open position. A disconnecting means must be provided for each motor and controller.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37203((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-372 covers the requirements for electric equipment and wiring in locations that are classified based on the properties of the flammable vapors, liquids or gases, or combustible dusts or fibers that may be present and the likelihood that a flammable combustible concentration or quantity is present. Each room, section, or area must be considered individually to determine its classification.
All requirements in this part apply to hazardous locations, unless otherwise indicated.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37206((What))Classifications that apply to this section((?)).
These hazardous locations are classified as follows:
(1) (("))Class I locations((" are those)). Locations in which flammable gases or vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. They include the following:
(a) Class I, Division 1 locations((are those)). Locations where:
(i) Hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors may exist under normal operating conditions; or
(ii) Hazardous concentrations of such gases or vapors may exist frequently because of repair or maintenance operations or because of leakage; or
(iii) Breakdown or faulty operation of equipment or processes might release hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors, and might also cause simultaneous failure of electric equipment.
This classification usually includes locations where:
(())(A) Volatile flammable liquids or liquefied flammable gases are transferred from one container to another;
(())(B) Interiors of spray booths and areas in the vicinity of spraying and painting operations where volatile flammable solvents are used;
(())(C) Locations containing open tanks or vats of volatile flammable liquids;
(())(D) Drying rooms or compartments for the evaporation of flammable solvents;
(())(E) Locations containing fat and oil extraction equipment using volatile flammable solvents;
(())(F) Gas generator rooms and other portions of gas manufacturing plants where flammable gas may escape;
(())(G) Inadequately ventilated pump rooms for flammable gas or for volatile flammable liquids;
(())(H) The interiors of refrigerators and freezers in which volatile flammable materials are stored in open, lightly stoppered, or easily ruptured containers; and
(())(I) All other locations where ignitable concentrations of flammable vapors or gases are likely to occur in the course of normal operations.
(b) Class I, Division 2 locations((are those)). Locations where:
(i) Volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases are handled, processed, or used, but in which the hazardous liquids, vapors, or gases are normally confined within closed containers or systems from which they can escape only in an accidental rupture or breakdown of containers or systems, or in case of abnormal operation of equipment; or
(ii) Hazardous concentrations of gases or vapors are normally prevented by positive mechanical ventilation, and which might become hazardous through failure or abnormal operation of the ventilating equipment; or
(iii) They are adjacent to a Class I, Division 1 location, and to which hazardous concentrations of gases or vapors might occasionally be communicated unless prevented by adequate positive-pressure ventilation from a source of clean air, and effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided.
This classification usually includes locations where:
(())(A) Volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases or vapors are used, but which would become hazardous only in case of an accident or unusual operating condition. The quantity of flammable material that might escape in case of accident, the adequacy of ventilating equipment, the total area involved, and the record of the industry or business with respect to explosions or fires are all factors to consider in determining the classification.
(())(B) Piping without valves, checks, meters, and similar devices would not ordinarily introduce a hazardous condition even though used for flammable liquids or gases. Locations used for the storage of flammable liquids or a liquefied or compressed gases in sealed containers are not normally considered hazardous unless also subject to other hazardous conditions.
(())(C) Electrical conduits and their enclosures separated from process fluids by a single seal or barrier are Division 2 locations if the outside of the conduit and enclosures is a nonhazardous location.
(2) (("))Class II locations((" are those)). Locations that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust. They include the following:
(a) Class II, Division 1 locations((are those)). Locations where:
(i) Combustible dust is or may be suspended in the air under normal operating conditions, in quantities sufficient to produce explosives or ignitable mixtures; or
(ii) Mechanical failure or abnormal operation of machinery or equipment might produce explosive or ignitable, and might also provide a source of ignition through simultaneous failure of electric equipment, operation of protection devices, or from other causes; or
(iii) Combustible dusts of an electrically conductive nature may be present.
This classification may include areas of grain handling and processing plants, starch plants, sugar-pulverizing plants, malting plants, hay-grinding plants, coal pulverizing plants, areas where metal dusts and powders are produced or processed, and other similar locations that contain dust producing machinery and equipment (except where the equipment is dust-tight or vented to the outside). These areas would have combustible dust in the air, under normal operating conditions, in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.
Combustible dusts that are electrically nonconductive include dusts produced in the handling and processing of grain and grain products, pulverized sugar and cocoa, dried egg and milk powders, pulverized spices, starch and pastes, potato and wood flour, oil meal from beans and seed, dried hay, and other organic materials that may produce combustible dusts when processed or handled. Dusts containing magnesium or aluminum are particularly hazardous and the use of extreme caution is necessary to avoid ignition and explosion.
(b) Class II, Division 2 location((are those)). Locations where:
(i) Combustible dust is not normally suspended in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures; and dust accumulations are normally insufficient to interfere with the normal operation of electrical equipment or other apparatus; or
(ii) Dust may be in suspension in the air as a result of infrequent malfunctioning of handling or processing equipment, and resulting dust accumulations may be ignitable by abnormal operation or failure of electrical equipment or other apparatus.
This classification includes locations where dangerous concentrations of suspended dust would not be likely but where dust accumulations might form on or in the vicinity of electric equipment. These areas may contain equipment from which appreciable quantities of dust would escape under abnormal operating conditions or be adjacent to a Class II Division 1 location into which an explosive or ignitable concentration of dust may be suspended under abnormal operating conditions.
(3) (("))Class III locations((" are those)). Locations that are hazardous because of the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings but in which such fibers or flyings are not likely to be suspended in the air in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures. They include the following:
(a) Class III, Division 1 locations((are those)). Locations where easily ignitable fibers or materials producing combustible flyings are handled, manufactured, or used.
Such locations usually include combustible fiber manufacturing and processing plants; cotton gins and cottonseed mills; flax-processing plants; and industries involving similar hazardous processes or conditions.
Easily ignitable fibers and flyings include rayon, cotton (including cotton linters and cotton waste), sisal or henequen, istle, jute, hemp, tow, cocoa fiber, oakum, baled waste kapok, Spanish moss, excelsior, and other materials of similar nature.
(b) Class III, Division 2 locations((are those)). Locations where easily ignitable fibers are stored or handled, except in process of manufacture.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37209((What))Equipment, wiring methods, and installations ((may be used)) in hazardous locations((?)).
Equipment, wiring methods, and installations of equipment in hazardous locations must be intrinsically safe, or approved for the hazardous location, or safe for the hazardous location. Requirements for each of these options are as follows:
(1) Equipment and associated wiring approved as intrinsically safe are permitted in any hazardous location for which it is approved.
(2) Requirements to be approved for the hazardous location:
(a) Equipment must be approved for the class of location and for the ignitable or combustible properties of the specific gas, vapor, dust, or fiber that will be present.
(b) Equipment must be marked to show the class, group, and operating temperature or temperature range, based on operation in a 40 degrees C (104 degrees Fahrenheit) ambient, for which it is approved. The temperature marking must be a maximum of the ignition temperature of the specific gas or vapor to be encountered. The following provisions apply to specific equipment:
(i) Nonheat-producing equipment, such as junction boxes, conduit, and fittings, and heat-producing equipment with a maximum temperature of 100 degrees C (212 degrees ((F))Fahrenheit) need not have a marked operating temperature or temperature range.
(ii) Fixed lighting fixtures marked for use in Class I, Division 2 locations only, need not be marked to indicate the group.
(iii) Fixed general-purpose equipment in Class I locations (other than lighting fixtures) that is acceptable for use in Class I, Division 2 locations need not be marked with the class, group, division, or operating temperature.
(iv) Fixed dust-tight equipment (other than lighting fixtures) that is acceptable for use in Class II, Division 2 and Class III locations need not be marked with the class, group, division, or operating temperature.
(3) Equipment that is safe for the location ((shall))must be of a type and design that provides protection from the hazards arising from combustible and flammable vapors, liquids, gases, dusts, or fibers.
Note:
Equipment that meets the requirements of The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, shall be considered in compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-307-372.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37212((How must))Installing conduit ((be installed)) in hazardous locations((?)).
All conduits must be threaded and wrench-tight. Where it is impractical to make a threaded joint tight, a bonding jumper must be used.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37215((Which))Equipment ((may))to be used in Division 1 and 2 locations((?)).
Equipment that has been approved for a Division 1 location may be installed in a Division 2 location of the same class and group. General-purpose equipment or equipment in general-purpose enclosures may be installed in Division 2 locations if the equipment does not constitute a source of ignition under normal operating conditions.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37218((What requirements apply to))Motors and generators used in hazardous locations((?)).
In Class I, Division 1 locations, motors, generators and other rotating electric machinery must be:
(1) Approved for Class I, Division 1 locations (explosion-proof); or
(2) Of the totally enclosed type supplied with positive-pressure ventilation from a source of clean air with discharge to a safe area, arranged to prevent energizing of the machine until ventilation has been established and the enclosure has been purged with at least 10 volumes of air, and also arranged to automatically deenergize the equipment when the air supply fails; or
(3) Of the totally enclosed inert-gas-filled type supplied with a suitable reliable source of inert gas for pressuring the enclosure, with devices provided to ensure a positive pressure in the enclosure and arranged to automatically deenergize the equipment when the gas supply fails; or
(4) Of a type designed to be submerged in a liquid that is flammable only when vaporized and mixed with air, or in a gas or vapor at a pressure greater than atmospheric and which is flammable only when mixed with air; and the machine is arranged to prevent energizing it until it has been purged with the liquid or gas to exclude air, and also arranged to automatically deenergize the equipment when the supply of liquid, or gas or vapor fails or the pressure is reduced to atmospheric.
Totally enclosed type (2) and (3) motors must have no external surface with a Celsius operating temperature greater than 80% of the ignition temperature of the gas or vapor involved, as determined by ASTM test procedure (Designation: D-2155-69). Appropriate devices must be provided to detect an increase in temperature of the motor beyond design limits and automatically deenergize the equipment or provide an adequate alarm. Auxiliary equipment must be approved for the location in which it is installed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37403((What requirements apply to))Systems over 600 volts, nominal((?)).
(1) Wiring methods for fixed installations over 600 volts, nominal, must meet the following requirements:
(a) Above-ground conductors must be installed in rigid metal conduit, in intermediate metal conduit, in cable trays, in cablebus, in other suitable raceways, or as open runs of metal-clad cable suitable for the use and purpose. Open runs of nonmetallic-sheathed cable or of bare conductors or busbars must be installed in locations accessible only to qualified persons. Metallic shielding components, such as tapes, wires, or braids for conductors, must be grounded. Open runs of insulated wires and cables with a bare lead sheath or a braided outer covering must be supported to prevent physical damage to the braid or sheath.
(b) Conductors emerging from the ground must be enclosed in approved raceways.
(2) Interrupting and isolating devices must meet the following requirements:
(a) Circuit breaker installations located indoors must consist of metal-enclosed units or fire-resistant cell-mounted units. Circuit breakers must be open mounted only in locations that are accessible only to qualified persons. A means of indicating the open and closed position of circuit breakers must be provided.
(b) Fused cutouts installed in buildings or transformer vaults must be approved for the purpose. They must be readily accessible for fuse replacement.
(c) A means must be provided to completely isolate equipment for inspection and repairs. Isolating means that are not designed to interrupt the load current of the circuit must be either interlocked with an approved circuit interrupter or provided with a sign warning against opening them under load.
(3) Mobile and portable equipment must meet the following requirements:
(a) A metallic enclosure must be provided on the mobile machine for enclosing the terminals of the power cable. The enclosure must include provisions for a solid connection for the ground wire terminal to effectively ground the machine frame. The method of cable termination used must prevent any strain or pull on the cable from stressing the electrical connections. The enclosure must be lockable so only authorized qualified persons may open it and must be marked with a sign warning of the presence of energized parts.
(b) All energized switching and control parts must be enclosed in grounded metal cabinets or enclosures. Circuit breakers and protective equipment must have the operating means projecting through the metal cabinet or enclosure so these units can be reset without opening locked doors. Enclosures and metal cabinets must be locked so that only authorized qualified persons have access and must be marked with a sign warning of the presence of energized parts. Collector ring assemblies on revolving machines (shovels, draglines, etc.,) must be guarded.
(4) Tunnel installations of high-voltage power distribution and utilization equipment that is portable or mobile, such as substations, trailers, cars, mobile shovels, draglines, hoists, drills, dredges, compressors, pumps, conveyors, and underground excavators must meet the following requirements:
(a) Conductors in tunnels must be installed in one or more of the following:
(i) Metal conduit or other metal raceway;
(ii) Type MC cable; or
(iii) Other approved multiconductor cable.
Conductors must also be located or guarded to protect them from physical damage. Multiconductor portable cable may supply mobile equipment. An equipment grounding conductor must be run with circuit conductors inside the metal raceway or inside the multiconductor cable jacket. The equipment grounding conductor may be insulated or bare.
(b) Bare terminals of transformers, switches, motor controllers, and other equipment must be enclosed to prevent accidental contact with energized parts. Enclosures used in tunnels must be drip-proof, weatherproof, or submersible as required by environmental conditions.
(c) A disconnecting means that simultaneously opens all ungrounded conductors must be installed at each transformer or motor location.
(d) All nonenergized metal parts of electric equipment and metal raceways and cable sheaths must be effectively grounded and bonded to all metal pipes and rails at the portal and at maximum intervals of 1000 feet throughout the tunnel.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37406((What requirements apply to))Emergency power systems((?)).
This section applies to circuits, systems, and equipment intended to supply power for illumination and special loads, in the event of failure of the normal supply.
(1) Emergency circuit wiring must be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and equipment and must not enter the same raceway, cable, box, or cabinet as other wiring.
Exception:
This does not apply where common circuit elements suitable for the purpose are required, or for transferring power from the normal to the emergency source.
(2) Where emergency lighting is necessary, the system must be arranged so that the failure of any individual lighting element, such as a burned out light bulb, cannot leave any space in total darkness.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37409((How are))Classification of Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote control, signaling, and power-limited circuits ((classified?)).
(1) Class 1, Class 2, or Class 3 remote control, signaling, or power-limited circuits are characterized by their usage and electrical power limitation which differentiates them from light and power circuits. These circuits are classified according to their voltage and power limitations as follows.
(a) Class 1 circuits.
(i) A Class 1 power-limited circuit is supplied from a source with a maximum rated output of 30 volts and 1000 volt-amperes.
(ii) A Class 1 remote control circuit or a Class 1 signaling circuit has a maximum voltage of 600 volts; however, the power output of the source need not be limited.
(b) Class 2 and Class 3 circuits.
(i) Power for Class 2 and Class 3 circuits is limited either inherently (in which no overcurrent protection is required) or by a combination of a power source and overcurrent protection.
(ii) The maximum circuit voltage is 150 volts AC or DC for a Class 2 inherently limited power source, and 100 volts AC or DC for a Class 3 inherently limited power source.
(iii) The maximum circuit voltage is 30 volts AC and 60 volts DC for a Class 2 power source limited by overcurrent protection, and 150 volts AC or DC for a Class 3 power source limited by overcurrent protection.
(c) The maximum circuit voltages in (a) and (b) of this subsection apply to sinusoidal AC or continuous DC power sources, and where wet contact is unlikely.
(2) A Class 2 or Class 3 power supply unit must be durably and visibly marked to indicate the class of supply and its electrical rating.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37412((What requirements apply to))Fire protective signaling systems((?)).
(1) Fire protective signaling circuits must be classified either as nonpower limited or power limited.
(2) The power sources for use with fire protective signaling circuits must be either power limited or nonlimited as follows:
(a) The power supply of nonpower-limited fire protective signaling circuits must have a maximum output voltage of 600 volts.
(b) The power for power-limited fire protective signaling circuits must be either inherently limited, in which no overcurrent protection is required, or limited by a combination of power source and overcurrent protection.
(3) Nonpower-limited fire protective signaling circuits and Class 1 circuits may occupy the same enclosure, cable, or raceway if all conductors are insulated for maximum voltage of any conductor within the enclosure, cable or raceway. Power supply and fire protective signaling circuit conductors are permitted in the same enclosure, cable, or raceway only if connected to the same equipment.
(4) Where open conductors are installed, power-limited fire protective signaling circuits must be separated at least 2 inches from conductors of any light, power, Class 1, and nonpower-limited fire protective signaling circuits unless using a special and equally protective method of conductor separation. Cables and conductors of two or more power-limited fire protective signaling circuits or Class 3 circuits are permitted in the same cable, enclosure, or raceway. Conductors of one or more Class 2 circuits are permitted within the same cable, enclosure, or raceway with conductors of power-limited fire protective signaling circuits if the insulation of Class 2 circuit conductors in the cable, enclosure, or raceway is at least that needed for the power-limited fire protective signaling circuits.
(5) Fire protective signaling circuits must be identified at terminal and junction locations in a manner that will prevent unintentional interference with the signaling circuit during testing and servicing. Power-limited fire protective signaling circuits must be visibly and durably marked at terminations.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37603((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-376 applies to work performed on exposed live parts (involving either direct contact or contact by means of tools or materials) or near enough to them for employees to be exposed to any hazard they present.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37606((Who may work))Qualified person working on energized parts((?)).
Only qualified persons may work on electric circuit parts of equipment that have not been deenergized under the procedures of WAC 296-307-37807. Qualified persons must be capable of working safely on energized circuits and must be familiar with the proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37609((What requirements apply to))Working near low voltage lines((?)).
When employees are working near energized electrical service conductors operating at 750 volts or less, employees must work in a manner to prevent contact with the energized conductors.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37612((What requirements apply to))Qualified persons working near overhead lines((?)).
When a qualified person is working near overhead lines, whether in an elevated position or on the ground, the person must not approach, or take any conductive object without an approved insulating handle, closer to exposed energized parts than shown in WAC 296-307-150 unless:
(1) The person is insulated from the energized part (gloves, with sleeves if necessary, rated for the voltage involved are considered to be insulation of the person from the energized part on which work is performed); or
(2) The energized part is insulated both from all other conductive objects at a different potential and from the person; or
(3) The person is insulated from all conductive objects at a potential different from that of the energized part.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37615((What requirements apply to))Vehicles and mechanical equipment near overhead lines((?)).
(1) Any vehicle or mechanical equipment that may have parts of its structure elevated near energized overhead lines must be operated so that a clearance of 10 ft. is maintained. If the voltage is higher than 50kV, the clearance must be increased 0.4 inch for every 1kV over the voltage. The clearance may be reduced only if:
(a) The vehicle is in transit with its structure lowered, the clearance may be reduced to 4 ft. If the voltage is higher than 50kV, the clearance must be increased 0.4 inch for every 1kV over that voltage.
(b) Insulating barriers are installed to prevent contact with the lines, and if the barriers are rated for the voltage of the line being guarded and are not a part of or an attachment to the vehicle or its raised structure, the clearance may be reduced to a distance within the designed working dimensions of the insulating barrier.
(2) If the equipment is an aerial lift insulated for the voltage involved, and if the work is performed by a qualified person, the clearance (between the uninsulated portion of the aerial lift and the power line) may be reduced to the distance given in WAC 296-307-150.
(3) Employees standing on the ground must not contact the vehicle or mechanical equipment or any of its attachments, unless:
(a) The employee is using protective equipment rated for the voltage; or
(b) The equipment is located so that no uninsulated part of its structure (that portion of the structure that provides a conductive path to employees on the ground) can come closer to the line than permitted in this section.
(4) If any vehicle or mechanical equipment that may have parts of its structure elevated near energized overhead lines is intentionally grounded, employees working on the ground near the point of grounding must not stand at the grounding location whenever there is a possibility of overhead line contact. Additional precautions, such as the use of barricades or insulation, must be taken to protect employees from hazardous ground potentials, depending on earth resistivity and fault currents, which can develop within the first few feet or more outward from the grounding point.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37618((What))Lighting ((must be provided)) for employees working near exposed energized parts((?)).
(1) Employees must not enter spaces containing exposed energized parts, unless lighting is provided that enables the employees to perform the work safely.
(2) Where lack of lighting or an obstruction prevents an employee from seeing the work to be performed, employees must not perform tasks near exposed energized parts. Employees ((shall))must not reach blindly into areas that may contain energized parts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37621((What requirements apply to))Working near exposed energized parts in confined spaces((?)).
(1) For working in a confined or enclosed space (such as a manhole or vault) that contains exposed energized parts, the employer ((shall))must provide, and the employee must use, protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials that are necessary to avoid contact with these parts. Doors, hinged panels, and the like must be secured to prevent swinging into an employee and causing the employee to contact exposed energized parts.
(2) Conductive materials and equipment that are in contact with any part of an employee's body ((shall))must be handled in a manner that will prevent them from contacting exposed energized conductors or circuit parts. If an employee handles long conductive objects (such as ducts and pipes) in areas with exposed live parts, ((you))the employer must institute work practices (such as the use of insulation, guarding, and material handling techniques) that will minimize the hazard.
(3) Portable ladders must have nonconductive siderails if they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized parts.
(4) Conductive articles of jewelry and clothing ((shall))must not be worn if they might contact exposed energized parts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37624((What))Housekeeping requirements that apply to working near exposed energized parts((?)).
(1) Where live parts present an electrical contact hazard, employees must not perform housekeeping duties near enough to the parts that there is a possibility of contact, unless adequate safeguards (such as insulating equipment or barriers) are provided.
(2) Electrically conductive cleaning materials (including conductive solids such as steel wool, metalized cloth, and silicon carbide, as well as conductive liquid solutions) must not be used in proximity to energized parts unless procedures are followed that will prevent electrical contact.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37627((Who))Qualified persons that may defeat an electrical safety interlock((?)).
Only a qualified person following the requirements of this section may defeat an electrical safety interlock, and then only temporarily while he or she is working on the equipment. The interlock system must be returned to its operable condition when this work is completed.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37801((What does this section cover?))Scope.
(1) WAC 296-307-376 and 296-307-378 cover electrical safety-related work practices for both qualified persons (those who have training in avoiding the electrical hazards of working on or near exposed energized parts) and unqualified persons (those with little or no such training) working on, near, or with the following installations:
(a) Installations of electric conductors and equipment within or on buildings or other structures, and on other premises such as yards, parking, and other lots, and industrial substations;
(b) Installations of conductors that connect to the supply of electricity;
(c) Installations of other outside conductors on the premises; and
(d) Installations of optical fiber cable where such installations are made along with electric conductors.
(2) WAC 296-307-367 and 296-307-378 cover work performed by unqualified persons on, near, or with the installations listed in subsection (3) of this section.
(3) WAC 296-307-376 and 296-307-378 do not apply to work performed by qualified persons on or directly associated with the following installations:
(a) Installations for the generation, control, transformation, transmission, and distribution of electric energy (including communication and metering) located in buildings used for such purposes or located outdoors.
Work on or directly associated with generation, transmission, or distribution installations includes:
(i) Work performed directly on installations, such as repairing distribution lines or repairing a feed-water pump for the boiler in a generating plant.
(ii) Work directly associated with installations, such as line-clearance tree trimming and replacing utility poles.
(iii) Work on electric utilization circuits in a generating plant where:
(())(A) The circuits are combined with installations of power generation equipment or circuits; and
(())(B) The generation equipment or circuits present greater electrical hazards than those posed by the utilization equipment or circuits (such as exposure to higher voltages or lack of overcurrent protection).
(b) Installations in watercraft, railway rolling stock, aircraft, or automotive vehicles other than mobile homes and recreational vehicles.
(c) Installations of railways for generation, transformation, transmission, or distribution of power used exclusively for operation of rolling stock or installations of railways used exclusively for signaling and communication purposes.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37803((How must employees be trained))Training employees on safety practices((?)).
(1) The training requirements in this section apply to employees who face a risk of electrical shock that is not reduced to a safe level by the electrical installation requirements of WAC 296-307-362 through 296-307-374.
(2) Training contents must include the following:
(a) Employees must be trained in and familiar with the safety-related work practices required by WAC 296-307-376 through 296-307-378 that apply to their job assignments.
(b) Employees who are covered by this section but who are not qualified persons must also be trained in and familiar with any electrically related safety practices that are not covered by this standard, but that are necessary for their safety.
(c) Qualified persons must, at a minimum, be trained in and familiar with the following:
(i) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment;
(ii) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts; and
(iii) The clearance distance specified in WAC 296-307-376 and the corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed.
Note 1:
For the purposes of WAC 296-307-376 and 296-307-378, an employee must have the training required for a qualified person in order to be considered a qualified person.
Note 2:
Qualified persons whose work on energized equipment involves either direct contact or contact by means of tools or materials must also have the training needed to meet WAC 296-307-376.
(3) ((You))The employer must provide either classroom or on-the-job training. The degree of training provided must be determined by the risk to the employee.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37805((How must))Identification and use of safety-related work practices ((be chosen and used?)).
Safety-related work practices must be used to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts, when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits that are or may be energized. The specific safety-related work practices must be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards.
(1) When an employee may be exposed to live parts, they must be deenergized before the employee works on or near them, unless deenergizing introduces other hazards or is infeasible due to equipment design or operational limitations. Live parts that operate at less than 50 volts to ground need not be deenergized if there will be no increased exposure to electrical burns or to explosion due to electric arcs.
Note 1:
Examples of other hazards include deactivation of emergency alarm systems, shutdown of hazardous location ventilation equipment, or removal of illumination for an area.
Note 2:
An example of work that may be performed on or near energized circuit parts because of unfeasibility due to equipment design or operational limitations is testing of electric circuits that can only be performed with the circuit energized.
(2) If the exposed live parts are not deenergized (for reasons of increased or additional hazards or unfeasibility), other safety-related work practices must be used to protect employees who may be exposed to the electrical hazards involved. Such work practices must protect employees against contact with energized circuit parts directly with any part of their body or indirectly through some other conductive object. The work practices must be suitable for the voltage level of the exposed electric conductors or circuit parts.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37807((What work practices must be followed for))Work on exposed deenergized parts((?)).
(1) This section applies to work on exposed deenergized parts or near enough to them to expose the employee to any electrical hazard they present. Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been deenergized but have not been locked out or tagged must be treated as energized parts, and WAC 296-307-376 applies to work on or near them.
(2) While any employee is exposed to contact with parts of fixed electric equipment or circuits which have been deenergized, the circuits energizing the parts must be locked out or tagged or both according to the requirements of this section. The requirements must be followed in the order in which they are presented.
(("))Fixed equipment((" means)). Equipment that is fastened or connected by permanent wiring methods.
Note:
Lockout and tagging procedures that comply with WAC 296-307-320 will also be deemed to comply with WAC 296-307-37807 through 296-307-37817 if:
 
(())1. The procedures address the electrical safety hazards covered by this part; and
 
(())2. The procedures include the requirements of WAC 296-307-37813(4) and 296-307-37815(2).
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37809((Must))An employer must have a written copy of lockout-tagout procedures((?)).
The employer must maintain a written copy of the procedures outlined in WAC 296-307-37807 through 296-307-37817 and must make it available for inspection by us or by employees. The written procedures may be in the form of a copy of WAC 296-307-37807 through 296-307-37817.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37811((What work practices must be followed for))Deenergizing equipment((?)).
(1) Safe procedures for deenergizing circuits and equipment must be determined before circuits or equipment are deenergized.
(2) The circuits and equipment to be worked on must be disconnected from all electric energy sources. Control circuit devices, such as push buttons, selector switches, and interlocks, must not be used as the sole means for deenergizing circuits or equipment. Interlocks for electric equipment must not be used as a substitute for lockout and tagging procedures.
(3) Stored electric energy which might endanger employees must be released. Capacitors must be discharged and high capacitance elements must be short-circuited and grounded, if the stored electric energy might endanger employees.
Note:
Capacitors or associated equipment handled in meeting this requirement must be treated as energized.
(4) Stored nonelectrical energy in devices that could reenergize electric circuit parts must be blocked or relieved to the extent that the circuit parts could not be accidentally energized by the device.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37813((How must))Application of locks and tags ((be applied?)).
(1) A lock and a tag must be placed on each disconnecting means used to deenergize circuits and equipment on which work is to be performed, except as provided in subsections (3) and (5) of this section. The lock must be attached to prevent anyone from operating the disconnecting means unless they resort to undue force or the use of tools.
(2) Each tag must have a statement prohibiting unauthorized operation of the disconnecting means and removal of the tag.
(3) If a lock cannot be applied, or if tagging procedures will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lock, a tag may be used without a lock.
(4) A tag used without a lock must be supplemented by at least one additional safety measure that provides a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lock. Examples of additional safety measures include the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, or opening of an extra disconnecting device.
(5) A lock may be placed without a tag only under the following conditions:
(a) Only one circuit or piece of equipment is deenergized; and
(b) The lockout period does not extend beyond the work shifts; and
(c) Employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the circuit or equipment are familiar with this procedure.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37815((What work practices must be followed to verify))Verifying deenergization((?)).
The requirements of this section must be met before any circuits or equipment can be considered and worked as deenergized.
(1) A qualified person must operate the equipment operating controls or otherwise verify that the equipment cannot be restarted.
(2) A qualified person must use test equipment to test the circuit elements and electrical parts of equipment to which employees will be exposed and ((shall))must verify that the circuit elements and equipment parts are deenergized. The test must also determine if any energized conditions exists as a result of inadvertently induced voltage or unrelated voltage backfeed even though specific parts of the circuit have been deenergized and presumed to be safe. If the circuit to be tested is over 600 volts, nominal, the test equipment must be checked for proper operation immediately before and immediately after this test.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37817((What work practices must be followed when))Reenergizing equipment((?)).
These requirements must be met, in the order given, before circuits or equipment are reenergized, even temporarily.
(1) A qualified person must conduct tests and visual inspections as necessary to verify that all tools, electrical jumpers, shorts, grounds, and other devices have been removed, so that the circuits and equipment can be safely energized.
(2) Employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the circuit or equipment must be warned to stay clear of circuits and equipment.
(3) Each lock and tag must be removed by the employee who applied it or under his or her direct supervision. However, if this employee is absent from the workplace, then the lock or tag must be removed by a qualified person designated to perform this task if:
(a) The employer ensures that the employee who applied the lock or tag is not available at the workplace; and
(b) The employer ensures that the employee is aware that the lock or tag has been removed before resuming work at that workplace.
(4) There ((shall))must be a visual determination that all employees are clear of the circuits and equipment.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37819((What safety-related work practices relate to))Portable electric equipment((?)).
This section applies to using cord-connected and plug-connected equipment, including flexible cord sets (extension cords).
(1) Portable equipment must be handled in a manner that will not cause damage. Flexible electric cords connected to equipment must not be used for raising or lowering the equipment. Flexible cords must not be fastened with staples or otherwise hung in a way that could damage the outer jacket or insulation.
(2) Visual inspection requirements:
(a) Portable cord-connected and plug-connected equipment and flexible cord sets must be visually inspected before use on any shift for external defects (such as loose parts, deformed and missing pins, or damage to outer jackets or insulation) and for evidence of possible internal damage (such as pinched or crushed outer jacket). Cord-connected and plug-connected equipment and flexible cord sets that remain connected once they are in place and are not exposed to damage need not be visually inspected until they are relocated.
(b) If there is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee to injury, the defective or damaged items must be removed from service, and ((no)) employee shall not be allowed to use it until repairs and tests necessary to render the equipment safe have been made.
(c) When an attachment plug is to be connected to a receptacle (including any on a cord set), the relationship of the plug and receptacle contacts must first be checked to ensure they are of proper mating configurations.
(3) Requirements for grounding-type equipment:
(a) A flexible cord used with grounding-type equipment must contain an equipment grounding conductor.
(b) Attachment plugs and receptacles must not be connected or altered in a manner that would prevent proper continuity of the equipment grounding conductor at the point where plugs are attached to receptacles. These devices must not be altered to allow the grounding pole of a plug to be inserted into slots intended for connection to the current-carrying conductors.
(c) Adapters that interrupt the continuity of the equipment grounding connection are prohibited.
(4) Portable electric equipment and flexible cords used in highly conductive work locations, or in locations where employees are likely to contact water or conductive liquids, must be approved for those locations.
(5) Connecting attachment plugs.
(a) Employees' hands must not be wet when plugging and unplugging flexible cords and cord-connected and plug-connected equipment, if energized equipment is involved.
(b) Energized plug and receptacle connections must be handled only with insulating protective equipment if the condition of the connection could provide a conducting path to the employee's hand. For example: If a cord connector is wet from being immersed in water.
(c) Locking-type connectors must be properly secured after connection.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37821((What safety-related work practices relate to))Electric power and lighting circuits((?)).
(1) Load rated switches, circuit breakers, or other devices specifically designed as disconnecting means must be used for the opening, reversing, or closing of circuits under load conditions. Any cable connectors other than the load-break type, fuses, terminal lugs, and cable splice connections are prohibited for such purposes, except in an emergency.
(2) After a circuit is deenergized by a circuit protective device, the circuit must not be manually reenergized until it has been determined that the equipment and circuit can be safety energized. This repetitive manual reclosing of circuit breakers or reenergizing circuits through replaced fuses is prohibited.
Note:
When it can be determined from the design of the circuit and the overcurrent devices involved that the automatic operation of a device was caused by an overload rather than a fault connection, no examination of the circuit or connected equipment is needed before the circuit is reenergized.
(3) Overcurrent protection of circuits and conductors must not be modified, even on a temporary basis, beyond that allowed by this part for the installation safety requirements for overcurrent protection.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-37823((What safety-related work practices relate to))Test instruments and equipment((?)).
(1) Only qualified persons may perform testing work on electric circuits or equipment.
(2) Test instruments and equipment and all associated test leads, cables, power cords, probes, and connectors must be visually inspected for external defects and damage before the equipment is used. If there is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee to injury, the defective or damaged item must be removed from service, and no employee may use it until necessary repairs and tests to render the equipment safe have been made.
(3) Test instruments and equipment and their accessories must be rated for the circuits and equipment to which they will be connected and must be designed for the environment in which they will be used.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-37825((What safety-related work practices relate to))Flammable materials((?)).
Where flammable materials are present only occasionally, electric equipment capable of igniting them must not be used, unless measures are taken to prevent hazardous conditions from developing.
Such materials include, but are not limited to: Flammable gases, vapors, or liquids; combustible dust; and ignitable fibers or flyings.
Note:
Electrical installation requirements for locations where flammable materials are present on a regular basis are contained in WAC 296-307-372.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-38003((How must))Use of protective equipment ((be used?)).
(1) Employees working in the areas where there are potential electrical hazards must have and use electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.
(2) If the insulating capability of protective equipment may be subject to damage during use, the insulating material must be protected.
For example: An outer covering of leather is sometimes used to protect rubber insulating material.
(3) Employees must wear nonconductive head protection wherever there is a danger of head injury from electric shock or burns due to contact with exposed energized parts.
(4) Employees must wear protective equipment for the eyes or face wherever there is danger of injury to the eyes or face from electrical arcs or flashes or from flying objects resulting from electrical explosion.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-38006((What requirements apply to))General protective equipment and tools((?)).
(1) When working near exposed energized conductors or circuit parts, each employee must use insulated tools or handling equipment if the tools or handling equipment might make contact with such conductors or parts. If the insulating capability of insulated tools or handling equipment is subject to damage, the insulating material must be protected.
(2) Ropes and handlines used near exposed energized parts must be nonconductive.
(3) Protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials must be used to protect each employee from shock, burns, or other electrically related injuries while that employee is working near exposed energized parts that might be accidentally contacted or where dangerous electric heating or arcing might occur. When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for maintenance or repair, they must be guarded to protect unqualified persons from contact with the live parts.
(4) Altering techniques must be used to warn and protect employees from hazards that could cause injury due to electric shock, burns, or failure of electric equipment parts.
(5) Safety signs, safety symbols, or accident prevention tags must be used where necessary to warn employees about electrical hazards that may endanger them, as required by WAC 296-307-330.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-38009((What))Manufacturing and marking requirements that apply to electrical protective devices((?)).
Insulating blankets, matting, covers, line hose, gloves, and sleeves made of rubber must meet the following manufacture and marking requirements:
(1) Blankets, gloves, and sleeves must be produced by a seamless process.
(2) Each item must be clearly marked as follows:
(a) All classified equipment must be marked with its class number.
(b) Nonozone-resistant equipment other than matting must be marked Type I.
(c) Ozone-resistant equipment other than matting must be marked Type II.
(d) Other relevant markings, such as the manufacturer's identification and the size of the equipment, may also be provided.
(3) Markings must be nonconducting and ((shall))must be applied so they do not impair the insulating qualities of the equipment.
(4) Markings on gloves must be on the cuff.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-38012((What))Electrical requirements that apply to electrical protective devices((?)).
Insulating blankets, matting, covers, line hose, gloves, and sleeves made of rubber must meet the following electrical requirements:
(1) Equipment must be capable of withstanding the a-c proof-test voltage specified in Table 1 or the d-c proof-test voltage specified in Table 2.
(a) The proof-test must reliably indicate that the equipment can withstand the voltage involved.
(b) The test voltage must be applied continuously for three minutes for equipment other than matting and must be applied continuously for one minute for matting.
(c) Gloves must also be capable of withstanding the a-c proof-test voltage specified in Table 1 after a sixteen-hour water soak.
(2) When the a-c proof-test is used on gloves, the 60 hertz proof-test current must not exceed the values specified in Table 1 at any time during the test period.
(a) If the a-c proof-test is made at a frequency other than 60 hertz, the permissible proof-test current must be computed from the direct ratio of the frequencies.
(b) For the test, gloves (right side out) must be filled with tap water and immersed in water to a depth that is in accordance with Table 3. Water must be added to or removed from the glove, as necessary, so that the water level is the same inside and outside the glove.
(c) After the sixteen-hour water soak, the 60 hertz proof-test current may exceed the values given in Table 1 by not more than 2 milliamperes.
(3) Equipment that has been subjected to a minimum breakdown voltage test must not be used for electrical protection.
(4) Material used for Type II insulating equipment must be capable of withstanding an ozone test, with no visible effects. The ozone test must reliably indicate that the material will resist ozone exposure in actual use. Any visible signs of ozone deterioration of the material, such as checking, cracking, breaks, or pitting, is evidence of failure to meet the requirements for ozone-resistant material.
Note:
Rubber insulating equipment meeting the following national consensus standards is considered to be in compliance with WAC 296-307-38009, 296-307-38012, and 296-307-38015:
 
(())1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 120-87, Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves.
 
(())2. ASTM D 178-93, Specification for Rubber Insulating Matting.
 
(())3. ASTM D 1048-93, Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets.
 
(())4. ASTM D 1049-93, Specification for Rubber Insulating Covers.
 
(())5. ASTM D 1050-90, Specification for Rubber Insulating Line Hose.
 
(())6. ASTM D 1051-87, Specification for Rubber Insulating Sleeves.
These standards contain specifications for conducting the tests required in this section.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-38015((What))Workmanship and finish requirements that apply to electrical protective devices((?)).
Insulating blankets, matting, covers, line hose, gloves, and sleeves made of rubber must meet the following workmanship and finish requirements:
(1) Equipment must be free of harmful physical irregularities that can be detected by the tests or inspections required in WAC 296-307-38012.
(2) Surface irregularities that may be present on all rubber goods because of imperfections on forms or molds or because of inherent difficulties in the manufacturing process and that may appear as indentations, protuberances, or imbedded foreign material are acceptable if:
(a) The indentation or protuberance blends into a smooth slope when the material is stretched.
(b) Foreign material remains in place when the insulating material is folded and stretches with the insulating material surrounding it.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-38018((How must))Use and maintenance of electrical protective devices ((be maintained and used?)).
(1) Electrical protective equipment must be maintained in a safe, reliable condition.
(2) The following specific requirements apply to insulating blankets, covers, line hose, gloves, and sleeves made of rubber:
(a) Maximum use voltages must meet the requirements in Table 4.
(b) Insulating equipment must be inspected for damage before each day's use and immediately following any incident that can reasonably be suspected of having caused damage. Insulating gloves must be given an air test, along with the inspection.
(c) Insulating equipment with any of the following defects must not be used:
(i) A hole, tear, puncture, or cut;
(ii) Ozone cutting or ozone checking (the cutting action produced by ozone on rubber under mechanical stress into a series of interlacing cracks);
(iii) An embedded foreign object;
(iv) Any of the following texture changes: Swelling, softening, hardening, or becoming sticky or inelastic;
(v) Any other defect that damages the insulating properties.
(d) Insulating equipment found to have other defects that might affect its insulating properties must be removed from service and returned for testing under (h) of this subsection.
(e) Insulating equipment must be cleaned as needed to remove foreign substances.
(f) Insulating equipment must be stored in such a location and in such a manner as to protect it from light, temperature extremes, excessive humidity, ozone, and other injurious substances and conditions.
(g) Protector gloves must be worn over insulating gloves.
(h) Electrical protective equipment must be subjected to periodic electrical tests. Test voltages and the maximum intervals between tests must be according to Table 4 and Table 5.
(i) The test method used must reliably indicate whether the insulating equipment can withstand the voltages involved.
Note:
Standard electrical test methods considered as meeting this requirement are given in the following national consensus standards:
 
(())1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 120-87, Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves.
 
(())2. ASTM D 1048-93, Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets.
 
(())3. ASTM D 1049-93, Specification for Rubber Insulating Covers.
 
(())4. ASTM D 1050-90, Specification for Rubber Insulating Line Hose.
 
(())5. ASTM D 1051-87, Specification for Rubber Insulating Sleeves.
 
(())6. ASTM F 478-92, Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating Line Hose and Covers.
 
(())7. ASTM F 479-88a, Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating Blankets.
 
(())8. ASTM F 496-93b, Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating Gloves and Sleeves.
(j) Insulating equipment that fails inspections or electrical tests must not be used by employees, except as follows:
(i) Rubber insulating line hose could be used in shorter lengths with the defective portion cut off.
(ii) Rubber insulating blankets could be repaired using a compatible patch that results in physical and electrical properties equal to those of the blanket.
(iii) Rubber insulating blankets could be salvaged by severing the defective area from the undamaged portion of the blanket. The resulting undamaged area must not be smaller than twenty-two inches by twenty-two inches (560 mm by 560 mm) for Class 1, 2, 3, and 4 blankets.
(k) Repaired insulating equipment must be retested before it may be used by employees.
(l) ((You))The employer must certify that equipment has been tested in accordance with the requirements of (h), (i), and (k) of this subsection. The certification must identify the equipment that passed the test and the date it was tested.
Note:
This requirement may be met by marking the equipment and entering the results of the tests and the dates of testing onto logs.
Table 1
A-C Proof-Test Requirements
Maximum proof-test current, mA (gloves only)
Class of
equipment
Proof-test
voltage rms V
267 mm
(10.5 in.) glove
356 mm
(14 in.) glove
406 mm
(16 in.) glove
457 mm
(18 in.) glove
0
5,000
 
8
12
14
16
1
10,000
 
 
14
16
18
2
20,000
 
 
16
18
20
3
30,000
 
 
18
20
22
4
40,000
 
 
 
22
24
Table 2
D-C Proof-Test Requirements
Class of Equipment
Proof-test voltage
0
20,000
1
40,000
2
50,000
3
60,000
4
70,000
Note: The d-c voltages listed in this table are not appropriate for proof testing rubber insulating line hose or covers. For this equipment, d-c proof-tests ((shall))must use a voltage high enough to indicate that the equipment can be safely used at the voltages listed in Table 3. See ASTM D 1050-90 and ASTM D 1049-88 for further information on proof tests for rubber insulating line hose and covers.
Table 3
Glove Tests-Water Level1, 2
 
A-C proof-test
D-C proof-test
Class of glove
mm.
in.
mm.
in.
0
38
1.5
38
1.5
1
38
1.5
51
2.0
2
64
2.5
76
3.0
3
89
3.5
102
4.0
4
127
5.0
153
6.0
1The water level is given as the clearance from the cuff of the glove to the water line, with a tolerance of 13 mm. (0.5 in.).
2If atmospheric conditions make the specified clearances impractical, the clearances may be increased by a maximum of 25 mm. (1 in.)
Table 4
Rubber Insulating Equipment
Voltage Requirements
Class of
equipment
Maximum use
voltage1 a-c-rms
Retest voltage2
a-c-rms
Retest voltage2
d-c-rms
0
1,000
 
5,000
 
20,000
1
7,500
 
10,000
 
40,000
2
17,000
 
20,000
 
50,000
3
26,500
 
30,000
 
60,000
4
36,000
 
40,000
 
70,000
Note: Rubber gloves ((shall))must only be used on voltages of 5000 volts phase to phase or less.
1The maximum use voltage is the a-c voltage (rms) classification of the protective equipment that designates the maximum nominal design/voltage of the energized system that may be safely worked. The nominal voltage design is equal to the phase-to-phase voltage on multiphase circuits. However, the phase-to-ground potential is considered to be the nominal design/voltage:
(a) If there is no multiphase exposure in a system area and if the voltage exposure is limited to the phase-to-ground potential, or
(b) If the electrical equipment and devices are insulated or isolated or both so that the multiphase exposure on a grounded wye circuit is removed.
2The proof-test voltage ((shall))must be applied continuously for at least one minute, but no more than three minutes.
Table 5
Rubber Insulating Equipment Test Intervals
Type of equipment
When to test
Rubber insulating line hose
Upon indication that insulating value is suspect
Rubber insulating covers
Upon indication that insulating value is suspect
Rubber insulating blankets
Before first issue and every 12 months thereafter
Rubber insulating gloves
Before first issue and every 6 months thereafter
Rubber insulating sleeves
Before first issue and every 12 months thereafter
(3) Where switches or fuses of more than 150 volts to ground are not guarded during ordinary operations, suitable insulating floors, mats or platforms must be provided on which the operator must stand while handling the switches.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-40001((What does this section cover?))Scope.
WAC 296-307-400 covers the transportation and application of anhydrous ammonia.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-40003((What))Definitions that apply to this section((?)).
(("))Certified((" means)). The equipment has been tested by a nationally recognized testing laboratory and meets nationally recognized standards or is safe for a specific use; or is a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and bears identification of certification.
(("))DOT((" means)). The Federal Department of Transportation.
(("))DOT container((" means)). A container constructed according to the requirements of 49 C.F.R. chapter 1.
(("))DOT cylinder((" means)). A cylinder that meets the requirements of 49 C.F.R. chapter I.
(("))Labeled((" means)). The equipment has an attached label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory that makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment, and the label indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-40005((What general requirements apply to the))Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia((?)).
(1) All employees must use at least gloves and goggles and may supplement with a face shield while working on or with charged anhydrous ammonia equipment.
(2) ((You))The employer must ensure that equipment is inspected before each day's work. Conditions that would contribute to leaks ((shall))must be corrected.
(3) Hose end-valves must be closed when not in use to prevent accidental discharge in case the main valve is opened.
(4) Relief and vapor valves must discharge away from the operator's working position.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-40007((What requirements apply to))Systems mounted on farm wagons (implements of husbandry) for the transportation of ammonia((?)).
All anhydrous ammonia containers with a capacity of 3,000 gallons or less and equipment mounted on farm wagons (implements of husbandry) that is used to transport ammonia must meet the requirements of this section.
WAC 296-307-40011 through 296-307-40037 also apply unless otherwise noted.
(1) Containers must meet the following mounting requirements:
(a) The farm wagon or container has a stop so the container does not dislodge from its mounting when a farm wagon stops suddenly.
(b) The container is anchored to the farm wagon at one or more places on each side of the container.
(c) The weight of containers mounted on four-wheel farm wagons, is distributed evenly over both axles.
(d) When the cradle and the container are not welded together, material between them eliminates metal-to-metal friction.
(2) Container accessories must meet the following requirements:
(a) Each container has a fixed maximum liquid-level gauge.
(b) All containers with more than 250-gallon capacity have a pressure gauge with a dial graduated from 0-400 psi.
(c) The filling connection is fitted with one of the following:
(i) A combination back-pressure check valve and excess-flow valve; or
(ii) One double or two single back-pressure check valves; or
(iii) A positive shut-off valve that has either an internal back-pressure check valve or an internal excess flow valve.
(d) All containers with more than 250-gallon capacity are equipped for spray loading or with an approved vapor return valve.
(e) All vapor and liquid connections have approved excess flow valves or quick-closing internal valves that are only open for operating.
Exception:
Safety-relief valves and connections that are specifically exempted by WAC 296-307-40019(5) are exempt from this requirement.
(f) Fittings are protected from physical damage by a rigid guard. The guard is designed to withstand force from any direction, equal to twice the weight of the container and lading, at a safety factor of four. If the guard is fully enclosed, the safety-relief valves are properly vented through the guard.
(g) If a liquid withdrawal line is installed in the bottom of a container, the connections and hose are at least as high as the lowest horizontal edge of the farm wagon axle.
(h) Both ends of the hose are secure while in transit.
(3) Each side and the rear end of the container must be marked in letters at least four inches high, with the words "ANHYDROUS AMMONIA" or, "CAUTION—AMMONIA," or marked according to DOT regulations.
(4) Farm wagons (implements of husbandry) must meet all state regulations and the following requirements:
(a) All farm wagons must be securely attached to the vehicle drawing them by drawbars with safety chains.
(b) A farm wagon must be constructed so that it will follow the path of the towing vehicle and will prevent the towed wagon from whipping or swerving dangerously from side to side.
(c) All farm wagons must have five gallons or more of readily available clean water.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-40009((What requirements apply to))Systems mounted on farm wagons (implements of husbandry) for the application of ammonia((?)).
This section applies to systems mounted on farm equipment that are used for the field application of ammonia.
WAC 296-307-40011 through 296-307-40037 also apply unless otherwise noted.
(1) All containers must be securely mounted.
(2) Container valves and accessories must meet the following requirements:
(a) Each container has a fixed maximum liquid-level gauge.
(b) The filling connection is fitted with one of the following:
(i) A combination back-pressure check valve and excess-flow valve; or
(ii) One double or two single back-pressure check valves; or
(iii) A positive shut-off valve that has either an internal back-pressure check valve or an internal excess flow valve.
(c) An excess-flow valve is not required in the vapor connection if the controlling orifice is a maximum of 7/16 inch in diameter and the valve is a hand-operated shut-off valve. To assist in filling applicator tanks, ((you))the employer may bleed vapors to the open air, if this requirement is met.
(d) Metering devices may be connected directly to the tank withdrawal valve. ((You))The employer may use a union type connection between the tank valve and metering device. ((You))The employer may use remote mounting of metering devices if the hose meets the requirements of Appendix B. When the applicator tank is trailed and the metering device is remotely mounted, such as on the tractor tool bar, ((you))the employer must use an automatic break-away type, self-closing coupling.
(e) No excess-flow valve is required in the liquid withdrawal line if the controlling orifice between the contents of the container and the outlet of the shut-off valve is a maximum of 7/16 inch in diameter.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-40011((What requirements must))Approved anhydrous ammonia equipment ((meet?)).
All equipment must be approved by one of the following methods:
(1) The equipment was installed before February 8, 1973, and was approved and tested, and installed according to either the requirements of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, in effect at the time of installation; or
(2) The equipment is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or
(3)(a) The equipment is a type that no nationally recognized testing laboratory accepts, certifies, lists, labels, or determines to be safe; and
(b) The equipment is inspected or tested by an authority responsible for enforcing occupational safety provisions of a law, code, or regulation pertaining to the storage, handling, transport, and use of anhydrous ammonia; and
(c) The equipment is found in compliance with either the requirements of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, in effect at the time of installation; or
(4) For a custom-designed and custom-built unit:
(a) ((You))The employer cannot find a nationally recognized testing laboratory or authority responsible for the enforcement of a law, code or regulation pertaining to the storage, transportation and use of anhydrous ammonia that is willing to accept, certify, list, label or determine to be safe ((your))the employer's custom equipment; and
(b) ((You have))The employer has on file a document attesting to its safe condition following appropriate tests. The document must be signed by a registered professional engineer or qualified person. The document must describe the test bases, test data and results, and also the qualifications of the certifying person.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-10-068, filed 5/6/03, effective 8/1/03)
WAC 296-307-40013((What requirements apply to the))Construction, original test, and requalification of nonrefrigerated containers((?)).
The code is the Unfired Pressure Vessel Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Section VIII of the ASME Boiler Construction Code), 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, 1968 and 1971 editions, the joint code of the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (API-ASME Code) 1951 edition, and amendments or later editions, as adopted.
(1) Containers used with systems covered in WAC 296-307-40005 and 296-307-40007 must be constructed and tested according to the code.
Exception:
Construction under Table UW-12 at a basic joint efficiency of under 80% is prohibited. Containers built according to code are exempt from paragraphs UG-125 to UG-128, inclusive, and paragraphs UG-132 and UG-133 of the code.
Note:
This subsection allows the continued use or reinstallation of containers constructed and maintained according to the 1949, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965 and 1968 editions of the Unfired Pressure Vessel Code of the ASME or any revisions thereof in effect at the time of fabrication.
(2) Containers more than 36 inches in diameter or 250 gallons water capacity must be constructed to meet one or more of the following requirements:
(a) Containers must be stress relieved after fabrication according to the code; or
(b) Cold-formed heads, when used, must be stress relieved; or
(c) Hot-formed heads must be used.
(3) Welding to the shell, head, or any other part of the container subject to internal pressure must be according to the code. Other welding is permitted only on saddle plates, lugs, or brackets attached to the container by the container manufacturer.
Containers used with systems covered in subsection (4) of this section must be constructed and tested in accordance with the DOT specifications.
(4) Containers must comply with department of transportation specifications and must be maintained, filed, packaged, marked, labeled and shipped to comply with current DOT regulations and American National Standard Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers to Identify the Material Contained, Z48.1-1954 R1970. See Appendix C for availability.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-10-068, filed 5/6/03, effective 8/1/03)
WAC 296-307-40015((How must))Marking nonrefrigerated containers and systems (other than DOT containers) ((be marked?)).
(1) System nameplates, when required, must be permanently attached to the system so they are readily accessible for inspection.
(2) Each container or system covered in WAC 296-307-40005 and 296-307-40007 must be marked as follows:
(a) With indication that the container or system meets the requirements of the code under which the container is constructed.
(b) With indication on the container and system nameplate when the system is designed for underground installation.
(c) With the name and address of the supplier of the container or the trade name of the container and with the date of fabrication.
(d) With the water capacity of the container in pounds at 60°F or gallons, United States standard.
(e) With the design pressure in pounds per square inch gauge.
(f) With the wall thickness of the shell and heads.
(g) With indication of the maximum fill level for liquid anhydrous ammonia between 20°F and 100°F. Markings must be in increments of not more than 20°F.
Exception:
Containers with fixed maximum level indicators, such as fixed length dip tubes, or containers that are filled by weight are exempt from this requirement.
(h) With the outside surface area in square feet.
(i) With minimum temperature in Fahrenheit for which the container is designed.
(j) The marking must be on the container itself or on a permanently attached nameplate.
(3) All main operating valves on permanently installed containers with a capacity of over 3,000 water gallons must be identified to show whether the valve is in liquid or vapor service. The valve must be identified as follows:
(a) The word LIQUID (or LIQUID VALVE), VAPOR (or VAPOR VALVE), as appropriate, must be placed on or within twelve inches of the valve by means of a stencil tag or decal.
(b) Liquid valves must be painted orange and vapor valves must be painted yellow. The legend ORANGE-LIQUID, YELLOW-VAPOR must be displayed in one or more conspicuous places at each permanent storage location. The legend must have letters at least two inches high and must be placed against a contrasting background.
(4) "Marking refrigerated containers." Each refrigerated container must be marked with a name plate on the outer covering in an accessible place as specified in the following:
(())(a) With the notation, "Anhydrous Ammonia";
(())(b) With the name and address of the builder and the date of fabrication;
(())(c) With the water capacity of the container in gallons, U.S. Standard;
(())(d) With the design pressure;
(())(e) With the minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit for which the container was designed;
(())(f) The maximum allowable water level to which the container may be filled for test purposes;
(())(g) With the density of the product in pounds per cubic foot for which the container was designed;
(())(h) With the maximum level to which the container may be filled with liquid anhydrous ammonia.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-40017((Where may))Locations for anhydrous ammonia containers ((be located?)).
(1) When selecting the location for a storage container, ((you))the employer must take into account the physiological effects of ammonia and adjacent fire hazards. Containers located indoors must be in areas especially approved for container storage.
(2) Containers must be located at least fifty feet from a dug well or other sources of potable water supply, unless the container is a part of a water treatment installation.
(3) Permanent storage containers must be located outside densely populated areas.
(4) Containers must be located according to the following:
Minimum distances (feet) from container to:
Nominal
capacity of
container
Line of
adjoining
property that
may be built
upon, highways
& main line of
railroad
Place of
public
assembly
Institution
occupancy
Over 500 to 2,000
25
150
250
Over 2,000 to 30,000
50
300
500
Over 30,000 to 100,000
50
450
750
Over 100,000
50
600
1,000
(5) Storage areas must be kept free of readily ignitable materials such as waste, weeds and long dry grass.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97)
WAC 296-307-40019((What requirements apply to))Container accessories((?)).
(1) All accessories must be designed for at least the maximum working pressure of the part of the system on which they are installed. All accessories must be fabricated from materials suitable for anhydrous ammonia service.
(2) All connections to containers must have shut-off valves located as close to the container as practical.
Exception:
Safety-relief devices, gauging devices, or those fitted with a No. 54 drill size orifice are exempt from this requirement.
(3) All required excess flow valves must close automatically at the rated flows of vapor or liquid specified by the manufacturer. The connections, lines, valves, and fittings must have a greater capacity than the rated flow of the excess flow valve.
(4) Liquid-level gauging devices that require bleeding to the atmosphere and that are constructed so that outward flow is a maximum of that passed by a No. 54 drill size opening may be installed without excess flow valves.
(5) Openings from the container or through fittings attached directly on container to which pressure gauge connections are made may be installed without excess flow valves if the openings are a maximum of No. 54 drill size.
(6) Required excess flow and back pressure check valves must be located inside the container or outside as close as practical to where the line enters the container. When located outside, the installation must be made to prevent any stress beyond the excess flow or back pressure check valve from causing a break between the container and the valve.
(7) Excess flow valves must be designed with a bypass that is a maximum of No. 60 drill size opening to allow equalization of pressures.
(8) Shut-off valves provided with an excess flow valve must be designed for proper installation in a container connection so that the excess flow valve will close if the shut-off valve breaks.
(9) All excess flow valves must be plainly and permanently marked with the name or trademark of the manufacturer, the catalog number, and the rated capacity.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-40021((What requirements apply to))Piping, tubing, and fittings((?)).
(1) All piping, tubing and fittings must be made of material suitable for anhydrous ammonia service.
(2) All piping, tubing and fittings must be designed for a pressure of at least the maximum pressure to which they may be subjected in service.
(3) All piping must be well supported and allow for expansion and contraction. All refrigeration system piping must conform to the Refrigeration Piping Code (ANSI B31.5 1966 addenda B31.1a-1968), a section of the American Standard Code for Pressure Piping, as it applies to ammonia.
(4) Piping used on nonrefrigerated systems must meet the requirements of ASTM A-53-1969 Grade B Electric Resistance Welded and Electric Flash Welded Pipe. Pipe must be at least Schedule 40 when joints are welded, or welded and flanged. Pipe must be at least Schedule 80 when joints are threaded. Brass, copper, or galvanized steel pipe or tubing is prohibited.
(5) All metal flexible connections for permanent installations must have a minimum working pressure of 250 psig (safety factor of 4). For temporary installations, ((you))the employer may use hose that meets the requirements of WAC 296-307-40023.
(6) Cast iron fittings are prohibited. ((You))The employer must use fittings made especially for ammonia service of malleable or nodular iron that meet the requirements of Specification ASTM A47 or ASTM A395.
(7) All piping, tubing, and fittings must allow for expansion, contraction, jarring, vibration, and settling.
(8) ((You))The employer must make adequate provision to protect all exposed piping from physical damage from moving machinery, the presence of automobiles or trucks, or other strain on the piping.
(9) Joint compounds must be resistant to ammonia.
(10) After assembly, all piping and tubing must be tested and proved to be free from leaks at pressure that is at least equal to the normal operating pressure of the system.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-096, filed 12/1/98, effective 3/1/99)
WAC 296-307-40023((