FOREST PRACTICES BOARD
[Filed December 31, 1996, 2:38 p.m.]
Date of Adoption: November 14, 1996.
Purpose: To modify forest practices rules, in order to protect public resources while maintaining a viable timber industry.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 222-16-010 and 222-16-080.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 76.09.040 and chapter 34.05 RCW.
Under RCW 34.05.350 the agency for good cause finds that immediate adoption, amendment, or repeal of a rule is necessary for the preservation of the public health, safety, or general welfare, and that observing the time requirements of notice and opportunity to comment upon adoption of a permanent rule would be contrary to the public interest.
Reasons for this Finding: This emergency rule provides protection to the marbled murrelet while the Forest Practices Board conducts the permanent rule adoption process. The marbled murrelet was listed as threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in October 1992 and by the Washington Wildlife Commission in October 1993.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's own Initiative: New 0, amended 2, repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.
Effective Date of Rule: Immediately.
December 12, 1996
Jennifer M. Belcher
Commissioner of Public Lands
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-12-038, filed 5/31/96, effective
WAC 222-16-010 General definitions.* Unless otherwise required by context, as used in these regulations:
"Act" means the Forest Practices Act, chapter 76.09 RCW.
"Affected Indian tribe" means any federally recognized Indian tribe that requests in writing from the department information on forest practices applications and notification filed on specified areas.
"Appeals board" means the forest practices appeals board established in the act.
"Area of resource sensitivity" means areas identified in accordance with WAC 222-22-050 (2)(d) or 222-22-060(2).
"Board" means the forest practices board established by the act.
"Bog" means wetlands which have the following characteristics: Hydric organic soils (peat and/or muck) typically 16 inches or more in depth (except over bedrock or hardpan); and vegetation such as sphagnum moss, labrador tea, bog laurel, bog rosemary, sundews, and sedges; bogs may have an overstory of spruce, western Hemlock, lodgepole pine, cedar, whitepine, crabapple, or aspen, and may be associated with open water. This includes nutrient-poor fens. See the Forest Practices Board Manual.
"Borrow pit" shall mean an excavation site outside the limits of construction to provide material necessary to that construction, such as fill material for the embankments.
"Chemicals" means substances applied to forest lands or timber including pesticides, fertilizers, and other forest chemicals.
"Clearcut" means a harvest method in which the entire stand of trees is removed in one timber harvesting operation. Except as provided in WAC 222-30-110, an area remains clearcut until:
It meets the minimum stocking requirements under WAC 222-34-010(2) or 222-34-020(2); and
The largest trees qualifying for the minimum stocking levels have survived on the area for five growing seasons or, if not, they have reached an average height of four feet.
"Commercial tree species" means any species which is capable of producing a merchantable stand of timber on the particular site, or which is being grown as part of a Christmas tree or ornamental tree-growing operation.
"Completion of harvest" means the latest of:
Completion of removal of timber from the portions of forest lands harvested in the smallest logical unit that will not be disturbed by continued logging or an approved slash disposal plan for adjacent areas; or
Scheduled completion of any slash disposal operations where the department and the applicant agree within 6 months of completion of yarding that slash disposal is necessary or desirable to facilitate reforestation and agree to a time schedule for such slash disposal; or
Scheduled completion of any site preparation or rehabilitation of adjoining lands approved at the time of approval of the application or receipt of a notification: Provided, That delay of reforestation under this paragraph is permitted only to the extent reforestation would prevent or unreasonably hinder such site preparation or rehabilitation of adjoining lands.
"Constructed wetlands" means those wetlands voluntarily developed by the landowner. Constructed wetlands do not include wetlands created, restored, or enhanced as part of a mitigation procedure or wetlands inadvertently created as a result of current or past practices including, but not limited to: Road construction, landing construction, railroad construction, or surface mining.
"Contamination" means the introducing into the atmosphere, soil, or water, sufficient quantities of substances as may be injurious to public health, safety or welfare, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agriculture or recreational uses, or to livestock, wildlife, fish or other aquatic life.
"Conversion option harvest plan" means a voluntary plan developed by the landowner and approved by the local government entity indicating the limits of harvest areas, road locations, and open space.
"Conversion to a use other than commercial timber operation" shall mean a bona fide conversion to an active use which is incompatible with timber growing.
"Cooperative spotted owl habitat enhancement agreement (CHEA)" see WAC 222-16-100(2).
"Critical habitat (federal)" means the habitat of any threatened or endangered species designated as critical habitat by the United States Secretary of the Interior under Sections 3 (5)(A) and 4 (a)(3) of the Federal Endangered Species Act.
"Critical nesting season" means for marbled murrelets - April 1 to August 15.
"Critical wildlife habitat (state)" means those habitats designated by the board in accordance with WAC 222-16-080.
"Cultural resources" means archaeological and historic sites and artifacts and traditional religious, ceremonial and social uses and activities of affected Indian tribes.
"Cumulative effects" means the changes to the environment caused by the interaction of natural ecosystem processes with the effects of two or more forest practices.
"Daily peak activity" means for marbled murrelets - one hour before official sunrise to two hours after official sunrise and one hour before official sunset to one hour after official sunset.
"Debris" means woody vegetative residue less than 3 cubic feet in size resulting from forest practice activities which would reasonably be expected to cause significant damage to a public resource.
"Demographic support" means providing sufficient suitable spotted owl habitat within the SOSEA to maintain the viability of northern spotted owl sites identified as necessary to meet the SOSEA goals.
"Department" means the department of natural resources.
"Dispersal habitat" see WAC 222-16-085(2).
"Dispersal support" means providing sufficient dispersal habitat for the interchange of northern spotted owls within or across the SOSEA, as necessary to meet SOSEA goals. Dispersal support is provided by a landscape consisting of stands of dispersal habitat interspersed with areas of higher quality habitat, such as suitable spotted owl habitat found within RMZs, WMZs or other required and voluntary leave areas.
"Eastern Washington" means the lands of the state lying east of an administrative line which approximates the change from the Western Washington timber types to the Eastern Washington timber types described as follows:
Beginning at the International Border and Okanogan National Forest boundary at the N1/4 corner Section 6, T. 40N, R. 24E., W.M., south and west along the Pasayten Wilderness boundary to the west line of Section 30, T. 37N, R. 19E.,
Thence south on range line between R. 18E. and R. 19E., to the Lake Chelan-Sawtooth Wilderness at Section 31, T. 35N, R. 19E.,
Thence south and east along the eastern wilderness boundary of Lake Chelan-Sawtooth Wilderness to the west line of Section 18, T. 31N, R. 19E. on the north shore of Lake Chelan,
Thence south on the range line between R. 18E. and R. 19E. to the SE corner of T. 28N, R. 18E.,
Thence west on the township line between T. 27N, and T. 28N to the NW corner of T. 27N, R. 17E.,
Thence south on range line between R. 16E. and R. 17E. to the Alpine Lakes Wilderness at Section 31, T. 26N, R. 17E.,
Thence south along the eastern wilderness boundary to the west line of Section 6, T. 22N, R. 17E.,
Thence south on range line between R. 16E. and R. 17E. to the SE corner of T. 22N, R. 16E.,
Thence west along township line between T. 21N, and T. 22N to the NW corner of T. 21N, R. 15E.,
Thence south along range line between R. 14E. and R. 15E. to SW corner of T. 20N, R. 15E.,
Thence east along township line between T. 19N, and T. 20N to the SW corner of T. 20N, R. 16E.,
Thence south along range line between R. 15E. and R. 16E. to the SW corner of T. 18N, R. 16E.,
Thence west along township line between T. 17N, and T. 18N to the SE corner of T. 18N, R. 14E.,
Thence south along range line between T. 14E. and R. 15E. to the SW corner of T. 14N, R. 15E.,
Thence south and west along Wenatchee National Forest Boundary to the NW corner of T. 12N, R. 14E.,
Thence south along range line between R. 13E. and R. 14E. to SE corner of T. 10N, R. 13E.,
Thence west along township line between T. 9N, and T. 10N to the NW corner of T. 9N, R. 12E.,
Thence south along range line between R. 11E. and R. 12E. to SE corner of T. 8N, R. 11E.,
Thence west along township line between T. 7N, and T. 8N to the Gifford Pinchot National Forest Boundary,
Thence south along Forest Boundary to SE corner of Section 33, T. 7N, R. 11E.,
Thence west along township line between T. 6N, and T. 7N to SE corner of T. 7N, R. 9E.,
Thence south along Skamania-Klickitat County line to Oregon-Washington state line.
"End hauling" means the removal and transportation of excavated material, pit or quarry overburden, or landing or road cut material from the excavation site to a deposit site not adjacent to the point of removal.
"Erodible soils" means those soils exposed or displaced by a forest practice operation, that would be readily moved by water.
"Even-aged harvest methods" means the following harvest methods:
Seed tree harvests in which twenty or fewer trees per acre remain after harvest;
Shelterwood regeneration harvests in which twenty or fewer trees per acre remain after harvest;
Group or strip shelterwood harvests creating openings wider than two tree heights, based on dominant trees;
Shelterwood removal harvests which leave fewer than one hundred fifty trees per acre which are at least five years old or four feet in average height;
Partial cutting in which fewer than fifty trees per acre remain after harvest;
Overstory removal when more than five thousand board feet per acre is removed and fewer than fifty trees per acre at least ten feet in height remain after harvest; and
Other harvesting methods designed to manage for multiple age classes in which six or fewer trees per acre remain after harvest.
Except as provided above for shelterwood removal harvests and overstory removal, trees counted as remaining after harvest shall be at least ten inches in diameter at breast height and have at least the top one-third of the stem supporting green, live crowns. Except as provided in WAC 222-30-110, an area remains harvested by even-aged methods until it meets the minimum stocking requirements under WAC 222-30-010(2) or 222-34-020(2) and the largest trees qualifying for the minimum stocking levels have survived on the area for five growing seasons or, if not, they have reached an average height of four feet.
"Fen" means wetlands which have the following characteristics: Peat soils 16 inches or more in depth (except over bedrock); and vegetation such as certain sedges, hardstem bulrush and cattails; fens may have an overstory of spruce and may be associated with open water.
"Fertilizers" means any substance or any combination or mixture of substances used principally as a source of plant food or soil amendment.
"Fill" means the placement of earth material or aggregate for road or landing construction or other similar activities. Fill does not include the growing or harvesting of timber including, but not limited to, slash burning, site preparation, reforestation, precommercial thinning, intermediate or final harvesting, salvage of trees, brush control, or fertilization.
"Flood level - 50 year." For purposes of field interpretation of these regulations, the 50-year flood level shall be considered to refer to a vertical elevation measured from the ordinary high-water mark which is 1.25 times the vertical distance between the average stream bed and the ordinary high-water mark, and in horizontal extent shall not exceed 2 times the channel width measured on either side from the ordinary high-water mark, unless a different area is specified by the department based on identifiable topographic or vegetative features or based on an engineering computation of flood magnitude that has a 2 percent chance of occurring in any given year. The 50-year flood level shall not include those lands that can reasonably be expected to be protected from flood waters by flood control devices maintained by or under license from the federal government, the state, or a political subdivision of the state.
"Forest land" means all land which is capable of supporting a merchantable stand of timber and is not being actively used for a use which is incompatible with timber growing.
"Forest land owner" shall mean any person in actual control of forest land, whether such control is based either on legal or equitable title, or on any other interest entitling the holder to sell or otherwise dispose of any or all of the timber on such land in any manner: Provided, That any lessee or other person in possession of forest land without legal or equitable title to such land shall be excluded from the definition of "forest land owner" unless such lessee or other person has the right to sell or otherwise dispose of any or all of the timber located on such forest land.
"Forest practice" means any activity conducted on or directly pertaining to forest land and relating to growing, harvesting, or processing timber, including but not limited to:
Road and trail construction;
Harvesting, final and intermediate;
Prevention and suppression of diseases and insects;
Salvage of trees; and
"Forest practice" shall not include: Forest species seed orchard operations and intensive forest nursery operations; or preparatory work such as tree marking, surveying and road flagging; or removal or harvest of incidental vegetation from forest lands such as berries, ferns, greenery, mistletoe, herbs, mushrooms, and other products which cannot normally be expected to result in damage to forest soils, timber or public resources.
"Forest trees" excludes trees cultivated by agricultural methods in growing cycles shorter than ten years: Provided, That Christmas trees are forest trees and: Provided further, That this exclusion applies only to trees planted on land that was not in forest use immediately before the trees were planted and before the land was prepared for planting the trees.
"Green recruitment trees" means those trees left after harvest for the purpose of becoming future wildlife reserve trees under WAC 222-30-020(11).
"Herbicide" means any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate any tree, bush, weed or algae and other aquatic weeds.
"Historic site" includes:
Sites, areas and structures or other evidence of human activities illustrative of the origins, evolution and development of the nation, state or locality; or
Places associated with a personality important in history; or
Places where significant historical events are known to have occurred even though no physical evidence of the event remains.
"Identified watershed processes" means the following components of natural ecological processes that may in some instances be altered by forest practices in a watershed:
Surface and road erosion;
Seasonal flows including hydrologic peak and low flows and annual yields (volume and timing);
Large organic debris;
Stream bank and bed stability.
"Insecticide" means any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate any insect, other arthropods or mollusk pests.
"Interdisciplinary team" (ID Team) means a group of varying size comprised of individuals having specialized expertise, assembled by the department to respond to technical questions associated with a proposed forest practice activity.
"Islands" means any island surrounded by salt water in Kitsap, Mason, Jefferson, Pierce, King, Snohomish, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, or San Juan counties.
"Limits of construction" means the area occupied by the completed roadway or landing, including the cut bank, fill slope, and the area cleared for the purpose of constructing the roadway or landing.
"Load bearing portion" means that part of the road, landing, etc., which is supportive soil, earth, rock or other material directly below the working surface and only the associated earth structure necessary for support.
"Local government entity" means the governments of counties and the governments of cities and towns as defined in chapter 35.01 RCW.
"Low impact harvest" means use of any logging equipment, methods, or systems that minimize compaction or disturbance of soils and vegetation during the yarding process. The department shall determine such equipment, methods or systems in consultation with the department of ecology.
"Median home range circle" means a circle, with a specified radius, centered on a spotted owl site center. The radius for the median home range circle in the Hoh-Clearwater/Coastal Link SOSEA is 2.7 miles; for all other SOSEAs the radius is 1.8 miles.
"Merchantable stand of timber" means a stand of trees that will yield logs and/or fiber:
Suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber, plywood, pulp or other forest products;
Of sufficient value at least to cover all the costs of harvest and transportation to available markets.
"Northern spotted owl site center" means the location of status 1,
2 or 3 northern spotted owls based on the following definitions:
Status 1: Pair or reproductive - a male and female heard and/or
observed in close proximity to each other on the same
visit, a female detected on a nest, or one or both adults
observed with young.
Status 2: Two birds, pair status unknown - the presence or response
of two birds of opposite sex where pair status cannot be
determined and where at least one member meets the
resident territorial single requirements.
Status 3: Resident territorial single - the presence or response of
a single owl within the same general area on three or
more occasions within a breeding season with no response
by an owl of the opposite sex after a complete survey; or
three or more responses over several years (i.e., two
responses in year one and one response in year two, for
the same general area).
In determining the existence, location, and status of northern spotted owl site centers, the department shall consult with the department of fish and wildlife and use only those sites documented in substantial compliance with guidelines or protocols and quality control methods established by and available from the department of fish and wildlife.
"Notice to comply" means a notice issued by the department pursuant to RCW 76.09.090 of the act and may require initiation and/or completion of action necessary to prevent, correct and/or compensate for material damage to public resources which resulted from forest practices.
"Occupied marbled murrelet site" means a contiguous area of suitable marbled murrelet habitat where at least one of the following marbled murrelet behaviors or conditions occurs:
A nest is located; or
Downy chicks or eggs or egg shells are found; or
Marbled murrelets are detected flying below, through, into or out of the forest canopy; or
Birds calling from a stationary location within the area; or
Birds circling above the canopy; or
A contiguous forested area which is not suitable marbled murrelet habitat in which any of the behaviors or conditions listed above has been documented by the department of fish and wildlife and which is distinguishable from the adjacent forest based on vegetative characteristics important to nesting marbled murrelets.
The outer perimeter of the occupied site shall be presumed to be the beginning of any gap greater than 300 feet wide lacking one or more of the vegetative characteristics listed under "suitable marbled murrelet habitat." For sites defined above, it shall be the beginning of any gap greater than 300 feet wide where one or more of the distinguishing vegetative characteristics important to murrelets is lacking.
The department shall rely upon the department of fish and wildlife for the determination of location of these occupied marbled murrelet sites.
"Old forest habitat" see WAC 222-16-085 (1)(a).
"Operator" shall mean any person engaging in forest practices except an employee with wages as his/her sole compensation.
"Ordinary high-water mark" means the mark on the shores of all waters, which will be found by examining the beds and banks and ascertaining where the presence and action of waters are so common and usual, and so long continued in all ordinary years, as to mark upon the soil a character distinct from that of the abutting upland, in respect to vegetation: Provided, That in any area where the ordinary high-water mark cannot be found, the ordinary high-water mark adjoining saltwater shall be the line of mean high tide and the ordinary high-water mark adjoining freshwater shall be the line of mean high-water.
"Other forest chemicals" means fire retardants when used to control burning (other than water), nontoxic repellents, oil, dust-control agents (other than water), salt, and other chemicals used in forest management, except pesticides and fertilizers, that may present hazards to the environment.
"Park" means any park included on the parks register maintained by the department pursuant to WAC 222-20-100(2). Developed park recreation area means any park area developed for high density outdoor recreation use.
"Partial cutting" means the removal of a portion of the merchantable volume in a stand of timber so as to leave an uneven-aged stand of well-distributed residual, healthy trees that will reasonably utilize the productivity of the soil. Partial cutting does not include seedtree or shelterwood or other types of regeneration cutting.
"Pesticide" means any insecticide, herbicide, fungicide, or rodenticide but does not include nontoxic repellents or other forest chemicals.
"Plantable area" is an area capable of supporting a commercial stand of timber excluding lands devoted to permanent roads, utility rights-of-way, that portion of riparian management zones where scarification is not permitted, and any other area devoted to a use incompatible with commercial timber growing.
"Power equipment" means all machinery operated with fuel burning or electrical motors, including heavy machinery, chain saws, portable generators, pumps, and powered backpack devices.
"Public resources" means water, fish, and wildlife and in addition shall mean capital improvements of the state or its political subdivisions.
"Rehabilitation" means the act of renewing, or making usable and reforesting forest land which was poorly stocked or previously nonstocked with commercial species.
"Relief culvert" means a structure to relieve surface runoff from roadside ditches to prevent excessive buildup in water volume and velocity.
"Resource characteristics" means the following specific measurable characteristics of fish, water, and capital improvements of the state or its political subdivisions:
For fish and water:
Physical fish habitat, including temperature and turbidity;
Turbidity in hatchery water supplies; and
Turbidity and volume for areas of water supply.
For capital improvements of the state or its political subdivisions:
Physical or structural integrity.
If the methodology is developed and added to the manual to analyze the cumulative effects of forest practices on other characteristics of fish, water, and capital improvements of the state or its subdivisions, the board shall amend this list to include these characteristics.
"Riparian management zone" means a specified area alongside Type 1, 2 and 3 Waters where specific measures are taken to protect water quality and fish and wildlife habitat.
"Rodenticide" means any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate rodents or any other vertebrate animal which the director of the state department of agriculture may declare by regulation to be a pest.
"Salvage" means the removal of snags, down logs, windthrow, or dead and dying material.
"Scarification" means loosening the topsoil and/or disrupting the forest floor in preparation for regeneration.
"Shorelines of the state" shall have the same meaning as in RCW 90.58.030 (Shoreline Management Act).
"Side casting" means the act of moving excavated material to the side and depositing such material within the limits of construction or dumping over the side and outside the limits of construction.
"Site preparation" means those activities associated with the removal of slash in preparing a site for planting and shall include scarification and/or slash burning.
"Skid trail" means a route used by tracked or wheeled skidders to move logs to a landing or road.
"Slash" means pieces of woody material containing more than 3 cubic feet resulting from forest practice activities.
"SOSEA goals" means the goals specified for a spotted owl special emphasis area as identified on the SOSEA maps (see WAC 222-16-086). SOSEA goals provide for demographic and/or dispersal support as necessary to complement the northern spotted owl protection strategies on federal land within or adjacent to the SOSEA.
"Spoil" means excess material removed as overburden or generated during road or landing construction which is not used within limits of construction.
"Spotted owl dispersal habitat" see WAC 222-16-085(2).
"Spotted owl special emphasis areas (SOSEA)" means the geographic areas as mapped in WAC 222-16-086. Detailed maps of the SOSEAs indicating the boundaries and goals are available from the department at its regional offices.
"Stop work order" means the "stop work order" defined in RCW 76.09.080 of the act and may be issued by the department to stop violations of the forest practices chapter or to prevent damage and/or to correct and/or compensate for damages to public resources resulting from forest practices.
"Sub-mature habitat" see WAC 222-16-085 (1)(b).
"Suitable marbled murrelet habitat" means a contiguous forested area with all of the following characteristics:
Within 40 miles of marine waters;
Containing at least eight trees per acre equal to or greater than 32 inches dbh;
At least 40% of the trees equal to or greater than 32 inches are Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western red cedar or sitka spruce; and
Containing at least two nesting platforms per acre. Nesting platforms shall include any horizontal limb, tree structure, or deformity equal to or greater than seven inches in diameter and 50 feet or more in height above the ground.
"Suitable spotted owl habitat" see WAC 222-16-085(1).
"Threatened or endangered species" means all species of wildlife listed as "threatened" or "endangered" by the United States Secretary of the Interior, and all species of wildlife designated as "threatened" or "endangered" by the Washington wildlife commission.
"Timber" shall mean forest trees, standing or down, of a commercial species, including Christmas trees.
"Water bar" means a diversion ditch and/or hump in a trail or road for the purpose of carrying surface water runoff into the vegetation duff, ditch, or other dispersion area so that it does not gain the volume and velocity which causes soil movement and erosion.
"Watershed administrative unit (WAU)" means an area shown on the map specified in WAC 222-22-020(1).
"Watershed analysis" means, for a given WAU, the assessment completed under WAC 222-22-050 or 222-22-060 together with the prescriptions selected under WAC 222-22-070 and shall include assessments completed under WAC 222-22-050 where there are no areas of resource sensitivity.
"Weed" is any plant which tends to overgrow or choke out more desirable vegetation.
"Western Washington" means the lands of the state lying west of the administrative line described in the definition of Eastern Washington.
"Wetland" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions, such as swamps, bogs, fens, and similar areas. This includes wetlands created, restored, or enhanced as part of a mitigation procedure. This does not include constructed wetlands or the following surface waters of the state intentionally constructed from wetland sites: Irrigation and drainage ditches, grass lined swales, canals, agricultural detention facilities, farm ponds, and landscape amenities.
"Wetland functions" include the protection of water quality and quantity, providing fish and wildlife habitat, and the production of timber.
"Wetland management zone" means a specified area adjacent to Type A and B Wetlands where specific measures are taken to protect the wetland functions.
"Wildlife" means all species of the animal kingdom whose members exist in Washington in a wild state. The term "wildlife" includes, but is not limited to, any mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, or invertebrate, at any stage of development. The term "wildlife" does not include feral domestic mammals or the family Muridae of the order Rodentia (old world rats and mice).
"Wildlife reserve trees" means those defective, dead, damaged, or dying trees which provide or have the potential to provide habitat for those wildlife species dependent on standing trees. Wildlife reserve trees are categorized as follows:
Type 1 wildlife reserve trees are defective or deformed live trees that have observably sound tops, limbs, trunks, and roots. They may have part of the top broken out or have evidence of other severe defects that include: "Cat face," animal chewing, old logging wounds, weather injury, insect attack, or lightning strike. Unless approved by the landowner, only green trees with visible cavities, nests, or obvious severe defects capable of supporting cavity dependent species shall be considered as Type 1 wildlife reserve trees. These trees must be stable and pose the least hazard for workers.
Type 2 wildlife reserve trees are dead Type 1 trees with sound tops, limbs, trunks, and roots.
Type 3 wildlife reserve trees are live or dead trees with unstable tops or upper portions. Unless approved by the landowner, only green trees with visible cavities, nests, or obvious severe defects capable of supporting cavity dependent species shall be considered as Type 3 wildlife reserve trees. Although the roots and main portion of the trunk are sound, these reserve trees pose high hazard because of the defect in live or dead wood higher up in the tree.
Type 4 wildlife reserve trees are live or dead trees with unstable trunks or roots, with or without bark. This includes "soft snags" as well as live trees with unstable roots caused by root rot or fire. These trees are unstable and pose a high hazard to workers.
"Windthrow" means a natural process by which trees are uprooted or sustain severe trunk damage by the wind.
"Young forest marginal habitat" see WAC 222-16-085 (1)(b).
[Statutory Authority: Chapters 76.09 and 34.05 RCW. 96-12-038, 222-16-010, filed 5/31/96, effective 7/1/96. Statutory Authority: RCW
76.09.040 and chapter 34.05 RCW. 94-17-033, 222-16-010, filed 8/10/94,
effective 8/13/94; 93-12-001, 222-16-010, filed 5/19/93, effective
6/19/93. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040, 76.09.050 and chapter
34.05 RCW. 92-15-011, 222-16-010, filed 7/2/92, effective 8/2/92.
Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040, 76.09.050 and 34.05.350. 92-03-028,
222-16-010, filed 1/8/92, effective 2/8/92; 91-23-052, 222-16-010,
filed 11/15/91, effective 12/16/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040.
88-19-112 (Order 551, Resolution No. 88-1), 222-16-010, filed 9/21/88,
effective 11/1/88; 87-23-036 (Order 535), 222-16-010, filed 11/16/87,
effective 1/1/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040 and 76.09.050.
82-16-077 (Resolution No. 82-1), 222-16-010, filed 8/3/82, effective
10/1/82; Order 263, 222-16-010, filed 6/16/76.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-12-038, filed 5/31/96, effective
WAC 222-16-080 Critical wildlife habitats (state) and critical habitat (federal) of threatened and endangered species. (1) Critical wildlife habitats (state) of threatened or endangered species and specific forest practices designated as Class IV-Special are as follows:
(a) Bald eagle - harvesting, road construction, aerial application of pesticides, or site preparation within 0.5 mile of a known active nest site, documented by the department of wildlife, between the dates of January 1 and August 15 or 0.25 mile at other times of the year; and within 0.25 mile of a communal roosting site. Communal roosting sites shall not include refuse or garbage dumping sites.
(b) Gray wolf - harvesting, road construction, or site preparation within 1 mile of a known active den site, documented by the department of wildlife, between the dates of March 15 and July 30 or 0.25 mile from the den site at other times of the year.
(c) Grizzly bear - harvesting, road construction, aerial application of pesticides, or site preparation within 1 mile of a known active den site, documented by the department of wildlife, between the dates of October 1 and May 30 or 0.25 mile at other times of the year.
(d) Mountain caribou - harvesting, road construction, aerial application of pesticides, or site preparation within 0.25 mile of a known active breeding area, documented by the department of wildlife.
(e) Oregon silverspot butterfly - harvesting, road construction, aerial or ground application of pesticides, or site preparation within 0.25 mile of an individual occurrence, documented by the department of wildlife.
(f) Peregrine falcon - harvesting, road construction, aerial application of pesticides, or site preparation within 0.5 mile of a known active nest site, documented by the department of wildlife, between the dates of March 1 and July 30; or harvesting, road construction, or aerial application of pesticides within 0.25 mile of the nest site at other times of the year.
(g) Sandhill crane - harvesting, road construction, aerial application of pesticides, or site preparation within 0.25 mile of a known active nesting area, documented by the department of wildlife.
(h) Northern spotted owl - the following shall apply through June 30, 1996: Harvesting, road construction, or aerial application of pesticides on the most suitable 500 acres of nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat surrounding the northern spotted owl site center. The most suitable habitat shall be determined by the department in cooperation with the department of fish and wildlife, tribes, and others with applicable expertise. Consideration shall be given to habitat quality, proximity to the activity center and contiguity in selecting the most suitable 500 acres of habitat.
Beginning July 1, 1996, the following shall apply for the northern spotted owl:
(i) Within a SOSEA boundary (see maps in WAC 222-16-086), except as indicated in (h)(ii) of this subsection, harvesting, road construction, or aerial application of pesticides on suitable spotted owl habitat within a median home range circle that is centered within the SOSEA or on adjacent federal lands.
(ii) Within the Entiat SOSEA, harvesting, road construction, or aerial application of pesticides within the areas indicated for demographic support (see WAC 222-16-086(2)) on suitable spotted owl habitat located within a median home range circle that is centered within the demographic support area.
(iii) Outside of a SOSEA, harvesting, road construction, or aerial application of pesticides, between March 1 and August 31 on the seventy acres of highest quality suitable spotted owl habitat surrounding a northern spotted owl site center located outside a SOSEA. The highest quality suitable habitat shall be determined by the department in cooperation with the department of fish and wildlife. Consideration shall be given to habitat quality, proximity to the activity center and contiguity.
(iv) Small parcel northern spotted owl exemption. Forest practices proposed on the lands owned or controlled by a landowner whose forest land ownership within the SOSEA is less than or equal to 500 acres and where the forest practice is not within 0.7 mile of a northern spotted owl site center shall not be considered to be on lands designated as critical wildlife habitat (state) for northern spotted owls.
(i) Western pond turtle - harvesting, road construction, aerial application of pesticides, or site preparation within 0.25 mile of a known individual occurrence, documented by the department of wildlife.
(j) Marbled murrelet.
(i) Harvesting, other than removal of down trees outside of the critical nesting season, or road construction within an occupied marbled murrelet site.
(ii) Operation of heavy equipment, during the critical nesting season, within an occupied marbled murrelet site.
(iii) Use of aircraft below 1,300 feet above ground level, during the critical nesting season, over an occupied marbled murrelet site or the required managed buffer zone adjacent to that site.
(iv) Harvesting within a 300 foot wide managed buffer zone adjacent to an occupied marbled murrelet site that results in less than a residual stem stand density of 75 trees per acre greater than 6 inches dbh; provided that 25 of which shall be greater than 12 inches dbh including five trees greater than 20 inches dbh, where they exist. The primary consideration for the design of managed buffer zone widths and leave tree retention patterns shall be to mediate edge effects. The width of the buffer zone may be reduced in some areas to a minimum of 200 feet and extended to a maximum of 400 feet as long as an average of 300 feet is maintained.
(v) Blasting and slash burning, during the critical nesting season, within 0.25 mile of an occupied marbled murrelet site.
(vi) Harvesting, road construction, operation of heavy equipment, timber hauling, or use of aircraft below 1,300 feet above ground level, during the daily peak activity periods within the critical nesting season, within 0.25 mile of an occupied marbled murrelet site.
(vii) Marbled murrelet critical wildlife habitat (state) shall not include habitat where a current marbled murrelet survey has been conducted and no use of the suitable marbled murrelet habitat by a bird has been detected. Surveys shall be conducted utilizing a survey protocol which is acceptable to the department of fish and wildlife.
(viii) Site status determination and completion of marbled murrelet surveys shall not be a landowner responsibility.
(ix) This rule is intended to be interim and shall be changed as necessary, such as upon completion of a state or federal recovery plan for the marbled murrelet or significant new information.
(2) The following critical habitats (federal) designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior, or specific forest practices within those habitats, have been determined to not have the potential for a substantial impact on the environment:
(3) For the purpose of identifying forest practices which have the potential for a substantial impact on the environment with regard to threatened or endangered species newly listed by the Washington fish and wildlife commission and/or the United States Secretary of the Interior, the department shall after consultation with the department of fish and wildlife, prepare and submit to the board a proposed list of critical wildlife habitats (state) of threatened or endangered species. This list shall be submitted to the board within 15 days of the listing of the species. The department shall, at a minimum, consider potential impacts of forest practices on habitats essential to meeting the life requisites for each species listed as threatened or endangered. Those critical wildlife habitats (state) adopted by the board shall be added to the list in subsection (1) of this section. See WAC 222-16-050 (1)(b)(i).
(4) For the purpose of identifying any areas and/or forest practices within critical habitats (federal) designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior which do not have the potential for a substantial impact on the environment, the department shall, after consultation with the department of fish and wildlife, submit to the board a proposed list of any forest practices and/or areas proposed for exclusion from Class IV - special forest practices. The department shall submit the list to the board within 120 days of the date the United States Secretary of the Interior publishes a final rule designating critical habitat (federal) in the Federal Register. Those critical habitats excluded by the board from Class IV - Special shall be added to the list in subsection (2) of this section. See WAC 222-16-050 (1)(b)(ii).
(5)(a) Except for bald eagles under subsection (1)(a) of this section, the critical wildlife habitats (state) of threatened and endangered species and specific forest practices designated in subsection (1) of this section are intended to be interim. These interim designations shall expire for a given species on the earliest of:
(i) The effective date of a regulatory system for wildlife protection referred to in (b) of this subsection or of substantive rules on the species.
(ii) The delisting of a threatened or endangered species by the Washington fish and wildlife commission.
(b) The board shall examine current wildlife protection and department authority to protect wildlife and develop and recommend a regulatory system, including baseline rules for wildlife protection. To the extent possible, this system shall:
(i) Use the best science and management advice available;
(ii) Use a landscape approach to wildlife protection;
(iii) Be designed to avoid the potential for substantial impact to the environment;
(iv) Protect known populations of threatened and endangered species of wildlife from negative effects of forest practices consistent with RCW 76.09.010; and
(v) Consider and be consistent with recovery plans adopted by the department of fish and wildlife pursuant to RCW 77.12.020(6) or habitat conservation plans or 16 U.S.C. 1533(d) rule changes of the Endangered Species Act.
(6) Regardless of any other provision in this section, forest practices applications shall not be classified as Class IV-Special based on critical wildlife habitat (state) (WAC 222-16-080(1)) or critical habitat (federal) (WAC 222-16-050 (1)(b)(ii)) for a species if the forest practices are consistent with one of the following proposed for protection of the species:
(a) A habitat conservation plan and permit or an incidental take statement covering such species approved by the Secretary of the Interior or Commerce pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 1536 (b) or 1539 (a); an "unlisted species agreement" covering such species approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service; or a "no-take letter" or other cooperative or conservation agreement entered into with a federal or state fish and wildlife agency pursuant to its statutory authority for fish and wildlife protection that addresses the needs of the affected species and that is subject to review under the National Environmental Protection Act, 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq., or the State Environmental Policy Act, chapter 43.21C RCW, as applicable;
(b) A rule adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the conservation of a particular threatened species pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 1533(d);
(c) A special wildlife management plan (SWMP) developed by the landowner and approved by the department in consultation with the department of fish and wildlife;
(d) A bald eagle management plan approved under WAC 232-12-292;
(e) A landowner option plan (LOP) for northern spotted owls developed pursuant to WAC 222-16-100(1); or
(f) A cooperative spotted owl habitat enhancement agreement (CHEA) developed pursuant to WAC 222-16-100(2).
In those situations where one of the options above has been used, forest practices applications may still be classified as Class IV-Special based upon the presence of one or more of the factors listed in WAC 222-16-050(1), other than critical wildlife habitat (state) or critical habitat (federal) for the species covered by the existing plan.
(7) The department, in consultation with the department of fish and wildlife, shall review each SOSEA to determine whether the goals for that SOSEA are being met through approved plans, permits, statements, letters, or agreements referred to in subsection (6) of this section. Based on the consultation, the department shall recommend to the board the suspension, deletion, modification or reestablishment of the applicable SOSEA from the rules. The department shall conduct a review for a particular SOSEA upon approval of a landowner option plan, a petition from a landowner in the SOSEA, or under its own initiative.
(8) The department, in consultation with the department of fish and
wildlife, shall report annually to the board on the status of the
northern spotted owl to determine whether circumstances exist that
substantially interfere with meeting the goals of the SOSEAs.
[Statutory Authority: Chapters 76.09 and 34.05 RCW. 96-12-038, 222-16-080, filed 5/31/96, effective 7/1/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040 and chapter 34.05 RCW. 93-12-001, 222-16-080, filed 5/19/93, effective 6/19/93. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040, 76.09.050 and chapter 34.05 RCW. 92-15-011, 222-16-080, filed 7/2/92, effective 8/2/92.]