S-1840.1  _______________________________________________


                    SUBSTITUTE SENATE BILL 5716



State of Washington      57th Legislature     2001 Regular Session


By Senate Committee on Environment, Energy & Water (originally sponsored by Senators Eide, Swecker, Fraser, Kline, Jacobsen, Winsley and Kohl‑Welles)



Providing guidelines for recycling and waste reduction.

    AN ACT Relating to recycling and waste reduction; amending RCW 43.19.1905, 43.19A.020, 39.04.133, 70.95.010, 70.95.030, 70.95.090, 70.95.280, 70.95.290, and 70.95.810; adding a new section to chapter 81.77 RCW; creating new sections; prescribing penalties; and providing an expiration date.




    NEW SECTION.  Sec. 1.  (1) The department of general administration shall work with commercial and industrial construction industry organizations and recycle and refuse haulers to develop guidelines for implementing on-site construction waste management planning.  The topics addressed in the guidelines shall include, but shall not be limited to:

    (a) Standards for identifying the type of wastes generated during construction;

    (b) Methods for analyzing the availability and cost-effectiveness of recycling services for each type of waste;

    (c) Methods for evaluating construction waste management alternatives given limited recycling services in rural areas of the state;

    (d) Strategies to maximize reuse and recycling of wastes and minimize landfill disposal;

    (e) Standardized formats for on-site construction waste management planning and reporting documents; and

    (f) A training and technical assistance plan for public and private building owners and construction industry members, in order to facilitate incorporation of waste management planning and recycling into standard construction industry practice.

    (2) By December 15, 2001, the department of general administration shall provide a report to the legislature on the development of the guidelines required by subsection (1) of this section.  The report shall include recommendations for incorporating job-site waste management planning and recycling into standard construction industry practice.


    Sec. 2.  RCW 43.19.1905 and 1995 c 269 s 1402 are each amended to read as follows:

    The director of general administration shall establish overall state policy for compliance by all state agencies, including educational institutions, regarding the following purchasing and material control functions:

    (1) Development of a state commodity coding system, including common stock numbers for items maintained in stores for reissue;

    (2) Determination where consolidations, closures, or additions of stores operated by state agencies and educational institutions should be initiated;

    (3) Institution of standard criteria for determination of when and where an item in the state supply system should be stocked;

    (4) Establishment of stock levels to be maintained in state stores, and formulation of standards for replenishment of stock;

    (5) Formulation of an overall distribution and redistribution system for stock items which establishes sources of supply support for all agencies, including interagency supply support;

    (6) Determination of what function data processing equipment, including remote terminals, shall perform in statewide purchasing and material control for improvement of service and promotion of economy;

    (7) Standardization of records and forms used statewide for supply system activities involving purchasing, receiving, inspecting, storing, requisitioning, and issuing functions, including a standard notification form for state agencies to report cost-effective direct purchases, which shall at least identify the price of the goods as available through the division of purchasing, the price of the goods as available from the alternative source, the total savings, and the signature of the notifying agency's director or the director's designee;

    (8) Screening of supplies, material, and equipment excess to the requirements of one agency for overall state need before sale as surplus;

    (9) Establishment of warehouse operation and storage standards to achieve uniform, effective, and economical stores operations;

    (10) Establishment of time limit standards for the issuing of material in store and for processing requisitions requiring purchase;

    (11) Formulation of criteria for determining when centralized rather than decentralized purchasing shall be used to obtain maximum benefit of volume buying of identical or similar items, including procurement from federal supply sources;

    (12) Development of criteria for use of leased, rather than state owned, warehouse space based on relative cost and accessibility;

    (13) Institution of standard criteria for purchase and placement of state furnished materials, carpeting, furniture, fixtures, and nonfixed equipment, in newly constructed or renovated state buildings;

    (14) Determination of how transportation costs incurred by the state for materials, supplies, services, and equipment can be reduced by improved freight and traffic coordination and control;

    (15) Establishment of a formal certification program for state employees who are authorized to perform purchasing functions as agents for the state under the provisions of chapter 43.19 RCW;

    (16) Development of performance measures for the reduction of total overall expense for material, supplies, equipment, and services used each biennium by the state;

    (17) Establishment of a standard system for all state organizations to record and report dollar savings and cost avoidance which are attributable to the establishment and implementation of improved purchasing and material control procedures;

    (18) Development of procedures for mutual and voluntary cooperation between state agencies, including educational institutions, and political subdivisions for exchange of purchasing and material control services;

    (19) Resolution of all other purchasing and material matters which require the establishment of overall statewide policy for effective and economical supply management;

    (20) Development of guidelines and criteria for the purchase of vehicles, alternate vehicle fuels and systems, equipment, and materials that reduce overall energy-related costs and energy use by the state, including the requirement that new passenger vehicles purchased by the state meet the minimum standards for passenger automobile fuel economy established by the United States secretary of transportation pursuant to the energy policy and conservation act (15 U.S.C. Sec. 2002);

    (21) Development of goals for state use of recycled and environmentally preferable products through specifications for products and services, processes for requests for proposals and requests for qualifications, contractor selection, and contract negotiations.


    Sec. 3.  RCW 43.19A.020 and 1996 c 198 s 1 are each amended to read as follows:

    (1) The ((USEPA)) federal product standards, ((as now or hereafter amended)) adopted under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 6962(e) as it exists on the effective date of this act, are adopted as the minimum standards for the state of Washington.  These standards shall be implemented for at least the products listed in (((a) and (b) of)) this subsection ((by the dates indicated)), unless the director finds that a different standard would significantly increase recycled product availability or competition.

    (a) ((By July 1, 1997:

    (i))) Paper and paper products;

    (((ii))) (b) Organic recovered materials; ((and

    (iii))) (c) Latex paint products;

    (((b) By July 1, 1997:

    (i))) (d) Products for lower value uses containing recycled plastics;

    (((ii))) (e) Retread and remanufactured tires;

    (((iii))) (f) Lubricating oils;

    (((iv))) (g) Automotive batteries;

    (((v))) (h) Building ((insulation)) products and materials;

    (((vi))) (i) Panelboard; and

    (((vii))) (j) Compost products.

    (2) By July 1, 2002, the director shall adopt product standards for strawboard manufactured using as an ingredient straw that is produced as a by-product in the production of cereal grain or turf or grass seed.

    (3) The standards required by this section shall be applied to recycled product purchasing by the department ((and)), other state agencies, and state postsecondary education institutions.  The standards may be adopted or applied by any other local government in product procurement.  The standards shall provide for exceptions under appropriate circumstances to allow purchases of recycled products that do not meet the minimum content requirements of the standards.


    NEW SECTION.  Sec. 4.  The legislature encourages city, county, and state governments, the private sector, and consumers to collaborate in sharing information and becoming informed about opportunities for increasing voluntary product stewardship to support the state's recycling goals.  For purposes of this section, "product stewardship" means a principle that directs all actors in the life cycle of a product to minimize impacts of that product on the environment.


    Sec. 5.  RCW 39.04.133 and 1996 c 198 s 5 are each amended to read as follows:

    (1) The state's preferences for the purchase and use of recycled content products shall be included as a factor in the design and development of state capital improvement projects.

    (2) ((Specifications for materials in state construction projects shall include the use of recycled content products and recyclable products whenever practicable.)) If a construction project receives state public funding, the product standards, as provided in RCW 43.19A.020, shall apply to the materials used in the project, whenever the administering agency and project owner determine that such products would be cost-effective and are readily available.

    (3) This section does not apply to contracts entered into by a municipality.


    NEW SECTION.  Sec. 6.  A new section is added to chapter 81.77 RCW to read as follows:

    (1) The legislature finds that it is in the public interest for solid waste collection companies, local governments, and the commission to help increase residential recycling and decrease landfill disposal of recyclable materials by working cooperatively on experimental proposals to identify appropriate materials and services that provide incentives for solid waste collection companies and ratepayers to increase residential recycling.

    (2) Any solid waste collection company may voluntarily propose to the commission an experimental plan to increase residential recycling.  The commission shall approve the plan if the commission finds that:  (a) The company has demonstrated the plan is consistent with local solid waste management plans; (b) the plan enhances, supplements, or concerns materials not included in the 2000 household recycling base as determined by the commission; (c) the company has demonstrated that the company, not the ratepayer, bears the cost of implementing the plan during the experimental period; and (d) the plan provides for gathering of necessary data and cooperative effort with local governments and the commission to evaluate results.  All revenue earned by the company from implementation of the experimental plan shall be retained by the company.

    (3) Working cooperatively with solid waste collection companies and local governments, the commission shall evaluate the results of experimental plans described in subsection (2) of this section and shall prepare and submit to the legislature by December 31, 2004, a report on the effectiveness of the plans for increasing residential recycling and decreasing landfill disposal of recyclable materials and identify those plans that could be implemented on a long-term basis.

    (4) This section expires December 31, 2005.


    Sec. 7.  RCW 70.95.010 and 1989 c 431 s 1 are each amended to read as follows:

    The legislature finds:

    (1) Continuing technological changes in methods of manufacture, packaging, and marketing of consumer products, together with the economic and population growth of this state, the rising affluence of its citizens, and its expanding industrial activity have created new and ever-mounting problems involving disposal of garbage, refuse, and solid waste materials resulting from domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities.

    (2) Traditional methods of disposing of solid wastes in this state are no longer adequate to meet the ever-increasing problem.  Improper methods and practices of handling and disposal of solid wastes pollute our land, air and water resources, blight our countryside, adversely affect land values, and damage the overall quality of our environment.

    (3) Considerations of natural resource limitations, energy shortages, economics and the environment make necessary the development and implementation of solid waste recovery and/or recycling plans and programs.

    (4) Waste reduction must become a fundamental strategy of solid waste management.  It is therefore necessary to change manufacturing and purchasing practices and waste generation behaviors to reduce the amount of waste that becomes a governmental responsibility.

    (5) Source separation of waste must become a fundamental strategy of solid waste management.  Collection and handling strategies should have, as an ultimate goal, the source separation of all materials with resource value or environmental hazard.

    (6)(a) It is the responsibility of every person to minimize his or her production of wastes and to separate recyclable or hazardous materials from mixed waste.

    (b) It is the responsibility of state, county, and city governments to provide for a waste management infrastructure to fully implement waste reduction and source separation strategies and to process and dispose of remaining wastes in a manner that is environmentally safe and economically sound.  It is further the responsibility of state, county, and city governments to monitor the cost-effectiveness and environmental safety of combusting separated waste, processing mixed waste, and recycling programs.

    (c) It is the responsibility of county and city governments to assume primary responsibility for solid waste management and to develop and implement aggressive and effective waste reduction and source separation strategies.

    (d) It is the responsibility of state government to ensure that local governments are providing adequate source reduction and separation opportunities and incentives to all, including persons in both rural and urban areas, and nonresidential waste generators such as commercial, industrial, and institutional entities, recognizing the need to provide flexibility to accommodate differing population densities, distances to and availability of recycling markets, and collection and disposal costs in each community; and to provide county and city governments with adequate technical resources to accomplish this responsibility.

    (7) Environmental and economic considerations in solving the state's solid waste management problems requires strong consideration by local governments of regional solutions and intergovernmental cooperation.

    (8) The following priorities for the collection, handling, and management of solid waste are necessary and should be followed in descending order as applicable:

    (a) Waste reduction;

    (b) Recycling, with source separation of recyclable materials as the preferred method;

    (c) Energy recovery, incineration, or landfill of separated waste;

    (d) Energy recovery, incineration, or landfilling of mixed wastes.

    (9) It is the state's goal to achieve a fifty percent recycling rate by ((1995)) 2005.

    (10) It is the state's goal that programs be established, where alternatives to disposal are cost-effective and readily available, to eliminate disposal of residential or commercial yard debris in landfills by 2010.

    (11) Steps should be taken to make recycling at least as affordable and convenient to the ratepayer as mixed waste disposal.

    (((11))) (12) It is necessary to compile and maintain adequate data on the types and quantities of solid waste that are being generated and to monitor how the various types of solid waste are being managed.

    (((12))) (13) Vehicle batteries should be recycled and the disposal of vehicle batteries into landfills or incinerators should be discontinued.

    (((13))) (14) Excessive and nonrecyclable packaging of products should be avoided.

    (((14))) (15) Comprehensive education should be conducted throughout the state so that people are informed of the need to reduce, source separate, and recycle solid waste.

    (((15))) (16) All governmental entities in the state should set an example by implementing aggressive waste reduction and recycling programs at their workplaces and by purchasing products that are made from recycled materials and are recyclable.

    (((16))) (17) To ensure the safe and efficient operations of solid waste disposal facilities, it is necessary for operators and regulators of landfills and incinerators to receive training and certification.

    (((17))) (18) It is necessary to provide adequate funding to all levels of government so that successful waste reduction and recycling programs can be implemented.

    (((18))) (19) The development of stable and expanding markets for recyclable materials is critical to the long-term success of the state's recycling goals.  Market development must be encouraged on a state, regional, and national basis to maximize its effectiveness.  The state shall assume primary responsibility for the development of a multifaceted market development program to carry out the purposes of this act.

    (((19))) (20) There is an imperative need to anticipate, plan for, and accomplish effective storage, control, recovery, and recycling of discarded tires and other problem wastes with the subsequent conservation of resources and energy.


    Sec. 8.  RCW 70.95.030 and 1998 c 36 s 17 are each amended to read as follows:

    As used in this chapter, unless the context indicates otherwise:

    (1) "City" means every incorporated city and town.

    (2) "Commission" means the utilities and transportation commission.

    (3) "Committee" means the state solid waste advisory committee.

    (4) "Composted material" means organic solid waste that has been subjected to controlled aerobic degradation at a solid waste facility in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.  Natural decay of organic solid waste under uncontrolled conditions does not result in composted material.

    (5) "Department" means the department of ecology.

    (6) "Director" means the director of the department of ecology.

    (7) "Disposal site" means the location where any final treatment, utilization, processing, or deposit of solid waste occurs.

    (8) "Energy recovery" means a process operating under federal and state environmental laws and regulations for converting solid waste into usable energy and for reducing the volume of solid waste.

    (9) "Functional standards" means criteria for solid waste handling expressed in terms of expected performance or solid waste handling functions.

    (10) "Incineration" means a process of reducing the volume of solid waste operating under federal and state environmental laws and regulations by use of an enclosed device using controlled flame combustion.

    (11) "Jurisdictional health department" means city, county, city-county, or district public health department.

    (12) "Landfill" means a disposal facility or part of a facility at which solid waste is placed in or on land and which is not a land treatment facility.

    (13) "Local government" means a city, town, or county.

    (14) "Modify" means to substantially change the design or operational plans including, but not limited to, removal of a design element previously set forth in a permit application or the addition of a disposal or processing activity that is not approved in the permit.

    (15) "Multiple family residence" means any structure housing two or more dwelling units.

    (16) "Person" means individual, firm, association, copartnership, political subdivision, government agency, municipality, industry, public or private corporation, or any other entity whatsoever.

    (17) "Recyclable materials" means those solid wastes that are separated for recycling or reuse, such as papers, metals, and glass, that are identified as recyclable material pursuant to a local comprehensive solid waste plan.  Prior to the adoption of the local comprehensive solid waste plan, adopted pursuant to RCW 70.95.110(2), local governments may identify recyclable materials by ordinance from July 23, 1989.

    (18) "Recycling" means transforming or remanufacturing waste materials into usable or marketable materials for use other than landfill disposal or incineration.

    (19) "Residence" means the regular dwelling place of an individual or individuals.

    (20) "Sewage sludge" means a semisolid substance consisting of settled sewage solids combined with varying amounts of water and dissolved materials, generated from a wastewater treatment system, that does not meet the requirements of chapter 70.95J RCW.

    (21) "Soil amendment" means any substance that is intended to improve the physical characteristics of the soil, except composted material, commercial fertilizers, agricultural liming agents, unmanipulated animal manures, unmanipulated vegetable manures, food wastes, food processing wastes, and materials exempted by rule of the department, such as biosolids as defined in chapter 70.95J RCW and wastewater as regulated in chapter 90.48 RCW.

    (22) "Solid waste" or "wastes" means all putrescible and nonputrescible solid and semisolid wastes including, but not limited to, garbage, rubbish, ashes, industrial wastes, swill, sewage sludge, demolition and construction wastes, abandoned vehicles or parts thereof, and recyclable materials.

    (23) "Solid waste handling" means the management, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, utilization, processing, and final disposal of solid wastes, including the recovery and recycling of materials from solid wastes, the recovery of energy resources from solid wastes or the conversion of the energy in solid wastes to more useful forms or combinations thereof.

    (24) "Source separation" means the separation of different kinds of solid waste at the place where the waste originates.

    (25) "Vehicle" includes every device physically capable of being moved upon a public or private highway, road, street, or watercourse and in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a public or private highway, road, street, or watercourse, except devices moved by human or animal power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks.

    (26) "Waste-derived soil amendment" means any soil amendment as defined in this chapter that is derived from solid waste as defined in RCW 70.95.030, but does not include biosolids or biosolids products regulated under chapter 70.95J RCW or wastewaters regulated under chapter 90.48 RCW.

    (27) "Waste reduction" means reducing the amount or toxicity of waste generated or reusing materials.

    (28) "Yard debris" means plant material commonly generated in the course of maintaining yards and gardens, and through horticulture, gardening, landscaping, or similar activities.  Yard debris includes but is not limited to grass clippings, leaves, branches, brush, weeds, flowers, roots, windfall fruit, vegetable garden debris, holiday trees, and tree prunings four inches or less in diameter.


    Sec. 9.  RCW 70.95.090 and 1991 c 298 s 3 are each amended to read as follows:

    Each county and city comprehensive solid waste management plan shall include the following:

    (1) A detailed inventory and description of all existing solid waste handling facilities including an inventory of any deficiencies in meeting current solid waste handling needs.

    (2) The estimated long-range needs for solid waste handling facilities projected twenty years into the future.

    (3) A program for the orderly development of solid waste handling facilities in a manner consistent with the plans for the entire county which shall:

    (a) Meet the minimum functional standards for solid waste handling adopted by the department and all laws and regulations relating to air and water pollution, fire prevention, flood control, and protection of public health;

    (b) Take into account the comprehensive land use plan of each jurisdiction;

    (c) Contain a six year construction and capital acquisition program for solid waste handling facilities; and

    (d) Contain a plan for financing both capital costs and operational expenditures of the proposed solid waste management system.

    (4) A program for surveillance and control.

    (5) A current inventory and description of solid waste collection needs and operations within each respective jurisdiction which shall include:

    (a) Any franchise for solid waste collection granted by the utilities and transportation commission in the respective jurisdictions including the name of the holder of the franchise and the address of his or her place of business and the area covered by the franchise;

    (b) Any city solid waste operation within the county and the boundaries of such operation;

    (c) The population density of each area serviced by a city operation or by a franchised operation within the respective jurisdictions;

    (d) The projected solid waste collection needs for the respective jurisdictions for the next six years.

    (6) A comprehensive waste reduction and recycling element that, in accordance with the priorities established in RCW 70.95.010, provides programs that (a) reduce the amount of waste generated, (b) provide incentives and mechanisms for source separation, and (c) establish recycling opportunities for the source separated waste.

    (7) The waste reduction and recycling element shall include the following:

    (a) Waste reduction strategies;

    (b) Source separation strategies, including:

    (i) Programs for the collection of source separated materials from residences in urban and rural areas.  In urban areas, these programs shall include collection of source separated recyclable materials from single and multiple family residences, unless the department approves an alternative program, according to the criteria in the planning guidelines.  Such criteria shall include:  Anticipated recovery rates and levels of public participation, availability of environmentally sound disposal capacity, access to markets for recyclable materials, unreasonable cost impacts on the ratepayer over the six-year planning period, utilization of environmentally sound waste reduction and recycling technologies, and other factors as appropriate.  In rural areas, these programs shall include but not be limited to drop-off boxes, buy-back centers, or a combination of both, at each solid waste transfer, processing, or disposal site, or at locations convenient to the residents of the county.  The drop-off boxes and buy-back centers may be owned or operated by public, nonprofit, or private persons;

    (ii) Programs to monitor the collection of source separated waste at nonresidential sites where there is sufficient density to sustain a program;

    (iii) Programs to ((collect)) manage yard ((waste, if the county or city submitting the plan finds that there are)) debris, including strategies to:

    (A) Develop collection programs or alternative means for managing yard debris;

    (B) Eliminate disposal of yard debris in landfills; and

    (C) Encourage adequate markets or capacity for composted yard ((waste)) debris within or near the service area to consume ((the majority of)) the material collected; and

    (iv) Programs to educate and promote the concepts of waste reduction and recycling;

    (c) Recycling strategies, including a description of markets for recyclables, a review of waste generation trends, a description of waste composition, a discussion and description of existing programs and any additional programs needed to assist public and private sector recycling, and an implementation schedule for the designation of specific materials to be collected for recycling, and for the provision of recycling collection services; and

    (d) Other information the county or city submitting the plan determines is necessary.

    (8) An assessment of the plan's impact on the costs of solid waste collection.  The assessment shall be prepared in conformance with guidelines established by the utilities and transportation commission.  The commission shall cooperate with the Washington state association of counties and the association of Washington cities in establishing such guidelines.

    (9) A review of potential areas that meet the criteria as outlined in RCW 70.95.165.


    Sec. 10.  RCW 70.95.280 and 1989 c 431 s 13 are each amended to read as follows:

    The department of ecology shall determine the best management practices for categories of solid waste in accordance with the priority solid waste management methods established in RCW 70.95.010.  In order to make this determination, the department shall conduct a comprehensive solid waste stream analysis and evaluation.  Following establishment of baseline data resulting from an initial in-depth analysis of the waste stream, the department shall develop a less intensive method of monitoring the disposed waste stream including, but not limited to, changes in the amount of waste generated and waste type.  The department shall monitor curbside collection programs and other waste segregation and disposal technologies to determine, to the extent possible, the effectiveness of these programs in terms of cost and participation, their applicability to other locations, and their implications regarding rules adopted under this chapter.  Persons who collect solid waste shall annually report to the department the types and quantities of solid waste that are collected and where it is delivered.  The department shall adopt guidelines for reporting and for ((keeping proprietary information confidential)) maintaining the confidentiality of proprietary information included in the report.  By March 1st of each year, entities that collect recycled material shall report their activity from the previous calendar year on a form provided by the department.  The department may impose a penalty of one hundred dollars on any entity that fails to submit the required report to the department.  The department may impose an additional penalty of one hundred dollars for each day after March 1st that a firm fails to submit the required report.  The total penalties for failure to report shall not exceed one thousand dollars.  By May 1st of each year, the department may arrange for the publication in recycling and solid waste industry trade publications the names of those entities failing to file the required report.  The department shall structure penalties and other sanctions so as to encourage compliance with the annual reporting requirement.


    Sec. 11.  RCW 70.95.290 and 1988 c 184 s 3 are each amended to read as follows:

    (1) The evaluation of the solid waste stream required in RCW 70.95.280 shall include the following elements:

    (a) The department shall determine which management method for each category of solid waste will have the least environmental impact; and

    (b) The department shall evaluate the costs of various management options for each category of solid waste, including a review of market availability, and shall take into consideration the economic impact on affected parties;

    (c) Based on the results of (a) and (b) of this subsection, the department shall determine the best management for each category of solid waste.  Different management methods for the same categories of waste may be developed for different parts of the state.

    (2) The department shall give priority to evaluating categories of solid waste that, in relation to other categories of solid waste, comprise a large volume of the solid waste stream or present a high potential of harm to human health.  At a minimum the following categories of waste shall be evaluated:

    (a) By January 1, 1989, yard ((waste)) debris and other biodegradable materials, paper products, disposable diapers, and batteries; ((and))

    (b) By January 1, 1990, metals, glass, plastics, styrofoam or rigid lightweight cellular polystyrene, and tires; and

    (c) By January 1, 2004, construction, demolition, and land-clearing debris, electronic waste, manure, and major food-processing wastes.


    Sec. 12.  RCW 70.95.810 and 1998 c 245 s 132 are each amended to read as follows:

    (1) In order to establish the feasibility of composting food and yard ((wastes)) debris, the department shall provide funds, as available, to local governments submitting a proposal to compost such wastes.

    (2) The department, in cooperation with the department of community, trade, and economic development, may approve an application if the project can demonstrate the essential parameters for successful composting, including, but not limited to, cost-effectiveness, handling and safety requirements, and current and potential markets.


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