HOUSE BILL NO. 2542
C 248 L 90
State of Washington 51st Legislature 1990 Regular Session
By Representatives Youngsman, Appelwick, Padden, Locke, Belcher, Doty, Silver, Nealey, Walker, Rector, Dellwo, Bowman, Horn, Rayburn, Miller, Fuhrman, Kremen, Ballard, May, Schoon, Forner, Wood, Tate, Brumsickle, Rasmussen, Cooper and Sprenkle
Read first time 1/15/90 and referred to Committee on Judiciary.
AN ACT Relating to the forfeiture of vehicles involved in illegal transfers of controlled substances; amending RCW 69.50.101 and 69.50.505; and prescribing penalties.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
Sec. 1. Section 69.50.101, chapter 308, Laws of 1971 ex. sess. as last amended by section 429, chapter 9, Laws of 1989 1st ex. sess. and RCW 69.50.101 are each amended to read as follows:
As used in this chapter:
(a) "Administer" means the direct application of a controlled substance, whether by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or any other means, to the body of a patient or research subject by:
(1) a practitioner, or
(2) the patient or research subject at the direction and in the presence of the practitioner.
(b) "Agent" means an authorized person who acts on behalf of or at the direction of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser. It does not include a common or contract carrier, public warehouseman, or employee of the carrier or warehouseman.
(c) "Drug enforcement administration" means the federal drug enforcement administration in the United States Department of Justice, or its successor agency.
(d) "Controlled substance" means a drug, substance, or immediate precursor in Schedules I through V of Article II.
(e) "Counterfeit substance" means a controlled substance which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, number or device, or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser other than the person who in fact manufactured, distributed, or dispensed the substance.
(f) "Deliver" or "delivery" means the actual, constructive, or attempted transfer from one person to another of a controlled substance, whether or not there is an agency relationship.
(g) "Department" means the department of health.
(h) "Dispense" means the interpretation of a prescription or order for a controlled substance and, pursuant to that prescription or order, the proper selection, measuring, compounding, labeling, or packaging necessary to prepare that prescription or order for delivery.
(i) "Dispenser" means a practitioner who dispenses.
(j) "Distribute" means to deliver other than by administering or dispensing a controlled substance.
(k) "Distributor" means a person who distributes.
(l) "Receipt" means to receive a controlled substance either with or without consideration.
(m) "Drug" means (1) substances recognized as drugs in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or Official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; (2) substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or animals; (3) substances (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or animals; and (4) substances intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause (1), (2), or (3) of this subsection. It does not include devices or their components, parts, or accessories.
(n) "Immediate precursor" means a substance which the state
board of pharmacy has found to be and by rule designates as being the principal
compound commonly used or produced primarily for use, and which is an immediate
chemical intermediary used or likely to be used in the manufacture of a
controlled substance, the control of which is necessary to prevent, curtail, or
(o) "Manufacture" means the production, preparation,
propagation, compounding, conversion or processing of a controlled substance,
either directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of natural origin,
or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of
extraction and chemical synthesis, and includes any packaging or repackaging of
the substance or labeling or relabeling of its container, except that this term
does not include the preparation or compounding of a controlled substance by an
individual for his own use or the preparation, compounding, packaging, or
labeling of a controlled substance:
(1) by a practitioner as an incident to his administering or dispensing of a controlled substance in the course of his professional practice, or
(2) by a practitioner, or by his authorized agent under his supervision, for the purpose of, or as an incident to, research, teaching, or chemical analysis and not for sale.
(p) "Marijuana" or "marihuana" means all
parts of the plant of the genus Cannabis L., whether growing or not; the seeds
thereof; the resin extracted from any part of the plant; and every compound,
manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds
or resin. It does not include the mature stalks of the plant, fiber produced
from the stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of the plant, any other
compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the mature
stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the
sterilized seed of the plant which is incapable of germination.
(q) "Narcotic drug" means any of the following, whether
produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable
origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of
extraction and chemical synthesis:
(1) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate.
(2) Any salt, compound, isomer, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in clause 1, but not including the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.
(3) Opium poppy and poppy straw.
(4) Coca leaves and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves, and any salt, compound, isomer, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, but not including decocainized coca leaves or extractions of coca leaves which do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.
(r) "Opiate" means any substance having an addiction-forming
or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or being capable of
conversion into a drug having addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining
liability. It does not include, unless specifically designated as controlled
under RCW 69.50.201, the dextrorotatory isomer of 3-methoxy-n-methylmorphinan
and its salts (dextromethorphan). It does include its racemic and levorotatory
(s) "Opium poppy" means the plant of the genus Papaver L.,
except its seeds, capable of producing an opiate.
(t) "Person" means individual, corporation, government or
governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership
or association, or any other legal entity.
(u) "Poppy straw" means all parts, except the seeds, of the
opium poppy, after mowing.
(v) "Practitioner" means:
(1) A physician under chapter 18.71 RCW, an osteopathic physician or an osteopathic physician and surgeon under chapter 18.57 RCW, a dentist under chapter 18.32 RCW, a chiropodist under chapter 18.22 RCW, a veterinarian under chapter 18.92 RCW, a registered nurse under chapter 18.88 RCW, a licensed practical nurse under chapter 18.78 RCW, a pharmacist under chapter 18.64 RCW or a scientific investigator under this chapter, licensed, registered or otherwise permitted insofar as is consistent with those licensing laws to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or administer a controlled substance in the course of their professional practice or research in this state.
(2) A pharmacy, hospital or other institution licensed, registered, or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or to administer a controlled substance in the course of professional practice or research in this state.
(3) A physician licensed to practice medicine and surgery or a physician licensed to practice osteopathy and surgery in any state of the United States.
(w) "Production" includes the manufacture, planting,
cultivation, growing, or harvesting of a controlled substance.
(x) "Secretary" means the secretary of health or the
(y) "State", when applied to a part of the United States,
includes any state, district, commonwealth, territory, insular possession
thereof, and any area subject to the legal authority of the United States of
(z) "Ultimate user" means a person who lawfully possesses a
controlled substance for his own use or for the use of a member of his
household or for administering to an animal owned by him or by a member of his
(aa) "Board" means the state board of pharmacy.
Sec. 2. Section 15, chapter 2, Laws of 1983 as last amended by section 212, chapter 271, Laws of 1989 and RCW 69.50.505 are each amended to read as follows:
(a) The following are subject to seizure and forfeiture and no property right exists in them:
(1) All controlled substances which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed, acquired, or possessed in violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW;
(2) All raw materials, products, and equipment of any kind which are used, or intended for use, in manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivering, importing, or exporting any controlled substance in violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW;
(3) All property which is used, or intended for use, as a container for property described in paragraphs (1) or (2);
(4) All conveyances, including aircraft, vehicles, or vessels, which are used, or intended for use, in any manner to facilitate the sale, delivery, or receipt of property described in paragraphs (1) or (2), except that:
(i) No conveyance used by any person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as a common carrier is subject to forfeiture under this section unless it appears that the owner or other person in charge of the conveyance is a consenting party or privy to a violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW;
(ii) No conveyance is subject to forfeiture under this section by reason of any act or omission established by the owner thereof to have been committed or omitted without the owner's knowledge or consent;
(iii) No conveyance is subject to forfeiture under this section if used in the receipt of only an amount of marijuana for which possession constitutes a misdemeanor under RCW 69.50.401(e);
(iv) A forfeiture of a conveyance encumbered by a bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the secured party if the secured party neither had knowledge of nor consented to the act or omission; and
(v) When the owner of a conveyance has been arrested under this chapter
or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW the conveyance in which the person is arrested
may not be subject to forfeiture unless it is seized or process is issued for
its seizure within ten days of the owner's arrest;
(5) All books, records, and research products and materials, including formulas, microfilm, tapes, and data which are used, or intended for use, in violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW;
(6) All drug paraphernalia;
(7) All moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, or other tangible or intangible property of value furnished or intended to be furnished by any person in exchange for a controlled substance in violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW, all tangible or intangible personal property, proceeds, or assets acquired in whole or in part with proceeds traceable to an exchange or series of exchanges in violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, and securities used or intended to be used to facilitate any violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW: PROVIDED, That a forfeiture of money, negotiable instruments, securities, or other tangible or intangible property encumbered by a bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the secured party if, at the time the security interest was created, the secured party neither had knowledge of nor consented to the act or omission: PROVIDED FURTHER, That no personal property may be forfeited under this paragraph, to the extent of the interest of an owner, by reason of any act or omission which that owner establishes was committed or omitted without the owner's knowledge or consent; and
(8) All real property, including any right, title, and interest in the whole of any lot or tract of land, and any appurtenances or improvements which are being used with the knowledge of the owner for the manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivery, importing, or exporting of any controlled substance, or which have been acquired in whole or in part with proceeds traceable to an exchange or series of exchanges in violation of this chapter or chapter 69.41 or 69.52 RCW, if such activity is not less than a class C felony and a substantial nexus exists between the commercial production or sale of the controlled substance and the real property: PROVIDED, That:
(i) No property may be forfeited pursuant to this subsection, to the extent of the interest of an owner, by reason of any act or omission committed or omitted without the owner's knowledge or consent;
(ii) The bona fide gift of a controlled substance, legend drug, or imitation controlled substance shall not result in the forfeiture of real property;
(iii) The possession of marijuana shall not result in the forfeiture of real property unless the marijuana is possessed for commercial purposes, the amount possessed is five or more plants or one pound or more of marijuana, and a substantial nexus exists between the possession of marijuana and the real property. In such a case, the intent of the offender shall be determined by the preponderance of the evidence, including the offender's prior criminal history, the amount of marijuana possessed by the offender, the sophistication of the activity or equipment used by the offender, and other evidence which demonstrates the offender's intent to engage in commercial activity;
(iv) The unlawful sale of marijuana or a legend drug shall not result in the forfeiture of real property unless the sale was forty grams or more in the case of marijuana or one hundred dollars or more in the case of a legend drug, and a substantial nexus exists between the unlawful sale and the real property; and
(v) A forfeiture of real property encumbered by a bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the secured party if the secured party, at the time the security interest was created, neither had knowledge of nor consented to the act or omission.
(b) Real or personal property subject to forfeiture under this chapter may be seized by any board inspector or law enforcement officer of this state upon process issued by any superior court having jurisdiction over the property. Seizure of real property shall include the filing of a lis pendens by the seizing agency. Real property seized under this section shall not be transferred or otherwise conveyed until ninety days after seizure or until a judgment of forfeiture is entered, whichever is later: PROVIDED, That real property seized under this section may be transferred or conveyed to any person or entity who acquires title by foreclosure or deed in lieu of foreclosure of a security interest. Seizure of personal property without process may be made if:
(1) The seizure is incident to an arrest or a search under a search warrant or an inspection under an administrative inspection warrant;
(2) The property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the state in a criminal injunction or forfeiture proceeding based upon this chapter;
(3) A board inspector or law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly dangerous to health or safety; or
(4) The board inspector or law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property was used or is intended to be used in violation of this chapter.
(c) In the event of seizure pursuant to subsection (b), proceedings for forfeiture shall be deemed commenced by the seizure. The law enforcement agency under whose authority the seizure was made shall cause notice to be served within fifteen days following the seizure on the owner of the property seized and the person in charge thereof and any person having any known right or interest therein, including any community property interest, of the seizure and intended forfeiture of the seized property. Service of notice of seizure of real property shall be made according to the rules of civil procedure. However, the state may not obtain a default judgment with respect to real property against a party who is served by substituted service absent an affidavit stating that a good faith effort has been made to ascertain if the defaulted party is incarcerated within the state, and that there is no present basis to believe that the party is incarcerated within the state. The notice of seizure in other cases may be served by any method authorized by law or court rule including but not limited to service by certified mail with return receipt requested. Service by mail shall be deemed complete upon mailing within the fifteen day period following the seizure.
(d) If no person notifies the seizing law enforcement agency in writing of the person's claim of ownership or right to possession of items specified in subsection (a)(4), (a)(7), or (a)(8) of this section within forty-five days of the seizure in the case of personal property and ninety days in the case of real property, the item seized shall be deemed forfeited. The community property interest in real property of a person whose spouse committed a violation giving rise to seizure of the real property may not be forfeited if the person did not participate in the violation.
(e) If any person notifies the seizing law enforcement agency in writing of the person's claim of ownership or right to possession of items specified in subsection (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (a)(6), (a)(7), or (a)(8) of this section within forty-five days of the seizure in the case of personal property and ninety days in the case of real property, the person or persons shall be afforded a reasonable opportunity to be heard as to the claim or right. The hearing shall be before the chief law enforcement officer of the seizing agency or the chief law enforcement officer's designee, except where the seizing agency is a state agency as defined in RCW 34.12.020(4), the hearing shall be before the chief law enforcement officer of the seizing agency or an administrative law judge appointed under chapter 34.12 RCW, except that any person asserting a claim or right may remove the matter to a court of competent jurisdiction if the aggregate value of the article or articles involved is more than five hundred dollars. The court to which the matter is to be removed shall be the district court when such aggregate value is ten thousand dollars or less of personal property. A hearing before the seizing agency and any appeal therefrom shall be under Title 34 RCW. In a court hearing between two or more claimants to the article or articles involved, the prevailing party shall be entitled to a judgment for costs and reasonable attorney's fees. In cases involving personal property, the burden of producing evidence shall be upon the person claiming to be the lawful owner or the person claiming to have the lawful right to possession of the property. In cases involving real property, the burden of producing evidence shall be upon the law enforcement agency. The burden of proof that the seized real property is subject to forfeiture shall be upon the law enforcement agency. The seizing law enforcement agency shall promptly return the article or articles to the claimant upon a determination by the administrative law judge or court that the claimant is the present lawful owner or is lawfully entitled to possession thereof of items specified in subsection (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (a)(6), (a)(7), or (a)(8) of this section.
(f) When property is forfeited under this chapter the board or seizing law enforcement agency may:
(1) Retain it for official use or upon application by any law enforcement agency of this state release such property to such agency for the exclusive use of enforcing the provisions of this chapter;
(2) (i) Sell that which is not required to be destroyed by law and which is not harmful to the public. The proceeds and all moneys forfeited under this title shall be used for payment of all proper expenses of the investigation leading to the seizure, including any money delivered to the subject of the investigation by the law enforcement agency, and of the proceedings for forfeiture and sale, including expenses of seizure, maintenance of custody, advertising, actual costs of the prosecuting or city attorney, and court costs. Money remaining after the payment of all expenses shall be distributed as follows:
(A) Twenty-five percent of the money derived from the forfeiture of real property and seventy-five percent of the money derived from the forfeiture of personal property shall be deposited in the general fund of the state, county, and/or city of the seizing law enforcement agency and shall be used exclusively for the expansion or improvement of law enforcement services. These services may include the creation of reward funds for the purpose of rewarding informants who supply information leading to the arrest, prosecution and conviction of persons who violate laws relating to controlled substances. Such moneys shall not supplant preexisting funding sources;
(B) Twenty-five percent of money derived from the forfeiture of real property and twenty-five percent of money derived from the forfeiture of personal property shall be remitted to the state treasurer for deposit in the public safety and education account established in RCW 43.08.250;
(C) Until July 1, 1995, fifty percent of money derived from the forfeiture of real property shall be remitted to the state treasurer for deposit in the drug enforcement and education account under RCW 69.50.520, on and after July 1, 1995, the fifty percent of the money shall be remitted in the same manner as the twenty-five percent of the money remitted under (2)(i)(A) of this subsection; and
(D) If an investigation involves a seizure of moneys and proceeds having an aggregate value of less than five thousand dollars, the moneys and proceeds may be deposited in total in the general fund of the governmental unit of the seizing law enforcement agency and shall be appropriated exclusively for the expansion of narcotics enforcement services. Such moneys shall not supplant preexisting funding sources.
(ii) Money deposited according to this section must be deposited within ninety days of the date of final disposition of either the administrative seizure or the judicial seizure;
(3) Request the appropriate sheriff or director of public safety to take custody of the property and remove it for disposition in accordance with law; or
(4) Forward it to the drug enforcement administration for disposition.
(g) Controlled substances listed in Schedule I, II, III, IV, and V that are possessed, transferred, sold, or offered for sale in violation of this chapter are contraband and shall be seized and summarily forfeited to the state. Controlled substances listed in Schedule I, II, III, IV, and V, which are seized or come into the possession of the board, the owners of which are unknown, are contraband and shall be summarily forfeited to the board.
(h) Species of plants from which controlled substances in Schedules I and II may be derived which have been planted or cultivated in violation of this chapter, or of which the owners or cultivators are unknown, or which are wild growths, may be seized and summarily forfeited to the board.
(i) The failure, upon demand by a board inspector or law enforcement officer, of the person in occupancy or in control of land or premises upon which the species of plants are growing or being stored to produce an appropriate registration or proof that he is the holder thereof constitutes authority for the seizure and forfeiture of the plants.
(j) Upon the entry of an order of forfeiture of real property, the court shall forward a copy of the order to the assessor of the county in which the property is located. Orders for the forfeiture of real property shall be entered by the superior court, subject to court rules. Such an order shall be filed by the seizing agency in the county auditor's records in the county in which the real property is located.