HOUSE BILL 2265
State of Washington 52nd Legislature 1992 Regular Session
By Representatives H. Myers, Riley, Leonard, Hargrove, Winsley, Ludwig, Bowman and Van Luven; by request of Department of Corrections
Prefiled 1/3/92. Read first time 01/13/92. Referred to Committee on Human Services.
AN ACT Relating to the references to responsibilities of departments and corrections officers dealing with criminal procedure for the criminally insane; and amending RCW 10.77.010, 10.77.020, 10.77.150, 10.77.160, 10.77.165, 10.77.180, 10.77.190, 10.77.200, and 10.77.210.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
Sec. 1. RCW 10.77.010 and 1989 c 420 s 3 are each amended to read as follows:
As used in this chapter:
(1) A "criminally insane" person means any person who has been acquitted of a crime charged by reason of insanity, and thereupon found to be a substantial danger to other persons or to present a substantial likelihood of committing felonious acts jeopardizing public safety or security unless kept under further control by the court or other persons or institutions.
(2) "Indigent" means any person who is financially unable to obtain counsel or other necessary expert or professional services without causing substantial hardship to the person or his or her family.
(3) "Secretary" means the secretary of the department of social and health services or his or her designee.
(4) "Department" means the state department of social and health services.
(5) "Treatment" means any currently standardized medical or mental health procedure including medication.
(6) "Incompetency" means a person lacks the capacity to understand the nature of the proceedings against him or her or to assist in his or her own defense as a result of mental disease or defect.
(7) No condition of mind proximately induced by the voluntary act of a person charged with a crime shall constitute "insanity".
(8) "Furlough" means an authorized leave of absence for a resident of a state institution operated by the department designated for the custody, care, and treatment of the criminally insane, consistent with an order of conditional release from the court under this chapter, without any requirement that the resident be accompanied by, or be in the custody of, any law enforcement or institutional staff, while on such unescorted leave.
(9) "Developmental disability" means the condition defined in RCW 71A.10.020(2).
(10) "Developmental disabilities professional" means a person who has specialized training and three years of experience in directly treating or working with persons with developmental disabilities and is a psychiatrist or psychologist, or a social worker, and such other developmental disabilities professionals as may be defined by rules adopted by the secretary.
(11) "Habilitative services" means those services provided by program personnel to assist persons in acquiring and maintaining life skills and in raising their levels of physical, mental, social, and vocational functioning. Habilitative services include education, training for employment, and therapy. The habilitative process shall be undertaken with recognition of the risk to the public safety presented by the individual being assisted as manifested by prior charged criminal conduct.
(12) "Psychiatrist" means a person having a license as a physician and surgeon in this state who has, in addition, completed three years of graduate training in psychiatry in a program approved by the American medical association or the American osteopathic association and is certified or eligible to be certified by the American board of psychiatry and neurology.
(13) "Psychologist" means a person who has been licensed as a psychologist pursuant to chapter 18.83 RCW.
(14) "Social worker" means a person with a master's or further advanced degree from an accredited school of social work or a degree deemed equivalent under rules adopted by the secretary.
(15) "Individualized service plan" means a plan prepared by a developmental disabilities professional with other professionals as a team, for an individual with developmental disabilities, which shall state:
(a) The nature of the person's specific problems, prior charged criminal behavior, and habilitation needs;
(b) The conditions and strategies necessary to achieve the purposes of habilitation;
(c) The intermediate and long-range goals of the habilitation program, with a projected timetable for the attainment;
(d) The rationale for using this plan of habilitation to achieve those intermediate and long-range goals;
(e) The staff responsible for carrying out the plan;
(f) Where relevant in light of past criminal behavior and due consideration for public safety, the criteria for proposed movement to less-restrictive settings, criteria for proposed eventual discharge from involuntary confinement, and a projected possible date for discharge from involuntary confinement; and
(g) The type of residence immediately anticipated for the person and possible future types of residences.
Sec. 2. RCW 10.77.020 and 1974 ex.s. c 198 s 2 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) At any and all stages of the proceedings pursuant to this chapter, any person subject to the provisions of this chapter shall be entitled to the assistance of counsel, and if the person is indigent the court shall appoint counsel to assist him or her. A person may waive his or her right to counsel; but such waiver shall only be effective if a court makes a specific finding that he or she is or was competent to so waive. In making such findings, the court shall be guided but not limited by the following standards: Whether the person attempting to waive the assistance of counsel, does so understanding:
(a) The nature of the charges;
(b) The statutory offense included within them;
(c) The range of allowable punishments thereunder;
(d) Possible defenses to the charges and circumstances in mitigation thereof; and
(e) All other facts essential to a broad understanding of the whole matter.
(2) Whenever any person is subjected to an examination pursuant to any provision of this chapter, he or she may retain an expert or professional person to perform an examination in his or her behalf. In the case of a person who is indigent, the court shall upon his or her request assist the person in obtaining an expert or professional person to perform an examination or participate in the hearing on his or her behalf. An expert or professional person obtained by an indigent person pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall be compensated for his or her services out of funds of the department, in an amount determined by it to be fair and reasonable.
Whenever any person has been committed under any provision of this chapter, or
ordered to undergo alternative treatment following his or her acquittal
of a crime charged by reason of insanity, such commitment or treatment cannot
exceed the maximum possible penal sentence for any offense charged for which ((
the person was acquitted by reason of insanity. If at the end of that
period the person has not been finally discharged and is still in need of
commitment or treatment, civil commitment proceedings may be instituted, if
Any time the defendant is being examined by court appointed experts or
professional persons pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, ((
defendant shall be entitled to have his or her attorney present.
The defendant may refuse to answer any question if he or she believes his
or her answers may tend to incriminate him or her or form links
leading to evidence of an incriminating nature.
Sec. 3. RCW 10.77.150 and 1982 c 112 s 1 are each amended to read as follows:
Persons examined pursuant to RCW 10.77.140, as now or hereafter amended, may
make application to the secretary for conditional release. The secretary
shall, after considering the reports of experts or professional persons
conducting the examination pursuant to RCW 10.77.140, forward to the court of
the county which ordered ((
his)) the person's commitment the
person's application for conditional release as well as (( his)) the
secretary's recommendations concerning the application and any proposed
terms and conditions upon which (( he)) the secretary reasonably
believes the person can be conditionally released. Conditional release may
also contemplate partial release for work, training, or educational purposes.
The court of the county which ordered ((
his)) the person's
commitment, upon receipt of an application for conditional release with the
secretary's recommendation for conditional release, shall within thirty days
schedule a hearing. The court may schedule a hearing on applications
recommended for disapproval by the secretary. The prosecuting attorney shall
represent the state at such hearings and shall have the right to have the
patient examined by an expert or professional person of (( his)) the
prosecuting attorney's choice. If the committed person is indigent, and he
or she so requests, the court shall appoint a qualified expert or
professional person to examine (( him)) the person on his or
her behalf. The issue to be determined at such a hearing is whether or not
the person may be released conditionally without substantial danger to other
persons, or substantial likelihood of committing felonious acts jeopardizing
public safety or security. The court, after the hearing, shall rule on the
secretary's recommendations, and if it disapproves of conditional release, may
do so only on the basis of substantial evidence. The court may modify the
suggested terms and conditions on which the person is to be conditionally
released. Pursuant to the determination of the court after hearing, the
committed person shall thereupon be released on such conditions as the court
determines to be necessary, or shall be remitted to the custody of the
secretary. If the order of conditional release includes a requirement for
the committed person to report to a community corrections officer, the order
shall also specify that the conditionally released person shall be under the
supervision of the secretary of corrections or such person as the secretary of
corrections may designate and shall follow explicitly the instructions of the
secretary of corrections including reporting as directed to a community
corrections officer, remaining within prescribed geographical boundaries, and
notifying the community corrections officer prior to making any change in the
offender's address or employment.
the court determines that receiving regular or periodic medication or other
medical treatment shall be a condition of the committed person's release, then
the court shall require him or her to report to a physician or other ((
medical or mental health practitioner for the medication or treatment.
In addition to submitting any report required by RCW 10.77.160, the physician
or other (( person)) medical or mental health practitioner shall
immediately upon the released person's failure to appear for the medication or
treatment report the failure to the court (( and)), to the
prosecuting attorney of the county in which the released person was committed,
and to the supervising community corrections officer.
(4) Any person, whose application for conditional release has been denied, may reapply after a period of six months from the date of denial.
Sec. 4. RCW 10.77.160 and 1973 1st ex.s. c 117 s 16 are each amended to read as follows:
conditionally released person is required by the terms of his or her
conditional release to report to a physician, ((
probation officer, or other
such person)) department of corrections community corrections officer,
or medical or mental health practitioner on a regular or periodic basis,
the (( doctor, probation)) physician, department of corrections
community corrections officer, medical or mental health practitioner,
or other such person shall monthly, for the first six months after release
and semiannually thereafter, or as otherwise directed by the court, submit
to the court, the secretary, the institution from which released, and to the
prosecuting attorney of the county in which the person was committed, a report
stating whether the person is adhering to the terms and conditions of his or
her conditional release.
Sec. 5. RCW 10.77.165 and 1990 c 3 s 107 are each amended to read as follows:
event of an escape by a person committed under this chapter from a state
institution or the disappearance of such a person on conditional release to
the department of social and health services, the superintendent, or in
the event of a disappearance of such a person on conditional release to the
department of corrections, the community corrections officer shall ((
as appropriate, notify local law enforcement officers, other
governmental agencies, the person's relatives, and any other appropriate
persons about information necessary for the public safety or to assist in the
apprehension of the person. The notice provisions of this section are in
addition to those provided in RCW 10.77.205.
Sec. 6. RCW 10.77.180 and 1974 ex.s. c 198 s 14 are each amended to read as follows:
Each person conditionally released pursuant to RCW 10.77.150, as now or hereafter amended, shall have his or her case reviewed by the court which conditionally released him or her no later than one year after such release and no later than every two years thereafter, such time to be scheduled by the court. Review may occur in a shorter time or more frequently, if the court, in its discretion, on its own motion, or on motion of the person, the secretary of social and health services, the secretary of corrections, medical or mental health practitioner, or the prosecuting attorney, so determines. The sole question to be determined by the court is whether the person shall continue to be conditionally released. The court in making its determination shall be aided by the periodic reports filed pursuant to RCW 10.77.140, as now or hereafter amended, and RCW 10.77.160, and the opinions of the secretary of social and health services and other experts or professional persons.
Sec. 7. RCW 10.77.190 and 1982 c 112 s 2 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) Any person submitting reports pursuant to RCW 10.77.160, the secretary, or the prosecuting attorney may petition the court to, or the court on its own motion may schedule an immediate hearing for the purpose of modifying the terms of conditional release if the petitioner or the court believes the released person is failing to adhere to the terms and conditions of his or her conditional release or is in need of additional care and treatment.
(2) If the prosecuting attorney, the secretary of social and health services, the secretary of corrections, or the court, after examining the report filed with them pursuant to RCW 10.77.160, or based on other information received by them, reasonably believes that a conditionally released person is failing to adhere to the terms and conditions of his or her conditional release the court or secretary of social and health services or the secretary of corrections may order that the conditionally released person be apprehended and taken into custody until such time as a hearing can be scheduled to determine the facts and whether or not the person's conditional release should be revoked or modified. The court shall be notified before the close of the next judicial day of the apprehension. Both the prosecuting attorney and the conditionally released person shall have the right to request an immediate mental examination of the conditionally released person. If the conditionally released person is indigent, the court or secretary of social and health services shall, upon request, assist him or her in obtaining a qualified expert or professional person to conduct the examination.
(3) The court, upon receiving notification of the apprehension, shall promptly schedule a hearing. The issue to be determined is whether the conditionally released person did or did not adhere to the terms and conditions of his or her release. Pursuant to the determination of the court upon such hearing, the conditionally released person shall either continue to be conditionally released on the same or modified conditions or his or her conditional release shall be revoked and he or she shall be committed subject to release only in accordance with provisions of this chapter.
Sec. 8. RCW 10.77.200 and 1989 c 420 s 11 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) Upon application by the committed or conditionally released person, the secretary shall determine whether or not reasonable grounds exist for final discharge. In making this determination, the secretary may consider the reports filed under RCW 10.77.060, 10.77.110, 10.77.140, and 10.77.160, and other reports and evaluations provided by professionals familiar with the case. If the secretary approves the final discharge he or she then shall authorize said person to petition the court.
The petition shall be served upon the court and the prosecuting attorney. The
court, upon receipt of the petition for final discharge, shall within
forty-five days order a hearing. Continuance of the hearing date shall only be
allowed for good cause shown. The prosecuting attorney shall represent the
state, and shall have the right to have the petitioner examined by an expert or
professional person of ((
his)) the prosecuting attorney's
choice. If the petitioner is indigent, and the person so requests, the court
shall appoint a qualified expert or professional person to examine him or her.
If the petitioner is developmentally disabled, the examination shall be performed
by a developmental disabilities professional. The hearing shall be before a
jury if demanded by either the petitioner or the prosecuting attorney. The
burden of proof shall be upon the petitioner to show by a preponderance of the
evidence that the petitioner may be finally discharged without substantial
danger to other persons, and without presenting a substantial likelihood of
committing felonious acts jeopardizing public safety or security, unless kept
under further control by the court or other persons or institutions.
(3) Nothing contained in this chapter shall prohibit the patient from petitioning the court for final discharge or conditional release from the institution in which he or she is committed. The issue to be determined on such proceeding is whether the petitioner is a substantial danger to other persons, or presents a substantial likelihood of committing felonious acts jeopardizing public safety or security, unless kept under further control by the court or other persons or institutions.
Nothing contained in this chapter shall prohibit the committed person from petitioning for release by writ of habeas corpus.
Sec. 9. RCW 10.77.210 and 1990 c 3 s 108 are each amended to read as follows:
person involuntarily detained, hospitalized, or committed pursuant to the
provisions of this chapter shall have the right to adequate care and
individualized treatment. The person who has custody of the patient or is in
charge of treatment shall keep records detailing all medical, expert, and
professional care and treatment received by a committed person, and shall keep
copies of all reports of periodic examinations of the patient that have been
filed with the secretary pursuant to this chapter. Except as provided in RCW
10.77.205 and 4.24.550 regarding the release of information concerning insane
offenders who are acquitted of sex offenses and subsequently committed pursuant
to this chapter, all records and reports made pursuant to this chapter, shall
be made available only upon request, to the committed person, to his or her
attorney, to his or her personal physician, to the supervising community
corrections officer, to the prosecuting attorney, to the court, to the
protection and advocacy agency, or other expert or professional persons who,
upon proper showing, demonstrates a need for access to such records. All
records and reports made pursuant to this chapter shall also be made available,
upon request, to the department of corrections or the indeterminate sentence review
board if the person was on parole ((
or)), probation, or
community supervision at the time of detention, hospitalization, or
commitment or the person is subsequently convicted for the crime for which he
or she was detained, hospitalized, or committed pursuant to this chapter.