HOUSE BILL 2403
State of Washington 57th Legislature 2002 Regular Session
By Representatives Kenney, Conway, Veloria, Linville, Campbell, O'Brien, Fromhold, Lovick, Hunt, Hurst, Miloscia, Jackley, Kagi, Schual‑Berke, Kessler, Gombosky, Berkey, Cody, Chase, Morris, Dickerson, Tokuda, Cooper, Darneille, Kirby, Upthegrove, Edwards, Romero, Santos, Lysen, Quall, McIntire, Wood, Haigh, McDermott, Simpson and Sullivan
Read first time 01/16/2002. Referred to Committee on Commerce & Labor.
AN ACT Relating to labor relations at the public four-year institutions of higher education; adding a new chapter to Title 41 RCW; and creating a new section.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
NEW SECTION. Sec. 1. LEGISLATIVE FINDINGS OF FACT AND STATEMENTS OF POLICY. The legislature finds and declares that:
(1) The people of the state of Washington have a fundamental interest in developing harmonious and cooperative labor relations within the public four-year institutions of higher education.
(2) Teachers in the public school system and instructors in the community colleges in the state have been granted the opportunity to bargain collectively. It would be desirable to expand the jurisdiction of the public employment relations commission to cover faculty in the state's public four-year institutions of higher education.
(3) It is the purpose of this chapter to provide the means by which relations between the boards of regents and trustees of the public four-year institutions of higher education of the state of Washington and their faculty may assure that the responsibilities and authorities granted to these institutions are carried out in an atmosphere that permits the fullest participation by faculty in determining the conditions of employment which affect them. It is the intent of the legislature to accomplish this purpose by providing a uniform structure for recognizing the right of faculty of the public four-year institutions of higher education to full freedom of association, self-organization, and designation of representatives of their own choosing for the purpose of exclusive representation in their employment relationships with the boards of regents and trustees and to select an organization as their exclusive representative for the purpose of collective bargaining, if they should so choose.
(4) It is the further purpose of this chapter to provide orderly and clearly defined procedures for collective bargaining and dispute resolution, and to define and prohibit certain practices that are contrary to the public interest.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 2. EXERCISE OF FUNCTIONS OF FACULTY IN SHARED GOVERNANCE‑-GUARANTEE OF ACADEMIC FREEDOM. (1) The legislature recognizes that consultation and joint decision making between administration and faculty is the long-accepted manner of governing public four-year institutions of higher education and is essential to performing their educational missions. The legislature declares that it is the purpose of this chapter to both preserve and encourage that process. Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to restrict, limit, or prohibit the exercise by the faculty in any shared governance systems or practices with respect to policies on academic and professional matters affecting the public four-year institutions of higher education.
(2) It is the policy of the state of Washington to encourage the pursuit of excellence in teaching, research, and learning through the free exchange of ideas among the faculty, students, and staff of its institutions. All parties subject to this chapter shall respect and endeavor to preserve academic freedom.
(3) In the absence of a valid collective bargaining, and for matters excluded under section 4 of this act, the rules, regulations, provisions, and procedures policies and practices manuals in public four-year institutions of education shall govern relations between faculty and the respective boards of regents and trustees.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 3. DEFINITIONS. The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(1) "Faculty governance system" means the internal organization created by the faculty to serve as its advisory body and charged with the responsibility for recommending policies, regulations, and rules for the college or university.
(2) "Grievance arbitration" means a method to resolve disputes arising out of interpretations or application of the terms of an agreement under which the parties to a controversy must accept the decision of a third party.
(3) "Collective bargaining" and "bargaining" mean the performance of the mutual obligation of the representatives of the employer and the exclusive bargaining representative to meet at reasonable times to bargain in good faith in an effort to reach agreement with respect to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. A written contract incorporating any agreements reached must be executed if requested by either party. The obligation to bargain does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or to make a concession.
In the event of a dispute between an employer and an exclusive bargaining representative over the matters that are terms and conditions of employment, the commission shall decide which items are mandatory subjects for bargaining, subject to the exclusions in section 4 of this act.
(4) "Commission" means the public employment relations commission established pursuant to RCW 41.58.010.
(5) "Faculty" means employees who are designated with faculty status or who perform faculty duties at each of the public four-year institutions of higher education as defined through policies established by the faculty governance system, excluding casual or temporary employees, administrators, confidential employees, graduate student employees, postdoctoral and clinical employees, and employees subject to chapter 41.06 or 41.56 RCW.
(6) "Employee organization" means any organization that includes as its members faculty of the employer and that has as one of its purposes representation of faculty pursuant to this chapter. A faculty governance system is not an employee organization as defined in this subsection.
(7) "Employer" means the boards of regents and boards of trustees of the public four-year institutions of higher education.
(8) "Exclusive bargaining representative" means any employee organization that has been determined by the commission to represent all of the faculty of the bargaining unit pursuant to section 6 of this act.
(9) "Administrator" means all deans, associate and assistant deans, vice-provosts, vice‑presidents, the provost, chancellors, vice‑chancellors, and the president, and all such other faculty who exercise managerial or supervisory authority over other faculty.
(10) "Confidential employee" means (a) a person who participates directly on behalf of an employer in the formulation of labor relations policy, the preparation for or conduct of collective bargaining, or the administration of a collective bargaining agreement, if the role of the person is not merely routine or clerical in nature but calls for the consistent exercise of independent judgment; and (b) a person who assists and acts in a confidential capacity to a person in (a) of this subsection.
(11) "Bargaining unit" includes all faculty of all campuses of each of the colleges and universities. It is the intent of this chapter that there be only one bargaining unit allowable under these provisions for faculty of each employer, containing all faculty, as defined in this section, from all schools, colleges, and campuses of each of the employers.
(12) "Public four-year institutions of higher education" means the University of Washington, Washington State University, Eastern Washington University, Western Washington University, Central Washington University, and The Evergreen State College.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 4. SCOPE OF BARGAINING. (1) Faculty may, pursuant to the terms of this chapter, elect an exclusive bargaining representative to bargain with the employer over wages, hours of employment, and other terms and conditions of employment. Prohibited subjects of bargaining include but are not limited to the following:
(a) Consideration of the merits, necessity, or organization of any service, activity, or program established by law or resolution of the employer, except for the terms and conditions of employment of faculty who may be affected by such service, activity, or program.
(b) The amount of any fees that are not a term or condition of employment.
(c) Admission requirements for students, conditions for the award of certificates and degrees, and the content, methods, supervision, and evaluation of courses, curricula, and research programs.
(2) Permissive subjects of bargaining include, but are not limited to, criteria and standards to be used for the appointment, promotion, evaluation, and tenure of faculty.
(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the right of the employer to consult with any employee or faculty governance system on any matter outside the scope of bargaining.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 5. RIGHT TO ORGANIZE OR REFRAIN FROM ORGANIZING. Faculty have the right to self-organization, to form, join, or assist employee organizations, and to bargain collectively through exclusive representatives of their own choosing, and also have the right to refrain from any or all of these activities except to the extent that faculty may be required to make payments to an exclusive bargaining representative or charitable organization under a union security provision authorized in this chapter.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 6. DUTY OF FAIR REPRESENTATION. The employee organization which has been determined by the commission to represent all faculty of the bargaining unit shall be the exclusive bargaining representative of, and shall be required to represent, all the faculty within the bargaining unit without regard to membership in that employee organization: PROVIDED, That any faculty may at any time present his or her complaints or concerns to the employer and have such complaints or concerns adjusted without intervention of the exclusive bargaining representative, as long as the exclusive bargaining representative has been given an opportunity to be present at the adjustment and to make its views known, and as long as the adjustment is not inconsistent with the terms of a collective bargaining agreement then in effect.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 7. REPRESENTATION CASE PROCEDURE. The commission shall resolve any dispute concerning selection of an exclusive bargaining representative in accordance with the procedures specified in this section.
(1) No question concerning representation may be raised within one year following issuance of a certification under this section.
(2) Where there is a valid collective bargaining agreement in effect, no question concerning representation may be raised except during the period not more than ninety nor less than sixty days prior to the expiration date of the agreement: PROVIDED, That in the event a valid collective bargaining agreement, together with any renewals or extensions thereof, has been or will be in existence for more than three years, then a question concerning representation may be raised not more than ninety nor less than sixty days prior to the third anniversary date or any subsequent anniversary date of the agreement; and if the exclusive bargaining representative is removed as the result of such procedure, the collective bargaining agreement shall be deemed to be terminated as of the date of the certification or the anniversary date following the filing of the petition, whichever is later.
(3) An employee organization seeking certification as exclusive bargaining representative of a bargaining unit of faculty, or bargaining unit faculty seeking decertification of their exclusive bargaining representative, shall make a confidential showing to the commission of credible evidence demonstrating that at least thirty percent of the faculty in the bargaining unit are in support of the petition. The petition must indicate the name, address, and telephone number of any employee organization known to claim an interest in the bargaining unit.
(4) A petition filed by an employer must be supported by credible evidence demonstrating the good faith basis on which the employer claims the existence of a question concerning the representation of its faculty.
(5) Any employee organization which makes a confidential showing to the commission of credible evidence demonstrating that it has the support of at least ten percent of the faculty in the bargaining unit involved is entitled to intervene in proceedings under this section and to have its name listed as a choice on the ballot in an election conducted by the commission.
(6) The commission shall determine any question concerning representation by conducting a secret ballot election among the faculty in the bargaining unit, except under the following circumstances:
(a) If only one employee organization is seeking certification as exclusive bargaining representative of a bargaining unit for which there is no incumbent exclusive bargaining representative, the commission may, upon the concurrence of the employer and the employee organization, determine the question concerning representation by conducting a cross-check comparing the employee organization's membership records or bargaining authorization cards against the employment records of the employer; or
(b) If the commission determines that a serious unfair labor practice has been committed which interfered with the election process and precludes the holding of a fair election, the commission may determine the question concerning representation by conducting a cross-check comparing the employee organization's membership records or bargaining authorization cards against the employment records of the employer.
(7) The representation election ballot must contain a choice for each employee organization qualifying under subsection (3) or (5) of this section, together with a choice for no representation. The representation election shall be determined by the majority of the valid ballots cast. If there are three or more choices on the ballot and none of the three or more choices receives a majority of the valid ballots cast, a runoff election shall be conducted between the two choices receiving the highest and second highest numbers of votes.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 8. DISPUTES CONCERNING THE APPROPRIATE UNIT. In any dispute concerning membership in the bargaining unit or the allocation of employees or positions to bargaining units, the commission, after a hearing or hearings, shall determine the dispute, taking into consideration the duties, skills, and working conditions of the employees, the extent of organization among the employees, the community of interest among the employees, the desire of the employees, and the overall management structure of the employer including the interrelationships of divisions within the institution and the existence of branch campuses. Unnecessary fragmentation shall be avoided.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 9. NEGOTIATIONS REDUCED TO WRITTEN AGREEMENTS‑-PROVISIONS RELATING TO SALARY INCREASES‑-RESTRICTIONS. (1) If appropriations are necessary to implement the compensation provisions of the bargaining agreement agreed to under the provisions of this chapter, the governor shall submit a request for such funds to the legislature. The governor shall submit a request for funds within ten days of the date on which the exclusive bargaining representative ratifies the agreement or, if the legislature is not in session, within ten days after the legislature next convenes. Request for funds necessary to implement the provisions of bargaining agreements shall not be submitted to the legislature by the governor unless such requests:
(a) Have been submitted to the director of the office of financial management prior to October 1 of the year they are negotiated;
(b) Have been certified by the director of the office of financial management as being feasible financially for the state.
(2) The legislature shall approve or reject the submission of the request for funds as a whole. If the legislature rejects or fails to act on the submission, either party may request to reopen all or part of the agreement.
(3) Each of the public four-year institutions of higher education may provide additional salary increases to faculty that exceed those provided by the legislature.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 10. NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS‑-PROCEDURES FOR ARBITRATION. A board of regents or trustees and an exclusive bargaining representative that enter into a negotiated agreement under this chapter may include in the agreement procedures for grievance arbitration of the disputes arising about the interpretation or application of the agreement. Any such agreement that is made pursuant to this chapter may contain provision for the final and binding arbitration of grievance disputes arising over the interpretation or application of the agreement.
(1) The parties to a collective bargaining agreement may agree on one or more permanent umpires to serve as arbitrator, or may agree on any impartial person to serve as arbitrator, or may agree to select arbitrators from any source available to them, including federal and private agencies, in addition to the staff and dispute resolution panel maintained by the commission.
(2) An arbitrator may require any person to attend as a witness, and to bring with him or her any book, record, document, or other evidence. Subpoenas shall issue and be signed by the arbitrator and shall be served in the same manner as subpoenas to testify before a court of record in this state. The fees for such attendance shall be paid by the party requesting issuance of the subpoena and shall be the same as the fees of witnesses in the superior court. If any person so summoned to testify refuses or neglects to obey such subpoena, upon petition authorized by the arbitrator, the superior court may compel the attendance of such person before the arbitrator, or punish the person for contempt in the same manner provided for the attendance of witnesses or the punishment of them in the courts of this state.
(3) The arbitrator shall appoint a time and place for the hearing and notify the parties thereof, and may adjourn the hearing from time to time as may be necessary, and, on application of either party and for good cause, may postpone the hearing to a time not extending beyond a date fixed by the collective bargaining agreement for making the award. The arbitrator has the power to administer oaths. The arbitration award shall be in writing and signed by the arbitrator or a majority of the members of the arbitration panel. The arbitrator shall, promptly upon its rendition, serve a true copy of the award on each of the parties or their attorneys.
(4) If a party to a collective bargaining agreement negotiated pursuant to the provisions of this chapter refuses to submit a grievance for arbitration, the other party to the collective bargaining agreement may invoke the jurisdiction of the superior court for any county in which the labor dispute exists, and such court has jurisdiction to issue an order compelling arbitration. The commission, on its own motion, may invoke the jurisdiction of the superior court where a work stoppage is in existence. Arbitration shall be ordered if the grievance states a claim which on its face is covered by the collective bargaining agreement, and doubts as to the coverage of the arbitration clause shall be resolved in favor of arbitration. Disputes concerning compliance with grievance procedures shall be reserved for determination by the arbitrator.
(5) If a party to a collective bargaining agreement negotiated pursuant to the provisions of this chapter refuses to comply with the award of an arbitrator determining a grievance arising under such collective bargaining agreement, the other party to the collective bargaining agreement, or any affected employee, may invoke the jurisdiction of the superior court for any county in which the labor dispute exists, and such court has jurisdiction to issue an order enforcing the arbitration award. The commission, on its own motion, may invoke the jurisdiction of the superior court where a work stoppage is in existence. The court shall not substitute its judgment for that of the arbitrator and shall enforce any arbitration award which is based on the collective bargaining agreement, except that an arbitration award shall not be enforced and a new arbitration proceeding may be ordered:
(a) If the arbitration award was procured by corruption, fraud, or undue means;
(b) If there was evident partiality or corruption in the arbitrator or arbitrators;
(c) If the arbitrator or arbitrators were guilty of misconduct, in refusing to postpone a hearing upon sufficient cause shown, or in refusing to hear evidence pertinent and material to the controversy, or of any other misbehavior by which the rights of any party have been prejudiced; or
(d) If the arbitrator or arbitrators have exceeded their powers, or so imperfectly executed them that a final and definite award on the subject matter was not made, in which event the court also has discretion to remand the matter to the arbitrator or arbitrators who issued the defective award.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 11. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT‑-EXCLUSIVE BARGAINING REPRESENTATIVE‑-UNION SECURITY PROVISIONS‑-DUES AND FEES. (1) Upon the voluntary written authorization of a bargaining unit employee, the employer shall deduct from the pay of the employee the periodic dues and initiation fees uniformly required as a condition of acquiring or retaining membership in the exclusive bargaining representative. The employee authorization may be irrevocable for up to one year. Such dues and fees must be transmitted monthly by the employer to the exclusive bargaining representative or to the depository designated by the exclusive bargaining representative.
(2) A collective bargaining agreement may include union security provisions, but not a closed shop. If such provisions are agreed to, the employer shall enforce any union security provision by monthly deductions from the pay of all bargaining unit employees affected by the collective bargaining agreement and shall transmit the funds to the exclusive bargaining representative or to the depository designated by the exclusive bargaining representative.
(3) An employee who is covered by a union security provision and who asserts a right of nonassociation based on bona fide religious tenets or teaching of a church or religious body of which the employee is a member shall, as a condition of employment, make alternative payments to a nonreligious charity designated by agreement of the employee and the exclusive bargaining representative. The amount of the alternative payment shall be equal to the periodic dues and initiation fees uniformly required as a condition of acquiring or retaining membership in the exclusive bargaining representative. The employee shall furnish written proof that the payments have been made. If the employee and the exclusive bargaining representative do not reach agreement on the matter, the dispute shall be submitted to the commission for determination.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 12. COMMISSION‑-MEDIATION ACTIVITIES‑-OTHER DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROCEDURES AUTHORIZED. The commission shall conduct mediation activities upon the request of either party as a means of assisting in the settlement of unresolved matters considered under this chapter.
In the event that any matter being jointly considered by the exclusive bargaining representative and the board of regents or trustees is not settled by the means provided in this chapter, either party, twenty-four hours after serving written notice of its intended action to the other party, may request the assistance and advice of the commission. Nothing in this section prohibits an employer and an employee organization from agreeing to substitute, at their own expense, some other impasse procedure or other means of resolving matters considered under this chapter.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 13. UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES. (1) It is an unfair labor practice for an employer to:
(a) Interfere with, restrain, or coerce faculty in the exercise of the rights guaranteed by this chapter;
(b) Dominate or interfere with the formation or administration of any employee organization or contribute financial or other support to it: PROVIDED, That subject to rules adopted by the commission, an employer is not prohibited from permitting faculty to confer with it or its representatives or agents during working hours without loss of time or pay;
(c) Encourage or discourage membership in any employee organization by discrimination in regard to hire, tenure of employment, or any term or condition of employment;
(d) Discharge or discriminate otherwise against a faculty because that faculty has filed charges or given testimony under this chapter;
(e) Refuse to bargain collectively with the exclusive bargaining representative of its faculty.
(2) It is an unfair labor practice for an employee organization to:
(a) Restrain or coerce a faculty in the exercise of the rights guaranteed by this chapter: PROVIDED, That this subsection does not impair the rights of (i) an employee organization to prescribe its own rules with respect to the acquisition or retention of membership in the employee organization or (ii) to the rights of an employer in the selection of its representatives for the purpose of bargaining or the adjustment of grievances;
(b) Cause or attempt to cause an employer to discriminate against a faculty in violation of subsection (1)(c) of this section;
(c) Discriminate against a faculty because that faculty has filed charges or given testimony under this chapter;
(d) Refuse to bargain collectively with an employer.
(3) The expressing of any view, arguments, or opinion, or the dissemination thereof to the public, whether in written, printed, graphic, or visual form, shall not constitute or be evidence of an unfair labor practice under this chapter, if such expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 14. STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS PROHIBITED‑-VIOLATIONS‑-REMEDIES. The right of faculty to engage in any strike is prohibited. The right of a board of regents or trustees to engage in any lockout is prohibited. Should either a strike or lockout occur, the representative of the faculty or board of regents or trustees may invoke the jurisdiction of the superior court in the county in which the labor dispute exists, and such court has jurisdiction to issue an appropriate order against either or both parties. In fashioning an order, the court shall take into consideration not only the elements necessary for injunctive relief but also the purpose and goals of this chapter and any mitigating factors such as the commission of an unfair labor practice by either party.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 15. STATE HIGHER EDUCATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ACT NOT TO AFFECT. Contracts or agreements, or any provision thereof, entered into between boards of regents or trustees and exclusive bargaining representatives pursuant to this chapter are not affected by or subject to chapter 34.05 RCW.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 16. SEVERABILITY. If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 17. RETROACTIVE ACCRUAL OF BENEFITS AND SALARIES. Whenever a collective bargaining agreement between an employer and an exclusive bargaining representative is concluded after the termination date of the previous collective bargaining agreement between the employer and an employee organization representing the same employees, the effective date of the collective bargaining agreement may be the day after the termination date of the previous collective bargaining agreement, and all benefits included in the new collective bargaining agreement, including wage or salary increases, may accrue beginning with the effective date as established by this section.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 18. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to annul, modify, or preclude the renewal or continuation of any lawful agreement entered into before the effective date of this section between an employer and an employee organization covering wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 19. Except as otherwise expressly provided in this chapter, this chapter shall not be construed to deny or otherwise abridge any rights, privileges, or benefits granted by law to employees. This chapter shall not be construed to interfere with the responsibilities and rights of the board of regents or board of trustees as specified by federal and state law.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 20. Sections 1 through 19 of this act constitute a new chapter in Title 41 RCW.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 21. Section captions used in this act are not any part of the law.
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