WSR 99-06-071

PROPOSED RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed March 2, 1999, 11:13 a.m. ]

Original Notice.

Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 94-17-191 on August 24, 1994.

Title of Rule: Pulp, paper and paperboard mills and converters, chapter 296-79 WAC.

Purpose: Chapter 296-79 WAC, Pulp, paper and paperboard mills and converters, state-initiated amendments to chapter 296-79 WAC are being proposed in response to an industry request. In 1994, workers in the pulp and paper industry formally asked L&I to consider updating and revising the worker safety and health rules that regulate the pulp and paper industry. The department convened a joint labor/management advisory committee to undertake the review of chapter 296-79 WAC. The rule provides safety and health protection for workers employed in pulp, paper, and paperboard mills and converters. The committee included representatives of the Association of Western Pulp and Paper Workers, the United Paperworkers International Union, the Pacific Coast Association of Pulp & Paper Workers, and local union chapters as well as representative of individual pulp and paper producing companies. The advisory committee produced a proposal which predominately deferred to the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards. After reviewing the proposal, the department believed the requirements to be too restrictive within the pulp and paper milling environment and in some instances actually unworkable. After discussing these concerns with industry representatives, the department reconvened the advisory committee.

In July 1998, following a series of meetings involving industry, labor, management, and the department, another proposal was submitted. Under the new proposal the requirements are either wholly contained in chapter 296-79 WAC, a specific reference is made to the appropriate sections of other chapters, or rescinded altogether.

The following is a summary of the state-initiated amendments being proposed for adoption:

Throughout chapter 296-79 WAC changed "shall" to "must" for clarity and deleted redundant language and inserted clear rule writing for clarification of existing requirements.

Amended section WAC 296-79-010 Scope and application.

To delete language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards.
To add definitions for "authorized," "guarded," "knowledgeable," "qualified," "training," "shall or must," and "may or should."

Amended section WAC 296-79-020 General requirements.

To delete language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, involving "compressed gas cylinders," "approved life buoy," and "protection from hot pipes."
To add a new requirement to develop a written procedure for bypassing interlocks.
To add a new design control systems requirement to have an independent method to de-energize a system or force the system to a safe state.

Amended section WAC 296-79-030 Guards and guarding.

To delete language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards for "mechanical power transmission," "conveyers," and "circular saws."
To add a reference for additional guarding requirements see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part C.

Amended section WAC 296-79-040 Fire protection, ignition, sources and means of egress.

To add "means of egress" to section title.
To delete language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards for "fire protection," and "ignition sources."
To add a reference: "Fire protection, ignition sources, and means of egress requirements see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part G-1, G-2 and G-3."

Amended section WAC 296-79-050 Personal protection.

To add a reference: "See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2, for additional personal protective equipment requirements."
To delete language for requirements for "personal protective equipment and clothing," "required clothing, caps, etc.," and "working over or near water" that are adequately covered in chapters 296-24 and 296-62 WAC.

Repealed section WAC 296-79-060 Protection from radiation.

To delete language for requirements for "protection from radiation" as they are adequately covered in chapter 296-62 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-070 Illumination.

To delete reference to language for "sufficient illumination required" that no longer exists in chapter 296-62 WAC.
To add language for "Illumination required" specifically for this rule.
To delete language for requirements for "extension cord type lights" which are adequately covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-080 Elevators, manlifts and other lifting devices.

To change the word "gas masks" to "respirators" for clarity.
To clarify a reference to "elevator standards."
To delete language requiring elevators to be posted with the maximum number of persons allowed to ride.

Amended section WAC 296-79-090 Electrical equipment and distribution.

To add a reference that all electrical installations and electrical utilization equipment must comply with chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.
To delete reference to the National Electrical Code.
To add a new requirement that buttons, switches, circuit activating devices and other control devices are marked to indicate their function.
To delete requirements for "authorized personnel to do electrical work," "high voltage areas to be guarded," "control panels," "switches or control devices," and "starting requirements for electrically driven equipment after power failure" which are adequately covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-100 Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders, loading docks.

To add a reference see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J.
To delete requirements for "construction and maintenance" which are adequately covered in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J.

Amended section WAC 296-79-110 Elevated runways and ramps used by vehicles.

To delete requirements for "elevated runway and ramp construction must be four times the weight of any load it is subjected" which are adequately covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-120 Scaffolds: Construction, use and maintenance.

To delete requirements for "Scaffolds: Construction, use and maintenance" which are adequately covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add a reference "See General safety and health standards, chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1 or Safety standards for construction work, chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1."

Amended section WAC 296-79-130 Crossovers, aisles, passages.

To add a reference "See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D, for additional requirements for aisles and passages.
To delete requirements for "crossing conveyers" which is adequately covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To delete requirements concerning the width of aisles or passageways as it has been added to WAC 296-79-150 of this rule.

Amended section WAC 296-79-140 Installation, inspection, and maintenance of pipes, piping systems and hoses.

To add reference "Note: Additional requirements may apply for certain hazardous materials. See chapter 296-67 WAC for further information."
To delete the requirement to submit this formal program to the department within one year of the effective date of the standard.
To delete the requirement to inspect all hazardous material systems by the effective date of this standard.

Amended section WAC 296-79-150 Mobile equipment and lift trucks.

To add reference "Additional requirements on mobile equipment and lift trucks" are in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D.
To delete various mobile equipment and lift truck "engineered, designed, constructed, maintained and operated" requirements that are adequately covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add requirements concerning the width of aisles or passageways which had been removed from WAC 296-79-130 of this rule.
To add requirements concerning "rolls transported with a grab or clamp attachment," "when traveling empty with a grab or clamp attachment," "when transporting two or more rolls with a roll grab attachment," and "when transporting two or more rolls or bales with a grab or clamp attachment" to the rule.

Amended section WAC 296-79-160 Requirements for cranes and hoists.

To modify reference language to "See General safety and health standards, chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D" for clarity.
To add requirement for "grounding of cranes and hoists" to cover electrical shock hazards in certain environments. Requirement derived from the National Electrical Code.

Amended section WAC 296-79-170 Requirements for crawler and truck cranes.

To delete language concerning "rated capacity chart" that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add reference "See WAC 296-24-960 when working around energized power lines."
To delete requirements for "clearance requirements from unprotected electrical transmission and distribution lines" that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To delete requirement that "Class "D" citizen's band radio frequencies shall not be used for signaling crane operators."

Amended section WAC 296-79-180 Privately owned standard gauge railroad operations.

To add a requirement that derails must be locked in position.

Amended section WAC 296-79-190 Loading and unloading materials from railway cars or trucks.

To add a requirement that derails must be locked in position.

Amended section WAC 296-79-210 For conveyors, maintenance and inspection.

To delete requirements for "belt, chain and roller type conveyors" that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add reference "For conveyors, maintenance and inspection, see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D."

Amended section WAC 296-79-220 Deactivating and lockout requirements.

To delete requirements for "tagout or other alternative security procedures," "physical restraint devices," "warning information tags," and "operating control cannot be physically blocked," "equipment requirements," "training requirements," "control procedures," "testing after lockout or tagout," and "alternate lockout procedure" as they are equivalent to requirements in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add reference to chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-4, for deactivating and locking out controls.
To add a reference for group lockout or tagout devices that the procedures must meet the minimum requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-4.
To add "cryogenic systems" in the definition of hazardous material systems.
To add "line breaking between the hazard and the work site" as a method for deactivating a hazardous material system.
To add a performance standard that requires the employer to develop and implement a procedure for removal of a blank flange (blind) that will ensure all hazards have been eliminated when a blank flange is used to separate off portions of a hazardous material system from a portion which is in operation.
To delete requirements that have been superseded by the blank flange performance standard for hazardous material systems.

Amended section WAC 296-79-230 Confined spaces.

Changed title of the section to "Confined spaces."
To delete language that is equivalent to requirements covered in chapter 296-62 WAC.
To add reference "Entry into confined spaces must be in compliance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M."

Amended section WAC 296-79-240 Storage of fuel, oil, flammables and chemicals.

To delete language that is equivalent to requirements covered in chapter 296-62 WAC.
To add reference "See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part E."

Amended section WAC 296-79-250 Safety procedure for handling dry sulfur.

To update reference to the correct ANSI standard.
To delete requirement for "electrical equipment shall be of the explosion-proof type" as it is equivalent to those covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To combine this section with WAC 296-79-255 Safety procedures for handling liquid sulfur, and remove the word "dry" from the section title.
To delete all language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add new requirements for the protection of employees working in an acid plant. Derived from OSHA 1910.261 (g)(5).
To add requirements for hoops for acid storage tanks. Moved from WAC 296-79-240.
To add new requirements that sulphur burner ignitors must have a means to automatically shut off the fuel. This has been added to address the explosive hazard.

Repealed section WAC 296-79-255 Safety procedures for handling liquid sulfur.

State-initiated proposed amendments are made to repeal this section and move the requirements contained in this section to WAC 296-79-250.
To delete all language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-260 Pulpwood storage and handling.

To delete redundant titles.

Amended section WAC 296-79-270 Pulpwood preparation.

To delete "Scope and application" from the title.
To delete all language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To change the word "iron" to "metal" and add "or other nonchippable devices" must not be used to clear jams or plug-ups when a chipper or hog machine is running.

Amended section WAC 296-79-27003 Log hauls, slips, and carriages.

To allow any effective means to prevent logs from rolling down the log deck.
To delete all language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add the requirement that automatic stop or interlocking devices are not a substitute for lock out.

Amended section WAC 296-79-27005 Unplugging quick lime stoppages.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-27007 Bleach plant.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-27009 Audible alarm in bleach plant.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-27011 Pocket grinder doors.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-27013 Pulping device procedures.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-27015 Off machine repulping devices.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-280 Chip and hog fuel storage.

To add the requirement that entry into chip bins and silos must be in compliance with confined space entry, WAC 296-79-230, of this chapter.
To add clarifying language regarding chip bridges and hangups.
To add clarifying language that employees must be prohibited from working under "or on top" of overhangs and bridges.

Amended section WAC 296-79-290 Stock preparation and reprocessing.

To delete "Scope and application" from the title.
To delete the introduction as not necessary.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29001 Digester valves and piping.

To delete a reference that "digester piping shall meet the criteria of the boiler and pressure vessel standards."
To add a new requirement that heavy duty pipes and fittings are used between the digester and "blow tanks and dump tank."

Amended section WAC 296-79-29003 Warning of digester being blown.

To delete reference to other portions of the chapter regarding confined space and lockout procedures.
To add a requirement that procedures be developed to ensure that digester operators are aware of personnel entering hazardous areas.
To delete the requirement for at least one exit at each end of the room on each floor of the digester building.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29005 Unplugging quick lime stoppage.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29007 Bleach plant.

To add a reference "See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part H and Part L" to control airborne contaminants.
To delete all language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To delete a requirement of equipping the area for preparation and processing of bleaching mixtures with an exhaust system.
To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29009 Audible alarm in bleach plant.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29011 Pocket grinder doors.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29013 Pulping device procedures.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29015 Off machine repulping devices.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29017 Pulping device cleaning, inspection and repairing.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.
To add "performing" as an activity for entering a pulping device.

Repealed section WAC 296-79-29019 Guarding hand knives and sharpening steels.

To delete requirements that are adequately covered in WAC 296-79-030 of this rule.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29021 Shredders and blowers.

To delete all language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-62 WAC.
To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29023 Clearing shredder jams.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Repealed section WAC 296-79-29025 Repairing shredders.

To delete all language that is equivalent to lockout requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29027 Guillotine type roll splitters.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29029 Broke hole.

To clarify the requirement that any employee pushing broke must wear a safety belt "harness" and it must be attached to a "lanyard."

Amended section WAC 296-79-29031 Industrial kiln guns and ammunition.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29033 Chlorine dioxide system.

To add the reference "See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part P and chapter 296-67 WAC, Process safety management.
To delete all requirements that are more adequately covered in chapters 296-62 and 296-67 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29035 Piling and unpiling pulp.

To change "shall" to "must" for clarity.

Amended section WAC 296-79-29037 Chocking roles.

To delete all existing requirements on roll chocking and substitute the requirement to secure all horizontally stored rolls with chocks or other means.

Amended section WAC 296-79-300 Machine room equipment and procedures.

To delete redundant titles.
To delete all language that is equivalent to requirements found in chapter 296-24 WAC.
To add a new requirement that the pulp and paper machines emergency stopping devices must consist of push buttons for electric motive power (or electrically operated engine stops), pull cords connected directly to the prime mover, control clutches, or other devices. This language is derived from OSHA 29 CFR 1910.261 (k)(1).
To clarify the meaning of "slow speed" on winders and rewinders.
To delete the exemption for guarding inrunning nip points for small diameter rolls.
To add a new requirement for the employer to develop a formal program for inspection and nondestructive testing of reel spool journals.
To add a new requirement to install a locking device in a paper machine roll before entering or climbing on it.
To add a new requirement to prohibit the use of crane hooks to stop a turning reel.
To add a new requirement that makes winder collar guides mandatory.

Amended section WAC 296-79-310 Converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing, and related processes).

To delete "Scope and application" from the title.
To delete the introduction as it is unnecessary.

Amended section WAC 296-79-31001 General requirements for converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing and related processes).

To add "for converting operations" (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing and related processes) to the title.
To delete reference to "applicable rules" which is superfluous.
To delete redundant titles and language.
To allow devices other than mirrors for viewing blind work stations.
To delete language about handling rolls by cranes over head of workers which is addressed in chapter 296-24 WAC.

Amended section WAC 296-79-31003 Corrugator.

To allow a minimum of 4" clearance "or effective nip guarding."

Repealed section WAC 296-79-31005 Adhesive system.

Repealed because the requirements contained in the section are covered by equivalent requirements in either chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, or chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards.

Repealed section WAC 296-79-31007 Printing and cutting.

Repealed because the requirements contained in the section are covered by equivalent requirements in either chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, or chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards.

Amended section WAC 296-79-31009 Die cutting.

To delete language on guarding covered in chapter 296-24 WAC.

Repealed section WAC 296-79-31011 Power lifts on gluers, tapers and stitchers.

Repealed because the requirements contained in the section are covered by equivalent requirements in either chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, or chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards.

Repealed section WAC 296-79-31013 Strapping banding operations.

Repealed because the requirements contained in the section are covered by equivalent requirements in either chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, or chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards.

Amended section WAC 296-79-320 Sulfite recovery furnace area requirements.

To add the word "Sulfite" to the title.
To add a new requirement for the employer to develop a training program on safe operating procedures and emergency shutdown procedures.
To add a new requirement that all personnel who enter the recovery furnace area must understand the emergency evacuation procedure.
To delete the requirement regarding smelt tanks.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.040.

Statute Being Implemented: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050, and [49.17].060.

Summary: See Purpose above.

Reasons Supporting Proposal: See Purpose above.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, Tumwater, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Michael A Silverstein, Tumwater, (360) 902-5495.

Name of Proponent: State of Washington Department of Labor and Industries, governmental.

Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.

Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: See Purpose above.

Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: See Purpose above.

No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. The department has determined the proposed rule would not place a more than minor economic impact on business and therefore, it is not required to prepare a small business economic impact statement.

RCW 34.05.328 applies to this rule adoption. Significant rule-making criteria does apply to these rule amendments because they do not meet the exempt criteria outlined in RCW 34.05.328(5).

Hearing Location: Department of Labor and Industries Building, Auditorium, 7273 Linderson Way, Tumwater, WA, on April 7, 1999, at 1:30.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Josh Swanson by March 26, 1999, at (360) 902-5484.

Submit Written Comments to: Tracy Spencer, Standards Manager, WISHA Services Division, P.O. Box 44620, Olympia, WA 98507-4620, by 5:00 p.m. on April 17, 1999. In addition to written comments, the department will accept comments submitted to fax (360) 902-5529, or via e-mail at LEWK235@lni.wa.gov. Comments submitted by fax must be ten pages or less.

Date of Intended Adoption: August 3, 1999.

March 2, 1999

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-2627.3


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-010
Scope and application.

(1) This chapter applies to establishments, firms, persons and corporations dealing with the manufacturing, processing, storing, finishing or converting of pulp, paper or paperboard and all buildings, machinery and equipment pertaining thereto.

(2) This chapter shall augment the Washington state general safety and health standards((,)) (chapter 296-24 WAC) and general occupational health standards((, electrical workers safety rules, and any other standards which are applicable to all industries governed by chapter 80, Laws of 1973 (chapter 49.17 RCW), Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act)) (chapter 296-62 WAC). In the event of any conflict between any portion of this chapter and any portion of any of the general application standards, the provisions of this chapter 296-79 WAC, shall ((apply)) prevail.

(3) ((When the words "shall" or "must" are used in this chapter, the requirement is compulsory.  The words "may" or "should," as used in this standard, identify recommendations or suggestions only.

(4))) The rules contained in this chapter are minimum requirements and the use of additional guards, or other means, methods or procedures may be needed ((in order)) to make the work or place of work safe.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-010, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-010, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-79-011
Definitions.

"Authorized" - One who is qualified by reason of training and to whom the responsibility to perform a specific assignment has been given by the employer.

"Guarded" - The means to remove the likelihood of approach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger.

"Knowledgeable - The demonstrated ability to communicate the safe work practices required to perform a job or task correctly.

"Qualified" - One who is familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the duties of the position they may be filling. This includes being aware of the hazards of the job and the means and procedures necessary to eliminate or control those hazards.

"Training" - The procedure that must establish and document the employee's competency in the work practices that they are required to perform.

"Shall" or "must" as used in this standard mean the requirement is compulsory.

"May" or "should" as used in this standard identify recommendations or suggestions only.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 82-22, filed 6/11/82)

WAC 296-79-020
General requirements.

(1) Housekeeping.

(a) Floors ((shall)) must be kept reasonably clear of spilled or leaking oil, grease, water, broke, etc., that may cause slipping, tripping or falling.  Nonskid type surfacing ((shall)) must be installed in vehicular or pedestrian traffic areas ((in which)) where slipping hazards otherwise would exist.

In areas where it is not possible to keep the floor free of materials which cause a slipping hazard, mats, cleats, or other suitable materials which will effectively minimize or eliminate the hazard ((shall)) must be installed.

(((2) Storage of hoses, cords, slings or similar items or equipment.)) (b) Hoses, cords, slings or similar items or equipment ((shall)) must be stored in such a manner that they will not create a hazard.

(((3))) (2) Storage and transportation of materials.  Materials, objects or equipment ((shall)) must be stored or transported by ((use of means or)) methods which will prevent them from falling, tipping or rolling.

(((4) Compressed gas cylinders.  Compressed gas cylinders shall be stored away from heat sources, combustible materials or other materials which may cause hazardous conditions.  Storage facilities shall comply with the requirements of the general safety and health standards, chapter 296-24 WAC.  Cylinders shall be secured in a manner which will prevent them from tipping or falling.  Acetylene cylinders shall be stored, transported, or used while in the upright position only.

(5))) (3) Warning of ((obstructions)) open manholes or excavations.  Open manholes or excavations ((shall)) must be:

Roped off, barricaded, or adequately safeguarded ((by an approved method)) when located in or adjacent to walkways, aisleways, or roadways.  ((During periods of darkness or reduced visibility, such areas shall be))

Provided with warning lights or lanterns.

(((6) Employees to be instructed.  Employees shall not be permitted to)) (4) Training. Employees must receive proper instruction in safe operating procedures:

Before they supervise, operate, or make adjustments to any machine or equipment ((until they have received proper instruction and are familiar with safe operating procedures)).

(((7) Training personnel to handle emergencies.  In each area where hazardous substances may be encountered, personnel shall be trained)) To cope with emergencies arising from breaks, ruptures, or spills which would create a hazardous condition.

(((8))) (c) Employees must be instructed in proper lifting or moving techniques and methods. Employees should use mechanical devices or ask for assistance in lifting or moving heavy objects.

(d) Any faulty equipment or hazardous condition must be promptly reported to the person in charge.

(5) Working alone.  When an employee is assigned to work alone in a remote or isolated area, ((a system shall)) procedures must be ((instituted whereby such)) developed to ensure:

That the employee reports by use of radio or telephone to someone periodically or

At reasonable intervals a designated person ((shall)) must check on ((his)) the employee's safety ((at reasonable intervals)).

All persons involved in working alone ((shall)) must be advised of the procedures to be followed.

(((9) Lifting or moving objects.  Employees shall be instructed in proper lifting or moving techniques and methods.  Mechanical devices should be used or employees should ask for assistance in lifting or moving heavy objects.

(10) Reporting hazards.  Any faulty equipment or hazardous condition shall be promptly reported to the person in charge.

(11))) (6) Exits from hazardous areas.  Where physically and reasonably possible, there ((shall)) must be at least two unobstructed exits from any hazardous area.  Such exits ((shall preferably)) should be on opposite walls.

(((12))) (7) Safe work area.  Sufficient clearance ((shall)) must be maintained between machines to allow employees a safe work area.

(((13))) (8) Protection from overhead hazard.  Warning ((signs shall)) signs/devices must be:

Placed in conspicuous locations below areas where overhead work is being done and ((shall be))

Removed promptly when work is completed and the overhead hazard no longer exists.

(((14))) (9) Welding areas protected.

Areas in which welding is being done ((shall)) must be screened or barricaded to protect persons from flash burns, when practical.

If the welding process cannot be isolated, all persons who may be exposed to the hazard of arc flash ((shall)) must be properly protected.

(((15))) (10) Testing safety devices.  Brakes, back stops, anti-runaway devices, overload releases, emergency stops, and other safety devices ((shall)) must be inspected and tested frequently to ensure that all are operative and maintained in good repair.

(((16))) (11) Starting and stopping devices.

(a) Electrically or manually operated power ((disconnecting)) starting or stopping devices ((shall)) must be provided within easy reach of the operator while in his normal operating position.

(b) If necessary for safety of the operation, the machine ((shall)) must be so equipped that retarding or braking action can be applied at the time of or after the source of power is deactivated.

(((17) Use of compressed air for cleaning purposes.)) (12) Interlocks:

Interlocks that affect the safety of employees must not be bypassed except where the employer demonstrates that alternate procedures or devices provide a level of safety for employees equivalent to that provided by the safety interlock. Interlocks are considered to be bypassed anytime the designed control strategy is bypassed by means including, but not limited to, a temporary wiring change, physical interference or a temporary software change of "force."

Prior to bypassing a safety interlock the employer must:

Develop a written procedure detailing how the bypass will be accomplished and the alternate means of protecting employees.

Inform affected employees of all pertinent information including at a minimum the reason for the change, the date of the change, who is responsible for the change, and approximately how long the change will be in effect.

Post appropriate warning of the change on the equipment or area.

(13) Designing control systems. Employers must ensure that all control systems are designed to:

Ensure that the system does not create an unsafe state that endangers personnel.

Ensure that when control systems fail, the equipment being controlled fails to a safe state.

Have an independent method to safely stop the process or equipment, such as a hardwired emergency stop button or other controls that deenergize the system, or independent methods to force the system to a safe state.

(14) Compressed air.

(a) Compressed air ((shall)) must not be used ((for cleaning purposes if it may endanger other persons in the area or)) for cleaning clothing ((while it)) that is being worn, or if it will endanger persons in the area.

(((18) Coupling high pressure air hoses.)) (b) Sections of high pressure air hoses ((shall)) must be properly coupled and have safety chains or equivalent safety device attached between the sections (30 psi or more is high pressure air).

(((19))) (15) Punch bars.  Open pipes ((shall)) must not be used as punch bars if the use would create a hazard.

(((20))) (16) Saw table limit stop or extension.  Employees ((shall)) must be protected from contact with the front edge of a circular saw by:

A limit stop which will prevent the forward swing of the cutting edge from extending beyond the edge of the table or ((a table extension shall be installed))

Installation of a table extension.

(((21) Explosive)) (17) Powder-actuated tools.

((Explosive)) Powder-actuated tool design, construction, operation and use shall comply with all requirements specified in "safety requirements for powder actuated fastening systems," ((adopted by the department of labor and industries)) (see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part H-1).  ((In addition, after using such tools))

A careful check ((shall)) must be made ((in order)) to ((ascertain)) ensure that no cartridges or charges are left where they could enter equipment or be accidentally discharged in any area where they could create a fire or explosion hazard.

(((22) Approved life buoys.  Where work is being performed on docks or adjacent to open water five feet or more in depth U.S. Coast Guard approved life buoys shall be provided.  Such life buoys shall have sufficient line attached and be spaced at intervals not exceeding 200 feet.

(23))) (18) Ladders required on waterfront docks.  Employers must ensure that either permanent ladders or portable ladders ((which)):

Are readily available for emergency use ((shall be provided)) on all waterfront docks.  ((Such ladders shall))

Extend from the face of the dock to the water line at its lowest elevation.  ((Spacing between ladder installations shall not))

Are installed at intervals not to exceed 400 feet.

Are noticeable by painting the dock area immediately adjacent to the ladder ((locations shall be painted)) with a bright color which contrasts with the surrounding area.

Have been secured with a suitable method ((shall be used to secure the ladders)).

Note: When working on or around water also see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2.

(((24) Protection from hot pipes.  All exposed hot pipes within seven feet of the floor or working platform, or within 15" measured horizontally from stairways, ramps or fixed ladders, shall be covered with an insulating material or be guarded in such a manner as to prevent contact.

(25))) (19) Prevent overhang while removing materials.  Extreme care ((shall)) must be taken to prevent material from creating an overhang while removing the materials from piles or bins.

(((26) Establishments subject to chapter 296-79 WAC shall comply with the following standards of the American National Standards Institute:

(a) ANSI Z33.1-1961, Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock and Vapor Removal or Conveying;

(b) ANSI B56.1-1969, Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-79-020, filed 6/11/82; Order 77-12, 296-79-020, filed 7/11/77; Order 74-24, 296-79-020, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-020, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

Reviser's note: The typographical errors in the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-030
Guards and guarding.

For additional guarding requirements see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part C.

(1) ((General safety and health standards to prevail where applicable.  Driving mechanisms, power transmission equipment or apparatus, prime movers, shear or pinch points or other similar hazardous areas of exposure shall be properly safeguarded with standard safeguards as required by the general safety and health standards.

(2))) Safeguarding specific areas, machines or conditions.  ((To augment the general safeguarding requirements contained in the previous rule,)) Certain equipment, tools, machines, and areas present definite hazards and ((shall)) must be safeguarded by compliance with the following requirements:

(a) ((Conveyors.  Hazardous areas of conveyors shall be adequately safeguarded or workers shall be protected from hazard by other effective means.

(b))) Broke shredders.  Cutting heads ((shall)) must be completely enclosed except for opening at feed side sufficient only to permit entry of stock.  The enclosure ((shall)) must be:

Bolted or locked in place, and ((shall be))

Of solid material or with mesh or other openings not exceeding 1/2 inch.

(((c) Sharp edged slitter knives.  Sharp edged slitter knives subject to accidental contact shall be effectively guarded.  Carriers shall be provided and used when transporting or carrying sharp edged slitter knives.

(d) Wheels of traveling sections of conveyors.  Traveling sections of conveyors and other equipment with wheels which run on rails or guides, other than railroad equipment, shall be provided with wheel sweep guards installed in front of the traveling wheels in all areas where persons may be exposed to contact.  Sweep guards shall have not greater than 1/4 inch clearance above the rail or guide.

(e))) (b) Stitching or sewing machine.  Carton or bag stitching machines ((shall)) must be properly safeguarded to prevent persons from coming in contact with the stitching head and other pinch or nip points.

(((f))) (c) Beaters and pulpers.  ((Where))

(i) A guardrail of standard height must be installed when the top edge of vessels or tubs is less than standard height guardrails above the floor or operator's platform, ((a guardrail of standard height shall be installed)).  If necessary for the protection of the person feeding equipment, an intermediate guardrail or other suitable protection shall be installed.

(ii) Beater rolls ((shall)) must be provided with covers.

(((g))) (d) First dryer.  A permanent guard or apron guard, or both, ((shall)) must be installed to protect workers from any exposed ingoing nip of the first dryer drum in each section if the area is accessible to workers while the dryer is in operation.

(((h))) (e) Floor and drain openings.  Floor and drain openings in walkways and general work areas ((shall)) must be covered with material or gratings with openings no larger than 2" in the narrow dimension.

(((i))) (f) Mechanical devices to dump chip cars, trucks or trailers.

When using mechanical equipment to elevate the front end of the chip containers for dumping into a hopper, the shear area between the floor and the elevated section ((shall)) must be safeguarded.

The pit area ((shall)) must be adequately safeguarded or barricaded.

Safeguards ((shall)) must be installed around the exposed sides of a chip hopper.

(((3))) (2) Replacing guards.  All permanent guards must be replaced or adequate temporary safeguards provided before a machine is put into operation.

(((4))) (3) Protection from moving materials.  When material, such as chunks, slivers, cants, or logs, could be thrown or flipped by a saw, barker, or other machines, adequate barricades, screens, netting, or other safeguards ((shall)) must be provided and maintained.

(((5) Circular saws (not slasher saws).  Saws shall be provided with standard guards, in accordance with American National Standard 01.1-1954 (reaffirmed 1961).

(6))) (4) Protection for areas where guards are impractical.  ((Where)) When normal guarding is impractical the hazard ((shall)) must be:

Reduced to a minimum by use of safety chains, lifelines, signs or other reasonable means.

Areas which present a ((major physical)) hazard which cannot be reasonably safeguarded ((shall)) must be identified by use of paint or other materials.

(((7) Transporting knives.)) (5) Knives and scissors.

(a) Knives used for chip or hog fuel machines, or guillotine cutters, ((shall)) must be secured in properly constructed containers during transportation.

(((8) Hand knife or scissors.)) (b) Workers ((shall)) must be furnished properly designed and constructed sheaths for safely carrying knives and scissors used for cutting or trimming pulp and paper.

(((9) Safe storage for knives and scissors.)) (c) Tables where paper is being cut ((shall)) must be equipped with sheaths or shelves for safe storage of knives and scissors.

(((10))) (d) Sharp edged slitter knives subject to accidental contact must be effectively guarded. Carriers must be provided and used when transporting or carrying sharp edged slitter knives.

(e) Hand knives and sharpening steels used in paper preparation, must be provided with guards at the junction of the handle and the blade. Utility knives with blade exposure two and one-half inches or less are exempted from this requirement.

(6) Safeguard for foot operated treadle switch used to activate power driven equipment.  Foot operated treadle switches used for activation of power driven equipment ((shall)) must be protected by a stirrup type guard or equivalent protection ((shall)) must be provided to prevent accidental activation.

(((11))) (7) Automatic pressure actuated stopping devices.  Hand fed machines and other moving equipment which create shear or pinch points which cannot be reasonably guarded may be safeguarded by the installation of pressure activated bars or sensing devices which, when contacted, will automatically stop the machine or equipment.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-030, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-030, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-040
Fire protection ((and)), ignition sources and means of egress.

(((1) Portable fire extinguishers.  Portable fire extinguishers shall be constructed, tested, maintained, and used in accordance with the recommendations specified by the National Fire Protection Association or other similar recognized agencies.

(2) Suitable fire extinguishing equipment.  Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for use for the type or types of fire which could be expected in an area shall be provided.

(3) Vaporizing liquid type extinguishers.  Vaporizing liquid type extinguishers shall not be used if known to create a condition which is hazardous to health.

(4) Proper type of fire extinguisher to be used.  Each person who is expected or required to use fire extinguishing equipment shall be instructed as to the proper type or types of extinguishing equipment to be used for each class of fire.

(5) Fire drills, etc.  Personnel shall be instructed on procedures to be followed in case of fire.

(6) Posting areas where fire or explosion hazards exist.  Areas where a fire or explosion hazard exists shall be posted with NO SMOKING or other suitable signs which would indicate that such hazard exists.

(7) Sources of ignition prohibited in hazardous areas.  Spark-producing tools, lights or other sources of ignition shall not be used in any area where the hazard of explosion exists.

(8) Welding and burning permits.  A written welding or burning permit shall be secured from a delegated person when welding and burning is to be done in an area near flammable or combustible materials or in areas where a potentially explosive condition exists.  Permits shall not be valid for more than 24 hours.

(9) Internal dust fires in or around gas hoods.  A safe written procedure shall be developed by the company for control of dust fires in or around gas hoods.  Personnel shall be properly instructed and trained in this procedure.)) For fire protection, ignition source, and means of egress requirements see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part G-1, G-2 and G-3.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-040, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-040, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-16, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94)

WAC 296-79-050
Personal protection.

(((1) Personal protective equipment and clothing.  Personal protective clothing and equipment as required by the general safety and health standards and the general occupational health standards shall be furnished by the employer and worn or used by the employee when needed to eliminate or minimize the degree of hazard involved with any specific operation.

(a) Required clothing, caps, etc.  Employees shall wear sufficient clothing to protect them from hazards to which they may be exposed while performing their duties.  Consideration must be given to temperatures in certain areas in which persons work.  Employees whose hair is long enough to be caught in machinery or equipment around which they work shall wear caps, hair nets or other protection which will adequately confine the hair while performing their duties.)) See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2, for additional personal protective equipment requirements.

Personal protective clothing and equipment.

(1) Rings or other jewelry ((which)) that could create a hazard should not be worn by employees while in the performance of their work.

(((b))) (2) Protective footwear.

Employees who work in areas where there is a possibility of foot injury due to falling or rolling objects ((shall)) must wear safety type footwear.

Employers will supply shoe guards and toe protectors ((will be supplied by management)).  ((Management shall))

Employers must also make safety shoes available for purchase by employees at not more than actual cost to ((management)) the employer.

(3) Calks or other suitable footwear ((which)) that will afford reasonable protection from slipping ((shall)) must be:

Worn while working on logs.  ((Calk boots shall be))

Made available at not more than actual cost to the employer.

Note:See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2, for additional personal protective equipment requirements.


(((2) Working over or near water.

(a) Employees working over or near water who are exposed to the danger of drowning shall be provided with and shall wear U.S. Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices.

Note:The following exceptions will apply:

(i) When water is known to be chest-deep or less on the exposed worker(s);
(ii) When the employee is protected by standard guardrails;
(iii) When the employee is protected by a safety belt or lanyard; or
(iv) When the employee is within the confines of the cabin of a boat or other equivalent enclosure.


(b) Prior to and after each use, buoyant work devices shall be inspected for defects which would alter their strength or buoyancy.  Defective units shall not be used.

(3) Protection from noise.  The hearing protection requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, shall apply.

(4) Respiratory protection.  The respiratory protection requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, shall apply.))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-79-050, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-79-050, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  83-24-013 (Order 83-34), 296-79-050, filed 11/30/83; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-79-050, filed 6/11/82; Order 74-24, 296-79-050, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-050, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-070
Illumination.

(((1) Sufficient illumination required.  All areas shall be sufficiently illuminated in order that persons in the area can safely perform their assigned duties.  The recommended levels of illumination specified in the general occupational health standards shall be followed where applicable.  When areas are not specifically referred to in the general occupational health standards and the adequacy of illumination for the area or task performed is questionable, a determination of the amount of illumination needed shall be made by the industrial hygiene section of the division of industrial safety and health.

(2))) (1) Illumination required. Lighting that is adequately adjusted to provide a margin of safety for all work tasks must be provided and maintained.

(a) The minimum level of task lighting for all indoor activities must be an average of ten-foot candles measured thirty inches above the floor or at the task.

(b) The minimum level of task lighting for all outdoor activities must be an average of five-foot candles measured thirty inches above the working surface or at the task.

(2) If general lighting is not provided throughout the work area, the employer must provide illumination which is adequately adjusted to provide visibility of nearby objects that might be potential hazards or to see to operate emergency control or other equipment. The minimum level of nontask lighting for all indoor and outdoor activities must be an average of three-foot candles measured thirty inches above the floor or working surface.

Note:This section establishes minimal levels of illumination for safety purposes only. Guidelines pertaining to optimal levels of lighting and illumination may be found in practice for Industrial Lighting, ANSI/IES RP7-1979. The minimum levels specified in subsections (1) and (2) of this section represent averages with the lowest level in an area to be no less than fifty percent of the indicated value.


(3)
Emergency or secondary lighting system required.

(a) There ((shall)) must be an emergency or secondary lighting system ((which)) that can be actuated immediately upon failure of the normal power supply system.  The emergency or secondary lighting system ((shall)) must provide illumination in the following areas:

(((i))) Wherever it is necessary for workers to remain at their machine or station to shut down equipment in case of power failure.

(((ii))) At stairways and passageways or aisleways used by workers as an emergency exit in case of power failure.

(((iii) In all plant first aid and/or medical facilities.))

(b) Emergency lighting facilities ((shall)) must be checked at least every 30 days for mechanical defects.  Defective equipment ((shall)) must be given priority for repair schedule.

(((3) Extension cord type lights.  All extension cord type lights shall be provided with proper guards.))

[Order 74-24, 296-79-070, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-070, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-080
Elevators, manlifts and other lifting devices.

(1) ((Elevators, manlifts, etc.))  All elevators, manlifts or other lifting devices ((shall)) must be installed and maintained in conformity with the requirements specified in the Washington state elevator laws and regulations adopted by the elevator section of the ((division of building and construction safety inspection,)) department of labor and industries.

(2) Inspection of elevators, etc., for acid towers.

(a) Outside elevators ((shall)) must be inspected daily during winter months when ice materially affects safety.

(b) Elevators, runways, stairs, etc., for acid towers ((shall)) must be inspected monthly for defects that may occur because of exposure to acid or corrosive gases.

(3) ((Gas masks)) Respirators on elevators.  Elevators located in areas where exposure to potentially harmful concentrations of toxic substances may occur ((shall)) must be equipped with an adequate supply of ((gas masks)) respirators to protect the maximum number of passengers.

(((4) Posting elevators.  Elevators shall be posted indicating the maximum number of persons allowed to ride.))

[Order 74-24, 296-79-080, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-080, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-79-090
Electrical equipment and distribution.

(((1) National electrical code to prevail.))  All electrical installations and electrical utilization equipment ((shall)) must comply with chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.

(((2) Authorized personnel to do electrical work.  Only those persons who are qualified to do the work assigned and are authorized by the employer shall be allowed to perform electrical work on any electrical equipment or wiring installations.

(3) High voltage areas to be guarded.  Motor rooms, switch panel rooms or other areas where persons may come in contact with high voltages shall be fenced off or be enclosed in a separate area.  The gate, door or access to such area shall be posted with a notice stating that only authorized persons are allowed in the area.

(4) Control panels.  Floor stand panels should be protected from being struck by moving equipment and handles and buttons shall be protected from accidental actuation.

(5) Switches or control devices.  Switches, circuit breakers or other control devices shall be so located that they are readily accessible for activation or deactivation and shall be marked to indicate their function or machine which they control.  The positions of ON and OFF shall be marked or indicated and provision shall be made for locking or tagging out the circuit.

(6) Starting requirements for electrically driven equipment after power failure.  Electrically driven equipment shall be so designed that it will not automatically start upon restoration of power after a power failure if it will create a hazard to personnel.

(7))) (1) Operator controlled devices. Push buttons, selector switches, remote control switches, automatic circuit activating devices, and other control circuit type devices must be marked to indicate their function and the equipment they control.

(2) Posting equipment automatically activated or remotely controlled.  If it will create a hazard to personnel, equipment which is automatically activated or remotely controlled ((shall)) must be posted, warning persons that machine may start automatically ((if it will create a hazard to personnel)).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-79-090, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 74-24, 296-79-090, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-090, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-100
Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders, loading docks.

(((1) Construction and maintenance.  Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders, and loading docks shall be constructed, maintained and used in accordance with the requirements specified in the general safety and health standards and shall have nonskid type surfaces where needed to minimize the hazard of slipping.)) See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-100, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-100, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-110
Elevated runways and ramps used by vehicles.

(1) ((Elevated runway and ramp construction.  Elevated runways or ramps shall be constructed to safely support four times the weight of any load to which it may be subjected.))  Runways and ramps ((shall)) must:

(a) Be cleated, grooved, rough surfaced, or covered with a material ((which)) that will minimize the danger of skidding.  ((The))

(b) Not have a maximum ((inclination of a ramp used for wheeled equipment shall not exceed)) exceeding 20 from horizontal if used for wheeled equipment.

(2) Guarding exposed sides.

Elevated ramps or runways used for the travel of wheeled equipment ((shall)) must have exposed sides guarded with a substantial bull rail or shear rail of sufficient height to prevent wheeled equipment from going over the rail.

If elevated ramps or runways are used by pedestrians, standard guardrails ((shall)) must be installed on runways wherever the height exceeds 4 feet above the adjacent area except where used for loading or unloading purposes.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-110, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-110, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-120
Scaffolds, construction, use and maintenance.

((Whenever work must be performed at a height which cannot be reached from the floor or permanent platform and where it would not be safe practice to use a ladder, a properly constructed scaffold shall be provided and used.  All scaffolds shall have a factor of safety of four times any load to which they may be subjected and be adequately secured or stabilized to prevent tipping.  Scaffolds shall be constructed in accordance with acceptable engineering practices and shall be maintained in a safe condition.  Tools or materials which would create a tripping hazard or which may fall from the platform shall be secured or removed.  Persons shall not ride on a roller scaffold while it is being moved.)) See General safety and health standards, chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1 or Safety standards for construction work, chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-120, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-120, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-130
Crossovers, aisles, passages.

See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D, for additional requirements for aisles and passages.

(1) ((Crossing conveyors.  Where access is required, crossovers or underpasses with proper safeguards shall be provided over or under all conveyors.

(2))) Clearances to be marked.  Low clearance areas under conveyors which could present a hazard to mobile equipment operations ((shall)) must be identified by a suitable means, such as signs, contrasting colors, or tell-tales.

(((3) Aisles or passageways.  Aisles or passageways should be at least three feet wider than the widest vehicle or load traveling the aisle or passageway.  When this clearance cannot be maintained, adequate precautions shall be taken.

(4))) (2) Crossovers over obstructions in passageways.  Crossovers ((shall)) must be provided where employees are required to cross over transmission drive lines or other permanent obstructions in passageways or walkways.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-130, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-130, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-9, filed 6/17/81)

WAC 296-79-140
Installation, inspection, and maintenance of pipes, piping systems, and hoses.

(1) Definitions applicable to this section.

(((a))) Hazardous material system - any system within the following classifications:

(((i))) Flammable or explosive - any system containing materials which are hazardous because they are easily ignited and create a fire or explosion hazard, defined by NFPA as Class I liquids;

(((ii))) Chemically active or toxic - any system containing material which offers corrosion or toxic hazard in itself or can be productive of harmful gases upon release, defined by NFPA 704M as Class 3 and 4 materials;

(((iii))) Thermally hazardous - any system above 130F which exposes persons to potential thermal burns;

(((iv))) Pressurized - any gaseous system above 200 psig or liquid system above 500 psig.

(((b))) Piping system - any fixed piping, either rigid pipe or flexible hose, including all fittings and valves, in either permanent or temporary application.

(2) Design and installation.  All new piping systems intended to be used in hazardous material service ((shall)) must be designed and installed in accordance with applicable provisions of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping or in accordance with applicable provisions of ANSI B31.1-1995 through B31.8-1995.  ((The referenced edition in effect at the time of installation shall be utilized.

Note:Both referenced standards have identical requirements.

))


(3) Inspection and maintenance.

(a) ((Management shall)) The employer must develop a formal program of installation inspections and maintenance for all hazardous material piping systems.  The program ((shall)) must be:

Based on sound maintenance engineering principle, and ((shall))

Demonstrate due consideration for the manufacturing specifications of the pipe, hose, valves and fittings, the ambient environment of the installation and the corrosive or abrasive effect of the material handled within the system.

(b) Type and frequency of tests and/or inspections and selection of inspection sites ((shall)) must be adequate to give indications that minimum safe design operating tolerances are maintained.  The tests may include visual or nondestructive methods.

(((c) All companies shall submit their formal program of initial and ongoing inspections to the department for approval within one year after the effective date of this requirement.

(d) All existing hazardous material systems shall be inspected to the criteria of this section prior to two years after effective date, or in accordance with a schedule approved by the department.))

(4) Inspection records.

(a) Results of inspections and/or tests ((shall)) must be maintained as a record for each system. Portions of systems that are buried or enclosed in permanent structures in such a manner as to prevent exposure to employees even in the event of a failure, may be exempted from the inspection requirements only.

(((b))) Past records may be discarded provided the current inspection report and the immediately preceding two reports are maintained.

(((c))) When a system is replaced, a new record ((shall)) must be established and all past records may be discarded.

(((d))) (b) Upon request the records for each system ((shall)) must be made available for review by the department ((upon request)) of labor and industries.

(((e) Portions of systems that are buried or enclosed in permanent structures in such a manner as to prevent exposure to employees even in the event of a failure, may be exempted from the inspection requirements only.))

(5) Systems or sections of systems found to be below the minimum design criteria requirements for the current service ((shall)) must be repaired or replaced with component parts and methods which equal the requirements for new installations.

(6) Identification of piping systems.

(a) Pipes containing hazardous materials ((shall)) must be identified.  It is recommended that USAS A13.1 "Scheme for Identification of Piping Systems" be followed.

(((b))) Positive identification of a piping system content ((shall be)):

Must have a lettered legend giving the name of the content in full or abbreviated form, or a commonly used identification system. ((Such identification shall))

Must be made and maintained at suitable intervals and at valves, fittings, and on both sides of walls or floors as needed.

May have arrows ((may be used)) to indicate the direction of flow.  ((Where it is desirable or necessary to give))

May provide supplementary information such as hazard of use ((of the piping system content,)). This may be done by additional legend or by color applied to the entire piping system or as colored bands.  Legends may be placed on colored bands.

Examples of legend which may give both positive identification and supplementary information regarding hazards or use are:


Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hazardous liquid or gas
Chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hazardous liquid or gas
Chlorine dioxide . . . . . . . . Hazardous liquid or gas
Sulphur dioxide . . . . . . . . . Hazardous gas
Liquid caustic . . . . . . . . . . Hazardous liquid
Liquid sulphur . . . . . . . . . . Hazardous liquid
Sulphuric acid . . . . . . . . . . Hazardous liquid
Sodium chlorate . . . . . . . . . When dry, danger of fire or explosion
Note:Manual L-1, published by Chemical Manufacturers Association, Inc., is a valuable guide in respect to supplementary legend.


(((c))) When color, applied to the entire piping system or as colored bands, is used to give supplementary information it should conform to the following:


CLASSIFICATIONPREDOMINANT COLOR

F--Fire-protection equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Red
D--Dangerous materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yellow
(or orange)
S--Safe materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Green
(or the achromatic
colors, white, black,
gray or aluminum)

and, when required,
P--Protective materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bright blue

(((d))) (b) Legend boards showing the color and identification scheme in use ((shall)) must be prominently displayed at each plant.  They ((shall)) must be located so that employees who may be exposed to hazardous material piping systems will have a frequent reminder of the identification program.

(((e))) (c) All employees who work in the area of hazardous material piping systems ((shall)) must be given training in the color and identification scheme in use.

(7) Test holes ((not to be covered)).  Test holes in blow lines of piping systems ((shall)) must not be covered with insulation or other materials.

(8) Steam hoses.  Steam hoses ((shall)) must be specifically designed to safely carry steam at any pressures to which they may be subjected.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-13-053 (Order 81-9), 296-79-140, filed 6/17/81.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW.  81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-140, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, 296-79-140, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-140, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-150
Mobile equipment and lift trucks.

Additional requirements on mobile equipment and lift trucks are in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D.

(1) ((All industrial powered trucks should be engineered, designed, constructed, maintained and used in accordance with the recommendations specified in USAS B56.1-1969 "Safety Code for Powered Industrial Trucks."

(2) Operator training.  Methods shall be devised by management to train personnel in the safe operation of powered industrial trucks and only trained and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate such vehicles.

(3) Special duties of operator.  Special duties of the operator of a power-driven vehicle shall include the following:

(a) To test)) The operator of a power-driven vehicle must test the brakes, steering gear, lights, horns, warning devices, clutches, etc., before operating vehicle((;

(b) Not to move a vehicle while an unauthorized rider is on his vehicle;

(c) To slow down and sound horn upon approaching blind corners or other places where vision or clearance is limited;

(d) To comply with all speed and traffic regulations and other applicable rules;

(e) To have the vehicle he operates under control at all times so that he can safely stop the vehicle in case of emergency; and

(f) When driving a fork lift vehicle on a grade, the load shall be kept on the upgrade side.

(4) Operator to be in proper position)).

(2) Control levers of lift trucks, front end loaders, or similar types of equipment ((shall)) must not be operated except when the operator is in ((his)) the proper operating position.

(((a))) (3) No person ((shall)) may be permitted to ride on a powered hand truck unless it is so designed by the manufacturer.  A limit switch ((shall)) must be on operating handle--30 degrees each way from a 45-degree angle up and down.

(((b) When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls shall be neutralized, power shall be shut off, and brakes set.  Wheels shall be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline.

(c) A powered industrial truck is unattended when the operator is 25 feet or more away from the vehicle which remains in his view, or whenever the operator leaves the vehicle and it is not in his view.

(d) When the operator of an industrial truck is dismounted and within 25 feet of the truck still in his view, the load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized, and the brakes set to prevent movement.

(5) Raised equipment to be blocked.)) (4) Employees ((shall)) must not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling.  ((When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking shall also be used in conjunction with the jack.

(6) Precautions to be taken while inflating tire.  Unmounted split rim wheels shall be placed in a safety cage or other device shall be used which will prevent a split rim from striking the worker if it should dislodge while the tire is being inflated.

(7))) (5) Reporting suspected defects.  If, in the opinion of the operator, a power-driven vehicle is unsafe, the operator ((shall)) must report the suspected defect immediately to the person in charge.  Any defect ((which)) that would make the vehicle unsafe to operate under existing conditions ((shall)) will be cause to take the vehicle out of service and it ((shall)) must not be put back into use until it has been made safe.

(((8) Safe speed.  Vehicles shall not be driven faster than a safe speed which is compatible with existing conditions.

(9) Unobstructed view.)) (6) Vehicle operators ((shall)) must have a reasonably unobstructed view of the direction of travel, or, where this is not possible, the operator ((shall)) must be directed by a person or by a safe guidance means or device. Where practical, mirrors ((shall)) must be installed at blind corners or intersections ((which)) that will allow operators to observe oncoming traffic.

((It is recommended that)) (7) Vehicles ((operating)) in congested areas ((should be provided with an audible or visual alarm system)) must operate with a warning light.

(((10) Passengers to ride properly.)) (8) Passengers ((shall)) must not be permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor ((shall)) must they be permitted to ride unless a passenger seat or other protective device is provided.

(((11) Horns and lights.

(a) Each vehicle shall be provided with a horn.

(b) Any vehicle required to travel away from an illuminated area shall be equipped with a light or lights which adequately illuminate the direction of travel.

(12))) (9) Guard on operator's platform.  Every power truck operated from an end platform or standing position ((shall)) must be:

Equipped with a platform extending beyond the operator's position, and

Strong enough to withstand a compression load equal to the weight of the loaded vehicle applied along the longitudinal axis of the truck with the outermost projection of the platform against the flat vertical surface.

(((13) Brakes on power-driven vehicles.  Vehicles shall be equipped with brakes and devices which will hold a parked vehicle with load on any grade on which it may be used.  The brakes and parking devices shall be kept in proper operating condition at all times.

(14))) (10) Cleaning vehicles.  All vehicles ((shall)) must be kept free of excessive accumulations of dust and grease that may present a hazard.

(((15) Moving vehicles.)) (11) Vehicles ((shall)) must be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used.  ((Special precautions shall be taken when pushing vehicles where view is obstructed.))  Pushing of vehicles or railroad cars with the forks or clamps of a lift truck is prohibited.

(((16) Prohibited forms of riding.  Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of vehicles is prohibited.

(17) Jumping on or off moving vehicles.  Jumping on or off moving vehicles is prohibited.

(18) Traffic lanes, designation and systems.  Regular traffic lanes should be established and clearly designated and followed whenever practical.  A one-way traffic system should be employed if practical.

(19) Clear lanes.  Traffic lanes being used by pedestrians or equipment shall be kept clear of dunnage, pallets, etc., and equipment not in use.

(20) Lifting capacity of vehicle to be observed.  At no time shall a load in excess of the manufacturer's maximum lifting capacity rating be lifted, carried, or moved by a lift truck.  Such lifting capacity can be altered with the approval of the equipment manufacturer.

(21) Posting rated capacity.  The maximum rated lifting capacity of all lift trucks shall at all times be posted on the vehicle in such a manner that it is readily visible to the operator.

(22) Carrying loose material.  Lift trucks shall not be used to carry loose loads of pipe, steel, iron, lumber, palletized material, rolls of paper, or barrels unless adequate clearance is provided and the loads are stabilized.

(23) Position of lift forks or clamps.)) (12) Aisles or passageways should be at least three feet wider than the widest vehicle or load traveling the aisle or passageway. When this clearance cannot be maintained, adequate precautions must be taken.

(13) The forks ((or)), clamps, or attachments of lift trucks ((shall)) must be kept as low as possible while the vehicle is moving.  ((They shall be lowered to the floor when the vehicle is parked.

(24) Walking under loads prohibited.  No person shall be allowed under the raised load of a lift truck.

(25) Hoisting of personnel on vehicle forks prohibited.  Personnel shall not be hoisted by standing directly on the forks of vehicles.

(26) Using forklifts as elevated work platforms.  A platform or structure built specifically for hoisting persons may be used providing the following requirements are complied with:

(a) The structure must be securely attached to the forks and shall have standard guardrails and toeboards installed on all sides.

(b) The hydraulic system shall be so designed that the lift mechanism will not drop faster than 135 feet per minute in the event of a failure in any part of the system.  Forklifts used for elevating work platforms shall be identified that they are so designed.

(c) A safety strap shall be installed or the control lever shall be locked to prevent the boom from tilting.

(d) An operator shall attend the lift equipment while workers are on the platform.

(e) The operator shall be in the normal operating position while raising or lowering the platform.

(f) The vehicle shall not travel from point to point while workers are on the platform except that inching or maneuvering at very slow speed is permissible.

(g) The area between workers on the platform and the mast shall be adequately guarded to prevent contact with chains or other shear points.

(27) Overhead guards on lift trucks.  All lift trucks shall be equipped with an overhead guard constructed and installed to conform to USAS B56.1-1969 "Safety Code for Powered Industrial Trucks." This guard may be removed only when it cannot be used due to the nature of the work being performed in which case loads shall be maintained so as not to create a hazard to the operator.

(28) Protection from exhaust system.  Any exhaust system which would be exposed to contact shall be properly insulated or isolated to prevent personnel from being burned.)) (14) The hoisting of personnel by lift trucks must meet the requirements in WAC 296-24-230.

(15) Exhaust systems on lift trucks and jitneys shall be constructed to discharge either within 20((")) inches from the floor or 84((")) inches or more above the floor.  ((The exhausted gases shall be directed away from the operator and the equipment shall be designed in such a manner that the operator will not be exposed to the fumes.

(29) Emergency exit from mobile equipment.)) (16) Mobile equipment with an enclosed cab ((shall)) must be provided with an escape hatch or other method of exit in case the regular exit cannot be used.

(((30) Vehicle wheels chocked.  When driving mobile equipment onto the bed of a vehicle, the wheels of the vehicle shall be chocked.

(31) Prevent trailer from tipping.)) (17) Suitable methods ((shall)) must be used or devices installed which will prevent the trailer from tipping while being loaded or unloaded.

(((32) Refueling.  Gasoline or LPG engines shall be shut off during refueling.

(33) Close valve on LPG container.)) (18) Whenever vehicles using LP gas as a fuel are parked overnight or stored for extended periods of time indoors, with the fuel container in place, the service valve of the fuel container ((shall)) must be closed.

(((34) LP tanks.  LP vehicle fuel tanks shall be installed and protected in a manner which will minimize the possibility of damage to the tank.

(35) Inspecting and testing of LPG containers.  LPG containers shall be inspected and tested periodically.

(36) Spinners on steering wheels.)) (19) The use of spinners on steering wheels ((shall)) must be prohibited unless an anti-kick device is installed or the equipment has a hydraulic steering system.

(20) Rolls transported with a grab or clamp attachment must be carried with the core in a vertical position.

(21) When traveling empty with a grab or clamp attachment, the jaws or blades of those attachments must remain within the running lines of the lift truck.

(22) When transporting two or more rolls with a roll grab attachment, the bottom roll will have at least sixty percent of the grab attachment on it.

(23) When transporting two or more rolls or bales with a grab or clamp attachment, there must be no rolls or bales unsecured if there is risk of part or all of the load shifting or falling.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-150, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-150, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-160
Requirements for cranes and hoists--See general safety and health standards ((to prevail)) (chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D).

((All applicable rules for design, construction, maintenance, operation and testing of cranes and hoists contained in the general safety and health standards shall be complied with.)) Grounding - Where conditions such as corrosive atmospheres, dirt, paint, rust, or other insulating materials prevent reliable metal-to-metal contact for grounding (bridge, wheel and its respective tracks), a separate ground conductor must be provided.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-160, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-160, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-9, filed 6/17/81)

WAC 296-79-170
Requirements for crawler and truck cranes.

(1) ((Rated capacity chart.  A chart indicating the manufacturer's rated capacity at all operating radii for all permissible boom lengths and jib lengths with alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such ratings shall be posted in all mobile type cranes and shall be readily visible to the operator in his normal operating position.

(2))) Boom length indicated.  The length ((shall)) must be plainly marked on each boom section of a mobile crane having a sectioned boom.

(((3))) (2) Radius or boom angle indicator.  A radius or boom angle indicator ((shall)) must be installed where it is readily visible to the operator's ((in his)) normal operating position on all cranes having a movable working boom.

(((4))) (3) Safety device for light fixtures.  Any light fixtures attached to crane boom or machinery house ((shall)) must have a safety strap or other device attached which will prevent the fixture from falling.

(((5))) (4) Boom stops.  Boom stops ((shall)) must be:

Installed to govern the upward travel of the boom to a safe limit. ((Boom stops shall be))

Of adequate strength to prevent the boom from traveling past the vertical position.

(((6))) (5) Controls marked.  Crane operating controls ((shall)) must be marked or an explanation of the controls' functions ((shall)) must be posted in full view of the operator.

(((7))) (6) Locking hydraulic outriggers.  Hydraulic outriggers ((shall)) must be:

Equipped with a pilot operated check valve or

Installed with a mechanical lock ((shall be installed)) which will prevent outriggers from retracting in case of failure of the hydraulic system.

(((8))) (7) Top of boom painted.  The top six feet of the boom or jib ((shall)) must be painted bright yellow or other bright contrasting color if the boom is yellow.

(((Several makes of cranes are already "all yellow." Users say they want to retain the contrasting color theme to call attention to the boomtop.)

(9))) (8) Warning devices.  All cranes ((shall)) must be equipped with a suitable warning device such as a horn or whistle.

(((10))) (9) Hook safety device.  All hooks ((shall)) must be equipped with a safety device or other effective means ((shall)) must be used to prevent accidental unhooking of the load.

(((11))) (10) Counterweight limited.  The amount of crane counterweight ((shall)) must not exceed the maximum amount specified by the crane manufacturer.

(((12))) (11) Use proper size wire rope for sheaves.  The size and diameter of sheaves and wire rope ((shall)) must be compatible and follow the recommendations by the manufacturer, published by the Wire Rope Institute or other acceptable engineering practices.

(((13))) (12) Loading or unloading gear.  Unloading gear such as grapples, tongs, and buckets, ((shall)) must not be left suspended when not in use or whenever the machine is unattended.

(((a) Where grapples, trip tongs or similar device is used for loading, the log holding device shall be lowered to the ground whenever the machine is unattended.

(14))) (13) No one under load.  Personnel ((shall)) must not position themselves under crane loads and such loads ((shall)) must not be carried over workers.

(((15))) (14) Operating clearance from stationary objects. Where the area is accessible to workers:

A distance of 30((" shall)) inches must be maintained between the outermost part of a revolving crane and any stationary object within the swing radius of the crane ((where the area is accessible to workers)) or

The hazardous area must be temporarily guarded or barricaded.

(((16) Clearance requirements from unprotected electrical transmission and distribution lines.

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), all parts of cranes and loads being handled shall maintain the following specified clearances:

(i) For lines rated 50 kv or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be ten feet;

(ii) For lines rated over 50 kv minimum, clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kv over 50 kv, or twice the length of the line insulator but never less than 10 feet;

(iii) In transit with no load and boom lowered the equipment clearance shall be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kv, and 10 feet for voltages over 50 kv up to and including 345 kv, and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kv;

(iv) A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means;

(v) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line and it has been visibly grounded.

(b) Cranes may be operated within the clearances specified in subdivision (a) only when the following precautions are taken:

(i) Lines may be deenergized and visibly grounded at the point of work; or

(ii) Lines owned or under the control of the employer may be deenergized, grounded and locked out on the employer's premises; or

(iii) On N.E.C. approved installation of insulated aerial cable, insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, may be erected to prevent physical contact with the line.

(17))) (15) See WAC 296-24-960 when working around energized lines.

(16) Operators ((shall)) must avoid contacting overhead obstructions which may damage the boom or adversely affect stability.  In instances where the operator may have difficulty in observing clearances, a signal person ((shall)) must be stationed where they can observe clearances and signal the operator.

(((18))) (17) Safe travel across thoroughfares or railroad tracks.

When moving cranes, shovels or similar types of equipment across thoroughfares or railroad tracks ((with cranes, shovels or similar types of equipment, which by its design does not allow)) and the operator does not have a clear vision of approaching traffic, a flagperson ((shall)) must be used.

The flag person must be stationed where ((he/she can control other traffic and signal)) the equipment operator can be signaled and other traffic can be controlled.

(((19) One crew member to give signals.)) (18) Only a designated member of the crew ((shall)) may give signals to the crane operator ((except that)). Exception: Anyone may give an emergency stop signal.

(((20) Standard hand signals.)) (19) When visual signals are used standard hand signals, as illustrated in the general safety and health standards, ((shall)) must be used for directing crane operators.

WAC 296-79-170, Illus. 1)

Height=389 valign="center">Place illustration here.

WAC 296-79-170, Illus. 2)

Height=391 valign="center">Place illustration here.

WAC 296-79-170, Illus. 3)

Height=480 valign="center">Place illustration here.

(((21) Signals by use of radio frequencies.  Class "D" citizen's band radio frequencies shall not be used for signaling crane operators.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-13-053 (Order 81-9), 296-79-170, filed 6/17/81.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW.  81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-170, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, 296-79-170, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-170, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 80-31, filed 1/8/81)

WAC 296-79-180
Privately owned standard gauge railroad operations.

(1) Blue flag or light for railroad operations.

A blue signal (blue flag or blue light for nonilluminated areas) ((shall)) must be displayed at one or both ends of an engine, car(s), or train, to indicate that workers are under or about the railway equipment.

When such warning devices are displayed, the equipment ((shall)) must not be coupled to or moved.

On a dead end spur, a blue signal may be displayed adjacent to the switch opening while cars are being loaded or unloaded.

(2) Blue signals and derails.

Work being carried on which subjects employees to the hazard of moving railroad equipment ((shall)) must be protected by blue signals and locked derails set a minimum of 50 feet from one or both ends of the worksite.

Where the spur track switch is less than 50 feet from the work location, the switch padlocked in the open position will take the place of the derail and the blue signal ((shall)) must be placed at that point.

(3) Signals unobscured.  Equipment which would obscure the blue signal ((shall)) must not be placed on the track.

(4) Signals displayed by each maintenance crew.  Each maintenance crew ((shall)) must display and remove its own set of blue signals.

(5) Warning device.

A flashing warning light or other device ((shall)) must be installed near any opening which leads to a passageway crossing railroad tracks adjacent to the building.

Such light or device ((shall)) must be activated prior to any switching or movement of railroad equipment to warn workers of the dangerous condition in the area.

(6) Cars to be immobilized.  Spotted cars ((shall)) must either have brakes set, wheels blocked, or ((shall)) must be coupled to other immobilized cars to prevent each car from rolling.

(7) Crawling under or between coupled cars prohibited.  Workers ((shall)) must not crawl under or pass between coupled railroad cars to cross tracks.

(8) Warning at road crossing.  An audible whistle, horn or bell ((shall)) must be sounded by the locomotive engineer to give adequate warning prior to switching across any road crossing.

(9) Flying switches.  When switching railroad equipment in congested areas or across roadways or walkways "flying switches" ((shall)) must be prohibited.

(10) Car opening devices.  All box car doors and associated mechanisms ((shall)) must be carefully inspected before workers attempt to open or close them.  If the door is not free and cannot be opened safely by hand, equipment ((shall)) must be provided, where necessary, and a safe method ((shall)) must be used to open or close the door.

(11) Clearance from railroad tracks.  Materials ((shall)) must not be stacked or piled closer than 8 1/2' from the center line of a standard gauge railroad track.

(12) Operating under limited visibility conditions.

(((a))) Unless trains are operated in a manner to allow the operator to see a safe stopping distance in the direction of travel, a flagperson(s) ((shall)) must be positioned in such a manner to safely direct movement of the train.

(((b))) Flagperson ((shall)) must:

Remain within sight of the operator, or ((shall))

Be equipped to maintain visual or voice communication with the operator as conditions dictate.

(13) A flagperson ((shall)) must direct the movement of trains being moved across main roads or thoroughfares which do not have adequate traffic warning lights, bells or barricades.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW.  81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-180, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, 296-79-180, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-180, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-190
Loading and unloading materials from railway cars or trucks.

(1) Safe access to top of railroad cars or trucks.  Platforms with ladders or stairways ((shall)) must be installed or made available when needed so that workers may safely gain access to and perform work on the top of railroad cars or trucks when ladders are not installed on such equipment.

(2) Nets not to cover ladders.  Rolled chip nets ((shall)) must not be positioned where they cover the ladders on railroad cars or trucks.

(3) Tipple type unloading device.  When a tipple type unloading device is used for removing chips from cars, the cars ((shall)) must be properly secured in place and all employees ((shall)) must be in the clear before dumping operation is started.

(4) Handling pulp chips and hog fuel from trucks and trailers.

(a) Elevating platform-type or cable-lift type unloading devices ((shall)) must have adequate back bumper stops.

(b) Side rails or other positive means to prevent the trailer from falling ((shall)) must be used while unloading single trailer units.

(c) The truck or tractor ((shall)) must be secured when elevating platform lifts are used to elevate both the tractor and trailer or single unit trucks.

(d) All personnel ((shall)) must be clear of all hoisting or elevating mechanisms before dumping commences.

(e) No person ((shall remain)) is allowed in any truck while the truck is being elevated.

(5) Taking chip samples.  A safe area and suitable device ((shall)) must be provided for the chip tester to use while taking chip samples.

(6) Derail required ((while unloading)) for hazardous materials.  To protect tank cars from being moved while loading or unloading hazardous materials by use of pipes or hoses, a derail and blue flag ((shall)) must be set between the spotted tank cars and any moving railroad equipment.

(7) Moving cars by tugger or powered drums.  When rail cars are moved by a tugger or powered drums with cables, a means should be provided or the area barricaded in such a manner that the moving cables do not endanger the workers.

(8) Handling pulpwood from flatcars and all other railway cars.

(a) Railroad flatcars for the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the car ((shall)) must be equipped with safety-stake pockets.

(b) Where pulpwood is loaded crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller than 4 by 4 inches ((shall)) must be used to prevent the load from shifting.

(c) Cutting stakes on log bundles. When it is necessary to cut stakes((,)):

Those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first, and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side.

Wire cutters equipped with long extension handles ((shall)) must be used.

No person ((shall be)) is permitted along the dumping side of the car after the stakes have been cut.

(d) Cutting bands on log bundles.  When cutting bands on bundled logs, workers ((shall)) must:

Position themselves in a safe location((.));

Not use double bitted axes ((shall not be used)) for cutting bands((.));

Use caution ((shall be used)) to prevent being struck by ends of bands being cut and((,));

If needed, wear personal protective equipment ((shall be worn)).

(e) Flatcars and all other cars ((shall)) must be:

Chocked during unloading((.  Where equipment is not provided with hand brakes,)) and,

Rail clamping chocks ((shall)) must be used when equipment is not provided with hand brakes.

(9) Handling pulpwood from trucks.

(a) Cutting of stakes and binder wires ((shall)) must be done in accordance with (8)(c) of this section.

(b) Binders or stakes ((shall)) must not be loosened or removed:

Until the logs are secured and held by equipment which will prevent them from rolling off the truck, or

Barricades ((shall be provided which)) will prevent logs from striking the person removing the binders or stakes.

(c) Where binder chains and crane slings are used((,)):

The crane slings ((shall)) must be attached and taut before the binder chains are released((.)) and,

The hooker ((shall)) must see that the helper is clear before signaling for the movement of the load.

(d) ((Driver to leave truck cab while unloading.))  The truck driver ((shall)) must:

Leave the truck cab and ((be)) remain in the clear, preferably in a designated area, and ((shall))

Be in clear view of the unloading equipment operator while the unloader is approaching the loaded truck.

(((e) Driver to remain outside cab during unloading.  The truck driver shall remain outside the cab and clear of the load while logs are being unloaded except that)) After a complete load is lifted as a unit and held stationary ((he)), the truck driver may enter the cab and drive forward from under the suspended load.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-190, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-190, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-200
Bridge and dock plates.

Properly constructed bridge or dock plates ((shall)) must be furnished and used to bridge the area between a dock and truck or railroad car.  The following requirements ((shall)) must be complied with for construction and use of such bridge or dock plates:

(1) Strength.  The plate ((shall)) must be capable of supporting three times the maximum load to which it will be subjected.

(2) Stops ((required)).  The plates ((shall)) must be provided with positive stops to prevent the plates from shifting or moving.

(3) Plates ((to bear solidly)).

The plates ((shall)) must bear solidly on the dock and on the floor of the car or truck.

Plates with excessive teeter or rock ((shall)) must be repaired or replaced.

(4) Upturn or lip on plates.  The sides of bridge or dock plates ((shall)) must have an upturn or lip of at least 4((")) inches covering the area between the edge of the loading dock and edge of car or truck floor whenever this distance exceeds 18((")) inches to prevent wheeled equipment from running off the sides.

(5) Bearing surface.  Bridge or dock plates ((shall)) must have at least 6((")) inches bearing surface on the loading dock.

(6) Suitable fittings to be used.  Bridge or dock plates intended to be moved by mechanized equipment ((shall)) must be designed for this purpose or appropriate fittings or attachments ((shall)) must be used.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-200, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-200, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-210
((Belt, chain and roller type)) For conveyors, maintenance and inspection.

(((1) Protection from falling material.  Whenever conveyors pass adjacent to or over working areas or passageways used by personnel, protective guards shall be installed.  These guards shall be designed to catch and hold any load or materials which may fall off or become dislodged and injure a worker.

(2) Walking on rolls prohibited.  Employees shall not be allowed to walk on the rolls of roller type conveyors except for emergency.

(3) Guarding shaftway and material entrances of elevator type conveyors.  Guards, screens or barricades of sufficient strength and size to prevent material from falling shall be installed on all sides of the shaftway of elevator type conveyors except at openings where material is loaded or unloaded.  Automatic shaftway gates or suitable barriers shall be installed at each floor level where material is loaded or unloaded from the platform.

(4) Emergency conveyor stops.  Conveyors shall be provided with an emergency stopping device which can be reached from the conveyor.  Such device shall be located near the material entrance to each barker, chipper, saw, or similar type of equipment except where the conveyor leading into such equipment is under constant control of an operator who has full view of the material entrance and is located where he cannot possibly fall onto the conveyor.

(5) Safe access to conveyors.  Where conveyors are in excess of 7' in height, means shall be provided to safely permit essential inspection and maintenance operations.

(6) Adjustment.  All take-up devices provided for the purpose of adjusting for stretch in the belt, chain or cable should be checked at intervals for proper functioning and adjustment.

(7) Worn parts.  Any part showing signs of significant wear shall be inspected carefully and replaced prior to reaching a condition where it may create a hazard.

(8) Replacement of parts.  Replacement parts shall be equal to or exceed the manufacturer's specifications.)) See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-210, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-210, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-9, filed 6/17/81)

WAC 296-79-220
Deactivating and lockout requirements.

(1) ((Tagout or other alternative security procedures shall be phased out by (one after effective date).  In the one year interim, all requirements and procedures of this section shall apply except:

(a) Physical restraint devices other than padlocks may be used.

(b) Whenever devices other than identified padlocks are used, a warning information tag shall be required.

(c) Whenever the operating control cannot be physically blocked by the restraining device, a warning information tag shall be required.

(2))) Control requirement.  Whenever the unexpected startup of machinery, the energizing of electrical circuits, the flow of material in piping systems or the removal of guards would endanger workers, such exposure ((shall)) must be prevented by deactivating and locking out the controls as required by ((this section)) chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-4.


EXCEPTION:In instances where any machine must be in motion for proper adjustment, for removal or replacement of materials from the machine, for machine clothing changes or for roping up, the following precautions ((shall)) must be observed:

(((a))) The machine ((shall)) must be operated at ((slow)) thread or jog speed;

(((b))) Extension tools which minimize personnel exposure ((shall)) must be used where possible;

(((c))) The operating controls ((shall)) must at all times be under the control of a qualified operator or craftsman;

(((d))) All personnel ((shall)) must remain in view of the operator or other means of communication shall be established ((whenever possible));

(((e))) All personnel must be beyond the reach of other machine section(s) or element(s) which offer potential exposure.  In any instance where such potential exposure exists, such other section(s) or element(s) ((shall)) must be separately locked out.

(((3) Equipment requirements.

(a) The employer shall provide and each employee shall use as many padlocks, tags, chains, or devices as required to implement these requirements.

(b) Provisions shall be made whereby the source of power or exposure can be locked out in accordance with the requirements of this section.

(c) On electrically powered equipment, "stop/start" control switches shall not be used as lockout switches.  Lockout switches must be circuit disconnects and must adequately separate the power source from the prime mover so that accidental startup of the equipment being locked out is precluded.

(4) Training requirements.

(a) Each person who will be given authority to implement these requirements shall first be thoroughly trained in the requirements and procedures.

(b) Before being given authority to deactivate and lockout a particular system or piece of equipment, authorized personnel shall be made fully aware of all power sources and/or material entry sources which may offer exposure.

(c) On complex systems or equipment which contain multiple lockout points not at the immediate work location, a complete checklist of all lockout points necessary for isolation is recommended to help eliminate the chance of human error.

(5) Control procedure.

(a) Each person who would be exposed to the hazard shall apply a personal padlock on the control mechanism.  Padlocks shall be applied in such a manner as to physically block the control from being moved into the operating position.  Each lock shall be personally identified or an information tag identifying the owner shall be attached to the lock.

(b) Padlocks used in lockout procedures may only be removed by the person identified on the lock, except, when it is positively determined that the owner/user of the lock has left the premises without removing a lock, the job supervisor may remove the lock in accordance with a specific procedure formulated by the local plant labor/management safety committee or approved by the department.

(6) Testing after lockout or tagout.  After tagging or locking out equipment, a test shall be conducted to ascertain that the equipment has been made inoperative or the flow of material has been positively stopped.  Precautions shall be taken to ascertain that persons will not be subjected to hazard while conducting test if power source or flow of material is not shut off.

(7) Alternate lockout procedure.  Before an alternate procedure can be utilized, a specific written procedure shall be reviewed by the local plant labor/management safety committee and approved by the department of labor and industries.

(8))) (2) Group lockout or tagout devices. Procedures must meet the minimum requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-4.

(3) Temporary or alternate power ((to be avoided)).

Whenever possible, temporary or alternate sources of power to the equipment being worked on ((shall)) must be avoided.

If the use of such power is necessary, all affected employees ((shall)) must be informed and the source of temporary or alternate power ((shall)) must be identified.

(((9) Where tags are required to implement these lockout and control procedures, the tag and attachment device shall be constructed of such material that it will not be likely to deteriorate in the environment that it will be subjected to.

(10) Provisional exception.  Electrical lighting and instrument circuits of 240 volts or less on single phase systems or 277 volts on three-phase systems may be exempted from the lockout requirements of (5)(a) of this section provided that:

(a) An information tag meeting the requirements of subsection (9) of this section is used in lieu of a padlock;

(b) The information tag shall be placed on the switch or switch cover handle in such a manner as to easily identify the deactivated switchgear.

(11))) (4) Deactivating piping systems.

(((a))) Hazardous material systems are defined as:

Gaseous systems that are operated at more than 200 psig;

Systems containing any liquid at more than 500 psig;

Systems containing any material at more than 130F;

Any cryogenic system,

Systems containing material which is chemically hazardous as defined by NFPA 704 ((M)) 1996 Class 3 and 4;

Systems containing material classified as flammable or explosive as defined in NFPA Class I.

(((b))) Lockout of piping systems ((shall)) must provide isolation to the worksite, including backflow where such potential exists and the system is classified as a hazardous material system.  The required method ((shall)) must be applied based on the content of the system as specified below:

(((i))) (a) Nonhazardous systems ((shall)) must be deactivated by locking out either the pump or a single valve.

(((ii))) (b) Hazardous material systems ((shall)) must be deactivated by one of the following methods:

(((A))) Locking out both the pump and one valve between the pump and the worksite;

(((B))) Locking out two valves between the hazard source and the worksite;

(((C))) Installing and locking out a blank flange between the hazard source and worksite;

(((D))) Line breaking between the hazard and the worksite;

On hazardous chemical systems where the methods (((A), (B) or (C))) already listed are not available, or ((where methods (A), (B) or (C))) by themselves create a hazard, single valve closure isolation may be used provided that potentially exposed employees are adequately protected by other means such as personal protective equipment.

(((E))) On all steam systems where the methods (((A), (B) or (C))) already listed are not available, single valve closure isolation may be used provided that the system is equipped with valves meeting all requirements of ANSI B16.5-1996 and ANSI B16.34-1996.  Where single valve isolation is used, the steamline must also be equipped with a bleed valve downstream from the valve closure to prove isolation of the worksite.

(((12))) (c) Reactivating separated hazardous material systems.  When a blank flange (blind) is used to separate off portions of hazardous material systems from a portion which is in operation((, removal of the blind offers potential exposure to employees.  The removal procedure shall be protected by:

(a) Two separate valve closures between the blank flange and the potential exposure; or

(b) A single valve closure with a bleeder valve or weep drain between the blank flange and the valve closure.  Employees shall closely check for evidence of escapement from the bleeder valve or weep plug before starting to remove the blank flange.

(c) Where subdivisions (a) or (b) are not possible or, in themselves create a hazard, potentially exposed employees must be adequately protected by personal protective equipment before removing the blank flange.

(d) Bleeder valves are recommended behind all primary valve closures on hazardous material systems.  Consideration should be given to the nature of the material in the system when installing bleeder valves.  To assist in preventing plugging, bleeder valves should generally be installed in the top one-third of the pipe.  Short exhaust pipes should be installed on bleeder valves to direct the flow of possible escapement away from the position where an employee would normally be when using the bleeder valve)). The employer must develop and implement a procedure for removal of the blank flange that will ensure all hazards have been eliminated.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-13-053 (Order 81-9), 296-79-220, filed 6/17/81.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW.  81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-220, filed 1/8/81; Order 76-7, 296-79-220, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-220, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-220, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-230
((Vessel or)) Confined ((area requirements)) spaces.

(1) ((Management's responsibility for planning.  Management shall be responsible for developing a written procedure to be followed for safe entry of employees into confined areas, tanks, vessels, or sewers and for maintaining a safe condition while work is being performed therein.  Such procedure shall include the following minimum requirements:

(a) All vessels, sewers or confined areas must be properly ventilated at all times.  Such areas shall be tested and/or evaluated by a person thoroughly trained and instructed in the use of instruments required, or qualified to make evaluations of conditions which may be encountered, before employees enter and at reasonable intervals as work progresses.  Special consideration shall be given to the possibility that the area may be deficient of oxygen or may contain dangerous concentrations of gases or toxic substances.

(b) Each vessel, tank or confined area shall be cleaned and/or purged as thoroughly as practical prior to entry.

(c))) Entry into confined spaces must be in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M.

(2) All equipment necessary to perform the work, including safety equipment, must be at the ((job site)) confined space and ((shall)) must be inspected or tested to assure that it functions properly.

(((d) All electrical circuits, valves, ducts, pipes, and other equipment shall be locked out, tagged out, or blanked as required in accordance with the applicable rules contained in WAC 296-79-220 of this chapter.

(e) Prior to and while welding or burning is being done in areas where a fire or explosion hazard may exist, the applicable rules contained in WAC 296-79-040 of this chapter, shall be complied with.

(f) For evaluating conditions concerning health, fire or explosion hazards, requirements outlined in the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, shall be followed.

(2) Designated person in charge.  Management shall designate an individual who shall be responsible for the safety of the employees and institute such means, methods, and practices as to render the work and place of work safe.  The designated person shall ascertain that the required written procedures are followed.

(3) Employees to be thoroughly instructed in procedure.  All employees involved in the entry of vessels or confined areas shall be thoroughly instructed in safe procedures to be followed.

(4) Protective equipment required.  Any employee entering a vessel or enclosed area shall use any protective equipment or clothing needed to afford him proper protection.  Each person shall wear equipment capable of providing safe respirable air if the area may be deficient of oxygen or shall wear proper respiratory protective equipment if the atmosphere may contain a hazardous concentration of contaminants.  In addition, while entering or working in an atmosphere immediately hazardous to health, employees shall wear a safety harness with lifeline attached and continue to wear such equipment so long as the hazard exists.

(5) Attendant required.  An attendant shall remain outside at the opening of the confined area to render assistance necessary to persons inside.  The attendant shall be provided with life support equipment necessary for his protection if an emergency arises which would require him to enter the area.

(6) Life support equipment required.  Life support)) (3) Protective equipment ((which)) that will afford proper protection to the employee from any condition which may arise ((shall)) based on the hazard assessment, must be available either at the entrance or within the ((vessel or)) confined ((area or at the entrance thereto)) space.

(((7) Mechanical device required when entry from the top.  Where employees must enter a vessel or confined area from the top, and where it would be impossible to manually rescue or remove overcome persons in the area, a mechanical device shall be provided with which the attendant can lift employees out.

(8) Electrical shock protection.)) (4) Electrical circuits leading into ((vessels or)) confined ((areas)) spaces where electrical conductive hazards exist ((shall)) must be protected by a ground fault interrupter or the voltage ((shall)) must not exceed 24 volts.

(((9) Battery operated flashlights or lanterns.)) (5) Battery operated flashlights or lantern ((shall)) must be readily available for use by persons working in areas where escape would be difficult if normal lighting system should fail.  Only explosion-proof type lights ((shall)) may be taken into any atmosphere which may contain an explosive concentration.

(((10) Use of materials which may create hazardous atmosphere.  Tests shall be conducted at reasonable intervals when using materials for cleaning, coating or other purposes which may cause the atmosphere to become hazardous.))

[Order 74-24, 296-79-230, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-230, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-7, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-79-240
Storage of fuel, oil, flammables and chemicals.

(((1) Handling and labeling of flammable and hazardous materials.  Containers of toxic, flammable or irritating substances shall be properly labeled and stored as specified in "precautionary labeling of hazardous substances used in places of employment," as adopted by the department of labor and industries.

(2) To be stored away from sources of ignition.  Fuels, oils, flammable chemicals or other flammable materials shall be stored in a room or area away from sources of ignition.

(3) Provide for safe handling.  Provisions shall be made for handling drums safely and means shall be afforded to position drums on their sides when material must be discharged from a valve or spigot placed in the top of the drum.

(4) Bonding (grounding) required.  When dispensing material which may be ignited by static electricity, a method shall be provided to properly bond (ground) the drum and container into which material is being dispensed.

(5) Storage of drums.  Drums shall be stored in a manner which will prevent them from falling or rolling.

(6) Bagged or drummed chemicals.  Bagged or drummed chemicals shall be handled properly to prevent spillage or damage to the containers.  Chemicals shall be stored in such a manner that they will not decompose, contaminate, or react with other chemicals which could present a hazard.  The manufacturer's safe practices recommendations or those published by the Manufacturing Chemists Association should be followed.

(7) Storing liquid chlorine tanks.  Sufficient and adequate ventilation shall be provided when liquid chlorine tanks are stored in a room.  At least two exits, remote from each other, shall be provided for all rooms in which chlorine is stored.

(8) Hoops for acid storage tanks.  Hoops of tanks shall be made of rods rather than flat strips and shall be safely maintained by scheduled inspections.

(9) Turpentine systems and storage tanks.  Nonsparking tools and ground hose shall be used when pumping out the tank.  The tank shall be surrounded by a berm or moat.  Drainage or diking of tanks shall comply with the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-33005.)) See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part E.

[Order 76-7, 296-79-240, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-240, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-240, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-79-250
Safety procedure for handling dry sulfur.

(1) Sulfur burners.  Sulfur-burner houses ((shall)) must:

Be safely and adequately ventilated, and

Every precaution ((shall be)) taken to guard against dust, explosion hazards and fires, in accordance with American National Standards ((Z9.2-1960 and Z12.12-1968)) Z9.2-1979 (R1991).

(2) Handling/storage of dry sulfur.

(a) Nonsparking tools and equipment ((shall)) must be used in handling dry sulfur.

(b) Sulfur storage bins ((shall)) must be kept free of sulfur dust accumulation, and buildings should be designed with explosion relief, in accordance with the latest revision of American National Standard ((Z9.2-1960)) Z9.2-1979 (R1991).

(c) ((Electrical equipment shall be of the explosion-proof type, according to the safety standard for installing electric wires and equipment, chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, general safety and health standards.

(d))) Sulfur-melting equipment ((shall)) must not be located in the burner room.

(3) Handling/storage of liquid sulfur.

(a) Each facility utilizing liquid sulfur must:

Carefully examine its own handling system and

Formulate a written procedure for maintenance, receiving, storing and using this product.

(b) A minimum of two trained employees must be assigned when a tank car is first opened in preparation for venting and unloading.

(c) Approved respiratory protective equipment for H2S exposure, chemical splash goggles and gloves must be worn when performing this work.

(d) Spark producing or electric operated tools must not be used to unplug railroad car vents.

(e) Where venting can cause harmful exposure to other unprotected workers in the area:

A venting system must be installed which adequately contains any gas escapement from a tank car while venting.

The vented gas must be carried to a safe location for discharge or circulated through a scrubbing system.

The venting system must be connected before valves which would allow escapement are opened.

(f) Smoking, open burning or welding must be prohibited while unloading is in process or danger of gas escapement exists.

(4) Acid plant - Protection for employees.

(a) Where lime slaking takes place, employees must be provided with rubber boots, rubber gloves, protective aprons, and eye protection. A deluge shower and eyewash must be provided to flush the skin and eyes to counteract lime and acid burns.

(b) Hoops for acid storage tanks must be:

Made of round rods rather than flat strips, and

Regularly inspected and safety maintained.

(c) Sulphur burner ignitors must have a means to automatically shut off the fuel to the ignitor when the flame has been extinguished.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-79-250, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 76-7, 296-79-250, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-250, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-250, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-260
Pulpwood storage and handling.

(1) ((Proper)) Piling of logs.

Logs ((shall)) must be piled or removed in an orderly manner.

The piles ((shall)) must be stable and individual logs properly placed to prevent them from rolling or falling.

The ends ((shall)) must not project into walkways, roadways or areas reserved for other purposes and

Sufficient clearance ((shall)) must be maintained for safe travel of all vehicles and loads.

(2) ((Prohibited use of wire rope doglines.))  Wire rope doglines used for towing or rafting ((shall)) must not be used when:

(((a))) They acquire jaggers to the extent that they present a hazard to the employees handling them; or

(((b))) When they are weakened to the extent that they are hazardous.

(3) ((Boom stick to support weight.))  Boom sticks ((shall)) must be capable of safely supporting the weight imposed upon them.

(4) ((Stiff boom construction.))  Stiff booms ((shall)) must be:

Made by fastening not less than two boom sticks together.  ((The width of the stiff boom shall be))

Not less than 36((")) inches in width measured from outside to outside of the outer logs.  ((The boom sticks shall be))

Fastened together with not less than 4((")) inch by 6((")) inch cross ties or cable lashing properly recessed into notches in the boom sticks and secured.

(5) ((Pike poles.))  Pike poles ((shall)) must be kept in good repair.  Conductive pike poles ((shall)) must not be used when it is possible that they may come in contact with electrical conductors.

(6) ((Logs not to be lifted over employees.))  Logs ((shall)) must not be lifted over employees and employees ((shall)) must stay clear of the hazardous area near where logs are being lifted or swung.

(7) ((Log storing or sorting in water.))  Storing or sorting on water or any boom work other than boom boat operations, ((shall)) must require a minimum of two persons.

(8) ((Overhead protection on mobile equipment.))  All mobile equipment used to handle logs, blocks or cants ((shall)) must be provided with adequate overhead protection.

(9) ((Arrangement of unloading lines.))  Unloading lines ((shall)) must be so arranged that it is not necessary for the worker to attach them on the pond or dump side of the load.

(10) ((Unauthorized traffic prohibited.))  Unauthorized vehicles and unauthorized foot traffic ((shall)) must not be allowed in any active sorting, storing, loading, or unloading areas.

(11) ((Safe movement of equipment.))  Log unloaders ((shall)) must not be moved about the premises with loads raised higher than absolutely necessary.

(12) ((High visibility jackets or vests required.))  Jackets or vests of fluorescent or other high visibility material ((shall)) must be worn by persons working on dry land log storage.

(13) ((Dumps to be cleaned.))  All log dumps ((shall)) must be periodically cleared of bark and other debris.

(14) ((Hand tools.))  Handles of wood hooks ((shall)) must be locked to the shank to prevent them from rotating.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-260, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-260, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-270
Pulpwood preparation((--Scope and application)).

((All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-79-270 in the section number apply to pulpwood preparation.)) (1) Barker feeding devices must be designed in such a manner that the operator will not be required to hold or make any physical contact with any log or bolt during the barking operations.

(2) A dog or locking device in addition to the motor switch, clutch, belt shifter or other power disconnecting device must be installed on all intermittent barking drums to prevent the drum from moving while it is being filled or emptied.

(3) Hydraulic barkers.

(a) The inlet and outlet areas of hydraulic barkers must be equipped with baffles or devices that will reasonably prevent material from flying out while the machine is in operation.

(b) The operator must be protected by at least five-ply laminated glass or material of equivalent strength.

(4) The high pressure hoses of hydraulic barkers must be secured in such a manner that the hose connection ends will be restrained if a hose connection fails.

(5) The feed operator's station must not be in direct line with the chipper blades.  Suitable safeguards must be installed to prevent chips or chunks from being thrown out and striking the person feeding the machine.

(6) When the operator cannot readily observe the material being fed into the chipper, a mirror or other device must be installed in such a position that the ingoing material can be monitored.

(7) Metal bars or other nonchippable devices must not be used to clear jams or plug-up at the feed entrance to a chipper or hog while the machine is running.

(8) Water wheel speed governor.

Water wheels, when directly connected to marker disks or grinders, must be provided with speed governors, if operated with gate wide open.

Water wheels directly connected to pulp grinders must be provided with speed governors limiting the peripheral speed of the grinder to that recommended by the manufacturer.

(9) Knot cleaners of the woodpecker type.

The operators of knot cleaners of the woodpecker type must wear eye protection equipment.

Such knot cleaners should be enclosed to protect passersby from flying chips.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-270, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-270, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-27003
Log hauls, slips, and carriages.

(1) Controls ((shall)) must be:

Arranged to operate from a position where the operator will at all times be in the clear of logs, machinery, lines, and rigging.  ((Controls shall be))

Marked to indicate their function.

(2) ((A guard shall be provided to prevent logs from rolling off the log deck into the well.)) Log decks must be provided with effective means to prevent logs from accidentally rolling down the deck and onto the carriage or its runway.

(3) When needed for protection of personnel, an automatic stop or interlocking device ((shall)) must be installed on log hauls or slips. These devices are not a substitute for lockout.

(4) A barricade or other positive stop of adequate strength ((shall)) must be provided to protect the sawyer from rolling logs.

(5) Canting gear or other equipment ((shall)) must not ((be allowed to)) hang over the log deck in such a manner as to endanger employees.

(6) ((Canting gear controls shall be marked to indicate their function.

(7))) The sawyer ((shall)) must be primarily responsible for the safety of the carriage crew and offbearers((.  He shall)) and must exercise due care in the operation of the carriage and log turning devices.

(((8))) (7) Feed works and log turning control levers ((shall)) must be so arranged that they may be secured when not in use and ((shall)) must be adequately guarded against accidental activation.

(((9))) (8) A control device ((shall)) must be provided so that the sawyer may stop the head rig section of the mill without leaving his stand.

(((10))) (9) An effective method of disengaging the head rig saws from the power unit ((shall)) must be installed on all head rigs where the power unit is not directly controlled by the sawyer.  ((The saws shall be disengaged from the source of power and locked or tagged out before repairs or changes are made.

(11))) (10) The sawyer ((shall)) must be safeguarded either by his location or by use of substantial screens or approved safety glass.

(((12))) (11) Carriages upon which persons are required to work ((shall)) must be solidly decked over and the employee properly protected.

(((13))) (12) The feed control lever of friction or belt-driven carriage feed works ((shall)) must be designed to operate away from the saws or carriage track.

(((14))) (13) A substantial stop or bumper ((shall)) must be installed at each end of the carriage run.

(((15))) (14) Substantial sweeps ((shall)) must be installed in front of each carriage wheel.  Such sweeps ((shall)) must extend to within 1/4 inch of the rails.

(((16))) (15) Where power-operated log turners are used, carriage knees ((shall)) must be provided with goosenecks or other substantial means of protecting the carriage crew.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-27003, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-27005
Band saws.

(1) Band saws ((shall)) must be given a thorough daily inspection and any deficiency reported and corrected.

(2) Any band saw found to have developed a crack greater than one-tenth the width of the saw ((shall)) must be removed from service until the width of the saw is reduced to eliminate the crack, the cracked section is removed, or the development of the crack is arrested by welding.

(3) Band saws ((shall)) must not be continued in use on the head rig for which they have been designed after they have been reduced 40% in width.

(4) Band saw guides ((shall)) must be maintained in good condition and proper alignment at all times.

(5) All head band saw wheels ((shall)) must have a minimum rim thickness of 5/8((")) inches, except for a distance not to exceed one inch from the front edge of the wheel.

(6) Band saws ((shall)) must not be run at a speed in excess of the manufacturer's recommendations.

(7) A band wheel that has developed a crack in the rim ((shall)) must be immediately removed from service.  If a crack has developed in a spoke, the wheel ((shall)) must be removed from service until properly repaired.

(8) All band wheel guards ((shall)) must be constructed of not lighter than ten U.S. Gauge metal, or not less than two-inch wood material or equivalent, attached to substantial frames.  Necessary ventilating ports, not larger than two by four inches, and suitable doors or gates for the lubrication and repair of the saw will be permitted.

(9) Every band mill ((shall)) must be equipped with a saw catcher, rest or guard of substantial construction.

(10) Each gang ripper of band or straight saw type ((shall)) must have the cutting edges of the saw guarded by a hood or screen substantially secured to the framework of the machine.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-27005, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-27007
Circular saws speeds and repairs.

(1) Circular saws ((shall)) must not be operated at speeds in excess of those specified by the manufacturers.

(2) Circular saws ((shall)) must be inspected for cracks each time the teeth are filed or set.  They ((shall)) must be discontinued from use until properly repaired when found to have developed a crack exceeding the safe limits specified by the manufacturer.

(3) Damaged saws ((shall)) must be repaired only by persons experienced and knowledgeable in this type of work or by a manufacturers representative.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-27007, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-27009
Slasher saws-tables.

(1) Slasher saws ((shall)) must be guarded in accordance with WAC 296-79-030(((4))) (3) of this chapter.

(2) Saws ((shall)) must be stopped and locked or tagged out whenever it is necessary for any person to be on the slasher table.

(3) Saws below table where not protected by the frame of the machine, the underside of the slasher saws ((shall)) must be adequately guarded.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-27009, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-27011
Circular swing saws.

(1) Each circular swing saw ((shall)) must be provided with a hood guard that completely encloses the upper half of the saw.

(2) Each swing saw ((shall)) must be equipped with a positive stop at the extent of the swing necessary to cut the material.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-27011, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-27013
Drag saws--Fixed chain saws--Circular cut-off saws.

(1) Saws ((shall)) must be so arranged that they will not project into any passageway when in an idle or working position.  When existing conditions do not leave clear passage the saws ((shall)) must be fenced off in order to make it impossible for anyone to walk into them.

(2) Log decks ((shall)) must be equipped with a device to hold the material stable when being cut.

(3) Drag saws and fixed chain saws ((shall)) must be equipped with a device that will safely lock them in an "up" position.

(4) All persons ((shall)) must be in the clear before starting operations ((of a drag-chain or swing saw)).

[Order 74-24, 296-79-27013, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-27015
Construction and use of pulpwood splitters.

(1) The activating control unit for a splitter ((shall)) must be of the clutch or positive acting type and ((shall)) must be so arranged and designed that it will not repeat without additional activation before starting a second cycle.

(2) The base or rest upon which the wood seats while being split ((shall)) must have a corrugated surface or other means shall be provided which will prevent the wood block or log from shifting as the pressure is applied.

(3) The splitter base or rest and wood to be split ((shall)) must be free of ice, snow, and chips.

(4) The splitter machine operator ((shall)) must have a clear, unobstructed view of the work area adjacent to the splitting operation when other workers must be in such area while blocks are being split.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-27015, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-280
Chip and hog fuel storage.

(1) Entry into bins and silos.

(a) ((No worker shall be permitted to enter a bin unless provided with a safety belt, with line attached, and an attendant stationed at the bin to summon assistance.

(b) Before)) Entry into chip bins and silos, ((all applicable rules under vessel)) must be in compliance with the requirements of confined space entry, WAC 296-79-230, of this chapter, ((shall be complied with)).

(((c))) (b) Chip and sawdust bins.  Steam or compressed air lances, or other ((facilities, shall)) safe methods, must be used for breaking ((down the arches caused by jamming in chip lofts)) bridges and hangups.

(((d))) (c) Employees ((shall)) must be prohibited from working under or on top overhangs or bridges.  Extreme care ((shall)) must be taken to prevent chips or hog fuel from creating an overhang or bridging.

(((e))) (d) Hog fuel bins ((shall)) must be provided with an approved railed platform or walkways near the top or other approved means ((shall)) must be provided for use of employees engaged in dislodging hog fuel.

(2) Exterior chip and hog fuel storage.

(a) When mobile equipment is used on top of hog fuel or chip piles, a roll-over protection system ((shall)) must be installed on the equipment.

(b) If the cab is of the enclosed type, windshield wipers ((shall)) must be installed.

(c) If used during hours of darkness the area ((shall)) must be adequately illuminated or the equipment ((shall)) must have adequate lights to provide the operator sufficient illumination to safely perform the work.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-280, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-280, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-290
Stock preparation and reprocessing((--Scope and application)).

((All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-79-290 in the section number apply to stock preparation and reprocessing.))

[Order 74-24, 296-79-290, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-290, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29001
Digester valves and piping.

(1) The blow valve of a digester ((shall)) must be arranged so as to be operated from another room, remote from safety valves.

(((1) Digester piping shall meet the criteria of the boiler and pressure vessel standards.))

(2) Heavy duty pipe, valves, and fittings ((shall)) must be used between the digester and blow pit blowtanks and dumptanks.  These valves, fittings, and pipes ((shall)) must be inspected at least semiannually to determine the degree of deterioration and should be replaced when necessary.

(3) Digester blow valves or controls ((shall)) must be pinned or locked in closed position throughout the entire cooking period.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29001, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 77-12, filed 7/11/77)

WAC 296-79-29003
Warning of digester being blown.

(1) Procedures must be developed to ensure that digester operators are aware of personnel entering hazardous areas.

Audible warning signals and red warning lights ((shall)) must be installed in areas which may be hazardous to personnel while digesters are being blown.

Such devices ((shall)) must be activated prior to blowing a digester and the warning lights ((shall)) must remain lighted as long as the hazard exists.

(((1))) (2) Blowing digester.  Blow-off valves ((shall)) must be opened slowly.

(((2))) (3) After the digester has started to be blown, the blow-off valve ((shall)) must be left open, and the hand plate ((shall)) must not be removed until the person responsible signals the blow-pit person that the blow is completed.  Whenever it becomes necessary to remove the hand plate to clear stock, operators ((shall)) must wear eye protection equipment and protective clothing to guard against burns from hot stock.

(((3) In addition to the vessel entry procedure of WAC 296-79-230, of this chapter, the blow-pit door or hatch shall be locked open whenever a person is in the blow-pit.))

(4) Blow-pit hoops ((shall)) must be maintained in a safe condition.

(5) Where the processes of the sulfate and soda operations are similar to those of the sulfite processes, the standard of WAC 296-79-29001 and 296-79-29003, of this chapter, ((shall apply)) applies to both processes.

(6) ((At least one unobstructed exit at each end of the room shall be provided on each floor of a digester building.

(7))) Means ((shall)) must be provided ((whereby)) so the digester cook ((shall)) can signal the ((man)) employee in the chip bin before starting to load the digester.

[Order 77-12, 296-79-29003, filed 7/11/77; Order 76-7, 296-79-29003, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-29003, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29005
Unplugging quick lime stoppages.

Water ((shall)) must not be used to unplug quick lime stops or plugs in pipes or confined spaces.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29005, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29007
Bleach plant.

(1) Work areas used for preparation and processing of bleaching mixtures ((shall)) must be equipped with properly designed exhaust ventilation systems capable of clearing the area of toxic gases. See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part H and Part L.

(2) Bleaching containers, such as cells, towers, etc., except the Bellmer type, ((shall)) must be completely covered on the top, with the exception of one small opening large enough to allow filling but too small to admit a person.  ((This opening should be covered by a door and guarded with standard guardrail and toeboards.  Platforms leading from one engine to another shall have standard guardrails in accordance with the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-75007.))

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29007, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29009
Audible alarm in bleach plant.

An audible alarm system ((shall)) must be installed and it ((shall)) must be activated whenever a serious leak or break develops in the bleach plant area which creates a health or fire hazard.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29009, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29011
Pocket grinder doors.

Doors of pocket grinders ((shall)) must be so designed and arranged as to keep them from closing accidentally.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29011, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29013
Pulping device procedures.

Each company ((shall)) must develop a safe procedure which shall be followed for feeding, clearing jams, or removing foreign objects from any pulping device.  These procedures ((shall)) must comply with applicable provisions of this standard.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29013, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29015
Off machine repulping devices.

(1) When fed manually from the floor above, conveniently located emergency stop devices ((shall)) must be provided at the top level.

(2) When fed from floor above((,)):

The chute opening, if less than standard guardrail height from the feed platform or floor, ((shall)) must be provided with a complete guardrail or other enclosure to standard guardrail height.

Openings for manual feeding ((shall)) must be sufficient only for entry of stock and ((shall)) must be provided with at least two permanently secured crossrails, in accordance with, the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-75003.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29015, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29017
Pulping device cleaning, inspection and repairing.

When cleaning, inspecting or performing other work that requires that persons enter pulping devices, all control devices ((shall)) must be locked or tagged out in accordance with the requirements of this standard.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29017, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29021
Shredders and blowers.

(1) On manually fed broke ((shedders [shredders])) shredders, the feed table ((shall)) must be of ((such)) a height and distance from the knives as to prevent the operator from reaching or falling into the knives or the operator ((shall)) must be safeguarded by other acceptable means.

(((1))) (2) A smooth-pivoted idler roll resting on the stock or feed table ((shall)) must be provided in front of feed rolls except when arrangements prevent the operator from standing closer than 36 inches to any part of the feed rolls.

(((2))) (3) Any manually fed cutter, shredder, or duster ((shall)) must be provided with an idler roll as specified in (((1))) (2) of this section or the operator shall use special hand-feeding tools.

(((3) Hoods of cutters, shredders, and dusters shall have exhaust ventilation, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2-1960 and chapter 296-62 WAC, general occupational health standards.))

(4) Blowers used for transporting ((rags shall)) materials must be provided with feed hoppers having outer edges located not less than 48 inches from the fan.

(5) The ((arrangement of the)) blower discharge outlets and work areas ((shall)) must be ((such as)) arranged to prevent material from falling on workers.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29021, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29023
Clearing shredder jams.

To clear jams or blockage to the machine, the operator ((shall)) must use objects which will not create a hazard.  The use of metal bars for such purposes is prohibited.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29023, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-7, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-79-29027
Guillotine type roll splitters.

(1) The engaging control for activating the guillotine blade ((shall)) must be a "deadman type" switch that demands continuous operator activation and must be:

A positive two-hand operating control, or

Located far enough from the cutting location so that the operator cannot reach the blade during the cutting process((.  In either control method, "deadman type" switch gear which demands continuous operator activation shall be installed and used)).

(2) Personnel ((shall)) must not position any part of the body under the blade.

(3) Rolls ((shall)) must be in the horizontal position while being split.

(4) Rolls ((shall)) must be centered directly below the blade.

[Order 76-7, 296-79-29027, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-29027, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 80-31, filed 1/8/81)

WAC 296-79-29029
Broke hole.

(1) An alarm bell or flashing light ((shall)) must be actuated or other suitable warning ((shall)) must be given before dropping material through a broke hole when persons working below may be endangered.

(2) Broke holes ((shall)) must be guarded to the fullest extent possible consistent with operational necessities.  The degree of guarding provided by standard height and strength guardrails will be considered as a minimum acceptable level of protection.

(3) When repulping devices or feed conveyor systems for repulping devices are located beneath broke holes, special precautions ((shall)) must be used.

The broke hole opening ((shall)) must be reduced to the smallest practical dimension.

If ((such)) the broke hole opening ((must be)) is large enough to permit a worker to fall through and ((the opening)) is not guarded at least to the equivalent degree of protection provided by standard guardrails, any employee pushing broke down the broke hole ((shall)) must wear a safety belt harness attached to a ((safety belt line)) lanyard.

The ((safety belt line shall)) lanyard must be fastened in such a manner that it is impossible for the person to fall into the repulping device.

(4) Guarding to the equivalent degree of protection provided by standard guardrails and meeting the requirements of subsections (2) and (3), may be achieved by the use of guard bars separated no more than 15-1/2 inches in a vertical plane and 12 inches in a horizontal plane, or any other location within that segment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW.  81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-29029, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, 296-79-29029, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29031
Industrial kiln guns and ammunition.

((Management shall develop)) The employer must ensure that there are written instructions, including safety procedures, for storing and operating industrial kiln guns and ammunition.  All personnel working with this equipment ((shall)) must be instructed in these procedures and ((shall)) must follow them.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29031, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29033
Chlorine dioxide system.

See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part P and chapter 296-67 WAC, process safety management. (1) Sodium chlorate.

(a) Personnel handling and working with sodium chlorate shall be thoroughly instructed in precautions to be used in handling and special work habits.  ((Refer to Manufacturing Chemists Association Chemical Data Sheet No. SD-42 (Sodium Chlorate).

(b) Personnel exposed to direct contact with sodium chlorate shall wear neoprene or other special protective clothing and special footwear.

(c))) (b) Facilities for storage and handling of sodium chlorate shall be constructed so as to eliminate possible contact of dry or evaporated sodium chlorate with wood or other material which could cause a fire or explosion.  ((Refer to Manufacturing Chemists Association Chemical Data Sheet No. SD-42 (Sodium Chlorate).

(d))) (c) Sodium chlorate facilities should be constructed with a minimum of packing glands, stuffing boxes, etc.  ((Refer to Manufacturing Chemists Association Chemical Data Sheet No. SD-42 (Sodium Chlorate).))

(2) Chlorine dioxide.

(((a))) Chlorine dioxide generating and storage facilities shall be placed in areas which are adequately ventilated and are easily kept clean of wood, paper, pulp, etc., to avoid contamination which might cause a reaction.  This can be accomplished by placing these facilities in a separate room or in a designated outside space.

(((b) Only authorized personnel shall be allowed in close proximity to the chlorine dioxide generating equipment.  The generating area shall have signs warning of the hazard and restricting entrance to authorized personnel only.

(c) When reasonably possible, the sample station should be located on the outside of the generating room.  Goggles must be worn when taking samples.

(d) Two alternate direction exits shall be provided from the generator working areas.))

(3) General.

(a) ((Safety showers and/or jump tanks and eye wash facilities shall be provided for persons working around sodium chlorate and the other hazardous chemicals involved in this process.

(b) Water hoses for flushing spills shall be adequate in size and located where needed.

(c) All equipment involved in this process where pressure may be generated shall be provided with adequate pressure relief.

(d) Welding or burning shall not be performed on the generator system while it is operating.  Immediately before maintenance can be performed on the inside of any of this equipment, it shall be thoroughly flushed with water and purged of hazardous gases.

(e) Respiratory protective equipment approved for use in chlorine and chlorine dioxide exposures shall be provided at appropriate locations.

(f))) Facilities handling sodium chlorate and chlorine dioxide shall be declared "no smoking" areas and shall have signs posted accordingly.

(((g))) (b) Management shall be responsible for developing written instructions including safety procedures for operating and maintaining the generator and associated equipment.  All personnel working on this equipment shall be thoroughly trained in these procedures and shall follow them.  A periodic review of these procedures is recommended.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29033, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-7, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-79-29035
Piling and unpiling pulp.

(1) Piles of wet lap pulp (unless palletized) ((shall)) must be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each 8 feet of pile height.  Sheets of pulp ((shall)) must be interlapped to make the pile secure.  Pulp ((shall)) must not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading of floors, or to within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.

(2) Piles of pulp ((shall)) must not be undermined when being unpiled.

(3) Floor capacities ((shall)) must be clearly marked on all floors.

(4) When sprinklers are used for fire protection in the storage area, baled paper and rags ((shall)) must be stored in stable piles which do not extend into the area necessary for the proper function of sprinkler systems((, where sprinklers are used for fire protection in the storage are)).

[Order 76-7, 296-79-29035, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-29035, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-29037
Chocking rolls.

(((1) Where pulp or paper rolls are of uniform size, cribbing should be constructed to keep rolls from moving.

(2) Where rolls are stacked and not nested two or more high, chocks shall be installed between each roll on the floor and at every row.  The face of each chock should be formed on a radius to conform to the average roll size in use, and the chock shall prevent roll movement.

(3) When rolls are decked two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.

(4) A supply of portable roll chocks should be available to be used where there are gaps in the bottom row of rolls.  These should be as light as possible while still providing maximum blocking effect.)) Rolls must be secured by chocks or other means to prevent movement when stored horizontally.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-29037, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-79-300
Machine room equipment and procedures.

(1) ((Lock-out and tag-out procedures to be followed.  Lock-out and tag-out requirements and procedures contained in these standards shall be complied with.

(2) Emergency stopping controls.))  Pulp and paper machines ((shall)) must be equipped with emergency stopping control(s) which can be actuated quickly from all normal operating stations.  If useful for the safety of personnel, the stopping control(s) ((shall)) must be interlocked with adequate retarding or braking action to stop the machine as quickly as is practical. The devices must consist of push buttons for electric motive power (or electrically operated engine stops), pull cords connected directly to the prime mover, control clutches, or other devices.

(((3) Walkways.)) (2) Steps and footwalks along the fourdrinier and press section ((shall)) must have nonslip surfacing and be complete with standard handrails, when practical.

(((4) Machine lubrication.)) (3) If a machine must be lubricated while in operation an automatic lubricating device ((shall)) must be provided or oil cups and grease fittings ((shall)) must be provided which can be serviced safely without exposing the worker to any hazards.

(((5) Weights on levers.)) (4) All levers carrying weights ((shall)) must be so constructed that weights will not slip or fall off.

(((6))) (5) Guarding inrunning nip points.

(a) The drums on pulp and paper machine winders ((shall)).

These drums must be provided with suitable guards to prevent a person from being caught between the roll and the front drum on the winder when the pinch point is on the operator's side.  ((Any))

Such guards ((shall)) must be interlocked with the drive mechanism to prevent the winder from running while the guard is not in place. Except that the winder may be wired to allow it to run at ((a slow)) thread or jog speed only for adjustment and start-up purposes while the guard is not in position.

A zero speed switch or locking device ((shall)) must be installed to prevent the guard from being removed while the roll is turning above thread or jog speed.

((Paper machine winders when used to produce rolls of 15 inches or less in diameter may be exempted from this subsection but must comply with the provisions of (6)(b).))

(b) Rewinders.

(((i))) When rewinding large rolls and the nip point is adjacent to the normal work area((,)).

The nip point ((shall)) must be protected by a barrier guard((.)) and

Such guard ((shall)) must be interlocked with the drive mechanism to prevent operating the machine above thread or jog speed without the guard in place((.)) and

A zero speed switch ((shall)) must be installed to prevent the guard from being raised while the roll is turning.

(((ii) On small rolls 15 inches or less in diameter where barrier guards are impractical they shall not be required if the nip point is separated from the employees by at least 18" while operating at more than jog speed.  When the rewinder is running at more than jog speed no worker shall place any part of their body closer than 18" from the nip.))

(c) Inrunning nips where paper is not being fed into a calender ((should be protected by barriers)) must be guarded.

(((7) Audible alarm in dryer section.)) (6) An audible alarm ((shall)) must be sounded prior to starting up any section of a pulp or paper machine.  Sufficient time ((shall)) must be allowed between activation of the alarm system and start-up of the equipment to allow any persons to clear the hazardous area.

(((8) Starting up dryer section. In)) (7) When starting up a dryer section, steam to heat the drums ((shall)) must be introduced slowly and while the drums are revolving.

(((9) Starting paper into nip.)) (8) A safe method must be used when starting paper into the nip of drum type reels or calender stacks ((a safe method shall be used)).  This may be accomplished by the use of feeder belts, carrier ropes, air carriage or other device or instrument.

A rope carrying system should be used wherever possible at points of transfer((.)), or

Sheaves should be spaced so that they do not create a nip point with each other and the sheave and its support should be capable of withstanding the speed and breaking strength of the rope for which they are intended.

(((10) Feeding stack with hand held device.)) (9) Employees ((shall)) must not feed a stack with any hand held device which is capable of going through the nip.

(((11) Broken carrier rope.)) (10) Employees ((shall)) must not attempt to remove a broken carrier rope from a dryer while the section is running at operating speed.

(((12) Removing a wrap.)) (11) Employees ((shall)) must stop dryer to remove a wrap except in cases where it can be safely removed by using air or other safe means.

(((13) Deposits on rolls.)) (12) To remove deposits from rolls, a specially designed scraper or tool shall be used.  Scraping of rolls ((shall)) must be performed on the outgoing nip side.

(((14) Cleaning)) (13) Doctor blades.

(a) Cleaning. Employees ((shall)) must not place their hands between the sharp edge of an unloaded doctor blade and the roll while cleaning the doctor blade.

(((15) Sharp edges of doctor blades to be covered.)) (b) Doctor blades ((shall)) must have the sharp edges properly guarded during transportation and storage.

(((16) Handling doctor blades.)) (c) Special protective gloves ((shall)) must be provided and ((shall)) must be worn by employees when filing or handling sharp edged doctor blades.

(((17) Steps, platforms or walkways for calender stacks.  When steps, platforms, or walkways are necessary to perform work on calender stacks they shall have nonskid type surfaces.  Guardrails shall be installed where possible.

(18) Lifting)) (14) Handling reels.

(a) Reels ((shall)) must stop rotating before being lifted away from reel frame.

(((b) All lifting equipment (clamps, cables, and slings) shall be maintained in a safe condition and inspected regularly.)) Crane hooks must not be used to stop a turning reel.

(((c))) (b) Exposed rotating reel shafts with square block ends ((shall)) must be guarded.

(((19) Reels to be properly seated.)) (c) The crane operator ((shall)) must ascertain that reels are properly seated at winder stand or at reel arms before they disengage the hooks.

(((20) Space between reels.)) (d) On ((stack)) stored reels, a clearance of at least 8 inches between the reels of paper ((shall)) must be maintained.

(((21) Set screws.  Set screws for securing core collars to winding and unwinding shafts shall not protrude above the face of the collar.  All edges of the collar that an operator's hand may come in contact with shall be beveled to remove all sharp corners.

(22) Properly set up core cutting device.  The worker shall make certain that any core cutting device is properly set up and guard is in proper position before using the machine.

(23) Winder shaft.)) (15) All winder shafts ((should)) must be equipped with a winder collar guide.  The winder ((should)) must have a guide rail to align the shaft for easy entrance into the opened rewind shaft bearing housing.  If winder shafts are too heavy for manual handling, mechanical equipment ((shall)) must be used.

(((24) Barrier guards for shaftless winders.)) (16) Shaftless winders ((shall)) must be provided with a barrier guard of sufficient strength and size to confine the rolls in the event they become dislodged while running.

(((25) Grounding.)) (17) All calender stacks and spreader bars ((shall)) must be grounded according to chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L as protection against shock induced by static electricity.

(((26) Sole plates.  All exposed sole plates between dryers, calenders, reels and rewinders shall have a nonskid type surface.

(27))) (18) Nonskid type surface required.

(a) All exposed sole plates between dryers, calenders, reels, and rewinders must have a nonskid type surface.

(b) A nonskid type surface ((shall)) must be provided in the work areas around the winders or rewinders.  ((Areas in front of the winder shall be kept clear of oil, broke, and other debris that may cause workers to slip, trip, or fall.

(28) Roll lowering table.)) (19) If a powered roll ejector is used it should be interlocked to prevent accidental actuation until the receiving platform or roll lowering table is in position to receive the roll.

(((29) Lowerator.)) (20) Employees ((shall)) must keep clear of hazardous areas around the lowerator, especially all lowerator openings in a floor and where roll is being discharged.

(((30) Rider rolls.)) (21) Provision ((shall)) must be made to hold the rider roll when in a raised position unless counterbalancing eliminates the hazard.

(((31) Gas hood entry procedures.  Whenever an employee is inside a gas hood they shall be accompanied by another worker or a person shall be stationed near the entrance.

(32))) (22) Drain openings in pits.  Flush floor drain openings larger than 3((")) inches in diameter in the bottom of pits ((shall)) must be guarded to prevent workers from stepping through, while working in this area.

(23) Employees must not enter into or climb on any paper machine roll that is subject to free turning unless a positive locking device has been installed to prevent the roll from turning.

(24) The employer must develop a formal program for the inspection and nondestructive examination of reel spool and calender roll journals. The type and frequency of testing must be adequate to detect indications of failure. Any reel spool or calender roll journal found to have an indication of failure must be removed from service. Nondestructive examination personnel must be qualified in accordance with SNT-TC 1A.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-79-300, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW.  81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-300, filed 1/8/81; Order 76-7, 296-79-300, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-300, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-300, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-310
Converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing and related processes)((--Scope and application)).

((All sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-79-310 in the section number apply to converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing and related processes).))

[Order 74-24, 296-79-310, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-310, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-7, filed 3/1/76)

WAC 296-79-31001
General requirements for converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing and related processes).

(1) ((Applicable rules of this standard to prevail.  Rules contained in this standard shall prevail where applicable to converting operations.

(2) Use of both hands required to activate guillotine trimmers.))  Guillotine-type trimmers ((shall)) must be designed in a manner which will require the operator to use both hands simultaneously to activate the cutting blade.  If machine helpers are employed in the control function of the cutter, separate two-hand controls ((shall)) must be provided for the control function performed by the helper.

(((3) Nonrepeat device required for guillotine trimmers.)) (2) Guillotine-type trimmers ((shall)) must be designed in a manner that the trimming blade will not repeat unless manually reactivated.

(((4))) (3) Sorting and counting tables((.  Tables shall)) must be smooth and free from splinters, with edges and corners rounded.

(((a))) Paddles ((shall)) must be smooth and free from splinters.

(((5) Mirrors should)) (4) Devices (i.e., mirrors) must be installed to assist the converting machine operator in viewing blind work stations where a hazard exists.

(((6))) (5) Mechanical lifting devices ((shall)) must be provided for placing and removing rolls from rewinders.  Rolls ((shall)) must not be left suspended overhead while the controls are unattended.

(((7) Rolls handled by cranes or hoists shall not be handled over the heads of workers.

(8))) (6) When using a crane or hoist to place rolls into a backstand and the operator cannot see both ends of the backstand, assistance will be provided or appropriate devices will be installed to eliminate the hazards involved.  The operator ((shall)) must ascertain that rolls are properly seated at winder stand or at roll arms before ((he disengages)) disengaging the hooks.

(((9))) (7) Slitters, slotters, and scorers not in use ((shall)) must be properly stored ((as not to create)) so a hazard is not created.

(((10))) (8) All power closing sections ((shall)) must be equipped with an audible warning system which will be activated when closing the sections.

(((11))) (9) Roll-type embosser.  The nipping point located on the operator's side ((shall)) must be guarded by either automatic or manually operated barrier guards interlocked with the drive.

[Order 76-7, 296-79-31001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, 296-79-31001, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-31003
Corrugator.

(1) Every recessed floor conveyor system ((shall)) must be identified by standard color coding, and so designed and installed to minimize tripping hazards.

(2) All areas subject to wet processes ((shall)) must be provided with drains.

(((a))) Drain trenches ((shall)) must be provided with gratings flush with the adjoining floor.

(((b))) Use of curbing in work areas should be avoided in new installations.  If the use of curbing cannot be avoided, the design ((shall)) must be such that the curbs do not constitute a tripping hazard in normal working areas.  When curbing exists and constitutes a hazard, it ((shall)) must be color coded.

(3) Rails of rail mounted devices such as roll stands ((shall)) must be flush with the adjacent floor, and so installed to provide a minimum of 18((")) inches clearance between the equipment and walls or other fixed objects.

(4) All corrugating and pressure rolls ((shall)) must be equipped with appropriately designed and installed threading guides so as to prevent contact with the infeed nip of the various rolls by the operator.

(5) A minimum of 4((")) inches clearance ((shall)) or effective nip guarding must be maintained between heated drums, idler rolls, and cross shafting on all preheaters and preconditioners.

(6) Lower elevating conveyor belt rolls on the single facer bridge ((shall)) must have a minimum nip clearance of 4((")) inches or effective nip guarding.

(7) Web shears at the discharge end of the double facer ((shall)) must be equipped with barrier type guards.

(8) Slitter stations not in use ((shall)) must be disconnected from the power source by positive means.

(9) Elevating type conveyors ((shall)) must have the floor area color-coded.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-31003, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-31009
Die cutting.

(((1))) Bobst type die cutters.

(((a) The space where the sheet enters the die shall be guarded to prohibit entry of the operator's hand.  If this guard is hinged or otherwise moveable it shall be interlocked to prevent the equipment from moving unless the guard is in the proper position.

(b))) A minimum of 4((" shall)) inches must be provided between the end of the slat and the guide bar.

[Order 74-24, 296-79-31009, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-79-320
Sulfite recovery furnace area requirements.

(1) ((Warning system.)) The employer must have a program to train all personnel associated with recovery boiler operations in safe operating procedures and emergency shutdown procedures.

(2) An audible warning system ((shall)) must be installed in kraft and soda base sulfite recovery furnace areas and ((shall)) must be actuated whenever an emergency exists.

(((2) Personnel to be instructed in emergency procedures.  All personnel working in recovery furnace areas shall be instructed on procedures to be followed when emergency warning systems are actuated.))

(3) All personnel who enter the recovery furnace area must understand the emergency evacuation procedure.

(4) Warning system maintenance.  Emergency warning systems in the recovery furnace areas ((shall)) must be kept in proper working condition and ((shall)) must be tested or checked weekly.

(((4) Personnel to stand to side while opening firebox door.)) (5) Personnel ((shall)) must stand to the side while opening a furnace or boiler firebox door.

(((5) Smelt tanks.  Smelt-dissolving tanks shall be covered and the cover kept closed, except when samples are being taken.))

[Order 74-24, 296-79-320, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-320, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]


REPEALER

     The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:
WAC 296-79-060Protection from radiation.
WAC 296-79-255Safety procedure for handling liquid sulfur.
WAC 296-79-27001Barkers, chippers, and hog feed devices.
WAC 296-79-29019Guarding hand knives and sharpening steels.
WAC 296-79-29025Repairing shredders.
WAC 296-79-31005Adhesive system.
WAC 296-79-31007Printing and cutting.
WAC 296-79-31011Power lifts on gluers, tapers and stitchers.
WAC 296-79-31013Strapping-banding operations.

Washington State Code Reviser's Office