PDFWAC 51-11C-40343

Section C403.4.3Hydronic systems controls.

C403.4.3 Hydronic systems controls. The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cooling of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections C403.4.3.1 through C403.4.3.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver conditioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls configured to sequence operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems comprised of a single boiler and greater than 500,000 Btu/h (146,550 W) input design capacity shall include either a multi-staged or modulating burner.
C403.4.3.1 Three-pipe system. Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited.
C403.4.3.2 Two-pipe changeover system. Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a dead band between changeover from one mode to the other of at least 15°F (8.3°C) outside air temperatures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in one mode for at least 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be no more than 30°F (16.7°C) apart.
C403.4.3.3 Hydronic (water loop) heat pump systems. Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections C403. through C403.
C403. Temperature dead band. Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are configured to provide a heat pump water supply temperature dead band of at least 20°F (11.1°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.
Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on real time conditions of demand and capacity, dead bands of less than 20°F (11°C) shall be permitted.
C403. Heat rejection. The following shall apply to hydronic water loop heat pump systems:
1. Where a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass the flow of water around the closed-circuit cooling tower, except for the minimum flow necessary for freeze protection. Flow controls for freeze protection shall not allow water through the closed-circuit cooling tower when outdoor temperatures are above the freezing point of the glycol/water solution, i.e., 32°F (0°C) for 100 percent water applications and 18°F (-7.8°C) for 20 percent by mass propylene glycol solution.
2. Where an open-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the open-circuit cooling tower.
3. Where an open-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the open-circuit cooling tower from the heat pump loop, heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.
Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year.
C403. Isolation valve. Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 horsepower (hp) (7.5 kW) shall have a two-way (but not three-way) valve. For the purposes of this section, pump system power is the sum of the nominal power demand (i.e., nameplate horsepower at nominal motor efficiency) of motors of all pumps that are required to operate at design conditions to supply fluid from the heating or cooling source to all heat transfer devices (e.g., coils, heat exchanger) and return it to the source. This converts the system into a variable flow system and, as such, the primary circulation pumps shall comply with the variable flow requirements in Section C403.4.6.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.160 and chapter 19.27 RCW. WSR 19-24-040, § 51-11C-40343, filed 11/26/19, effective 7/1/20. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, 19.27A.160, and 19.27.074. WSR 16-13-089, § 51-11C-40343, filed 6/15/16, effective 7/16/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.160, and 19.27.074. WSR 16-03-072, § 51-11C-40343, filed 1/19/16, effective 7/1/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.074. WSR 13-20-120, § 51-11C-40343, filed 10/1/13, effective 11/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.025 and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. WSR 13-04-056, § 51-11C-40343, filed 2/1/13, effective 7/1/13.]