WSR 00-14-058

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed July 3, 2000, 11:51 a.m. , effective October 1, 2000 ]

Date of Adoption: July 3, 2000.

Purpose: Chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work, Parts C-1, J-1, K and O.

Topic: Fall protection.

November of 1996, state-initiated amendments were made to chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, Fall Restraint and Fall Arrest, and Part K, Floor Openings, Wall Openings and Stairways. These amendments were sent to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for federal approval on February 4, 1999. We received a letter dated July 27, 1999, from OSHA indicating to us that there were areas in our standard that did not meet the "at-least-as-effective-as" mandate, therefore, amendments must be made to bring the requirements into compliance with the federal requirements.

The following are the federal-initiated adopted changes:

WAC 296-155-24501 Scope and application.

Added a clarifying note relating to nonmandatory Appendix B.
WAC 296-155-24503 Definitions.

Corrected a reference in the definition of "unprotected sides and edges."
WAC 296-155-24505 Fall protection work plan.

Added language requiring the retraining of employees when circumstances warrant it.
Renumbered subsection.
WAC 296-155-24510 Fall restraint, fall arrest systems.

Added language requiring that horizontal lifelines must be designed, installed and used under the supervision of a qualified person.
Clarified requirements to stipulate that only locking-type snaphooks are permitted. This requirement currently resides in our positioning device system section and is added to the fall arrest section.
Added criteria that must be used and followed when canopies are used as protection from falling objects.
Renumbered section.
WAC 296-155-24515 Guarding of low pitched roof perimeters.

Added a note referencing Appendix A.
WAC 296-155-24520 Leading edge control zone.

Corrected a reference.
WAC 296-155-24521 Safety monitor system.

Added language requiring that the safety monitor must warn employees of fall hazards and also warn them when they are working in an unsafe manner. Further, require employees to comply promptly when warned by the safety monitor.
Renumbered section.
WAC 296-155-24525 Appendix B to Part C-1 -- Fall restraint and fall arrest (employer information only).

Corrected a reference.
WAC 296-155-483 General requirements.

Added language relating to horizontal lifelines used on suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms must be capable of locking in both directions on the lifeline.
WAC 296-155-505 Guardrails, handrails and covers.

Added language addressing the strength and structural integrity for walking/working surfaces.
Increased the guardrail height requirements from 36-42 inches to 39-45 inches.
Clarified requirements for guardrail systems.
Corrected references.
Renumbered section.
WAC 296-155-680 General provisions.

Added language to the "formwork" section that affects the trigger height at which fall protection is required.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-155-24501 Scope and application, 296-155-24503 Definitions, 296-155-24505 Fall protection work plan, 296-155-24510 Fall restraint, fall arrest systems, 296-155-24515 Guarding of low pitched roof perimeters, 296-155-24520 Leading edge control zone, 296-155-24521 Safety monitor system, 296-155-24525 Appendix B to Part C-1 -- Fall restraint and fall arrest (employer information only), 296-155-483 General requirements, 296-155-505 Guardrails, handrails and covers, and 296-155-680 General provisions.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 00-08-079 on April 4, 2000.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 11, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 11, Repealed 0. Effective Date of Rule: October 1, 2000.

July 3, 2000

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-3854.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24501
Scope and application.

This section sets forth requirements for employers to provide and enforce the use of fall protection for employees in construction, alteration, repair, maintenance (including painting and decorating), demolition workplaces, and material handling covered under chapter 296-155 WAC.

Note: See Appendix B for additional standards that require the use of fall restraint and/or fall arrest protection.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24501, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24501, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24501, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24503
Definitions.

Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices which is capable of withstanding the forces specified in the applicable sections of chapter 296-155 WAC.

Approved means, for the purpose of this section; tested and certified by the manufacturer, or any recognized national testing laboratory, to possess the strength requirements specified in this section.

Body belt means a Type 1 safety belt used in conjunction with lanyard or lifeline for fall restraint only.

Full body harness means a configuration of connected straps to distribute a fall arresting force over at least the thighs, shoulders and pelvis, with provisions for attaching a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration devices.

Full body harness system means a Class III full body harness and lanyard which is attached to an anchorage meeting the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1; or attached to a horizontal or vertical lifeline which is properly secured to an anchorage(s) capable of withstanding the forces specified in the applicable sections of chapter 296-155 WAC.

Catenary line - see horizontal lifeline.

Competent person means an individual knowledgeable of fall protection equipment, including the manufacturers recommendations and instructions for the proper use, inspection, and maintenance; and who is capable of identifying existing and potential fall hazards; and who has the authority to take prompt corrective action to eliminate those hazards; and who is knowledgeable of the rules contained in this section regarding the erection, use, inspection, and maintenance of fall protection equipment and systems.

Connector means a device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or dee ring sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).

Continuous fall protection means the design and use of a fall protection system such that no exposure to an elevated fall hazard occurs. This may require more than one fall protection system or a combination of prevention or protection measures.

Control zone means the area between the warning line and the unprotected sides and edges of the walking/working surface.

Deceleration device means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, ripstitch lanyard, specifically woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.

Deceleration distance means the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.

Drop line means a vertical lifeline secured to an upper anchorage for the purpose of attaching a lanyard or device.

Failure means load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.

Fall arrest system means the use of multiple, approved safety equipment components such as; body harnesses, lanyards, deceleration devices, droplines, horizontal and/or vertical lifelines and anchorages, interconnected and rigged as to arrest a free fall. Compliance with anchorage strength requirements specified in the applicable sections of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 shall constitute approval of the anchorage.

Fall protection work plan means a written planning document in which the employer identifies all areas on the job site where a fall hazard of 10 feet or greater exists. The plan describes the method or methods of fall protection to be utilized to protect employees, and includes the procedures governing the installation use, inspection, and removal of the fall protection method or methods which are selected by the employer. (See WAC 296-155-24505.)

Fall restraint system means an approved device and any necessary components that function together to restrain an employee in such a manner as to prevent that employee from falling to a lower level. When standard guardrails are selected, compliance with applicable sections governing their construction and use shall constitute approval.

Fall distance means the actual distance from the worker's support to the level where a fall would stop.

Free fall means the act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.

Free fall distance means the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.

Hardware means snap hooks, D rings, bucklers, carabiners, adjusters, O rings, that are used to attach the components of a fall protection system together.

Horizontal lifeline means a rail, rope, wire, or synthetic cable that is installed in a horizontal plane between two anchorages and used for attachment of a worker's lanyard or lifeline device while moving horizontally; used to control dangerous pendulum like swing falls.

Lanyard means a flexible line of webbing, rope, or cable used to secure a body belt or harness to a lifeline or an anchorage point usually 2, 4, or 6 feet long.

Leading edge means the advancing edge of a floor, roof, or formwork which changes location as additional floor, roof, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed. Leading edges not actively under construction are considered to be "unprotected sides and edges," and positive methods of fall arrest or fall restraint shall be required to protect exposed workers.

Lifeline means a vertical line from a fixed anchorage or between two horizontal anchorages, independent of walking or working surfaces, to which a lanyard or device is secured. Lifeline as referred to in this text is one which is part of a fall protection system used as back-up safety for an elevated worker.

Locking snap hook means a connecting snap hook that requires two separate forces to open the gate; one to deactivate the gatekeeper and a second to depress and open the gate which automatically closes when released; used to minimize roll out or accidental disengagement.

Low pitched roof means a roof having a slope equal to or less than 4 in 12.

Mechanical equipment means all motor or human propelled wheeled equipment except for wheelbarrows, mopcarts, robotic thermoplastic welders and robotic crimpers.

Positioning belt means a single or multiple strap that can be secured around the worker's body to hold the user in a work position; for example, a lineman's belt, a rebar belt, or saddle belt.

Positioning device system means a body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning.

Restraint line means a line from a fixed anchorage or between two anchorages to which an employee is secured in such a way as to prevent the worker from falling to a lower level.

Roll out means unintentional disengagement of a snap hook caused by the gate being depressed under torque or contact while twisting or turning; a particular concern with single action snap hooks that do not have a locking gatekeeper.

Roof means the exterior surface on the top of a building. This does not include floors or form work which, because a building has not been completed, temporarily become the top surface of a building.

Roofing work means the hoisting, storage, application, and removal of roofing materials and equipment, including related insulation, sheet metal, and vapor barrier work, but not including the construction of the roof deck.

Rope grab means a fall arrester that is designed to move up or down a lifeline suspended from a fixed overhead or horizontal anchorage point, or lifeline, to which the belt or harness is attached. In the event of a fall, the rope grab locks onto the lifeline rope through compression to arrest the fall. The use of a rope grab device is restricted for all restraint applications. (Refer to WAC 296-155-24510 (1)(b)(iii)).

Safety line - see lifeline.

Safety monitor system means a system of fall restraint used in conjunction with a warning line system only, where a competent person as defined by this part, having no additional duties, monitors the proximity of workers to the fall hazard when working between the warning line and the unprotected sides and edges including, the leading edge of a low pitched roof or walking/working surface.

Self retracting lifeline means a deceleration device which contains a drum wound line which may be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.

Shock absorbing lanyard means a flexible line of webbing, cable, or rope used to secure a body belt or harness to a lifeline or anchorage point that has an integral shock absorber.

Single action snap hook means a connecting snap hook that requires a single force to open the gate which automatically closes when released.

Snap hook means a self-closing connecting device with a gatekeeper latch or similar arrangement that will remain closed until manually opened. This includes single action snap hooks that open when the gatekeeper is depressed and double action snap hooks that require a second action on a gatekeeper before the gate can be opened.

Static line - see horizontal lifeline.

Strength member means any component of a fall protection system that could be subject to loading in the event of a fall.

Steep roof means a roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12.

Unprotected sides and edges means any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a floor, roof, ramp or runway where there is no wall or guardrail system as defined in WAC 296-155-505(((5)))(7).

Walking/working surface means for the purpose of this section, any area whose dimensions are 45 inches or greater in all directions, through which workers pass or conduct work.

Warning line system means a barrier erected on a walking and working surface or a low pitch roof (4 in 12 or less), to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected fall hazard(s).

Work area means that portion of a walking/working surface where job duties are being performed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24503, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24503, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24503, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24505
Fall protection work plan.

(1) The employer shall develop and implement a written fall protection work plan including each area of the work place where the employees are assigned and where fall hazards of 10 feet or more exist.

(2) The fall protection work plan shall:

(a) Identify all fall hazards in the work area.

(b) Describe the method of fall arrest or fall restraint to be provided.

(c) Describe the correct procedures for the assembly, maintenance, inspection, and disassembly of the fall protection system to be used.

(d) Describe the correct procedures for the handling, storage, and securing of tools and materials.

(e) Describe the method of providing overhead protection for workers who may be in, or pass through the area below the work site.

(f) Describe the method for prompt, safe removal of injured workers.

(g) Be available on the job site for inspection by the department.

(3) Prior to permitting employees into areas where fall hazards exist the employer shall:

(a) Ensure that employees are trained and instructed in the items described in subsection (2)(a) through (f) of this section.

(b) Inspect fall protection devices and systems to ensure compliance with WAC 296-155-24510.

(4) Training of employees ((as required by this section shall be documented and shall be available on the job site)):

(a) The employer shall ensure that employees are trained as required by this section. Training shall be documented and shall be available on the job site.

(b) "Retraining." When the employer has reason to believe that any affected employee who has already been trained does not have the understanding and skill required by subsection (1) of this section, the employer shall retrain each such employee. Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:

Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or

Changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be used render previous training obsolete; or

Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of fall protection systems or equipment indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill.


Note: The following appendices to Part C-1 of this chapter serve as nonmandatory guidelines to assist employers in complying with the appropriate requirements of Part C-1 of this chapter.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24505, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24505, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24505, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24510
Fall restraint, fall arrest systems.

When employees are exposed to a hazard of falling from a location 10 feet or more in height, the employer shall ensure that fall restraint, fall arrest systems or positioning device systems are provided, installed, and implemented according to the following requirements.


Height=103 valign="center">(WAC 296-155-24510, Figure 1)

Place illustration here.

(WAC 296-155-24510, Figure 2)

Place illustration here.

(1) Fall restraint protection shall consist of:

(a) Standard guardrails as described in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part K.

(b) Safety belts and/or harness attached to securely rigged restraint lines.

(i) Safety belts and/or harness shall conform to ANSI Standard:

Class I body belt

Class II chest harness

Class III full body harness

Class IV suspension/position belt

(ii) All safety belt and lanyard hardware assemblies shall be capable of withstanding a tensile loading of 4,000 pounds without cracking, breaking, or taking a permanent deformation.

(iii) Rope grab devices are prohibited for fall restraint applications unless they are part of a fall restraint system designed specifically for the purpose by the manufacturer, and used in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and instructions.

(iv) The employer shall ensure component compatibility.

(v) Components of fall restraint systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration, and defective components shall be removed from service if their function or strength have been adversely affected.

(vi) Anchorage points used for fall restraint shall be capable of supporting 4 times the intended load.

(vii) Restraint protection shall be rigged to allow the movement of employees only as far as the sides and edges of the walking/working surface.

(c) A warning line system as prescribed in WAC 296-155-24515(3) and supplemented by the use of a safety monitor system as prescribed in WAC 296-155-24521 to protect workers engaged in duties between the forward edge of the warning line and the unprotected sides and edges, including the leading edge, of a low pitched roof or walking/working surface.

(d) Warning line and safety monitor systems as described in WAC 296-155-24515 (3) through (4)(f) and WAC 296-155-24520 respectively are prohibited on surfaces exceeding a 4 in 12 pitch, and on any surface whose dimensions are less than 45 inches in all directions.

(2) Fall arrest protection shall consist of:

(a) Full body harness system.

(i) An approved Class III full body harness shall be used.

(ii) Body harness systems or components subject to impact loading shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection unless inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.

(iii) All safety lines and lanyards shall be protected against being cut or abraded.

(iv) The attachment point of the body harness shall be located in the center of the wearer's back near shoulder level, or above the wearer's head.

(v) Body harness systems shall be rigged to minimize free fall distance with a maximum free fall distance allowed of 6 feet, and such that the employee will not contact any lower level.

(vi) Hardware shall be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of materials equivalent in strength.

(vii) Hardware shall have a corrosion resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall be smooth to prevent damage to the attached body harness or lanyard.

(viii) When vertical lifelines (droplines) are used, not more than one employee shall be attached to any one lifeline.


Note: The system strength needs in the following items are based on a total combined weight of employee and tools of no more than 310 pounds. If combined weight is more than 310 pounds, appropriate allowances must be made or the system will not be deemed to be in compliance.

(ix) Full body harness systems shall be secured to anchorages capable of supporting 5,000 pounds per employee except: When self retracting lifelines or other deceleration devices are used which limit free fall to two feet, anchorages shall be capable of withstanding 3,000 pounds.

(x) Vertical lifelines (droplines) shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN), except that self retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (.61 m) or less shall have a minimum tensile strength of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN).

(xi) Horizontal lifelines shall ((have a tensile strength capable of supporting a fall impact load of at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per employee using the lifeline, applied anywhere along the lifeline)) be designed, installed, and used, under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two.

(xii) Lanyards shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).

(xiii) All components of body harness systems whose strength is not otherwise specified in this subsection shall be capable of supporting a minimum fall impact load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) applied at the lanyard point of connection.

(xiv) ((Snap hooks shall not be connected to loops made in webbing type lanyards.

(xv) Snap hooks shall not be connected to each other.

(xvi) Not more than one snap hook shall be connected to any one D ring unless they are the double locking type.)) Dee-rings and snap-hooks shall be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 kN) without cracking, breaking, or taking permanent deformation.

(xv) Snap-hooks shall be a locking type snap-hook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snap-hook by the contact of the snap-hook keeper by the connected member.

(xvi) Unless the snap-hook is designed for the following connections, snap-hooks shall not be engaged:

(A) Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope;

(B) To each other;

(C) To a dee-ring to which another snap-hook or other connector is attached;

(D) To a horizontal lifeline; or

(E) To any object which is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snap-hook such that unintentional disengagement could occur by the connected object being able to depress the snap-hook keeper and release itself.

(xvii) Full body harness systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration, and defective components shall be removed from service if their function or strength have been adversely affected.

(b) Safety net systems. Safety net systems and their use shall comply with the following provisions:

(i) Safety nets shall be installed as close as practicable under the surface on which employees are working, but in no case more than 30 feet (9.1 m) below such level unless specifically approved in writing by the manufacturer. The potential fall area to the net shall be unobstructed.

(ii) Safety nets shall extend outward from the outermost projection of the work surface as follows:

Vertical distance from

working level to horizontal

plane of net

Minimum required horizontal distance of outer edge of

net from the edge of the

working surface


Up to 5 feet . . . . . . . . . . . .

More than 5 feet up to 10 feet . . . . . . . . . . . .

More than 10 feet . . . . . . . . . . . .


8 feet

10 feet

13 feet


(iii) Safety nets shall be installed with sufficient clearance under them to prevent contact with the surface or structures below when subjected to an impact force equal to the drop test specified in (b)(iv) of this subsection.

(iv) Safety nets and their installations shall be capable of absorbing an impact force equal to that produced by the drop test specified in (b)(iv)(A) and (B) of this subsection.

(A) Except as provided in (b)(iv)(B) of this subsection, safety nets and safety net installations shall be drop-tested at the job site after initial installation and before being used as a fall protection system, whenever relocated, after major repair, and at 6-month intervals if left in one place. The drop-test shall consist of a 400 pound (180 kg) bag of sand 30 2 inches (76 5 cm) in diameter dropped into the net from the highest walking/working surface at which employees are exposed to fall hazards, but not from less than 42 inches (1.1 m) above that level.

(B) When the employer can demonstrate that it is unreasonable to perform the drop-test required by (b)(iv)(A) of this subsection, the employer (or a designated competent person) shall certify that the net and net installation is in compliance with the provisions of (b)(iii) and (b)(iv)(A) of this subsection by preparing a certification record prior to the net being used as a fall protection system. The certification record must include an identification of the net and net installation for which the certification record is being prepared; the date that it was determined that the identified net and net installation were in compliance with (b)(iii) of this subsection and the signature of the person making the determination and certification. The most recent certification record for each net and net installation shall be available at the job site for inspection.

(v) Defective nets shall not be used. Safety nets shall be inspected at least once a week for wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service. Safety nets shall also be inspected after any occurrence which could affect the integrity of the safety net system.

(vi) Materials, scrap pieces, equipment, and tools which have fallen into the safety net shall be removed as soon as possible from the net and at least before the next work shift.

(vii) The maximum size of each safety net mesh opening shall not exceed 36 square inches (230 cm2) nor be longer than 6 inches (15 cm) on any side, and the opening, measured center-to-center of mesh ropes or webbing, shall not be longer than 6 inches (15 cm). All mesh crossings shall be secured to prevent enlargement of the mesh opening.

(viii) Each safety net (or section of it) shall have a border rope for webbing with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).

(ix) Connections between safety net panels shall be as strong as integral net components and shall be spaced not more than 6 inches (15 cm) apart.

(c) Catch platforms.

(i) A catch platform shall be installed within 10 vertical feet of the work area.

(ii) The catch platforms width shall equal the distance of the fall but shall be a minimum of 45 inches wide and shall be equipped with standard guardrails on all open sides.

(3) Positioning device systems. Positioning device systems and their use shall conform to the following provisions:

(a) Positioning devices shall be rigged such that an employee cannot free fall more than 2 feet (.61 m).

(b) Positioning devices shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN), whichever is greater.

(c) Connectors shall be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of equivalent materials.

(d) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall be smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of this system.

(e) Connecting assemblies shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).

(f) Dee-rings and snap-hooks shall be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 kN) without cracking, breaking, or taking permanent deformation.

(g) Snap-hooks ((shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snap-hook by depression of the snap-hook keeper by the connected member, or)) shall be a locking type snap-hook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snap-hook by the contact of the snap-hook keeper by the connected member. ((As of January 1, 1998, only locking type snap-hooks shall be used.))

(h) Unless the snap-hook is ((a locking type and)) designed for the following connections, snap-hooks shall not be engaged:

(i) Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope;

(ii) To each other;

(iii) To a dee-ring to which another snap-hook or other connector is attached;

(iv) To a horizontal lifeline; or

(v) To any object which is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snap-hook such that unintentional disengagement could occur by the connected object being able to depress the snap-hook keeper and release itself.

(i) Positioning device systems shall be inspected prior to each use for wear, damage, and other deterioration, and defective components shall be removed from service.

(j) Body belts, harnesses, and components shall be used only for employee protection (as part of a personal fall arrest system or positioning device system) and not to hoist materials.

(4) Droplines or lifelines used on rock scaling operations, or in areas where the lifeline may be subjected to cutting or abrasion, shall be a minimum of 7/8 inch wire core manila rope. For all other lifeline applications, a minimum of 3/4 inch manila or equivalent, with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds, shall be used.

(5) Safety harnesses, lanyards, lifelines or droplines, independently attached or attended, shall be used while performing the following types of work when other equivalent type protection is not provided:

(a) Work performed in permit required confined spaces and other confined spaces shall follow the procedures as described in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M.

(b) Work on hazardous slopes, or dismantling safety nets, working on poles or from boatswains chairs at elevations greater than six feet (1.83 m), swinging scaffolds or other unguarded locations.

(c) Work on skips and platforms used in shafts by crews when the skip or cage does not occlude the opening to within one foot (30.5 cm) of the sides of the shaft, unless cages are provided.

(6) Canopies, when used as falling object protection, shall be strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by any objects which may fall onto the canopy.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24510, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24510, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 95-04-007, 296-155-24510, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), 296-155-24510, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-24510, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24510, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24515
Guarding of low pitched roof perimeters.

(1) General provisions. During the performance of work on low pitched roofs with a potential fall hazard greater than 10 feet, the employer shall ensure that employees engaged in such work be protected from falling from all unprotected sides and edges of the roof as follows:

(a) By the use of a fall restraint or fall arrest systems, as defined in WAC 296-155-24510; or

(b) By the use of a warning line system erected and maintained as provided in subsection (3) of this section and supplemented for employees working between the warning line and the roof edge by the use of a safety monitor system as described in WAC 296-155-24521.

(c) Mechanical equipment shall be used or stored only in areas where employees are protected by a warning line system, or fall restraint, or fall arrest systems as described in WAC 296-155-24510. Mechanical equipment may not be used or stored where the only protection is provided by the use of a safety monitor.

(2) Exceptions.

(a) The provisions of subsection (1)(a) of this section do not apply at points of access such as stairways, ladders, and ramps, or when employees are on the roof only to inspect, investigate, or estimate roof level conditions. Roof edge materials handling areas and materials storage areas shall be guarded as provided in subsection (4) of this section.

(b) Employees engaged in roofing on low-pitched roofs less than 50 feet wide, may elect to use a safety monitor system without warning lines.


Note: See Appendix A to Part C-1 -- Determining roof widths nonmandatory guidelines for complying with WAC 296-155-24515 (2)(b).

(3) Warning lines systems.

(a) Warning lines shall be erected around all sides of the work area.

(i) When mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than six feet (1.8 meters) from the edge of the roof.

(ii) When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than six feet (1.8 meters) from the roof edge which is parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet (3.1 meters) from the roof edge which is perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation.

(b) The warning line shall consist of a rope, wire, or chain and supporting stanchions erected as follows:

(i) The rope, wire, or chain shall be flagged at not more than six foot (1.8 meter) intervals with high visibility material.

(ii) The rope, wire, or chain shall be rigged and supported in such a way that its lowest point (including sag) is no less than 36 inches (91.4 cm) from the roof surface and its highest point is no more than 42 inches (106.7 cm) from the roof surface.

(iii) After being erected, with the rope, wire or chain attached, stanchions shall be capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds (71 Newtons) applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30 inches (0.76 meters) above the roof surface, perpendicular to the warning line, and in the direction of the roof edge.

(iv) The rope, wire, or chain shall have a minimum tensile strength of 200 pounds (90 kilograms), and after being attached to the stanchions, shall be capable of supporting, without breaking, the loads applied to the stanchions.

(v) The line shall be attached at each stanchion in such a way that pulling on one section of the line between stanchions will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections before the stanchion tips over.

(c) Access paths shall be erected as follows:

(i) Points of access, materials handling areas, and storage areas shall be connected to the work area by a clear access path formed by two warning lines.

(ii) When the path to a point of access is not in use, a rope, wire, or chain, equal in strength and height to the warning line, shall be placed across the path at the point where the path intersects the warning line erected around the work area.

(4) Roof edge materials handling areas and materials storage. Employees working in a roof edge materials handling or materials storage area located on a low pitched roof with a ground to eave height greater than 10 feet shall be protected from falling along all unprotected roof sides and edges of the area.

(a) When guardrails are used at hoisting areas, a minimum of four feet of guardrail shall be erected on each side of the access point through which materials are hoisted.

(b) A chain or gate shall be placed across the opening between the guardrail sections when hoisting operations are not taking place.

(c) When guardrails are used at bitumen pipe outlet, a minimum of four feet of guardrail shall be erected on each side of the pipe.

(d) When safety belt/harness systems are used, they shall not be attached to the hoist.

(e) When fall restraint systems are used, they shall be rigged to allow the movement of employees only as far as the roof edge.

(f) Materials shall not be stored within six feet of the roof edge unless guardrails are erected at the roof edge.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24515, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24515, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-24515, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24515, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24520
Leading edge control zone.

(1) When performing leading edge work, the employer shall ensure that a control zone be established according to the following requirements:

(a) The control zone shall begin a minimum of 6 feet back from the leading edge to prevent exposure by employees who are not protected by fall restraint or fall arrest systems.

(b) The control zone shall be separated from other areas of the low pitched roof or walking/working surface by the erection of a warning line system.

(c) The warning line system shall consist of wire, rope, or chain supported on stanchions, or a method which provides equivalent protection.

(d) The spacing of the stanchions and support of the line shall be such that the lowest point of the line (including sag) is not less than 36 inches from the walking/working surface, and its highest point is not more than 42 inches (106.7 cm) from the walking/working surface.

(e) Each line shall have a minimum tensile strength of 200 pounds (90 kilograms).

(f) Each line shall be flagged or clearly marked with high visibility materials at intervals not to exceed 6 feet.

(g) After being erected with the rope, or chain attached, stanchions shall be capable of resisting without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds (71 Newtons) applied horizontally against the stanchions 30 inches (0.76 meters) above the roof surface, perpendicular to the warning line and in the direction of the roof edge.

(2) When positive means of fall restraint as described in WAC 296-155-24510 (1)(a) through (d), or fall arrest as described in WAC 296-155-24510 (2) through (((5)(c))) (6) are not utilized, a safety monitor system as described in WAC 296-155-24521 shall be implemented to protect employees working between the forward edge of the warning line and the leading edge.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24520, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24520, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-24520, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24520, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24521
Safety monitor system.

(1) A safety monitor system (SMS) may be used in conjunction with a warning line system as a method of guarding against falls during work on low pitched roofs and leading edge work only.

(2) When selected, the employer shall ensure that the safety monitor system shall be addressed in the fall protection work plan, include the name of the safety monitor(s) and the extent of their training in both the safety monitor and warning line systems, and shall ensure that the following requirements are met.

(3) The safety monitor system shall not be used when adverse weather conditions create additional hazards.

(4) A person acting in the capacity of safety monitor(s) shall be trained in the function of both the safety monitor and warning lines systems, and shall:

(a) Be a competent person as defined in WAC 296-155-24503.

(b) Have control authority over the work as it relates to fall protection.

(c) Be instantly distinguishable over members of the work crew.

(d) Engage in no other duties while acting as safety monitor.

(e) Be positioned in relation to the workers under their protection, so as to have a clear, unobstructed view and be able to maintain normal voice communication.

(f) Not supervise more than eight exposed workers at one time.

(g) Warn the employee when it appears that the employee is unaware of a fall hazard or is acting in an unsafe manner.

(5) Control zone:

(a) Workers shall be distinguished from other members of the crew by wearing highly visible, distinctive, and uniform apparel readily distinguishing them from other members of the crew only while in the control zone.

(b) The employer shall ensure that each employee working in a control zone promptly comply with fall hazard warnings from safety monitors.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24521, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24521, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24521, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98)

WAC 296-155-24525
Appendix B to Part C-1 -- Fall restraint and fall arrest (employer information only).

Additional standards that require the use of fall restraint and/or fall arrest protection for employees are listed below:


Ladders WAC 296-155-480 (1)(r)
WAC 296-155-480 (1)(s)
Scaffolds WAC 296-155-483(7)
Boom Supported Elevating Work Platforms WAC 296-155-489
Vehicle Mounted Elevated and Rotating Work Platforms WAC 296-155-490 (2)(b)(v)
Crane and Derrick Supported WAC 296-155-528 (6)(c)
Work Platforms WAC 296-155-528 (6)(d)
WAC 296-155-528 (7)(i)
WAC 296-155-528 (7)(j)
WAC 296-155-528 (7)(k)
WAC 296-155-528 (10)(h)
Open Sided Floors WAC 296-155-505 (((4))) (6)(a) through (f)
Pile Driving WAC 296-155-620 (1)(i)
Vertical Slip Forms WAC 296-155-688(9)
Placing and Removal of Forms WAC 296-155-689(4)
Steel Erection Temporary Floors WAC 296-155-705 (2)(b)
Tunneling (Skips and Platforms) WAC 296-155-730 (8)(e)

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-05-046, 296-155-24525, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24525, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24525, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24525, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98)

WAC 296-155-483
General requirements.

This section does not apply to manually propelled elevating work platforms, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-487.

This section does not apply to self-propelled elevating work platforms, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-488.

This section does not apply to boom supported elevating work platforms, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-489.

This section does not apply to aerial lifts, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-490.

(1) "Capacity"

(a) Except as provided in (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this subsection and subsection (7) of this section, each scaffold and scaffold component shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least 4 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to it.

(b) Direct connections to roofs and floors, and counterweights used to balance adjustable suspension scaffolds, shall be capable of resisting at least 4 times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at the rated load of the hoist, or 1.5 (minimum) times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at the stall load of the hoist, whichever is greater.

(c) Each suspension rope, including connecting hardware, used on nonadjustable suspension scaffolds shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 6 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that rope.

(d) Each suspension rope, including connecting hardware, used on adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 6 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that rope with the scaffold operating at either the rated load of the hoist, or 2 (minimum) times the stall load of the hoist, whichever is greater.

(e) The stall load of any scaffold hoist shall not exceed 3 times its rated load.

(f) Scaffolds shall be designed by a qualified person and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design. Nonmandatory Appendix A to this part contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with subsection (1) of this section.

(2) "Scaffold platform construction."

(a) Each platform on all working levels of scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked between the front uprights and the guardrail supports as follows:

(i) Each platform unit (e.g., scaffold plank, fabricated plank, fabricated deck, or fabricated platform) shall be installed so that the space between adjacent units and the space between the platform and the uprights is no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, except where the employer can demonstrate that a wider space is necessary (for example, to fit around uprights when side brackets are used to extend the width of the platform).

(ii) Where the employer makes the demonstration provided for in subsection (2)(a)(i) of this section, the platform shall be planked or decked as fully as possible and the remaining open space between the platform and the uprights shall not exceed 9 1/2 inches (24.1 cm).

Exception to subsection (2)(a) of this section: The requirement in subsection (2)(a) of this section to provide full planking or decking does not apply to platforms used solely as walkways or solely by employees performing scaffold erection or dismantling. In these situations, only the planking necessary to provide safe working conditions is required. Employees on those platforms shall be protected from fall hazards in accordance with subsection (7) of this section.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (2)(b)(i) and (ii) of this section, each scaffold platform and walkway shall be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide.

(i) Each ladder jack scaffold, top plate bracket scaffold, roof bracket scaffold, and pump jack scaffold shall be at least 12 inches (30 cm) wide. There is no minimum width requirement for boatswains' chairs.

(ii) Where scaffolds must be used in areas that the employer can demonstrate are so narrow that platforms and walkways cannot be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide, such platforms and walkways shall be as wide as feasible, and employees on those platforms and walkways shall be protected from fall hazards by the use of guardrails and/or personal fall arrest systems.

(c) Except as provided in subsection (2)(c)(i) and (ii) of this section, the front edge of all platforms shall not be more than 14 inches (36 cm) from the face of the work, unless guardrail systems are erected along the front edge and/or personal fall arrest systems are used in accordance with subsection (7) of this section to protect employees from falling.

(i) The maximum distance from the face for outrigger scaffolds shall be 3 inches (8 cm);

(ii) The maximum distance from the face for plastering and lathing operations shall be 18 inches (46 cm).

(d) Each end of a platform, unless cleated or otherwise restrained by hooks or equivalent means, shall extend over the centerline of its support at least 6 inches (15 cm).

(e) Unless the platform is designed and installed so that the cantilevered portion of the platform is able to support employees and/or materials without tipping, or has guardrails which block employee access to the cantilevered end, the end of a platform shall not extend over its support more than:

(i) 12 inches (30 cm) for platforms 10 feet or less in length;

(ii) 18 inches (46 cm ) for platforms greater than 10 feet in length.

(f) On scaffolds where scaffold planks are abutted to create a long platform, each abutted end shall rest on a separate support surface. This provision does not preclude the use of common support members, such as "T" sections, to support abutting planks, or hook on platforms designed to rest on common supports.

(g) On scaffolds where platforms are overlapped to create a long platform, the overlap shall occur only over supports, and shall not be less than 12 inches (30 cm) unless the platforms are nailed together or otherwise restrained to prevent movement.

(h) At all points of a scaffold where the platform changes direction, such as turning a corner, any platform that rests on a bearer at an angle other than a right angle shall be laid first, and platforms which rest at right angles over the same bearer shall be laid second, on top of the first platform.

(i) Wood platforms shall not be covered with opaque finishes, except that platform edges may be covered or marked for identification. Platforms may be coated periodically with wood preservatives, fire-retardant finishes, and slip-resistant finishes; however, the coating may not obscure the top or bottom wood surfaces.

(j) Scaffold components shall not be intermixed unless the components fit together without force and the scaffold's structural integrity is maintained by the user. Scaffold components shall not be modified in order to intermix them unless a qualified person determines the resulting scaffold is structurally sound.

(k) Scaffold components made of dissimilar metals shall not be used together unless a competent person has determined that galvanic action will not reduce the strength of any component to a level below that required by subsection (1)(a) of this section.

(3) "Criteria for supported scaffolds."

(a) Supported scaffolds with a height to base width (including outrigger supports, if used) ratio of more than four to one (4:1) shall be restrained from tipping by guying, tying, bracing, or equivalent means, as follows:

(i) Guys, ties, and braces shall be installed at locations where horizontal members support both inner and outer legs.

(ii) Guys, ties, and braces shall be installed according to the scaffold manufacturer's recommendations or at the closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height and be repeated vertically at locations of horizontal members every 20 feet (6.1 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds 3 feet (0.91 m) wide or less, and every 26 feet (7.9 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds greater than 3 feet (0.91 m) wide. The top guy, tie or brace of completed scaffolds shall be placed no further than the 4:1 height from the top. Such guys, ties and braces shall be installed at each end of the scaffold and at horizontal intervals not to exceed 30 feet (9.1 m) (measured from one end (not both) towards the other).

(b) Ties, guys, braces, or outriggers shall be used to prevent the tipping of supported scaffolds in all circumstances where an eccentric load, such as a cantilevered work platform, is applied or is transmitted to the scaffold.

(c) Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates resting on adequate firm foundation, such as dry compacted soil, mud sills or concrete slabs.

(i) Footings shall be level, sound, rigid, and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement.

(ii) Unstable objects shall not be used to support scaffolds or platform units.

(iii) Unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms.

(iv) Front-end loaders and similar pieces of equipment shall not be used to support scaffold platforms unless they have been specifically designed by the manufacturer for such use.

(v) Fork-lifts shall not be used to support scaffold platforms unless the entire platform is attached to the fork and the fork-lift is not moved horizontally while the platform is occupied.

(d) Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall be plumb and braced to prevent swaying and displacement.

(4) "Criteria for suspension scaffolds."

(a) All suspension scaffold support devices, such as outrigger beams, cornice hooks, parapet clamps, and similar devices, shall rest on surfaces capable of supporting at least 4 times the load imposed on them by the scaffold operating at the rated load of the hoist (or at least 1.5 times the load imposed on them by the scaffold at the stall capacity of the hoist, whichever is greater).

(b) Suspension scaffold outrigger beams, when used, shall be made of structural metal or equivalent strength material, and shall be restrained to prevent movement.

(c) The inboard ends of suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall be stabilized by bolts or other direct connections to the floor or roof deck, or they shall have their inboard ends stabilized by counterweights, except masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall not be stabilized by counterweights.

(i) Before the scaffold is used, direct connections shall be evaluated by a competent person who shall confirm, based on the evaluation, that the supporting surfaces are capable of supporting the loads to be imposed. In addition, masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold connections shall be designed by an engineer experienced in such scaffold design.

(ii) Counterweights shall be made of nonflowable material. Sand, gravel and similar materials that can be easily dislocated shall not be used as counterweights.

(iii) Only those items specifically designed as counterweights shall be used to counterweight scaffold systems. Construction materials such as, but not limited to, masonry units and rolls of roofing felt, shall not be used as counterweights.

(iv) Counterweights shall be secured by mechanical means to the outrigger beams to prevent accidental displacement.

(v) Counterweights shall not be removed from an outrigger beam until the scaffold is disassembled.

(vi) Outrigger beams which are not stabilized by bolts or other direct connections to the floor or roof deck shall be secured by tiebacks.

(vii) Tiebacks shall be equivalent in strength to the suspension ropes.

(viii) Outrigger beams shall be placed perpendicular to its bearing support (usually the face of the building or structure). However, where the employer can demonstrate that it is not possible to place an outrigger beam perpendicular to the face of the building or structure because of obstructions that cannot be moved, the outrigger beam may be placed at some other angle, provided opposing angle tiebacks are used.

(ix) Tiebacks shall be secured to a structurally sound anchorage on the building or structure. Sound anchorages include structural members, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit.

(x) Tiebacks shall be installed perpendicular to the face of the building or structure, or opposing angle tiebacks shall be installed. Single tiebacks installed at an angle are prohibited.

(d) Suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall be:

(i) Provided with stop bolts or shackles at both ends;

(ii) Securely fastened together with the flanges turned out when channel iron beams are used in place of I-beams;

(iii) Installed with all bearing supports perpendicular to the beam center line;

(iv) Set and maintained with the web in a vertical position; and

(v) When an outrigger beam is used, the shackle or clevis with which the rope is attached to the outrigger beam shall be placed directly over the center line of the stirrup.

(e) Suspension scaffold support devices such as cornice hooks, roof hooks, roof irons, parapet clamps, or similar devices shall be:

(i) Made of steel, wrought iron, or materials of equivalent strength;

(ii) Supported by bearing blocks; and

(iii) Secured against movement by tiebacks installed at right angles to the face of the building or structure, or opposing angle tiebacks shall be installed and secured to a structurally sound point of anchorage on the building or structure. Sound points of anchorage include structural members, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit.

(iv) Tiebacks shall be equivalent in strength to the hoisting rope.

(f) When winding drum hoists are used on a suspension scaffold, they shall contain not less than four wraps of the suspension rope at the lowest point of scaffold travel. When other types of hoists are used, the suspension ropes shall be long enough to allow the scaffold to be lowered to the level below without the rope end passing through the hoist, or the rope end shall be configured or provided with means to prevent the end from passing through the hoist.

(g) The use of repaired wire rope as suspension rope is prohibited.

(h) Wire suspension ropes shall not be joined together except through the use of eye splice thimbles connected with shackles or coverplates and bolts.

(i) The load end of wire suspension ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles and secured by eyesplicing or equivalent means.

(j) Ropes shall be inspected for defects by a competent person prior to each workshift and after every occurrence which could affect a rope's integrity. Ropes shall be replaced if any of the following conditions exist:

(i) Any physical damage which impairs the function and strength of the rope.

(ii) Kinks that might impair the tracking or wrapping of rope around the drum(s) or sheave(s).

(iii) Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.

(iv) Abrasion, corrosion, scrubbing, flattening or peening causing loss of more than one-third of the original diameter of the outside wires.

(v) Heat damage caused by a torch or any damage caused by contact with electrical wires.

(vi) Evidence that the secondary brake has been activated during an overspeed condition and has engaged the suspension rope.

(k) Swaged attachments or spliced eyes on wire suspension ropes shall not be used unless they are made by the wire rope manufacturer or a qualified person.

(l) When wire rope clips are used on suspension scaffolds:

(i) There shall be a minimum of 3 wire rope clips installed, with the clips a minimum of 6 rope diameters apart;

(ii) Clips shall be installed according to the manufacturer's recommendations;

(iii) Clips shall be retightened to the manufacturer's recommendations after the initial loading;

(iv) Clips shall be inspected and retightened to the manufacturer's recommendations at the start of each workshift thereafter;

(v) U-bolt clips shall not be used at the point of suspension for any scaffold hoist;

(vi) When U-bolt clips are used, the U-bolt shall be placed over the dead end of the rope, and the saddle shall be placed over the live end of the rope.

(m) Suspension scaffold power-operated hoists and manual hoists shall be tested by a qualified testing laboratory.

(n) Gasoline-powered equipment and hoists shall not be used on suspension scaffolds.

(o) Gears and brakes of power-operated hoists used on suspension scaffolds shall be enclosed.

(p) In addition to the normal operating brake, suspension scaffold power-operated hoists and manually operated hoists shall have a braking device or locking pawl which engages automatically when a hoist makes either of the following uncontrolled movements: An instantaneous change in momentum or an accelerated overspeed.

(q) Manually operated hoists shall require a positive crank force to descend.

(r) Two-point and multi-point suspension scaffolds shall be tied or otherwise secured to prevent them from swaying, as determined to be necessary based on an evaluation by a competent person. Window cleaners' anchors shall not be used for this purpose.

(s) Devices whose sole function is to provide emergency escape and rescue shall not be used as working platforms. This provision does not preclude the use of systems which are designed to function both as suspension scaffolds and emergency systems.

(5) "Access." This paragraph applies to scaffold access for all employees. Access requirements for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds are specifically addressed in (i) of this subsection.

(a) When scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet (0.6 m) above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers (scaffold stairways/towers), stairway-type ladders (such as ladder stands), ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be used. Crossbraces shall not be used as a means of access.

(b) Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders (additional requirements for the proper construction and use of portable ladders are contained in Part J of this chapter -- Stairways and ladders):

(i) Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders shall be positioned so as not to tip the scaffold;

(ii) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be positioned so that their bottom rung is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level;

(iii) When hook-on and attachable ladders are used on a supported scaffold more than 24 feet (7.3 m) high, they shall have rest platforms at 20 foot (6.1 m) maximum vertical intervals except the first platform may be up to 24 feet above the ground;

(iv) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be specifically designed for use with the type of scaffold used;

(v) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have a minimum rung length of 11 1/2 inches (29 cm); and

(vi) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have uniformly spaced rungs with a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches.

(c) Stairway-type ladders shall:

(i) Be positioned such that their bottom step is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level;

(ii) Be provided with rest platforms at 12-foot (3.7 m) maximum vertical intervals;

(iii) Have a minimum step width of 16 inches (41 cm), except that mobile scaffold stairway-type ladders shall have a minimum step width of 11 1/2 inches (30 cm); and

(iv) Have slip-resistant treads on all steps and landings.

(d) Stairtowers (scaffold stairway/towers) shall be positioned such that their bottom step is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level.

(i) A stairrail consisting of a toprail and a midrail shall be provided on each side of each scaffold stairway.

(ii) The toprail of each stairrail system shall also be capable of serving as a handrail, unless a separate handrail is provided.

(iii) Handrails, and toprails that serve as handrails, shall provide an adequate handhold for employees grasping them to avoid falling.

(iv) Stairrail systems and handrails shall be surfaced to prevent injury to employees from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.

(v) The ends of stairrail systems and handrails shall be constructed so that they do not constitute a projection hazard.

(vi) Handrails, and toprails that are used as handrails, shall be at least 3 inches (7.6 cm) from other objects.

(vii) Stairrails shall be not less than 28 inches (71 cm) nor more than 37 inches (94 cm) from the upper surface of the stairrail to the surface of the tread, in line with the face of the riser at the forward edge of the tread.

(viii) A landing platform at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) wide by at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) long shall be provided at each level.

(ix) Each scaffold stairway shall be at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) wide between stairrails.

(x) Treads and landings shall have slip-resistant surfaces.

(xi) Stairways shall be installed between 40 degrees and 60 degrees from the horizontal.

(xii) Guardrails meeting the requirements of subsection (7)(d) of this section shall be provided on the open sides and ends of each landing.

(xiii) Riser height shall be uniform, within 1/4 inch, (0.6 cm) for each flight of stairs. Greater variations in riser height are allowed for the top and bottom steps of the entire system, not for each flight of stairs.

(xiv) Tread depth shall be uniform, within 1/4 inch, for each flight of stairs.

(e) Ramps and walkways.

(i) Ramps and walkways 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above lower levels shall have guardrail systems which comply with Part K of this chapter--Floor openings, wall openings and stairways:

(ii) No ramp or walkway shall be inclined more than a slope of one vertical to three horizontal (20 degrees above the horizontal).

(iii) If the slope of a ramp or a walkway is steeper than one vertical in eight horizontal, the ramp or walkway shall have cleats not more than fourteen inches (35 cm) apart which are securely fastened to the planks to provide footing.

(f) Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames shall:

(i) Be specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs;

(ii) Have a rung length of at least 8 inches (20 cm);

(iii) Not be used as work platforms when rungs are less than 11 1/2 inches in length, unless each affected employee uses fall protection, or a positioning device, which complies with WAC 296-155-24510;

(iv) Be uniformly spaced within each frame section;

(v) Be provided with rest platforms at 20-foot (6.1 m) maximum vertical intervals on all supported scaffolds more than 24 feet (7.3 m) high; and

(vi) Have a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches (43 cm). Nonuniform rung spacing caused by joining end frames together is allowed, provided the resulting spacing does not exceed 16 3/4 inches (43 cm).

(g) Steps and rungs of ladder and stairway type access shall line up vertically with each other between rest platforms.

(h) Direct access to or from another surface shall be used only when the scaffold is not more than 14 inches (36 cm) horizontally and not more than 24 inches (61 cm) vertically from the other surface.

(i) Access for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds shall be in accordance with the following:

(i) The employer shall provide safe means of access for each employee erecting or dismantling a scaffold where the provision of safe access is feasible and does not create a greater hazard. The employer shall have a competent person determine whether it is feasible or would pose a greater hazard to provide, and have employees use a safe means of access. This determination shall be based on site conditions and the type of scaffold being erected or dismantled.

(ii) Hook-on or attachable ladders shall be installed as soon as scaffold erection has progressed to a point that permits safe installation and use.

(iii) When erecting or dismantling tubular welded frame scaffolds, (end) frames, with horizontal members that are parallel, level and are not more than 22 inches apart vertically may be used as climbing devices for access, provided they are erected in a manner that creates a usable ladder and provides good hand hold and foot space.

(iv) Cross braces on tubular welded frame scaffolds shall not be used as a means of access or egress.

(6) "Use."

(a) Scaffolds and scaffold components shall not be loaded in excess of their maximum intended loads or rated capacities, whichever is less.

(b) The use of shore or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.

(c) Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be inspected for visible defects by a competent person before each work shift, and after any occurrence which could affect a scaffold's structural integrity.

(d) Any part of a scaffold damaged or weakened such that its strength is less than that required by subsection (1)(a) of this section shall be immediately repaired or replaced, braced to meet those provisions, or removed from service until repaired.

(e) Scaffolds shall not be moved horizontally while employees are on them, unless they have been designed by a registered professional engineer specifically for such movement or, for mobile scaffolds, where the provisions of WAC 296-155-484(23) are followed.

(f) The clearance between scaffolds and power lines shall be as follows: Scaffolds shall not be erected, used, dismantled, altered, or moved such that they or any conductive material handled on them might come closer to exposed and energized power lines than as follows:


*Insulated Lines Voltage
Minimum distance
Alternatives

Less than 300 volts.

*300 volts to 50 kv.

More than 50 kv. . . . .


3 feet (0.9 m)

10 feet (3.1 m)

10 feet (3.1 m) plus

0.4 inches (1.0 cm)

for each 1 kv over

50 kv.


2 times the length of

the line insulator,

but never less than

10 feet (3.1 m).

*Uninsulated lines

Voltage

Minimum distance

Alternatives

Less than 50 kv. . . . .

More than 50 kv. . . . .


10 feet (3.1 m).

10 feet (3.1 m) plus

0.4 inches (1.0 cm)

for each 1 kv over

50 kv.


2 times the length of the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet (3.1 m).


Exception to subsection (6)(f): Scaffolds and materials may be closer to power lines than specified above where such clearance is necessary for performance of work, and only after the utility company, or electrical system operator, has been notified of the need to work closer and the utility company, or electrical system operator, has deenergized the lines, relocated the lines, or installed protective coverings to prevent accidental contact with the lines.

(g) Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffold erection, moving, dismantling or alteration. Such activities shall be performed only by experienced and trained employees selected for such work by the competent person.

(h) Employees shall be prohibited from working on scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such materials.

(i) Where swinging loads are being hoisted onto or near scaffolds such that the loads might contact the scaffold, tag lines or equivalent measures to control the loads shall be used.

(j) Suspension ropes supporting adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be of a diameter large enough to provide sufficient surface area for the functioning of brake and hoist mechanisms.

(k) Suspension ropes shall be shielded from heat-producing processes. When acids or other corrosive substances are used on a scaffold, the ropes shall be shielded, treated to protect against the corrosive substances, or shall be of a material that will not be damaged by the substance being used.

(l) Work on or from scaffolds is prohibited during storms or high winds unless a competent person has determined that it is safe for employees to be on the scaffold and those employees are protected by a personal fall arrest system or wind screens. Wind screens shall not be used unless the scaffold is secured against the anticipated wind forces imposed.

(m) Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms.

(n) Makeshift devices, such as but not limited to boxes and barrels, shall not be used on top of scaffold platforms to increase the working level height of employees.

(o) Ladders shall not be used on scaffolds to increase the working level height of employees, except on large area scaffolds where employers have satisfied the following criteria:

(i) When the ladder is placed against a structure which is not a part of the scaffold, the scaffold shall be secured against the sideways thrust exerted by the ladder;

(ii) The platform units shall be secured to the scaffold to prevent their movement;

(iii) The ladder legs shall be on the same platform or other means shall be provided to stabilize the ladder against unequal platform deflection; and

(iv) The ladder legs shall be secured to prevent them from slipping or being pushed off the platform.

(p) Platforms shall not deflect more than 1/60 of the span when loaded.

(q) To reduce the possibility of welding current arcing through the suspension wire rope when performing welding from suspended scaffolds, the following precautions shall be taken, as applicable:

(i) An insulated thimble shall be used to attach each suspension wire rope to its hanging support (such as cornice hook or outrigger). Excess suspension wire rope and any additional independent lines from grounding shall be insulated;

(ii) The suspension wire rope shall be covered with insulating material extending at least 4 feet (1.2 m) above the hoist. If there is a tail line below the hoist, it shall be insulated to prevent contact with the platform. The portion of the tail line that hangs free below the scaffold shall be guided or retained, or both, so that it does not become grounded;

(iii) Each hoist shall be covered with insulated protective covers;

(iv) In addition to a work lead attachment required by the welding process, a grounding conductor shall be connected from the scaffold to the structure. The size of this conductor shall be at least the size of the welding process work lead, and this conductor shall not be in series with the welding process or the work piece;

(v) If the scaffold grounding lead is disconnected at any time, the welding machine shall be shut off; and

(vi) An active welding rod or uninsulated welding lead shall not be allowed to contact the scaffold or its suspension system.

(7) "Fall protection."

(a) Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet (3.1 m) above a lower level shall be protected from falling to that lower level. Subsection (7)(a)(i) through (vii) of this section establish the types of fall protection to be provided to the employees on each type of scaffold. Subsection (7)(b) of this section addresses fall protection for scaffold erectors and dismantlers.

Note to subsection (7)(a): The fall protection requirements for employees installing suspension scaffold support systems on floors, roofs, and other elevated surfaces are set forth in Parts C-1 and K of this chapter.

(i) Each employee on a boatswains' chair, catenary scaffold, float scaffold, needle beam scaffold, or ladder jack scaffold shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system;

(ii) Each employee on a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold shall be protected by both a personal fall arrest system and guardrail system;

(iii) Each employee on a crawling board (chicken ladder) shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system, a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity), or by a three-fourth inch (1.9 cm) diameter grabline or equivalent handhold securely fastened beside each crawling board;

(iv) Each employee on a self-contained adjustable scaffold shall be protected by a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity) when the platform is supported by the frame structure, and by both a personal fall arrest system and a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity) when the platform is supported by ropes;

(v) Each employee on a walkway located within a scaffold shall be protected by a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity) installed within 9 1/2 inches (24.1 cm) of and along at least one side of the walkway;

(vi) Each employee performing overhand bricklaying operations from a supported scaffold shall be protected from falling from all open sides and ends of the scaffold (except at the side next to the wall being laid) by the use of a personal fall arrest system or guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity);

(vii) For all scaffolds not otherwise specified in (a)(i) through (vi) of this subsection, each employee shall be protected by the use of personal fall arrest systems or guardrail systems meeting the requirements of (d) of this subsection.

(b) The employer shall have a competent person determine the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds. Employers are required to provide fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds where the installation and use of such protection is feasible and does not create a greater hazard. The maximum feasible fall protection shall be used.

(c) In addition to meeting the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, personal fall arrest systems used on scaffolds shall be attached by lanyard to a vertical lifeline, horizontal lifeline, or appropriate structural member. Vertical lifelines shall not be used when overhead components, such as overhead protection or additional platform levels, are part of a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold.

(i) When vertical lifelines are used, they shall be fastened to a fixed safe point of anchorage, shall be independent of the scaffold, and shall be protected from sharp edges and abrasion. Safe points of anchorage include structural members of buildings, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, electrical conduit, outrigger beams, or counterweights.

(ii) When horizontal lifelines are used, they shall be secured to two or more structural members of the scaffold, or they may be looped around both suspension and independent suspension lines (on scaffolds so equipped) above the hoist and brake attached to the end of the scaffold. Horizontal lifelines shall not be attached only to the suspension ropes.

(iii) On suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms with horizontal lifelines which may become vertical lifelines, the devices used to connect to a horizontal lifeline shall be capable of locking in both directions on the lifeline.

(vi) When lanyards are connected to horizontal lifelines or structural members on a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold, the scaffold shall be equipped with additional independent support lines and automatic locking devices capable of stopping the fall of the scaffold in the event one or both of the suspension ropes fail. The independent support lines shall be equal in number and strength to the suspension ropes.

(((iv))) (v) Vertical lifelines, independent support lines, and suspension ropes shall not be attached to each other, nor shall they be attached to or use the same point of anchorage, nor shall they be attached to the same point on the scaffold or personal fall arrest system.

(d) Guardrail systems installed to meet the requirements of this section shall comply with the following provisions (guardrail systems built in accordance with Appendix A to this part will be deemed to meet the requirements of (d)(vii), (viii), and (ix) of this subsection):

(i) Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms. Guardrail systems shall be installed before the scaffold is released for use by employees other than erection/dismantling crews.

(ii) The top edge height of toprails or equivalent member on supported scaffolds manufactured or first placed in service after January 1, 2000, shall be installed between 38 inches (0.97 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m) above the platform surface. The top edge height on supported scaffolds manufactured and placed in service before January 1, 2000, and on all suspended scaffolds where both a guardrail and a personal fall arrest system are required shall be between 36 inches (0.9 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m). When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of (d) of this subsection.

(iii) When midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent structural members are used, they shall be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the scaffold platform.

(iv) When midrails are used, they shall be installed at a height approximately midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the platform surface.

(v) When screens and mesh are used, they shall extend from the top edge of the guardrail system to the scaffold platform, and along the entire opening between the supports.

(vi) When intermediate members (such as balusters or additional rails) are used, they shall not be more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart.

(vii) Each toprail or equivalent member of a guardrail system shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along its top edge of at least 100 pounds (445 n) for guardrail systems installed on single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds or two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, and at least 200 pounds (890 n) for guardrail systems installed on all other scaffolds.

(viii) When the loads specified in (d)(vii) of this subsection are applied in a downward direction, the top edge shall not drop below the height above the platform surface that is prescribed in (d)(ii) of this subsection.

(ix) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and equivalent structural members of a guardrail system shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the midrail or other member of at least 75 pounds (333 n) for guardrail systems with a minimum 100 pound toprail capacity, and at least 150 pounds (666 n) for guardrail systems with a minimum 200 pound toprail capacity.

(x) Suspension scaffold hoists and nonwalk-through stirrups may be used as end guardrails, if the space between the hoist or stirrup and the side guardrail or structure does not allow passage of an employee to the end of the scaffold.

(xi) Guardrails shall be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.

(xii) The ends of all rails shall not overhang the terminal posts except when such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard to employees.

(xiii) Steel or plastic banding shall not be used as a toprail or midrail.

(xiv) Manila or plastic (or other synthetic) rope being used for toprails or midrails shall be inspected by a competent person as frequently as necessary to ensure that it continues to meet the strength requirements of subsection (7) of this section.

(xv) Crossbraces may be used in lieu of either the toprail or midrail providing the resulting guardrail system meets all the other criteria of (d) of this subsection and this does not result in openings in the guardrail system or between the guardrail system and the platform through which a nineteen-inch diameter sphere can pass.

(8) "Falling object protection."

(a) In addition to wearing hardhats each employee on a scaffold shall be provided with additional protection from falling hand tools, debris, and other small objects through the installation of toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems, or through the erection of debris nets, catch platforms, or canopy structures that contain or deflect the falling objects. When the falling objects are too large, heavy or massive to be contained or deflected by any of the above-listed measures, the employer shall place such potential falling objects away from the edge of the surface from which they could fall and shall secure those materials as necessary to prevent their falling.

(b) Where there is a danger of tools, materials, or equipment falling from a scaffold and striking employees below, the following provisions apply:

(i) The area below the scaffold to which objects can fall shall be barricaded, and employees shall not be permitted to enter the hazard area; or

(ii) A toeboard shall be erected along the edge of platforms above lower levels for a distance sufficient to protect employees below, except on float (ship) scaffolds where an edging of 3/4 x 1 1/2 inch (2 x 4 cm) wood or equivalent may be used in lieu of toeboards; or

(iii) Where tools, materials, or equipment are piled to a height higher than the top edge of the toeboard, paneling or screening extending from the toeboard or platform to the top of the guardrail shall be erected for a distance sufficient to protect employees below; or

(iv) A guardrail system shall be installed with openings small enough to prevent passage of potential falling objects; or

(v) A canopy structure, debris net, or catch platform strong enough to withstand the impact forces of the potential falling objects shall be erected over the employees below.

(c) Canopies, when used for falling object protection, shall comply with the following criteria:

(i) Canopies shall be installed between the falling object hazard and the employees.

(ii) When canopies are used on suspension scaffolds for falling object protection, the scaffold shall be equipped with additional independent support lines equal in number to the number of points supported, and equivalent in strength to the strength of the suspension ropes.

(iii) Independent support lines and suspension ropes shall not be attached to the same points of anchorage.

(d) Where used, toeboards shall be:

(i) Capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard (toeboards built in accordance with Appendix A to this part will be deemed to meet this requirement); and

(ii) At least three and one-half inches (9 cm) high from the top edge of the toeboard to the level of the walking/working surface. Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have not more than 1/4 inch (0.7 cm) clearance above the walking/working surface. Toeboards shall be solid or with openings not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the greatest dimension.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-05-046, 296-155-483, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-483, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-505
Guardrails, handrails and covers.

(1) General provisions. This part applies to temporary or emergency conditions where there is danger of employees or materials falling through floor, roof, or wall openings, or from stairways, runways, ramps, open sided floors, open sides of structures, bridges, or other open sided walking or working surfaces.

(2) The employer shall determine if the walking/working surfaces on which its employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to support employees safely. Employees shall be allowed to work on those surfaces only when the surfaces have the requisite strength and structural integrity.

(3) When guardrails or covers required by this section must be temporarily removed to perform a specific task, the area shall be constantly attended by a monitor to warn others of the hazard or shall be protected by a movable barrier.

(((2))) (4) Guarding of floor openings and floor holes.

(a) Floor openings shall be guarded by a standard railing and toe boards or cover, as specified in subsections (((2))) (4)(g) and (((5))) (7) of this section. In general, the railing shall be provided on all exposed sides, except at entrances to stairways. All vehicle service pits shall have a cover or removable type standard guardrail. When not in use, pits shall be covered or guarded. Where vehicle service pits are to be used again immediately, and the service person is within a 50 foot distance of the unguarded pit and also within line of sight of the unguarded pit, the cover or guardrail need not be replaced between uses. Where vehicle service pits are used frequently, the perimeters of the pits shall be delineated by high visibility, luminescent, skid resistant paint. Such painted delineation shall be kept clean and free of extraneous materials.

(b) Ladderway floor openings or platforms shall be guarded by standard railings with standard toe boards on all exposed sides, except at entrance to opening, with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the opening.

(c) Hatchways and chute floor openings shall be guarded by one of the following:

(i) Hinged covers of standard strength and construction and a standard railing with only one exposed side. When the opening is not in use, the cover shall be closed or the exposed side shall be guarded at both top and intermediate positions by removable standard railings;

(ii) A removable standard railing with toe board on not more than two sides of the opening and fixed standard railings with toe boards on all other exposed sides. The removable railing shall be kept in place when the opening is not in use and shall be hinged or otherwise mounted so as to be conveniently replaceable.

(d) Wherever there is danger of falling through a skylight opening, and the skylight itself is not capable of sustaining the weight of a two hundred pound person with a safety factor of four, standard guardrails shall be provided on all exposed sides or the skylight shall be covered in accordance with (g) of this subsection.

(e) Pits and trap door floor openings shall be guarded by floor opening covers of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the pit or trap openings shall be protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings.

(f) Manhole floor openings shall be guarded by standard covers which need not be hinged in place. While the cover is not in place, the manhole opening shall be protected by standard railings.

(g) All floor opening or hole covers shall be capable of supporting the maximum potential load but never less than two hundred pounds (with a safety factor of four).

(i) All covers shall be secured when installed so as to prevent accidental displacement by the wind, equipment, or employees.

(ii) All covers shall be color coded or they shall be marked with the word "hole" or "cover" to provide warning of the hazard.

(iii) If it becomes necessary to remove the cover, a monitor shall remain at the opening until the cover is replaced. The monitor shall advise persons entering the area of the hazard, shall prevent exposure to the fall hazard and shall perform no other duties.

(h) Floor holes, into which persons can accidentally walk, shall be guarded by either a standard railing with standard toe board on all exposed sides, or a floor hole cover of standard strength and construction that is secured against accidental displacement. While the cover is not in place, the floor hole shall be protected by a standard railing.

(((3))) (5) Guarding of wall openings.

(a) Wall openings, from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet, and the bottom of the opening is less than 3 feet above the working surface, shall be guarded as follows:

(i) When the height and placement of the opening in relation to the working surface is such that either a standard rail or intermediate rail will effectively reduce the danger of falling, one or both shall be provided;

(ii) The bottom of a wall opening, which is less than 4 inches above the working surface, regardless of width, shall be protected by a standard toe board or an enclosing screen either of solid construction or as specified in subsection (((5)(e))) (7)(f)(ii) of this section.

(b) An extension platform, outside a wall opening, onto which materials can be hoisted for handling shall have standard guardrails on all exposed sides or equivalent. One side of an extension platform may have removable railings in order to facilitate handling materials.

(c) When a chute is attached to an opening, the provisions of (a) of this subsection shall apply, except that a toe board is not required.

(((4))) (6) Guarding of open sided surfaces.

(a) Every open sided floor, platform or surface four feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing, or the equivalent, as specified in subsection (((5))) (7)(a) of this section, on all open sides, except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The railing shall be provided with a standard toe board wherever, beneath the open sides, persons can pass, or there is moving machinery, or there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard.

(b) Runways shall be guarded by a standard railing, or the equivalent, as specified in subsection (((5))) (7) of this section, on all open sides, 4 feet or more above the floor or ground level. Wherever tools, machine parts, or materials are likely to be used on the runway, a toe board shall also be provided on each exposed side.

(c) Runways used exclusively for special purposes may have the railing on one side omitted where operating conditions necessitate such omission, providing the falling hazard is minimized by using a runway not less than 18 inches wide.

(d) Where employees entering upon runways become thereby exposed to machinery, electrical equipment, or other danger not a falling hazard, additional guarding shall be provided.

(e) Regardless of height, open sided floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, and similar hazards, shall be guarded with a standard railing and toe board.

(f) Open sides of gardens, patios, recreation areas and similar areas located on roofs of buildings or structures shall be guarded by permanent standard railings or the equivalent. Where a planting area has been constructed adjacent to the open sides of the roof and the planting area is raised above the normal walking surface of the roof area, the open side of the planting area shall also be protected with standard railings or the equivalent.

(((5))) (7) Standard specifications.

(a) A standard railing shall consist of top rail, intermediate rail, toe board, and posts, and shall have a vertical height of ((36 inches to)) 42 inches (1.1m) plus or minus 3 inches (8cm) (39-45 inches) from upper surface of top rail to floor, platform, runway, or ramp level. ((Each length of lumber shall be smooth surfaced throughout the length of the railing.)) When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of this subsection. The intermediate rail shall be halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The ends of the rails shall not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard.


Note: When employees are using stilts, the top edge height of the top rail, or equivalent member, shall be increased an amount equal to the height of the stilts.

(b) Minimum requirements for standard railings under various types of construction are specified in the following items:

(i) For wood railings, the posts shall be of at least 2 inch by 4 inch stock spaced not to exceed 8 feet; the top rail shall be of at least 2 inch by 4 inch stock((;)) and each length of lumber shall be smooth surfaced throughout the length of the railing. The intermediate rail shall be of at least 1 inch by 6 inch stock.

(ii) For pipe railings, posts and top and intermediate railings shall be at least 1 1/2 inches nominal OD diameter with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.

(iii) For structural steel railings, posts and top and intermediate rails shall be of 2 inch by 2 inch by 3/8 inch angles or other metal shapes of equivalent bending strength, with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.

(iv) For wire rope railings, the top and intermediate railings shall be at least 1/2 inch fibre core rope, or the equivalent to meet strength factor and deflection of (((a))) (b)(v) of this subsection. Posts shall be spaced not more than 8 feet on centers. The rope shall be stretched taut, so as to present a minimum deflection.

(v) The anchoring of posts and framing of members for railings of all types shall be of such construction that the completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail, with a minimum of deflection.

(vi) Railings receiving heavy stresses from employees trucking or handling materials shall be provided additional strength by the use of heavier stock, closer spacing of posts, bracing, or by other means.

(vii) Other types, sizes, and arrangements of railing construction are acceptable, provided they meet the following conditions:

(A) A smooth surfaced top rail at a height above floor, platform, runway, or ramp level of between ((36)) 39 inches and ((42)) 45 inches;

(B) ((A strength to withstand at least the minimum requirement of 200 pounds top rail pressure with a minimum of deflection;)) When the 200-pound (890N) test load specified in subsection (6)(b)(v) of this section is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail shall not deflect to a height less than 39 inches (1.0m) above the walking/working level. Guardrail system components selected and constructed in accordance with this part will be deemed to meet this requirement;

(C) Protection between top rail and floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair treads, equivalent at least to that afforded by a standard intermediate rail;

(D) Elimination of overhang of rail ends unless such overhang does not constitute a hazard.

(((b))) (c)(i) A standard toe board shall be 4 inches minimum in vertical height from its top edge to the level of the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. It shall be securely fastened in place and have not more than 1/4 inch clearance above floor level. It may be made of any substantial material, either solid, or with openings not over 1 inch in greatest dimension.

(ii) Where material is piled to such height that a standard toe board does not provide protection, paneling, or screening from floor to intermediate rail or to top rail shall be provided.

(((c))) (d) Floor opening covers shall be of any material that meets the following strength requirements:

(i) Conduits, trenches, and manhole covers and their supports, when located in roadways, and vehicular aisles shall be designed to carry a truck rear axle load of at least 2 times the maximum intended load;

(ii) All floor opening covers shall be capable of supporting the maximum potential load but never less than two hundred pounds (with a safety factor of four).

(A) All covers shall be secured when installed so as to prevent accidental displacement by the wind, equipment, or employees.

(B) All covers shall be color coded or they shall be marked with the word "hole" or "cover" to provide warning of the hazard..

(C) If it becomes necessary to remove the cover, a monitor shall remain at the opening until the cover is replaced. The monitor shall advise persons entering the area of the hazard, shall prevent exposure to the fall hazard and shall perform no other duties.

(((d))) (e) Skylight openings that create a falling hazard shall be guarded with a standard railing, or covered in accordance with (((c))) (d)(ii) of this subsection.

(((e))) (f) Wall opening protection shall meet the following requirements:

(i) Barriers shall be of such construction and mounting that, when in place at the opening, the barrier is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction (except upward), with a minimum of deflection at any point on the top rail or corresponding member.

(ii) Screens shall be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied horizontally at any point on the near side of the screen. They may be of solid construction of grill work with openings not more than 8 inches long, or of slat work with openings not more than 4 inches wide with length unrestricted.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-505, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-505, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-155-505, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-505, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-505, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-155-505, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), 296-155-505, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), 296-155-505, filed 6/17/81; Order 76-29, 296-155-505, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, 296-155-505, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]

Reviser's note: The typographical error in the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appears in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-155-680
General provisions.

(1) General. All equipment, material and construction techniques used in concrete construction and masonry work shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, inspection, testing, maintenance and operations as prescribed in ANSI A10.9-1970, Safety Requirements for Concrete Construction and Masonry Work.

(2) Construction loads. No construction loads shall be placed on a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received from a person who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the loads.

(3) Vertical loads. Vertical loads consist of a dead load plus an allowance for live load. The weight of formwork together with the weight of freshly placed concrete is dead load. The live load consists of the weight of workers, equipment, runways and impact, and shall be computed in pounds per square foot (psf) of horizontal projection.

(4) Lateral loads. Braces and shores shall be designed to resist all foreseeable lateral loads such as wind, cable tensions, inclined supports, impact of placement, and starting and stopping of equipment. The assumed value of load due to wind, impact of concrete, and equipment acting in any direction at each floor line shall not be less than one hundred pounds per lineal foot of floor edge or two percent of total dead load of the floor, whichever is greater. Wall forms shall be designed for a minimum wind load of ten psf, and bracing for wall forms should be designed for a lateral load of at least one hundred pounds per lineal foot of wall, applied at the top. Walls of unusual height require special consideration.

(5) Special loads. Formwork shall be designed for all special conditions of construction likely to occur, such as unsymmetrical placement of concrete, impact of machine-delivered concrete, uplift, and concentrated loads.

(6) Form supports and wedges shall be checked during concrete placement to prevent distortion or failure.

(7) Reinforcing steel.

(a) All protruding reinforcing steel, onto and into which employees could fall, shall be guarded to eliminate the hazard of impalement.

(b) Wire mesh rolls: Wire mesh rolls shall be secured at each end to prevent dangerous recoiling action.

(c) Guying: Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical structures shall be guyed and supported to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse.

(8) Post-tensioning operations.

(a) No employee (except those essential to the post-tensioning operations) shall be permitted to be behind the jack during tensioning operations.

(b) Signs and barriers shall be erected to limit employee access to the post-tensioning area during tensioning operations.

(9) Working under loads.

(a) No employee shall be permitted to work under concrete buckets while buckets are being elevated or lowered into position.

(b) To the extent practical, elevated concrete buckets shall be routed so that no employee, or the fewest number of employees, are exposed to the hazards associated with falling concrete buckets.

(10) Personal protective equipment.

(a) No employee shall be permitted to apply a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose unless the employee is wearing protective head and face equipment.

(b) No employee shall be permitted to place or tie reinforcing steel more than six feet (1.8 m) above any adjacent working surface unless the employee is protected by ((the use of a safety belt or equivalent fall protection)) personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, or positioning device systems meeting the criteria of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(c) Each employee on the face of formwork or reinforcing steel shall be protected from falling 6 feet (1.8m) or more to lower levels by personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, or positioning device systems meeting the criteria of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-155-680, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), 296-155-680, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-155-680, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-155-680, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), 296-155-680, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, 296-155-680, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]

Washington State Code Reviser's Office