WSR 03-18-073

PROPOSED RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL


[ Filed August 29, 2003, 2:10 p.m. ]

Original Notice.

Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 03-08-027.

Title of Rule: Amendment of chapter 51-11 WAC, Washington State Energy Code.

Purpose: To consider amendments to the Washington State Energy Code, chapter 51-11 WAC.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045.

Statute Being Implemented: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW.

Summary: The proposed rules amend the Washington State Energy Code. Proposals include a clarification of building commissioning requirements, updating economizer requirements, inclusion of aluminum frame windows in the default tables and updating the metal U-factor default table. (See below for itemized list of proposed changes.)

Reasons Supporting Proposal: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting and Implementation: Krista Braaksma, P.O. Box 48350, Olympia, WA 98504-8350, (360) 725-2964; and Enforcement: Local jurisdictions.

Name of Proponent: Washington State Building Code Council, governmental.

Agency Comments or Recommendations, if any, as to Statutory Language, Implementation, Enforcement, and Fiscal Matters: The council is seeking comments on the issues proposed in the rules shown below.

Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.

Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: The purpose of the proposed rule is to amend the Washington State Energy Code, including increasing the energy efficiency for buildings and structures, updating default tables, and clarifying building commissioning requirements for nonresidential buildings. The proposed amendments will provide greater simplicity, improved energy efficiency, and consistency with other state and national codes, than the existing requirements.

Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules:

GENERAL

1. Default U-Factors for Metal Assemblies (Table 10-5A): This proposal would revise Table 10-5A to correspond with ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2001, Section A3.3 and Table A-10. This provides a wider range of realistic options.

2. Default U-Factors for Windows (Table 10-6): This proposal adds prescriptive options for aluminum frames and revises sloped glazing values to correspond with revisions to Tables 13-1 and 13-2 to assist with prescriptive compliance.

3. Default U-Factors for Doors (Table 10-7): This proposal expands Table 10-7 to provide a wider range of options.


RESIDENTIAL

4. Existing Buildings (Section 101.3.2.5): A provision is proposed to allow residential alterations to use a prescriptive method of increasing glazing area rather than submitting calculations.

5. Slab on Grade Insulation (Section 502.1.4.8): This proposal provides a clarification that the slab insulation shall extend down 24 inches or to the top of the footing, whichever is less.

6. Wall Assemblies (Section 602.2): One additional wall assembly is proposed to meet R-21, and four new assemblies are proposed to meet R-21 int.

7. Chapter 9: The proposed amendment provides additional prescriptive options for meeting the heating systems sizing requirements using winter design temperatures as well as zones.

8. Chapter 7: The standards listed in Chapter 7 have been updated and reordered to eliminate duplication. This has necessitated some further editorial changes throughout the code to update references.


NONRESIDENTIAL

9. Semi-Heated Space (Chapter 2, Section 1310): The proposal revises the definitions of Heated Space and Semi-Heated Space to provide some consistency with the requirements in Oregon. Semi-heated spaces are exempted from the envelope provisions for wall insulation.

10. Automatic Lighting Controls (Section 1132.3 and 1513.6): This proposal adds automatic shut-off control requirements to unnecessary electric lighting energy consumption during the daytime to both new construction and altered spaces.

11. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Sections 1312 and 1323.3): This proposal would add alternate compliance options for SHGC.

12. Slab Penetrations (Section 1322): This proposal amends the exception allowing slab edge penetrations to remain uninsulated.

13. Component Performance Option (Section 1330): This proposal eliminates the use of the 1989 version of EnvStd.

14. Building Envelope Requirements (Tables 13-1 and 13-2): This proposal upgrades fenestration requirements to reflect current practices and upgrades the wall assembly to reduce thermal bridging.

15. Water Cooled Systems (Section 1411.1, Tables 14-1K, 14-1L, and 14-1M): This proposal adopts the ASHRAE 90.1 NPLC efficiency tables for water cooled centrifugal chillers and sets a new compliance method.

16. Setback and Shut-off Controls (Section 1412.4): This proposal adds requirements for retention of programming and manual override, and allow exception for occupancy sensors and manual timers per ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001.

17. Economizers (Sections 1413.3, 1423, 1433): The proposed amendments provide alternatives, clarifications, and consistency with national standards.

18. Duct Sealing (Section 1414.1): The proposed amendment provides consistency with the duct sealing changes adopted for the residential requirements.

19. Building Commissioning (Section 1416): The proposal rewrites the building commissioning requirements with better organizing and describing acceptable commissioning criteria.

20. Heat Recovery (Section 1436): The proposed amendments add provisions for steam condensate recovery for energy and water conservation, and update the requirements to current ASHRAE standards.

21. Electric Motor Efficiency (Section 1437): This proposal would require high-efficiency or electronically-commutated motors for small fan motors in series.

22. Service Water Heating (Section 1440): These proposals would require that service water heating equipment and commercial clothes washers meeting minimum efficiency requirements.

23. Prescriptive Lighting Requirements (Section 1521 and Table 15-1): These proposals revise the lighting power allowance based on current lighting practice and provide support for electronic dimming ballasts with photocell control for daylighting and lumen maintenance.

No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. The proposed amendments have been reviewed by the Energy Code Technical Advisory Group and some were identified as having a cost impact on businesses required to comply with the rule. These costs were felt to be low to moderate increases in first cost on businesses required to comply. However, the increases do not represent a disproportionate cost to small business and if any additional first cost of construction is passed on to consumers, it will be completely offset by the consumer's energy savings. They are also offset by other cost-saving proposals.

RCW 34.05.328 does not apply to this rule adoption. The State Building Code Council is not listed in this section as one of the agencies required to comply with this regulation.

Hearing Location: Spokane City Council Chambers, West 808 Spokane Falls Boulevard, Spokane, WA, on October 10, 2003, at 10:00 a.m.; and at the Holiday Inn Select/Renton, One Grady Way South, Renton, WA, on October 17, 2003, at 10:00 a.m.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Sue Mathers by September 26, 2003, TDD (360) 753-7427 or (360) 725-2967.

Submit Written Comments to: Stan Price, Chairman, State Building Code Council, P.O. Box 48350, Olympia, WA 98504-8350, fax (360) 586-9383, e-mail sbcc@cted.wa.gov, by October 17, 2003.

Date of Intended Adoption: November 21, 2003.

August 7, 2003

Tim Nogler

for Stan Price

Council Chair

OTS-6612.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-0101   Section 101. Scope and general requirements.  


101.1 Title: Chapters 1 through 10 of this Code shall be known as the "Washington State Residential Energy Code" and may be cited as such; and will be referred to herein as "this Code."


101.2 Purpose and Intent: The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum standards for new or altered buildings and structures or portions thereof to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy.


The purpose of this Code is not to create or otherwise establish or designate any particular class or group of persons who will or should be especially protected or benefitted by the terms of this Code.


It is intended that these provisions provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy. These provisions are structured to permit compliance with the intent of this Code by any one of the following three paths of design:


1. A systems analysis approach for the entire building and its energy-using sub-systems which may utilize renewable energy sources, Chapter 4.


2. A component performance approach for various building elements and mechanical systems and components, Chapter 5.


3. A prescriptive requirements approach, Chapter 6.


Compliance with any one of these approaches meets the intent of this Code. This Code is not intended to abridge any safety or health requirements required under any other applicable codes or ordinances.


The provisions of this Code do not consider the efficiency of various energy forms as they are delivered to the building envelope. A determination of delivered energy efficiencies in conjunction with this Code will provide the most efficient use of available energy in new building construction.


101.3 Scope: This Code sets forth minimum requirements for the design of new buildings and structures that provide facilities or shelter for residential occupancies by regulating their exterior envelopes and the selection of their HVAC, service water heating and lighting systems and equipment for efficient use and conservation of energy.


Buildings shall be designed to comply with the requirements of either Chapter 4, 5, or 6 of this Code.


101.3.1 Exempt Buildings: Buildings and structures or portions thereof meeting any of the following criteria shall be exempt from the building envelope requirements of sections 502 and 602, but shall comply with all other requirements for building mechanical systems, and service water heating.


101.3.1.1: Buildings and structures or portions thereof whose peak design rate of energy usage is less than three and four tenths (3.4) Btu/h per square foot or one point zero (1.0) watt per square foot of floor area for space conditioning requirements.


101.3.1.2: Buildings and structures or portions thereof which are neither heated according to the definition of heated space in Chapter 2, nor cooled by a nonrenewable energy source, provided that the nonrenewable energy use for space conditioning complies with requirements of section 101.3.1.1.


101.3.1.3: Greenhouses isolated from any conditioned space and not intended for occupancy.


101.3.1.4: The provisions of this code do not apply to the construction, alteration, or repair of temporary worker housing except as provided by rule adopted under chapter 70.114A RCW or chapter 37, Laws of 1998 (SB 6168). "Temporary worker housing" means a place, area, or piece of land where sleeping places or housing sites are provided by an employer for his or her employees or by another person, including a temporary worker housing operator, who is providing such accommodations for employees, for temporary, seasonal occupancy, and includes "labor camps" under RCW 70.54.110.


101.3.2 Application to Existing Buildings: Additions, historic buildings, changes of occupancy or use, and alterations or repairs shall comply with the requirements in the subsections below.


EXCEPTION: The building official may approve designs of alterations or repairs which do not fully conform with all of the requirements of this Code where in the opinion of the building official full compliance is physically impossible and/or economically impractical and:

1. The alteration or repair improves the energy efficiency of the building; or
2. The alteration or repair is energy efficient and is necessary for the health, safety, and welfare of the general public.
In no case, shall building envelope requirements or mechanical system requirements be less than those requirements in effect at the time of the initial construction of the building.


101.3.2.1 Additions to Existing Buildings: Additions to existing buildings or structures may be made to such buildings or structures without making the entire building or structure comply, provided that the new additions shall conform to the provisions of this Code.


EXCEPTION: New additions which do not fully comply with the requirements of this Code and which have a floor area which is less than seven hundred fifty square feet shall be approved provided that improvements are made to the existing occupancy to compensate for any deficiencies in the new addition. Compliance shall be demonstrated by either systems analysis or component performance calculations. The nonconforming addition and upgraded, existing occupancy shall have an energy budget or Target UA which is less than or equal to the unimproved existing building (minus any elements which are no longer part of the building envelope once the addition is added), with the addition designed to comply with this Code.

101.3.2.2 Historic Buildings: The building official may modify the specific requirements of this Code for historic buildings and require in lieu thereof alternate requirements which will result in a reasonable degree of energy efficiency. This modification may be allowed for those buildings which have been specifically designated as historically significant by the state or local governing body, or listed in The National Register of Historic Places or which have been determined to be eligible for listing.


101.3.2.3 Change of Occupancy or Use:


Any Other than Group R Occupancy which is converted to Group R Occupancy shall be brought into full compliance with this Code.


101.3.2.4 Alterations and Repairs: All alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without exception. For all other existing buildings, initial tenant alterations shall comply with the new construction requirements of this Code. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the following requirements are met:


101.3.2.5 Building Envelope: The result of the alterations or repairs both:


1. Improves the energy efficiency of the building, and


2. Complies with the overall average thermal transmittance values of the elements of the exterior building envelope in Table 5-1 of Chapter 5 or the nominal R-values and glazing requirements of the reference case in Tables 6-1 ((to 6-6)) and 6-2. For Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy alteration where the glazing area is being increased, the glazing U-factor shall comply with Prescriptive Option IV for Climate Zone 1 and Prescriptive Option V for Climate Zone 2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Untested storm windows may be installed over existing glazing for an assumed U-factor of 0.90, however, where glass and sash are being replaced in Group R Occupancy, glazing shall comply with the appropriate reference case in Table 6-1 through Table ((6-6)) 6-2.
2. Where the structural elements of the altered portions of roof/ceiling, wall or floor are not being replaced, these elements shall be deemed to comply with this Code if all existing framing cavities which are exposed during construction are filled to the full depth with batt insulation or insulation having an equivalent nominal R-value while, for roof/ceilings, maintaining the required space for ventilation. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities need not be insulated. Existing roofs shall be insulated to the requirements of this Code if
a. The roof is uninsulated or insulation is removed to the level of the sheathing, or
b. All insulation in the roof/ceiling was previously installed exterior to the sheathing or nonexistent.

101.3.2.6 Building Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 503 of this Code.


101.3.2.7 Service Water Heating: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 504.


101.3.2.8 Lighting: Alterations shall comply with section 1132.3.


EXCEPTION: Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy.

101.3.3 Mixed Occupancy: When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein. Where approved by the building official, where minor accessory uses do not occupy more than ten percent of the area of any floor of a building, the major use may be considered the building occupancy.


101.4 Amendments by Local Government: Except as provided in RCW 19.27A.020(7), this Code shall be the maximum and minimum energy code for Group R Occupancy in each town, city and county, no later than July 1, 1991.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0101, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 98-24-078, 51-11-0101, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0101, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0101, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0101, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-0105   Inspections and enforcement.  


105.1 General: All construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and all such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved by the building official.


105.2 Approvals Required: No work shall be done on any part of the building or structure beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official.


105.2.1 Required Inspections: The building official, upon notification, shall make the following inspection in addition to those inspections required in section ((108.5)) 109.3 of the Washington State ((Uniform)) Building Code:


1. Wall insulation inspection: To be made after all wall insulation and air vapor retarder sheet or film materials are in place, but before any wall covering is placed.


105.3 Reinspection: The building official may require a structure to be reinspected.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0105, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0105, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0108   Conflicts with other codes.   In addition to the requirements of this Code, all occupancies shall conform to the provisions included in the State Building Code (chapter 19.27 RCW) ((and Uniform Building Code and Standards Adoption and Amendment rules (chapter 51-30 WAC))). In case of conflicts among codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 (1), (2), (3), and (4) and this Code, the first named code shall govern over the following. Provided, in the case of conflict between the duct insulation requirements of this Code and the duct sealing and insulation requirements of ((Table 6-D)) Section 604 of the State Mechanical Code (chapter ((51-32)) 51-52 WAC), the duct insulation requirements of this Code, or where applicable, a local jurisdiction's energy code shall govern.

Where, in any specific case, different sections of this Code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Wherever in this Code reference is made to the appendix, the provisions in the appendix shall not apply unless specifically adopted.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0108, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0108, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0108, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0201   Scope.   The following definitions shall apply to chapters 1 through 20.


201.1 Application of Terms: For the purposes of this Code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives, shall be as set forth in this chapter. Where terms are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted meanings within the context with which they are used. In the event there is a question about the definition of a term, the definitions for terms in the codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 and the edition of Webster's dictionary referenced therein shall be considered as the sources for providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

Addition: See the Washington State Building Code.

Advanced framed ceiling: Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. (See Standard Framing and Section 1007.2 of this Code.)

Advanced framed walls: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall. (See Standard Framing and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

AFUE. Annual fuel utilization efficiency: Unlike steady state conditions, this rating is based on average usage including on and off cycling as set out in the standardized Department of Energy Test Procedures.

Air conditioning, comfort: The process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet requirements of the conditioned space.

ARI: Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

Automatic: Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See Manual.)

Below grade walls: Walls or the portion of walls which are entirely below the finish grade or which extend two feet or less above the finish grade.

Boiler capacity: The rate of heat output in Btu/h measured at the boiler outlet, at the design inlet and outlet conditions and rated fuel/energy input.

Building envelope: For Group R Occupancy, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 101.3.1. For other than Group R Occupancy, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, or to or from unconditioned spaces, or to or from semi-heated spaces, or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 1301.

Building, existing: See the Washington State Building Code.

Building official: The official authorized to act in behalf of a jurisdiction code enforcement agency or its authorized representative.

Building project: A building or group of buildings, including on-site energy conversion or electric-generating facilities, which utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under one ownership.

Conditioned floor area: (See Gross conditioned floor area.)

Conditioned space: A cooled space, heated space (fully heated), heated space (semi-heated) or indirectly conditioned space.

Cooled space: An enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible capacity

a. exceeds 5 Btu/(h ft2), or

b. is capable of maintaining space dry bulb temperature of 90F or less at design cooling conditions.

COP - Coefficient of performance: The ratio of the rate of net heat output (heating mode) or heat removal (cooling mode) to the rate of total on-site energy input to the heat pump, expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. (See Net Heat Output, Net Heat Removal, Total On-Site Energy Input.)

Daylighted zone:

a. Under overhead glazing: the area under overhead glazing whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the overhead glazing dimension in that direction plus either the floor to ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

b. At vertical glazing: the area adjacent to vertical glazing which receives daylighting from the glazing. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed daylighting analysis is provided, the daylighting zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylighting zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus either two feet on each side (the distance to an opaque partition) or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

Daylight sensing control (DS): A device that automatically regulates the power input to electric lighting near the glazing to maintain the desired workplace illumination, thus taking advantage of direct or indirect sunlight.

Deadband: The temperature range in which no heating or cooling is used.

Design cooling conditions: The cooling outdoor design temperature from the 0.5% column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

Design heating conditions: The heating outdoor design temperature from the 0.6% column for winter from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

Door: All operable opening areas, which are not glazing, in the building envelope including swinging and roll-up doors, fire doors, smoke vents and access hatches.

Door area: Total area of door measured using the rough opening and including the door and frame.

Dwelling unit: See the Washington State Building Code.

EER. Energy efficiency ratio: The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions.

Economizer, air: A ducting arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling supply fan system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather.

Economizer, water: A system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled directly, indirectly or both, by evaporation of water or by other appropriate fluid in order to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration.

Efficiency, HVAC system: The ratio of useful energy (at the point of use) to the energy input for a designated time period, expressed in percent.

Emissivity: The ability to absorb infrared radiation. A low emissivity implies a higher reflectance of infrared radiation.

Energy: The capacity for doing work; taking a number of forms which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical; in customary units, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or British thermal units (Btu). (See New energy.)

Energy, recovered: (See Recovered energy.)

Exterior envelope: (See Building envelope.)

Facade area: Vertical projected area including nonhorizontal roof area, overhangs, cornices, etc. measured in elevation in a vertical plane parallel to the plane of the building face.

Floor over unconditioned space: A floor which separates a conditioned space from an unconditioned space which is buffered from exterior ambient conditions including vented crawl spaces and unconditioned basements or other similar spaces, or exposed to exterior ambient conditions including open parking garages and enclosed garages which are mechanically ventilated.

F-Factor: The perimeter heat loss factor expressed in Btu/hr ft F.

F-Value: (See F-Factor.)

Garden window: A multisided glazing product that projects beyond the plane of the wall.

Glazed wall system: A category of site assembled fenestration products used in the NFRC 100 and NFRC 200 rating procedures that include curtainwalls.

Glazing: All areas, including the frames, in the shell of a conditioned space that let in natural light including windows, clerestories, skylights, sliding or swinging glass doors and glass block walls.

Glazing area: Total area of the glazing measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the daylight opening area is less than 50% of the door area, the glazing area is the daylight opening area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the door area.

Gross conditioned floor area: The horizontal projection of that portion of interior space which is contained within exterior walls and which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system, and which has an average height of five feet or greater, measured from the exterior faces.

Gross exterior wall area: The normal projection of the building envelope wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system and which separates conditioned space from: Unconditioned space, or semi-heated space, or exterior ambient conditions or earth; includes opaque wall, vertical glazing and door areas. The gross area of walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, vertical glazing areas and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to exterior ambient conditions and enclose a conditioned space including interstitial areas between two such spaces. (See Below grade wall.)

Gross floor area: The sum of the areas of the several floors of the building, including basements, cellars, mezzanine and intermediate floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating buildings, but excluding: Covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces. Pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chimneys, roof overhangs and similar features.

Gross roof/ceiling area: A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed to exterior ambient conditions and encloses a conditioned space. The assembly does not include those components that are separated from a heated and/or cooled space by a vented airspace. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including overhead glazing.

Guest room: See the Washington State Building Code.

Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.

Heat storage capacity: The physical property of materials (mass) located inside the building envelope to absorb, store, and release heat.

Heated space (Fully heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is

a. Capable of maintaining a space dry-bulb temperature of 45F or greater at design heating conditions; or

b. ((8)) 15 Btu/(h ft2) of heated floor area or greater in Climate Zone 1 and ((12)) 2.0 Btu/(h ft2) of heated floor area or greater in Climate Zone 2.

Heated space (Semi-heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system

a. whose output capacity is 3 Btu/(h ft2) of heated floor area or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 5 Btu/(h ft2) of heated floor area or greater in Climate Zone 2; and

b. is not a Heated Space (Fully Heated).

HSPF. Heating season performance factor: The total heating output (in Btu) of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total (watt hour) electric power input during the same period, as determined by test procedures consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy "Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, Including Heat Pumps" published in Standard RS-30. When specified in Btu per watt hour an HSPF of 6.826 is equivalent to a COP of 2.0.

Humidistat: A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

HVAC: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

HVAC system components: HVAC system components provide, in one or more factory-assembled packages, means for chilling and/or heating water with controlled temperature for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned spaces of the buildings. Types of HVAC system components include, but are not limited to, water chiller packages, reciprocating condensing units and water source (hydronic) heat pumps. (See HVAC system equipment.)

HVAC system efficiency: (See Efficiency, HVAC system.)

HVAC system equipment: HVAC system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory-assembled packages, means for air circulation, air cleaning, air cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification; and optionally, either alone or in combination with a heating plant, the functions of heating and humidifying. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporatively cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages shall be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. The equipment may provide the heating function as a heat pump or by the use of electric elements. (The word "equipment" used without modifying adjective may, in accordance with common industry usage, apply either to HVAC system equipment or HVAC system components.)

Indirectly conditioned space: An enclosed space within a building that is not a heated or cooled space, whose area weighted heat transfer coefficient to heated or cooled spaces exceeds that to the outdoors or to unconditioned spaces; or through which air from heated or cooled spaces is transferred at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour. Enclosed corridors between conditioned spaces shall be considered as indirectly conditioned space. (See Heated Space, Cooled Space and Unconditioned Space.)

Infiltration: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density.

Insulation baffle: A rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture, the purpose of which is to allow air to flow freely into the attic or crawl space and to prevent insulation from blocking the ventilation of these spaces, or the loss of insulation. Example materials for this purpose are sheet metal, or wax impregnated cardboard.

Insulation position:

a. Exterior Insulation Position: a wall having all or nearly all of its mass exposed to the room air with the insulation on the exterior of the mass.

b. Integral Insulation Position: a wall having mass exposed to both room and outside air, with substantially equal amounts of mass on the inside and outside of the insulation layer.

c. Interior Insulation Position: a wall not meeting either of the above definitions; particularly a wall having most of its mass external to the insulation layer.

International Building Code (IBC): (See Washington State Building Code.)

International Mechanical Code (IMC): (See Washington State Building Code.)

IPLV -- Integrated part-load value: A single number figure of merit based on part-load EER or COP expressing part-load efficiency for air conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for the equipment as specified in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) procedures.

Luminaire: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the electric power supply.

Manual: Capable of being operated by personal intervention. (See Automatic.)

Microcell: A wireless communication facility consisting of an antenna that is either: (a) Four (4) feet in height and with an area of not more than 580 square inches; or (b) if a tubular antenna, no more than four (4) inches in diameter and no more than six (6) feet in length; and the associated equipment cabinet that is six (6) feet or less in height and no more than 48 square feet in floor area.

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

NFRC: National Fenestration Rating Council.

Net heat output: The change in the total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (not including supplementary heat and heat from boilers).

Net heat removal: The total difference in heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (without heat) or the difference in total heat content of the water or refrigerant entering and leaving the component.

New energy: Energy, other than recovered energy, utilized for the purpose of heating or cooling. (See energy.)

Nominal R-value: The thermal resistance of insulation as specified by the manufacturer according to recognized trade and engineering standards.

Nonrenewable energy sources: All energy sources that are not renewable energy sources including natural gas, oil, coal, wood, liquified petroleum gas, steam, and any utility-supplied electricity.

Nonresidential: All buildings and spaces in the ((Uniform)) International Building Code (((UBC))) (IBC) occupancies other than Group R.

Occupancy: See the Washington State Building Code.

Occupancy sensor: A device that detects occupants within an area, causing any combination of lighting, equipment or appliances to be turned on or shut off.

Opaque envelope areas: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose conditioned space, except openings for doors, glazing and building service systems.

Open blown: Loose fill insulation pneumatically installed in an unconfined attic space.

Outdoor air (outside air): Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through a building.

Overhead glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of less than 60 from the horizontal plane.

Packaged terminal air conditioner: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended to serve a room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard ((RS-10)) RS-5.)

Permeance (perm): The ability of a material of specified thickness to transmit moisture in terms of amount of moisture transmitted per unit time for a specified area and differential pressure (grains per hour ft2 inches of HG). Permeance may be measured using ASTM ((E-96-72)) E-96-00 or other approved dry cup method as specified in ((RS-27)) RS-1.

Personal wireless service facility: A Wireless Communication Facility (WCF), including a microcell, which is a facility for the transmission and/or reception of radio frequency signals and which may include antennas, equipment shelter or cabinet, transmission cables, a support structure to achieve the necessary elevation, and reception and/or transmission devices or antennas.

Pool cover: A vapor-retardant cover which lies on or at the surface of the pool.

Power: In connection with machines, the time rate of doing work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h).

Process energy: Energy consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than the maintenance of building comfort or amenities for building occupants.

Radiant slab floor: A slab floor assembly on grade or below, containing heated pipes, ducts, or electric heating cables that constitute a floor or portion thereof for complete or partial heating of the structure.

Readily accessible: See the Washington State Mechanical Code.

Recooling: The removal of heat by sensible cooling of the supply air (directly or indirectly) that has been previously heated above the temperature to which the air is to be supplied to the conditioned space for proper control of the temperature of that space.

Recovered energy: Energy utilized which would otherwise be wasted (i.e. not contribute to a desired end use) from an energy utilization system.

Reheat: The application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air to provide cooling.

Renewable energy sources: Renewable energy sources of energy (excluding minerals) are derived from: (1) incoming solar radiation, including but not limited to, natural daylighting and photosynthetic processes; (2) energy sources resulting from wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and (3) energy derived from the internal heat of the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges.

Reset: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or lower value automatically or manually to conserve energy.

Roof/ceiling assembly: (See Gross roof/ceiling area.)

SEER - Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio: The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period, in Btu's, divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours, during the same period, as determined by 10 CFR, Part 430.

Semi-heated space: Sub-category of Heated Space. (See Heated Space.)

Sequence: A consecutive series of operations.

Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions.

Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating.

Shaded: Glazed area which is externally protected from direct solar radiation by use of devices permanently affixed to the structure or by an adjacent building, topographical feature, or vegetation.

Shading coefficient: The ratio of solar heat gain occurring through nonopaque portions of the glazing, with or without integral shading devices, to the solar heat gain occurring through an equivalent area of unshaded, 1/8 inch thick, clear, double-strength glass.


Note: Heat gains to be compared under the same conditions. See Chapter ((28)) 30 of Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1, listed in Chapter 7 of this Code.

Shall: Denotes a mandatory code requirement.

Single family: One and two family residential dwelling units with no more than two units in a single building.

Skylight: (See Overhead glazing.)

Slab-below-grade: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than 24 inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Slab-on-grade, exterior: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is less than or equal to twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Small business: Any business entity (including a sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership, or other legal entity) which is owned and operated independently from all other businesses, which has the purpose of making a profit, and which has fifty or fewer employees, or which has a million dollars or less per year in gross sales, of window products.

Solar energy source: Source of natural daylighting and of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation.

Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the glazing product to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

Split system: Any heat pump or air conditioning unit which is provided in more than one assembly requiring refrigeration piping installed in the field.

Standard framing: All framing practices not defined as "intermediate" or "advanced" shall be considered standard. (See Advanced framed ceiling, Advanced framed walls, Intermediate framed wall and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

Substantial contact: A condition where adjacent building materials are placed in a manner that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported as to eliminate voids between materials, without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product.

System: A combination of central or terminal equipment or components and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as HVAC, service water heating or illumination.

Tapering: Installation of a reduced level of ceiling insulation at the eaves, due to reduced clearance.

Thermal by-pass: An area where the envelope surrounding the conditioned space is breached, or where an ineffective application compromises the performance of a thermal or infiltration barrier, increasing the structure's energy consumption by exposing finished surfaces to ambient conditions and additional heat transfer.

Thermal conductance (C): Time rate of heat flow through a body (frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady conditions (Btu/hrft2F).

Thermal resistance (R): The reciprocal of thermal conductance (hr ft2 F/Btu).

Thermal transmittance (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/hr ft2 F).

Thermal transmittance, overall (Uo): The overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope (Btu/hr ft2 F). The Uo-factor applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the various parallel paths, such as glazing, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building components, such as walls, floors or roof/ceiling.

Thermostat: An automatic control device actuated by temperature and designed to be responsive to temperature.

Total on-site energy input: The combination of all the energy inputs to all elements and accessories as included in the equipment components, including but not limited to, compressor(s), compressor sump heater(s), circulating pump(s), purge devices, fan(s), and the HVAC system component control circuit.

Transmission coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system to that of an unshaded single pane of double strength window glass under the same set of conditions.

Transverse joint: The primary connection between air distribution system fittings.

U-factor: (See thermal transmittance.)

U-Value: (See U-factor.)

((Uniform Building Code (UBC): (See Washington State Building Code.)

Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC): (See Washington State Mechanical Code.)))

Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC): (See Washington State Plumbing Code.)

Unitary cooling and heating equipment: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. Where such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Unitary heat pump: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Vapor retarder: A layer of low moisture transmissivity material (not more than 1.0 perm dry cup) placed over the warm side (in winter) of insulation, over the exterior of below grade walls, and under floors as ground cover to limit the transport of water and water vapor through exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. Vapor retarding paint, listed for this application, also meets this definition.

Vaulted ceilings: All ceilings where enclosed joist or rafter space is formed by ceilings applied directly to the underside of roof joists or rafters.

Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned.

Ventilation air: That portion of supply air which comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

Vertical glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of 60 or greater from the horizontal plane.

Walls (exterior): Any member or group of members which defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and which have a slope of sixty degrees or greater with the horizontal plane, and separates conditioned from unconditioned space. Band joists between floors are to be considered a part of exterior walls.

Washington State Building Code: The ((building code as modified by the)) Washington State Building Code is comprised of the International Building Code; the International Mechanical Code; the International Fire Code; the Uniform Plumbing Code; the state regulations for barrier-free facilities, as designated in RCW 19.27.031; the State Energy Code; and any other codes so designated by the Washington state legislature as adopted and amended by the State Building Code Council.

((Washington State Mechanical Code: The mechanical code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

Washington State Plumbing Code: The plumbing code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.))

Zone: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device. Each dwelling unit in residential buildings shall be considered a single zone.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0201, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0201, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0201, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0201, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0201, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0402   Systems analysis.  


402.1 Special Requirements for All Group R Occupancy:


402.1.1 Energy Budgets: Proposed buildings designed in accordance with this section shall be designed to use no more energy from nonrenewable sources for space heating, and domestic hot water heating than a standard building whose enclosure elements and energy consuming systems are designed in accordance with section 502.2 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone, and heating system type. Energy derived from renewable sources may be excluded from the total annual energy consumption attributed to the alternative building.


402.1.2 Calculation of Energy Consumption: The application for a building permit shall include documentation which demonstrates, using a calculation procedure as listed in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate, that the proposed building's annual space heating energy use does not exceed the annual space heating and water heating energy use of a standard building conforming to Chapter 5 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone. The total calculated annual energy consumption shall be shown in units of ((kWh/ft2/year or Btu/ft2/year)) kWh/ft2-yr or Btu/ft2-yr of conditioned area.


402.1.3 Input Values: The following standardized input values shall be used in calculating annual space heating budgets:


PARAMETER VALUE
Thermostat set point, heating

Thermostat set point, cooling

Thermostat night set back

Thermostat night set back period

65 F

78 F

65 F

0 hours

Internal gain
R-3 and R-4 units

R-1 and R-2 units

3000 Btu/hr

1500 Btu/hr

Domestic Hot Water Heater

Setpoint

120 F

Domestic Hot Water Consumption
20 gallons/person/day.
Minimum heat storage Calculated using standard engineering practice for the actual building or as approved.

Site weather data

Typical meteorological year (TMY) or ersatz TMY data for the closest appropriate TMY site or other sites as approved.
Heating equipment efficiency
Electric resistance heat

Heat Pumps

Other Fuels

1.00

6.80 HSPF.

0.78 AFUE.


The standard building shall be modeled with glazing area distributed equally among the four cardinal directions. Parameter values that may be varied by the building designer to model energy saving options include, but are not limited to, the following:


1. Overall thermal transmittance, Uo, of building envelope or individual building components;


2. Heat storage capacity of building;


3. Glazing orientation; area; and solar heat coefficients;


4. Heating system efficiency.


402.1.4 Solar Shading and Access: Building designs using passive solar features with eight percent or more south facing equivalent glazing to qualify shall provide to the building official a sun chart or other approved documentation depicting actual site shading for use in calculating compliance under this section. The building shall contain at least forty-five Btu/F for each square foot of south facing glass.


402.1.5 Infiltration: Infiltration levels used shall be set at 0.35 air changes per hour for thermal calculation purposes only.


402.1.6 Heat Pumps: The heating season performance factor (HSPF) for heat pumps shall be calculated using procedures consistent with section 5.2 of the U.S. Department of Energy Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, including heat pumps published in the December 27, 1979 Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 24.10 CFR 430. Climate data as specified above, the proposed buildings overall thermal performance value (Btu/F) and the standardized input assumptions specified above shall be used to model the heat pumps HSPF.


402.2 Energy Analysis: Compliance with this chapter will require an analysis of the annual energy usage, hereinafter called an annual energy analysis.

EXCEPTIONS: Chapters 5, and 6 of this Code establish criteria for different energy-consuming and enclosure elements of the building which, will eliminate the requirement for an annual systems energy analysis while meeting the intent of this Code.
A building designed in accordance with this chapter will be deemed as complying with this Code if the calculated annual energy consumption is not greater than a similar building (defined as a "standard design") whose enclosure elements and energy-consuming systems are designed in accordance with Chapter 5.
For an alternate building design to be considered similar to a "standard design," it shall utilize the same energy source(s) for the same functions and have equal floor area and the same ratio of envelope area to floor area, environmental requirements, occupancy, climate data and usage operational schedule.

402.3 Design: The standard design, conforming to the criteria of Chapter 5 and the proposed alternative design shall be designed on a common basis as specified herein:


The comparison shall be expressed as kBtu or kWh input per square foot of conditioned floor area per year at the building site.


402.4 Analysis Procedure: The analysis of the annual energy usage of the standard and the proposed alternative building and system design shall meet the following criteria:


a. The building heating/cooling load calculation procedure used for annual energy consumption analysis shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of effect of factors specified in section 402.5.


b. The calculation procedure used to simulate the operation of the building and its service systems through a full-year operating period shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of the effect of system design, climatic factors, operational characteristics, and mechanical equipment on annual energy usage. Manufacturer's data or comparable field test data shall be used when available in the simulation of systems and equipment. The calculation procedure shall be based upon eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours of operation of the building and its service systems.


402.5 Calculation Procedure: The calculation procedure shall cover the following items:


a. Design requirements -- Environmental requirements as required in Chapter 3.


b. Climatic data -- Coincident hourly data for temperatures, solar radiation, wind and humidity of typical days in the year representing seasonal variation.


c. Building data -- Orientation, size, shape, mass, air, moisture and heat transfer characteristics.


d. Operational characteristics -- Temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, control mode for occupied and unoccupied hours.


e. Mechanical equipment -- Design capacity, part load profile.


f. Building loads -- Internal heat generation, lighting, equipment, number of people during occupied and unoccupied periods.

EXCEPTION: Group R Occupancy shall comply with calculation procedures in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate.

402.6 Documentation: Proposed alternative designs, submitted as requests for exception to the standard design criteria, shall be accompanied by an energy analysis comparison report. The report shall provide technical detail on the two building and system designs and on the data used in and resulting from the comparative analysis to verify that both the analysis and the designs meet the criteria of Chapter 4 of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0402, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0402, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-0502   Building envelope requirements.  


502.1 General:


502.1.1: The stated U- or F-factor of any component assembly, listed in Table 5-1 or 5-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors specified in this Section.


The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters ((21-29)) 23-30 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter 10 where applicable.


For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:


1. Results of laboratory or field measurements.


2. Standard ((RS-25)) RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.


3. The zone method as provided in Chapter ((24)) 25 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.


4. Results of parallel path correction factors effective framing/cavity R-values as provided in Table 10-5A - EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY for metal stud walls and roof/ceilings.


502.1.2: For consideration of thermal mass effects, see section 402.4.


502.1.3: When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:


a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and


b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.


502.1.4 Insulation:


502.1.4.1 General: All insulating materials shall comply with sections ((2602 and/or 707)) 2603 and/or 719 of the ((Uniform)) International Building Code. Substantial contact of the insulation with the surface being insulated is required. All insulation materials shall be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions to achieve proper densities and maintain uniform R-values and shall be installed in a manner which will permit inspection of the manufacturer's R-value identification mark. To the maximum extent possible, insulation shall extend over the full component area to the intended R-value.


Alternatively, the thickness of roof/ceiling and wall insulation that is either blown in or spray-applied shall be identified by inches of thickness, density and R-value markers installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) through the attic, ceiling and/or wall space. In attics, the markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness and minimum settled thickness with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access. The thickness of installed attic insulation shall meet or exceed the minimum initial installed thickness shown by the marker. In cathedral ceilings and walls, the markers shall be affixed to the rafter and wall frame at alternating high and low intervals and marked with the minimum installed density and R-value with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the conditioned room area.


502.1.4.2 Insulation Materials: All insulation materials including facings such as vapor barriers or breather papers installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies, walls, crawl spaces, or attics shall have a flame spread rating of less than 25 and a smoke density not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ((UBC Standard 8-1)) ASTM E84-01.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with section ((2602 of the Uniform)) 2603 of the International Building Code.
2. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces of Types III, IV and V construction, the flame spread and smoke developed limitations do not apply to facing, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
3. Cellulose insulation shall comply with section ((707 of the Uniform)) 719 of the International Building Code.

502.1.4.3 Clearances: Where required, insulation shall be installed with clearances according to manufacturer's specifications. Insulation shall be installed so that required ventilation is unobstructed. For blown or poured loose fill insulation, clearances shall be maintained through installation of a permanent retainer.


502.1.4.4 Access Hatches and Doors: Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment which prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer must be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.5 Roof/Ceiling Insulation: Open-blown or poured loose fill insulation may be used in attic spaces where the slope of the ceiling is not more than 3 feet in 12 and there is at least 30 inches of clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge. When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided so as to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation. Baffles shall be, rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture. Requirements for baffles for ceiling insulation shall meet the ((Uniform)) International Building Code section ((1505.3)) 1203.2 for minimum ventilation requirements. When feasible, the baffles shall be installed from the top of the outside of the exterior wall, extending inward, to a point 6 inches vertically above the height of noncompressed insulation, and 12 inches vertically above loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.6 Wall Insulation: Insulation installed in exterior walls shall comply with the provisions of this section. All wall insulation shall fill the entire framed cavity. Exterior wall cavities isolated during framing shall be fully insulated to the levels of the surrounding walls. All faced insulation shall be face stapled to avoid compression.


502.1.4.7 Floor Insulation: Floor insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the surface being insulated. Insulation supports shall be installed so spacing is no more than 24 inches on center. Foundation vents shall be placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation.


EXCEPTION: Insulation may be omitted from floor areas over heated basements, heated garages or underfloor areas used as HVAC supply plenums. See ((Uniform)) International Mechanical Code section ((607)) 602.3 for underfloor supply plenum requirements. When foundation walls are insulated, the insulation shall be attached in a permanent manner. The insulation shall not block the airflow through foundation vents when installed. When foundation vents are not placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation, a permanently attached baffle shall be installed at an angle of 30 from horizontal, to divert air flow below the lower surface of the floor insulation.

502.1.4.8 Slab-On-Grade: Slab-on-grade insulation, installed inside the foundation wall, shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally beneath the slab for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Insulation installed outside the foundation shall extend downward to a minimum of 24 inches or to the ((frostline)) top of the footing, whichever is less. Above grade insulation shall be protected.

EXCEPTION: For monolithic slabs, the insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab to the bottom of the footing.

502.1.4.9 Radiant Slabs: The entire area of a radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the soil, with a minimum of R-10 insulation. The insulation shall be an approved product for its intended use. If a soil gas control system is present below the radiant slab, which results in increased convective flow below the radiant slab, the radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the sub-slab gravel layer.


502.1.4.10 Below Grade Walls: Below grade exterior wall insulation used on the exterior (cold) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the top of the footing and shall be approved for below grade use. Above grade insulation shall be protected.


Insulation used on the interior (warm) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the below grade floor level.


502.1.5 Glazing and Door U-factors: Glazing and door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with sections 502.1.5.1 and 502.1.5.2. All products shall be labeled with the NFRC certified or default U-factor. The labeled U-factor shall be used in all calculations to determine compliance with this Code. Sealed insulating glass shall conform to, or be in test for, ASTM E-774-81 class A.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. For glazed wall systems, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater:
a. Double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e = 0.10 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, and a non-aluminum spacer (as defined in footnote 1 to Table 10-6B), and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 vertical glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
2. For overhead glazing, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options except the unlimited glazing area options (((Option III in Table 6-1 and Option IV)) Options IV and V in Table 6-1 and Options V and VI in Table 6-2):
a. Either, double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e =0.20 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, or, triple glazed plastic domes, and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 overhead glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
3. For solariums with a floor area which does not exceed 300 square feet, assemblies which comply with the features listed in exception 2 are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirements using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."

502.1.5.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing U-factors: U-factors for glazing shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC. Compliance shall be based on the Residential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Products that are listed in the NFRC Certified Products Directory or certified to the NFRC standard shall not use default values.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Glazing products without NFRC ratings may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for vertical glazing and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.
2. Units without NFRC ratings produced by a small business may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for garden windows, from Table 10-6B for other vertical glazing, and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.

502.1.5.2 Standard Procedure for Determination of Door U-factors: All doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. U-factors determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC.
2. The default values for the opaque portions of doors shall be those listed in Table 10-6C, provided that the U-factor listed for a door with a thermal break shall only be allowed if both the door and the frame have a thermal break.
3. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in the U-factor calculation requirements, however glazing area shall be included in glazing area calculations.

502.1.6 Moisture Control:


502.1.6.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as specified in the following cases.

EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

502.1.6.2 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. The vapor retarder shall have a one perm dry cup rating or less (i.e., four mil [0.004 inch thick] polyethylene or kraft faced material).


502.1.6.3 Roof/Ceilings: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of 12 inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. Faced batt insulation where used as a vapor retarder shall be face stapled. Single rafter joist vaulted ceiling cavities shall be of sufficient depth to allow a minimum one inch vented air space above the insulation.


502.1.6.4: Vapor retarders shall not be required in roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation averages 12 inches or greater.


502.1.6.5: Vapor retarders shall not be required where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.


502.1.6.6 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. Faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.


502.1.6.7 Ground Cover: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped 12 inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.

EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of 3-1/2 inches.

502.2 Thermal Criteria for Group R Occupancy:


502.2.1 UA Calculations: The proposed UA as calculated using Equations 2 and 3 shall not exceed the target UA as calculated using Equation 1. For the purpose of determining equivalent thermal performance, the glazing area for the target UA shall be calculated using values in Table 5-1. The opaque door area shall be the same in the target UA and the proposed UA.

EXCEPTION: Log and solid timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" and with space heat type other than electric resistance, are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

502.2.2 Space Heat Type: The following two categories comprise all space heating types:


1. Electric Resistance: Space heating systems which include baseboard units, radiant units and forced air units as either the primary or secondary heating system.

EXCEPTION: Electric resistance systems for which the total electric heat capacity in each individual dwelling unit does not exceed the greater of: 1) One thousand watts (1000 w) per dwelling unit, or; 2) One watt per square foot (1 w/ft2) of the gross floor area.

2. Other: All gas, wood, oil and propane space heating systems, unless electric resistance is used as a secondary heating system, and all heat pump space heating systems. (See EXCEPTIONS, Electric Resistance, section 502.2.2 above.)


502.3 Reserved.


502.4 Air Leakage:


502.4.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all buildings and structures, or portions thereof, and only to those locations separating outdoor ambient conditions from interior spaces that are heated or mechanically cooled.


502.4.2 Doors and Windows, General: Exterior doors and windows shall be designed to limit air leakage into or from the building envelope. Site-constructed doors and windows shall be sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.


502.4.3 Seals and Weatherstripping:


a. Exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundation, between walls and roof and wall panels; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors and roofs; and all other openings in the building envelope for all occupancies and all other openings in between units in R-1 and R-2 Occupancy shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed or weatherstripped to limit air leakage. Other exterior joints and seams shall be similarly treated, or taped, or covered with moisture vapor permeable housewrap.


b. All exterior doors or doors serving as access to an enclosed unheated area shall be weatherstripped to limit leakage around their perimeter when in a closed position.


c. Site built windows are exempt from testing but shall be made tight fitting. Fixed lights shall have glass retained by stops with sealant or caulking all around. Operating sash shall have weatherstripping working against overlapping trim and a closer/latch which will hold the sash closed. The window frame to framing crack shall be made tight with caulking, overlapping membrane or other approved technique.


d. Openings that are required to be fire resistive are exempt from this section.


502.4.4 Recessed Lighting Fixtures: When installed in the building envelope, recessed lighting fixtures shall meet one of the following requirements:


1. Type IC rated, manufactured with no penetrations between the inside of the recessed fixture and ceiling cavity and sealed or gasketed to prevent air leakage into the unconditioned space.


2. Type IC rated, installed inside a sealed box constructed from a minimum 1/2 inch thick gypsum wall board, or constructed from a preformed polymeric vapor barrier, or other air tight assembly manufactured for this purpose.


3. Type IC rated, certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The lighting fixture shall be tested at 75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0502, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0502, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0502, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0502, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0503   Building mechanical systems.  

503.1 General: This section covers the determination of design requirements, system and component performance, control requirements, insulating systems and duct sealing. For all other duct construction requirements, refer to the State Mechanical Code (chapter 51-42 WAC).


503.2 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads, and System Sizing Limits: The design parameters specified in Chapter 3 shall apply for all computations.


503.2.1 Calculation Procedures: Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems are required and shall be calculated in accordance with accepted engineering practice, including infiltration and ventilation.


503.2.2 Space Heating and Space Cooling System Sizing Limits: Building mechanical systems for all buildings which provide space heating and/or space cooling shall be sized no greater than two hundred percent (200%) of the heating and cooling design loads as calculated above.


EXCEPTIONS: The following limited exemptions from the sizing limit shall be allowed; however, in all cases heating and/or cooling design load calculations shall be submitted.
1. For equipment which provides both heating and cooling in one package unit, including heat pumps with electric heating and cooling and gas-pack units with gas heating and electric cooling, compliance need only be demonstrated for either the space heating or space cooling system size.
2. Natural gas- or oil-fired space heating equipment whose total rated space heating output in any one dwelling unit is
a. 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit,
b. larger than 40,000 Btu/h may exceed the two hundred (200%) percent sizing limit provided that the installed equipment has an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of not less than ninety (90%) percent.
3. Stand-by equipment may be installed if controls and other devices are provided which allow redundant equipment to operate only when the primary equipment is not operating.

503.3 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling: Systems and equipment that provide simultaneous heating and cooling shall comply with the requirements in, as appropriate, Section 1422 or Section 1435.


503.4 HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements: All heating equipment shall meet the requirements of the 1987 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) and be so labeled. Equipment shall also comply with Section 1411.


503.5 Reserved.


503.6 Balancing: The HVAC system design shall provide a means for balancing air and water systems. Balancing the system shall include, but not be limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.


503.7 Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle): Systems and equipment that provide mechanical cooling shall comply with Section 1413 and, as appropriate, Section 1423 or 1433.


503.8 Controls:


503.8.1 Temperature Control: Each system shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows:


503.8.1.1: When used to control heating only: Fifty-five degrees to seventy-five degrees F.


503.8.1.2: When used to control cooling only: Seventy degrees to eighty-five degrees F.


503.8.1.3: When used to control both heating and cooling, it shall be capable of being set from fifty-five degrees to eighty-five degrees F and shall be capable of operating the system heating and cooling in sequence. The thermostat and/or control system shall have an adjustable deadband of not less than ten degrees F.


503.8.2 Humidity Control: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture to maintain specific selected relative humidities in space or zones, a humidistat shall be provided. Humidistats shall be capable of being set to prevent new energy from being used to produce space-relative humidity above thirty percent.


EXCEPTION: Special uses requiring different relative humidities may be permitted when approved by the building official.

503.8.3 Zoning for Temperature Control:


503.8.3.1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings: At least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature shall be provided for each separate system. In addition, a readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each zone or floor.


503.8.3.2 Multifamily Dwellings: For multifamily dwellings, each individual dwelling unit shall have at least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature. A readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each room. Spaces other than living units shall meet the requirements of 503.8.3.3.


503.8.3.3 Reserved.


503.8.3.4 Control Setback and Shutoff:


Residential Occupancy Groups. One- and Two-Family and Multifamily dwellings -- The thermostat required in section 503.8.3.1 or section 503.8.3.2, or an alternate means such as a switch or clock, shall provide a readily accessible, manual or automatic means for reducing the energy required for heating and cooling during the periods of nonuse or reduced need, such as, but not limited to unoccupied periods and sleeping hours. Lowering thermostat set points to reduce energy consumption of heating systems shall not cause energy to be expended to reach the reduced setting.


503.8.3.5 Heat Pump Controls: Programmable thermostats are required for all heat pump systems. The cut-on temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for the supplementary heat, and the cut-off temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for the supplementary heat. Heat pump thermostats will be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day. The automatic setback thermostat shall have the capability of limiting the use of supplemental heat during the warm-up period.


503.9 Air Handling Duct System Insulation: Ducts, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated per Table 5-11.


EXCEPTIONS: Duct insulation (except where required to prevent condensation) is not required in any of the following cases:
1. When the heat gain or loss of the ducts, without insulation, will not increase the energy requirements of the building.
2. Within the HVAC equipment.
3. Exhaust air ducts.
4. Supply or return air ducts installed in unvented crawl spaces with insulated walls, basements, or cellars in one-and two-family dwellings.

503.10 Ducts.


503.10.1 Leakage Testing: High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with the 1985 Edition of the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with the rate of air leakage not to exceed the maximum rate specified in that standard.


503.10.2 Seams and Joints: All low-pressure supply and return duct transverse joints, and enclosed stud bays or joist cavities/space used to transport air, shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), or mastic-plus-embedded-fabric systems installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Ducts or building cavities used for air distribution that are located entirely within the conditioned space of the building are exempt from this section.
2. UL 181A listed tapes used with listed rigid fibrous glass ducts may be used as the primary sealant, when installed in accordance with the listing.
3. UL 181B listed tapes used with listed flexible air ducts may be used as the primary sealant, when installed in accordance with the listing.
4. Where enclosed stud bays or joist cavities/spaces are used to transport air sealing may be accomplished using drywall, drywall tape plus joint compound.
5. Tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions, providing detailed information specific to application on ducts, including approved duct materials and required duct surface cleaning.

503.10.3 Dampers: Requirements for Automatic or manual dampers are found in the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.


503.11 Pipe Insulation: All piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 5-12.


EXCEPTION: Piping installed within unitary HVAC equipment.

Cold water pipes outside the conditioned space shall be insulated in accordance with the Washington State Plumbing Code (chapter ((51-46)) 51-56 WAC).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0503, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0503, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.020. 98-24-075, 51-11-0503, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0503, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0503, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-0504   Service water heating.  


504.1 Scope: The purpose of this section is to provide criteria for design and equipment selection that will produce energy savings when applied to service water heating.


504.2 Water Heaters, Storage Tanks and Boilers:


504.2.1 Performance Efficiency: All Storage water heaters shall meet the requirements of the 1987 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and be so labeled. All electric water heaters in unheated spaces or on concrete floors shall be placed on an incompressible, insulated surface with a minimum thermal resistance of R-10.


For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:


Energy Factor (EF) Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE)
<50 gallon storage 0.58 0.71
50 to 70 gallon storage 0.57 0.71
>70 gallon storage 0.55 0.70

504.2.2 Insulation: Heat loss from unfired hot-water storage tanks shall be limited to a maximum of 9.6 Btu/hr/ft2 of external tank surface area. The design ambient temperature shall be no higher than sixty-five degrees F.


504.2.3 Combination Service Water Heating/Space Heating Boilers: Service water heating equipment shall not be dependent on year round operation of space heating boilers.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems with service/space heating boilers having a standby loss Btu/h less than:
(13.3 pmd + 400)/n
determined by the fixture count method where:
pmd = probably maximum demand in gallons/hour as

determined in accordance with Chapter ((37)) 48 of Standard RS-11.

n = fraction of year when outdoor daily mean

temperature exceeds 64.9 F.

The standby loss is to be determined for a test period of twenty-four-hour duration while maintaining a boiler water temperature of ninety degrees F above an ambient of sixty degrees F and a five foot stack on appliance.
2. For systems where the use of a single heating unit will lead to energy savings, such unit shall be utilized.

504.3 Automatic Controls: Service water heating systems shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable of adjustment from the lowest to the highest acceptable temperature settings for the intended use. Temperature setting range shall be set to one hundred twenty degrees F or forty-nine degrees C.


504.4 Shutdown: A separate switch shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to electric service water heating systems. A separate valve shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to the main burner(s) of all other types of service water heater systems.


504.5 Swimming Pools:


504.5.1: All pool heaters shall be equipped with readily accessible ON/OFF switch to allow shutting off the operation of the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Controls shall be provided to allow the water temperature to be regulated from the maximum design temperature down to sixty-five degrees F.


504.5.2 Pool Covers: Heated swimming pools shall be equipped with a pool cover, approved by the building official.


504.6 Pump Operation: Circulating hot water systems shall be controlled so that the circulation pump(s) can be conveniently turned off, automatically or manually, when the hot water system is not in operation.


504.7 Pipe Insulation: Piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with section 503.11.


504.8 Conservation of Hot Water:


504.8.1 Showers and Lavatories: Showers and lavatories used for other than safety reasons shall be equipped with flow control devices or specially manufactured showerheads or aerators to limit the total water flow rate as set forth in chapter ((51-26)) 51-56 WAC, as measured with both hot and cold faucets turned on to their maximum flow.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0504, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0504, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-0505   Lighting.  


505.1 Lighting Controls: Hotel and motel guest rooms and guest suites shall have a master control device at the main room entry that controls all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles.

505.2 Lighting Power: Lighting shall comply with the Prescriptive Lighting Option in Section 1520 or the Lighting Power Allowance Option in Section 1530.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy.
2. Lighting exempted by Section 1512.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0505, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0505, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0601   Scope.  


601.1 General: This chapter establishes design criteria in terms of prescribed requirements for building construction.


The provisions of this chapter are applicable to all Group R Occupancies. Occupancies shall comply with all the requirements of Chapter 5 except for the modifications herein specified.


For wood frame assemblies, the building envelope requirements of this chapter may be met by installing one of the prescriptive packages in Table 6-1 or 6-2. Installed components shall meet the requirements of section 602. Compliance with nominal R-Values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only and shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films, but shall permit interruption by occasional framing members. Other than wood frame assemblies with continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing shall also be allowed to comply with nominal R-values.


For metal frame assemblies, compliance shall be demonstrated in accordance with Chapter 4 or Chapter 5 based on the assemblies in Chapter 10. Compliance with nominal R-values is not allowed, unless the full nominal R-value of the insulation is installed either inside or outside of the framing and is uninterrupted by framing.

EXCEPTION: Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy buildings may use a maximum area weighted average U-factor for components not exceeding those prescribed in Paths III and V in Table 6-1 or Paths IV and VI in Table 6-2.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0601, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0601, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0601, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0601, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0601, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0602   Building envelope requirements for Group R Occupancy.  


602.1 Roof/Ceiling: Ceilings below vented attics and single-rafter, joist-vaulted ceilings shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for ceilings in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable.


602.2 Exterior Walls Both Above and Below Grade: Above grade exterior walls shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable. ((The following)) Walls 1 through 4 should be considered to meet R-21 without additional documentation:


1. 2 x 6 framed and insulated with R-21 fiberglass batts.


2. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-15 fiberglass batts plus R-4.0 foam sheathing.


3. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-13 fiberglass batts plus R-5.0 foam sheathing.


4. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-15 fiberglass batts, plus up to 25% of the wall area insulated with R-2.5 foam sheathing, the remainder of the wall area insulated with R-5.0 foam sheathing.


Walls 5 through 8 should be considered to meet R-21 int. without additional documentation:


5. 2 x 6 framed and insulated with R-21 fiberglass batts plus R-10 foam insulated headers.


6. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-15 fiberglass batts plus R-5.0 foam sheathing.


7. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-13 fiberglass batts plus R-6.0 foam sheathing.


8. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-15 fiberglass batts, plus up to 25% of the wall area insulated with R-3.0 foam sheathing, the remainder of the wall area insulated with R-6.0 foam sheathing.


602.3 Exterior Walls (Below Grade): Below grade exterior walls surrounding conditioned space shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for below grade walls in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable.


602.4 Slab-on-grade Floors: Slab-on-grade floors shall be insulated along their perimeter to not less than the nominal R-values specified for slab-on-grade floors in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable. Slab insulation shall be installed in compliance with section 502.1.4.8. See Chapter 5, section 502.1.4.9, for additional requirements for radiant slab heating.


602.5 Floors Over Unconditioned Space: Floors over unconditioned spaces, such as vented crawl spaces, unconditioned basements, and parking garages shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value shown for floors over unconditioned spaces, in Table 6-1 or 6-2.


602.6 Exterior Doors: Doors shall comply with Sections 602.6.1 and 602.6.2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Doors whose area and U-factor are included in the calculations for compliance with the requirements for glazing in section 602.7 shall be exempt from the door U-factor requirements prescribed in Table 6-1 or 6-2.
2. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed per unit for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.
602.6.1 Exterior Door Area: For half-lite and full-lite doors, the glazing area shall be included in calculating the allowed total glazing area in Section 602.7.1. Single glazing used for ornamental, security or architectural purposes shall be calculated using the exception to Section 602.7.2.


602.6.2 Exterior Door U-Factor: Doors, including fire doors, shall have a maximum area weighted average U-factor not exceeding that prescribed in Table 6-1 or 6-2.


602.7 Glazing:


602.7.1 Glazing Area: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall not exceed the percentage of gross conditioned floor area specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2. This area shall also include any glazing in doors.


602.7.2 Glazing U-Factor: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall have an area weighted average U-factor not to exceed that specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with section 502.1.5. These areas and U-factors shall also include any doors using the exception of section 602.6.


If the U-factors for all vertical and overhead glazing products are below the appropriate U-factor specified, then no calculations are required. If compliance is to be achieved through an area weighted calculation, then the areas and U-factors shall be included in the plans submitted with a building permit application.


EXCEPTION: Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes and double glazed garden windows with a wood or vinyl frame shall be exempt from the U-factor calculations but shall have its area tripled and shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area as allowed for in Table 6-1 or 6-2. The maximum area (before tripling) allowed for the total of all single glazing and garden windows is one percent of the floor area.

602.8 Air Leakage For Group R Occupancy: The minimum air leakage control measures shall be as specified in section 502.4 as applicable.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0602, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 98-03-003, 51-11-0602, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0602, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0625   Table 6-1.  

TABLE 6-1

PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY

CLIMATE ZONE 1

Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall int4 Below Grade Wall ext4 Below Grade Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 12% 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-15 R-15 R-10 R-30 R-10
II.* 15% 0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10
III. 25%

Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only

0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21/

U =

0.060

R-15 R-10 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10
IV. Unlimited Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy only 0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10
V. Unlimited Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21/

U =

0.060

R-15 R-10 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10

* Reference Case

TABLE 6-2

PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY

CLIMATE ZONE 2

Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall int4 Below Grade Wall ext4 Below Grade Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 10% 0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 Int7 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
II.* 15% 0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
III. 17% 0.37 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
IV. 25%

Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only

0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21 int7/

U =

0.054

R-15 R-12 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10

/F =

0.54

V. Unlimited

Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy only

0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 Int7 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
VI. Unlimited

Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only

0.32 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21

int7/

U =

0.054

R-15 R-12 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10

/F =

0.54


* Reference Case
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-10, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of ((R-5)) R-10 insulation.
8. This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U = 0.40 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0625, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0625, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0625, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0625, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0625, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0625, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-0701   Scope.   The following standards shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. The standards and portions thereof, which are referred to in various parts of this Code shall be part of the Washington State Energy Code and are hereby declared to be a part of this Code.


REFERENCE

STANDARD

NO.

TITLE AND SOURCE
RS-1 ((Same as RS-27.)) 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.
RS-2 ((through)) Super Good Cents Technical Reference C Builder's Field Guide.
RS-3 (Reserved.)
RS-4 ASHRAE Standard 55-92 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
RS-5 ((through RS-8 (Reserved.))) 1998 ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook.
RS-6 SMACNA, Installation Standards for Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems, 6th Edition, 1988.
RS-7 SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards, Metal and Flexible, 2nd Edition, 1995.
RS-8 SMACNA, Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, 6th Edition, 1992.
RS-9 ((ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989, Efficient Design of New)) ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2001, Energy Standard for Buildings Except ((New)) Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
RS-10 ((Standard for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ARI Standard 310/380-93.)) 2000 ASHRAE Systems and Equipment Handbook.
RS-11 1999 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Applications Handbook.
RS-12 through ((RS-14)) RS-28 (Reserved.)
((RS-15 1996 ASHRAE System and Equipment Handbook.
RS-16 SMACNA, Installation Standards for Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems, 6th Edition, 1988.
RS-17 Same as RS-18.
RS-18 SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible, 2nd Edition, 1995.
RS-19 SMACNA, Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, 6th Edition, 1992.
RS-20 1998 ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook.
RS-21 Same as Standard RS-10.
RS-22 through RS-24 (Reserved.)
RS-25 Same as RS-27.
RS-26 Super Good Cents Technical Reference (Builder's Field Guide).
RS-27 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.
RS-28 (Reserved.)))
RS-29 Nonresidential Building Design by Systems Analysis.
RS-30 Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 430 (March 14, 1988).
RS-31 National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard 100-((1997)) 2001.

ACCREDITED AUTHORITATIVE AGENCIES


ANSI refers to the American National Standards Institute, Inc., 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036

Phone ((())212(()))-642-4900 fax ((())212(()))-398-0023, Internet www.ansi.org


ARI refers to the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute, 4301 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 425, Arlington, VA 22203

Phone ((())703(()))-524-8800 fax ((())703(()))-528-3816, Internet www.ari.org


ASHRAE refers to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329

Phone ((())404(()))-636-8400 fax ((())404(()))-321-5478, Internet www.ashrae.org


ASTM refers to the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

Phone ((())610(()))-832-9585 fax ((())610(()))-832-9555, Internet www.astm.org


CTI refers to the Cooling Tower Institute, 530 Wells Fargo Drive, Suite 218, Houston, TX 77090

Phone ((())281(()))-583-4087 fax ((())281(()))-537-1721, Internet www.cti.org


((IES)) IESNA refers to the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005-4001

Phone ((())212(()))-248-5000 fax ((())212(()))-248-5017, Internet www.iesna.org


NFRC refers to the National Fenestration Rating Council, Incorporated, ((1300 Spring Street)) 8484 Georgia Avenue, Suite ((500)) 320, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

Phone (((301) 589-NFRC)) 301-589-1776 fax ((())301(()))-588-0854, Internet www.nfrc.org


SMACNA refers to the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc., 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, P.O. Box 221230, Chantilly, VA 20153-1230

Phone ((())703(()))-803-2980 fax ((())703(()))-803-3732, Internet www.smacna.org

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0701, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0701, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0701, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-0900   Section 0900 -- Prescriptive heating system sizing.   When using the prescriptive approach in Chapter 6, if approved by the building official, design heat load calculations are not required to show compliance to this Code if the heating system installed is equal to or less than the following:

((Climate Zone 1 20 Btu/hft2

Climate Zone 2

25 Btu/hft2))


Climate Zone 1
Winter Design Temperature (F) Btu/h/sf
>22 20
22-17 23
16-11 25
<11 27

Climate Zone 2
Winter Design Temperature (F) Btu/h/sf
>10 25
9-1 27
<1 29

Winter design temperatures are to be determined in accordance with Section 302.1.



Winter Design Temperatures (F) for Washington State

(Values from ASHRAE's "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures in Washington State" (second edition, 1986) may also be used)



Aberdeen 25
Anacortes 24
Bellingham 19
Benton City 11
Blaine 17
Bremerton 29
Burlington 19
Chehalis 21
Chelan 10
Clallam Bay 28
Clarkston 10
Colville AP -2
Concrete 19
Coulee Dam 9
Ellensburg 2
Enumclaw 26
Ephrata AP 7
Everett Paine 21
Forks IE 23
Goldendale 7
Hoquiam AP 26
Kelso AP 24
Kennewick 13
Lacrosse -3
La Grande 23
Leavenworth -3
Long Beach 25
Longview 24
Lynden 18
Lynnwood 24
Metaline Falls -1
Methow 1
Newhalem 19
Newport -5
Olga 2 SE 24
Olympia AP 17
Omak 2 NW 3
Othello 9
Packwood 16
Pasco 13
Port Angeles 28
Port Orchard 29
Port Townsend 25
Prosser 12
Pullman Exp. Sta. 1
Raymond 28
Republic -9
Richland 11
Ritzville 6
Seattle: SeaTac 24
Sequim 23
Shelton 23
Snohomish 21
Snoqualmie Pass 6
Spokane AP 4
Stampede Pass 7
Startup 1 E 20
Stevens Pass 6
Sumner 19
Sunnyside 12
Tacoma CO 29
Toledo AP 17
Toppenish 11
Vancouver 22
Vashon Island 28
Walla Walla 6
Wapato 10
Waterville 1
Wenatchee CO 10
Whidbey Island 11
Wilbur 4
Willapa Harbor 26
Winthrop 1 WSW -12
Yakima AP 11

Example: A 2000 ft2 house in Zone 2, ((heated with gas)) in a location with a winter design temperature of 8F, would not have to submit a design heat load if the proposed furnace is ((50,000)) 54,000 Btu or less.


2000 x ((25)) 27 = ((50,000)) 54,000

Disclaimer: All heating systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with ((Uniform)) International Building Code Section ((310.11)) 1204.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0900, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1001   Section 1001 General.  


1001.1 Scope: The following defaults shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. This chapter includes tables of seasonal average heat-loss coefficients for specified nominal insulation. The heat-loss coefficients may also be used for heating system sizing.


1001.2 Description: These coefficients were developed primarily from data and procedures from Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1, and taken specifically from Standard ((RS-26)) RS-2, listed in Chapter 7.


Coefficients not contained in this chapter may be computed using the procedures listed in these references if the assumptions in the following sections and Standard ((RS-26)) RS-2, listed in Chapter 7, are used, along with data from the sources referenced above.


1001.3 Air Films: Default R-values used for air films shall be as follows:


R-Value Condition
0.17 All exterior surfaces
0.61 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow up
0.92 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow down
0.68 Interior vertical surfaces

1001.4 Compression of Insulation: Insulation which is compressed shall be rated in accordance with Table 10-A or reduction in value may be calculated in accordance with the procedures in Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.


TABLE 10-A

R-Value of Fiberglass Batts Compressed within Various Depth Cavities


Insulation R-Value at Standard Thickness
R-Value 38 30 22 21 19 15 13 11 8 5 3
Standard Thickness 12" 9-1/2" 6-3/4" 5-1/2" 6-1/4" 3-1/2" 3-5/8" 3-1/2" 2-1/2" 1-1/2" 3/4"
Nominal Lumber Sizes, Inches Actual Depth of Cavity, Inches Insulation R-Values when Installed in a Confined Cavity
2 x 12 11-1/4 37 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 10 9-1/4 32 30 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 8 7-1/4 27 26 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 6 5-1/2 -- 21 20 21 18 -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 4 3-1/2 -- -- 14 -- 13 15 13 11 -- -- --
2 x 3 2-1/2 -- -- -- -- -- -- 9.8 -- -- -- --
2 x 2 1-1/2 -- -- -- -- -- -- 6.3 6.0 5.7 5.0 --
2 x 1 3/4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3.2 3.0

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1001, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1001, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1004   Section 1004: Floors over unconditioned space.  


1004.1 General: Tables 10-3, 10-4 and 10-4a list heat-loss coefficients for floors over unconditioned spaces in units of Btu/hft2F.


They are derived from procedures listed in ((RS-27)) RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, assuming an average outdoor temperature of 45F, an average indoor temperature of 65F, and a crawlspace area of 1350 ft2 and 100 ft of perimeter. The crawlspace is assumed to be 2.5 feet high, with 24 inches below grade and 6 inches above grade.


1004.2 Crawlspace Description: Four configurations are considered: Vented crawlspace, unvented crawlspace, heated plenum crawlspace and exposed floor.


Vented crawlspaces: Assumed to have 3.0 air-changes per hour, with at least 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated.


Floors over unheated areas, such as garages, may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


Unvented crawlspaces: Assumed to have 1.5 air changes per hour, with less than 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated. Floors over unheated basements may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


Heated-plenum crawlspaces: Assumed to have 0.25 air-changes per hour, with no foundation vents. Heated supply air from central furnace is blown into a crawlspace and allowed to enter the living space unducted via holes cut into the floor.


Enclosed floors: Assumes no buffer space, and a covering of one-half inch of T1-11 on the exterior of the cavity exposed to the outside air or rigid insulation below a concrete floor, such as over parking garages.


1004.3 Construction Description: Floors are assumed to be either joisted floors framed on sixteen inch centers, or post and beam on four by eight foot squares. Insulation is assumed to be installed under the subflooring between the joists or beams with no space between the insulation and the subfloor. Insulation is assumed to be uncompressed. Exposed floors also include concrete with continuous rigid insulation assumed.


Perimeter insulation is assumed to extend from the top of the rim joist to the crawlspace floor and then inward along the ground (on top of the ground cover) for at least twenty-four inches.


Floor coverings are assumed to be light carpet with rubber pad.

TABLE 10-3

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER VENTED CRAWLSPACE OR

UNHEATED BASEMENT

Nominal R-value U-factor
Floor Perimeter Post & Beam Joists
0 0

11

19

30

0.112

0.100

0.098

0.093

0.134

0.116

0.114

0.107

11 0

11

0.052

0.048

0.056

0.052

19 0

11

0.038

0.036

0.041

0.038

22 0

11

0.034

0.033

0.037

0.035

25 0

11

0.032

0.031

0.034

0.033

30 0

11

0.028

0.027

0.029

0.028

38 0

11

0.024

0.024

0.025

0.024

TABLE 10-4

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER HEATED PLENUM CRAWLSPACES

Nominal R-value

Perimeter

U-factor
11 0.085
19 0.075
30 0.069

TABLE 10-4A

EXPOSED FLOOR

Nominal

R-value

U-factor
Concrete Wood Joist Metal Joist
R-11 0.077 0.088 0.14
R-15 0.059 0.076 0.12
R-19 0.048 0.062 0.11
R-21 0.043 0.057 0.11
R-25 0.037 0.051 0.10
R-30 0.031 0.040 0.09
R-38 0.025 0.034 0.08

Note: Crawlspaces used as heated plenums have approximately 30% higher heat-loss rate than unvented crawlspaces with the same assumed ACH. Default U-values in Table 10-4 reflect this higher rate of heat loss.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1004, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1004, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1004, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1005   Section 1005: Above-grade walls.  


Section 1005.1 General: Table 10-5, 10-5A and 10-5B list heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of above-grade wood stud frame walls, metal stud frame walls and concrete masonry walls (Btu/hft2F) respectively. They are derived from procedures listed in ((RS-27)) RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. For intermediate floor slabs which penetrate the insulated wall, use the concrete wall U-factors in Table 10-5B.


Insulation is assumed to uniformly fill the entire cavity and to be installed as per manufacturer's directions. All walls are assumed to be finished on the inside with one-half inch gypsum wallboard, and on the outside with either beveled wood siding over one-half inch plywood sheathing or with five-eighths inch T1-11 siding. Insulated sheathing (either interior or exterior) is assumed to cover the entire opaque wall surface.


1005.2 Framing Description: For wood stud frame walls, three framing types are considered, and defined as follows:


Standard: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use three studs and each opening is framed using two studs. Headers consist of double 2X or single 4X material with an air space left between the header and the exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections use two studs in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .19
Insulated cavity .77
Headers .04

Intermediate: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and each opening is framed by two studs. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .18
Insulated cavity .78
Headers .04

Advanced: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .13
Insulated cavity .83
Headers .04

1005.3 Component Description: Default coefficients for four types of walls are listed: single-stud walls, metal stud walls, strap walls, and double-stud walls.


Single-Stud Wall: Assumes either 2x4 or 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. Headers are solid for 2x4 walls and double 2x for 2x6 walls, with either dead-air or rigid-board insulation in the remaining space.


Metal Stud Wall: Assumes metal studs spaced on 16 or 24 inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities. Continuous rigid board insulation is applied without creating uninsulated voids in the wall assembly.

Strap Wall: Assumes 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. 2x3 or 2x4 strapping is run horizontally along the interior surface of the wall to provide additional space for insulation.


Double-Stud Wall: Assumes an exterior structural wall and a separate interior, nonstructural wall. Insulation is placed in both wall cavities and in the space between the 2 walls. Stud spacing is assumed to be on 24 inch centers for both walls.

TABLE 10-5

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR ABOVE-GRADE WALLS

2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-11 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-11 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-11 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.088 0.084 0.094 0.090
1 0.080 0.077 0.085 0.082
2 0.074 0.071 0.078 0.075
3 0.069 0.066 0.072 0.070
4 0.064 0.062 0.067 0.065
5 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
6 0.056 0.055 0.059 0.057
7 0.053 0.052 0.055 0.054
8 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
9 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.049
10 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
11 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
12 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-13 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-13 at 3.63 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-12.7 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.082 0.078 0.088 0.083
1 0.075 0.072 0.080 0.076
2 0.069 0.066 0.073 0.070
3 0.065 0.062 0.068 0.065
4 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
5 0.057 0.055 0.059 0.057
6 0.053 0.052 0.056 0.054
7 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
8 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.048
9 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
10 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
11 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
12 0.040 0.039 0.041 0.040
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-15 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-15 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-15 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.076 0.071 0.081 0.075
1 0.069 0.065 0.073 0.069
2 0.064 0.061 0.068 0.069
3 0.060 0.057 0.063 0.059
4 0.056 0.053 0.059 0.056
5 0.053 0.051 0.055 0.052
6 0.050 0.048 0.052 0.050
7 0.047 0.046 0.049 0.047
8 0.045 0.044 0.047 0.045
9 0.043 0.042 0.044 0.043
10 0.041 0.040 0.042 0.041
11 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.039
12 0.038 0.037 0.039 0.038
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-19 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-19 at 6 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.062 0.058 0.055 0.065 0.061 0.058
1 0.058 0.055 0.052 0.060 0.057 0.055
2 0.054 0.052 0.050 0.056 0.054 0.051
3 0.051 0.049 0.047 0.053 0.051 0.049
4 0.048 0.046 0.045 0.050 0.048 0.046
5 0.046 0.044 0.043 0.048 0.046 0.044
6 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.044 0.042
7 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
8 0.040 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.040 0.039
9 0.038 0.037 0.035 0.039 0.038 0.037
10 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
11 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.036 0.035 0.035
12 0.034 0.033 0.033 0.035 0.034 0.033
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-21 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-21 at 5.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-21 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.057 0.054 0.051 0.060 0.056 0.053
1 0.054 0.051 0.048 0.056 0.053 0.050
2 0.050 0.048 0.045 0.052 0.050 0.047
3 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.047 0.045
4 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.045 0.043
5 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.042 0.041
6 0.041 0.039 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
7 0.039 0.038 0.036 0.040 0.039 0.037
8 0.038 0.036 0.035 0.039 0.037 0.036
9 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.033
11 0.033 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.033 0.032
12 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.033 0.032 0.031
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-22 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 6.75 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-20 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.059 0.055 0.052 0.062 0.058 0.054
1 0.055 0.052 0.049 0.057 0.054 0.051
2 0.052 0.049 0.047 0.054 0.051 0.048
3 0.049 0.046 0.044 0.050 0.048 0.046
4 0.046 0.044 0.042 0.048 0.046 0.044
5 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.043 0.042
6 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
7 0.040 0.039 0.037 0.041 0.040 0.038
8 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.037
9 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
11 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
12 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: Two R-11 Batts
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 7 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18.9 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.060 0.057 0.054 0.063 0.059 0.056
1 0.056 0.053 0.051 0.059 0.056 0.053
2 0.053 0.050 0.048 0.055 0.052 0.050
3 0.050 0.048 0.046 0.052 0.049 0.047
4 0.047 0.045 0.044 0.049 0.047 0.045
5 0.045 0.043 0.042 0.046 0.045 0.043
6 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.043 0.041
7 0.041 0.040 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
8 0.039 0.038 0.037 0.040 0.039 0.038
9 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.036
10 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
11 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
12 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.034 0.033
2 x 8 Single Stud: R-25 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-25 at 8 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-23.6 in 7.25 inch cavity

0 0.051 0.047 0.045 0.053 0.049 0.046
1 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.046 0.044
2 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.044 0.042
3 0.043 0.041 0.039 0.044 0.042 0.040
4 0.041 0.039 0.037 0.042 0.040 0.038
5 0.039 0.037 0.036 0.040 0.038 0.037
6 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
7 0.036 0.035 0.033 0.037 0.035 0.034
8 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
9 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
10 0.032 0.031 0.030 0.033 0.032 0.031
11 0.031 0.030 0.029 0.032 0.031 0.030
12 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.030 0.029
2 x 6: Strap Wall

Siding Material/Frame Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 + R-11 Batts 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.036
R-19 + R-8 Batts 0.041 0.039 0.042 0.040
2 x 6 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud

Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 ------- R-11 0.040 0.037 0.041 0.038
R-19 ------- R-19 0.034 0.031 0.035 0.032
R-19 R-8 R-11 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.029
R-19 R-11 R-11 0.027 0.026 0.028 0.027
R-19 R-11 R-19 0.024 0.023 0.025 0.023
R-19 R-19 R-19 0.021 0.020 0.021 0.020

2 x 4 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud

Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-11 -------- R-11 0.050 0.046 0.052 0.048
R-19 -------- R-11 0.039 0.037 0.043 0.039
R-11 R-8 R-11 0.037 0.035 0.036 0.036
R-11 R-11 R-11 0.032 0.031 0.033 0.032
R-13 R-13 R-13 0.029 0.028 0.029 0.028
R-11 R-19 R-11 0.026 0.026 0.027 0.026


Log Walls

Average Log

Diameter,

Inches

U-factor
NOTE:

R-value of wood:

R-1.25 per inch thickness

Average wall thickness

90% average log diameter

6 0.148
8 0.111
10 0.089
12 0.074
14 0.063
16 0.056

Stress Skin Panel
Panel

Thickness,

Inches

U-factor
NOTE:
R-value of expanded polystyrene: R-3.85 per inch

Framing: 6%

Spline: 8%

3 1/2 0.071
5 1/2 0.048
7 1/4 0.037
9 1/4 0.030
11 1/4 0.025
No thermal bridging between interior and exterior splines


Metal Stud Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A may be used for purposes of calculating metal stud wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter ((24)) 25 of Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1.


TABLE 10-5A

Default U-factors for Overall Assembly Metal Stud Walls, Effective R-values for Metal Framing and Cavity Only, and Default Metal Building U-factors


OVERALL ASSEMBLY U-FACTORS FOR METAL STUD WALLS

(( R-Value of
Continuous Cavity Insulation))
((Metal Foam Board
Framing Insulation R-11 R-13 R-15 R-19 R-21 R-25

16" o.c.

R-0 (none)

U-0.14

U-0.13

U-0.12

U-0.10

U-0.097

U-0.091
R-1 U-0.12 U-0.12 U-0.11 U-0.094 U-0.089 U-0.083
R-2 U-0.11 U-0.010 U-0.099 U-0.086 U-0.081 U-0.077
R-3 U-0.10 U-0.095 U-0.090 U-0.079 U-0.075 U-0.071
R-4 U-0.091 U-0.087 U-0.082 U-0.073 U-0.070 U-0.067
R-5 U-0.083 U-0.080 U-0.076 U-0.068 U-0.065 U-0.062
R-6 U-0.077 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.064 U-0.061 U-0.059
R-7 U-0.071 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.060 U-0.058 U-0.055
R-8 U-0.067 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.053
R-9 U-0.062 U-0.060 U-0.058 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.050
R-10 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.051 U-0.049 U-0.048


24" o.c

R-0 (none)

U-0.13

U-0.12

U-0.11

U-0.091

U-0.085

U-0.079
R-1 U-0.11 U-0.10 U-0.098 U-0.084 U-0.078 U-0.073
R-2 U-0.10 U-0.091 U-0.089 U-0.077 U-0.073 U-0.068
R-3 U-0.092 U-0.083 U-0.082 U-0.072 U-0.068 U-0.064
R-4 U-0.084 U-0.077 U-0.076 U-0.067 U-0.063 U-0.060
R-5 U-0.078 U-0.071 U-0.070 U-0.063 U-0.060 U-0.057
R-6 U-0.072 U-0.067 U-0.066 U-0.059 U-0.056 U-0.054
R-7 U-0.067 U-0.063 U-0.062 U-0.056 U-0.053 U-0.051
R-8 U-0.063 U-0.059 U-0.058 U-0.053 U-0.051 U-0.048
R-9 U-0.059 U-0.056 U-0.055 U-0.050 U-0.048 U-0.046
R-10 U-0.056 U-0.053 U-0.052 U-0.048 U-0.046 U-0.044))

R-Value of
Continuous Cavity Insulation
Metal Foam Board
Framing Insulation R-0 R-11 R-13 R-15 R-19 R-21
16" o.c. R-0 (none) U-0.352 U-0.132 U-0.124 U-0.118 U-0.109 U-0.106
R-1 U-0.260 U-0.117 U-0.111 U-0.106 U-0.099 U-0.096
R-2 U-0.207 U-0.105 U-0.100 U-0.096 U-0.090 U-0.087
R-3 U-0.171 U-0.095 U-0.091 U-0.087 U-0.082 U-0.080
R-4 U-0.146 U-0.087 U-0.083 U-0.080 U-0.076 U-0.074
R-5 U-0.128 U-0.080 U-0.077 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.069
R-6 U-0.113 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.065
R-7 U-0.102 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.065 U-0.062 U-0.061
R-8 U-0.092 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.061 U-0.058 U-0.057
R-9 U-0.084 U-0.060 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.054
R-10 U-0.078 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.051


24" o.c R-0 (none) U-0.338 U-0.116 U-0.108 U-0.102 U-0.094 U-0.090
R-1 U-0.253 U-0.104 U-0.098 U-0.092 U-0.086 U-0.083
R-2 U-0.202 U-0.094 U-0.089 U-0.084 U-0.079 U-0.077
R-3 U-0.168 U-0.086 U-0.082 U-0.078 U-0.073 U-0.071
R-4 U-0.144 U-0.079 U-0.075 U-0.072 U-0.068 U-0.066
R-5 U-0.126 U-0.073 U-0.070 U-0.067 U-0.064 U-0.062
R-6 U-0.112 U-0.068 U-0.066 U-0.063 U-0.060 U-0.059
R-7 U-0.100 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055
R-8 U-0.091 U-0.060 U-0.058 U-0.056 U-0.054 U-0.052
R-9 U-0.084 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.053 U-0.051 U-0.050
R-10 U-0.077 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.050 U-0.048 U-0.048


EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY

Cavity Insulation
Nominal

Depth,

Inches

Actual

Depth,

Inches

Nominal

R-Value

Effective R-Value
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Air Cavity any any R-0.91 (air) 0.79 0.91
4 3-1/2 R-11 5.5 6.6
4 3-1/2 R-13 6.0 7.2
Wall 4 3-1/2 R-15 6.4 7.8
6 5-1/2 R-19 7.1 8.6
6 5-1/2 R-21 7.4 9.0
8 7-1/4 R-25 7.8 9.6
Roof Insulation is uncompressed R-11 5.5 6.1
R-19 7.0 9.1
R-30 9.3 11.4

DEFAULT METAL BUILDING U-FACTORS

R-10 R-11 R-13 R-19 R-24 R-30
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened to the frame, holding insulation in place. 0.133 0.127 0.114 0.091 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened directly to frame. 0.131 0.123 0.107 0.079 0.065 0.057
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.102 0.096 0.084 0.065 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.099 0.093 0.080 0.059 0.048 0.041

Concrete Masonry Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5B may be used for purposes of calculating concrete masonry wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE isothermal planes calculation method as provided in Chapter ((24)) 25 of Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1.


TABLE 10-5B

Default U-Factors for Concrete and Masonry Walls

8" CONCRETE MASONRY
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.40 0.23 0.24 0.43
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.12 0.15
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.14
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.12

12" CONCRETE MASONRY
CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.35 0.17 0.18 0.33
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.13
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.13 0.09 0.10 0.13
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.10
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.09
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.12

8" CLAY BRICK
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.50 0.31 0.32 0.56
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.09

6" CONCRETE POURED OR PRECAST
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Concrete, Both Sides NA NA NA 0.61
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips NA NA NA 0.12
R-6 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.09

Notes for Default Table 10-5B
1. Grouted cores at 40" x 48" on center vertically and horizontally in partial grouted walls.
2. Interior insulation values include 1/2" gypsum board on the inner surface.
3. Furring and stud spacing is 16" on center. Insulation is assumed to fill furring space and is not compressed.
4. Intermediate values may be interpolated using this table. Values not contained in this table may be computed using the procedures listed in Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1005, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1005, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1005, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1006   Section 1006 Default U-factors for glazing and doors.  


1006.1 Glazing and Doors without NFRC Certification: Glazing and doors that do not have NFRC certification shall be assigned the following U-factors:

TABLE 10-6

Other than Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING, OVERHEAD GLAZING AND OPAQUE DOORS

Vertical Glazing
U-Factor
Any Frame Aluminum W/Thermal Break Vinyl/Wood

Frame

Single 1.45 1.45 1.45
Double 0.90 0.85 0.75
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed 0.75 0.70 0.60
1/2 Inch Air,

Low-e(0.40), Fixed

0.60 0.55 0.50
1/2 Inch Air,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed

0.55 0.50 0.45
1/2 Inch Argon,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed

0.50 0.45 0.40

The category for aluminum frame with a thermal break is as defined in footnote 7 to Table 10-6A.


((Overhead Glazing
U-Factor
Any Frame Vinyl/Wood

Frame

Single 2.15 2.15
Double 1.45 1.00
Low-e(0.40) or Argon 1.40 0.95
Low-e(0.40) + Argon 1.30 0.85
Low-e(0.20) Air 1.30 0.90
Low-e(0.20) + Argon 1.25 0.80
Triple 1.25 0.80))

Overhead Glazing: Sloped Glazing (Including Frame)
U-Factor
Any Frame Aluminum W/Thermal Break Vinyl/Wood

Frame

Single 1.74 1.74 1.74
Double 1.08 1.02 0.90
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed 0.90 0.84 0.72
1/2 Inch Air,

Low-e(0.40), Fixed

0.72 0.66 0.60
1/2 Inch Air,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed

0.66 0.60 0.54
1/2 Inch Argon,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed

0.60 0.54 0.48

This default table is applicable to sloped glazing only. (Sloped glazing is a multiple-lite glazed system (similar to a curtain wall) that is mounted at a slope greater than 15 from the vertical plane.) Other overhead glazing shall use the defaults in Table 10-6E.


Opaque Doors
U-Factor
Uninsulated Metal 1.20
Insulated Metal (Including Fire Door and Smoke Vent) 0.60
Wood 0.50

Notes:


Where a gap width is listed (i.e.: 1/2 inch), that is the minimum allowed.

Where a low-emissivity emittance is listed (i.e.: 0.40, 0.20, 0.10), that is the maximum allowed.

Where a gas other than air is listed (i.e.: Argon), the gas fill shall be a minimum of 90%.

Where an operator type is listed (i.e.: Fixed), the default is only allowed for that operator type.

Where a frame type is listed (i.e.: Wood/vinyl), the default is only allowed for that frame type. Wood/vinyl frame includes reinforced vinyl and aluminum-clad wood.


TABLE 10-6A

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING

Description1,2,3,4 Frame Type5,6
Aluminum Aluminum

Thermal Break7

Wood/Vinyl
Windows Single 1.20 1.20 1.20
Double, < 1/2" Clear 0.92 0.75 0.63
Clear + Argon 0.87 0.71 0.60
Low-e 0.85 0.69 0.58
Low-e + Argon 0.79 0.62 0.53
Double, > 1/2" Clear 0.86 0.69 0.58
Clear + Argon 0.83 0.67 0.55
Low-e 0.78 0.61 0.51
Low-e + Argon 0.75 0.58 0.48
Triple, Clear 0.70 0.53 0.43
Clear + Argon 0.69 0.52 0.41
Low-e 0.67 0.49 0.40
Low-e + Argon 0.63 0.47 0.37
Garden Single 2.60 n.a. 2.31
Windows Double Clear 1.81 n.a. 1.61
Clear + Argon 1.76 n.a. 1.56
Low-e 1.73 n.a. 1.54
Low-e + Argon 1.64 n.a. 1.47

1 <1/2" = a minimum dead air space of less than 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.
> 1/2" = a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches or greater between the panes of glass.
Where no gap width is listed, the minimum gap width is 1/4".
2 Any low-e (emissivity) coating (0.1, 0.2 or 0.4).
3 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, C02, SF6, argon/SF6 mixtures and Krypton.
4 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
5 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
6 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for wood/vinyl windows.
7 Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produces a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.

TABLE 10-6B1

Group R Occupancy: SMALL BUSINESS COMPLIANCE TABLE FOR VERTICAL GLAZING


FRAME TYPE7,8
DESCRIPTION2,3,4,6 ALUMINUM ALUM.

THERMAL

BREAK9

WOOD/VINYL ALUM. CLAD

WOOD/REINFORCED

VINYL10

Double, Clear 1/4" 0.82 0.66 0.56 0.59
Double, Clear 1/4" + argon 0.77 0.63 0.53 0.56
Double, Low-e4 1/4" 0.76 0.61 0.52 0.54
Double, Low-e2 1/4" 0.73 0.58 0.49 0.51
Double, Low-e1 1/4" 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e4 1/4" + argon 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e2 1/4" + argon 0.66 0.52 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e1 1/4" + argon 0.64 0.50 0.41 0.43
Double, Clear 3/8" 0.78 0.63 0.54 0.57
Double, Clear 3/8" + argon 0.75 0.60 0.51 0.54
Double, Low-e4 3/8" 0.72 0.57 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e2 3/8" 0.69 0.54 0.45 0.48
Double, Low-e1 3/8" 0.66 0.51 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e4 3/8" + argon 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 3/8" + argon 0.63 0.49 0.41 0.44
Double, Low-e1 3/8" + argon 0.61 0.47 0.39 0.41
Double, Clear 1/2" 0.75 0.60 0.50 0.54
Double, Clear 1/2" + argon 0.72 0.58 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e4 1/2" 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 1/2" 0.64 0.50 0.40 0.44
Double, Low-e1 1/2" 0.61 0.47 0.35 0.42
Double, Low-e4 1/2" + argon 0.65 0.50 0.42 0.44
Double, Low-e2 1/2" + argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.40
Double, Low-e1 1/2" + argon 0.58 0.43 0.35 0.38
Triple, Clear 1/4" 0.66 0.52 0.42 0.44
Triple, Clear 1/4" + argon 0.63 0.49 0.39 0.42
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" 0.64 0.50 0.40 0.40
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" 0.62 0.48 0.39 0.41
Triple, Low-e1 1/4" 0.61 0.47 0.38 0.40
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" + argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.39
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" + argon 0.58 0.43 0.34 0.37
Triple, Low-el 1/4" + argon 0.57 0.42 0.34 0.36
Triple, Clear 1/2" 0.61 0.46 0.37 0.40
Triple, Clear 1/2" + argon 0.59 0.45 0.36 0.38
Triple, Low-e4 1/2" 0.58 0.43 0.35 0.37
Triple, Low-e2 1/2" 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e1 1/2" 0.54 0.39 0.31 0.33
Triple, Low-e4 1/2" + argon 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e2 1/2" + argon 0.52 0.38 0.30 0.32
Triple, Low-e1 1/2" + argon 0.51 0.37 0.29 0.31

Footnotes to Table 10-6B

1 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default U-factor for nonaluminum spacer. Acceptable spacer materials may include but is not limited to fiberglass, wood and butyl or other material with an equivalent thermal performance.
2 1/4" = a minimum dead air space of 0.25 inches between the panes of glass.

3/8" = a minimum dead air space of 0.375 inches between the panes of glass.

1/2" = a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.

Product with air spaces different than those listed above shall use the value for the next smaller air space; i.e. 3/4 inch = 1/2 inch U-factors, 7/16 inch = 3/8 inch U-factors, 5/16 inch = 1/4 inch U-factors.

3 Low-e4 (emissivity) shall be 0.4 or less.

Low-e2 (emissivity) shall be 0.2 or less.

Low-e1 (emissivity) shall be 0.1 or less.

4 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, CO2, SF6, and argon/SF6 mixtures. The following conversion factor shall apply to Krypton gas-filled units: 1/4" or greater with krypton is equivalent to 1/2" argon.
5 Reserved.
6 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
7 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
8 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default values for solariums.
9 Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produce a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a

thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.

10 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl windows. Vinyl clad wood window shall use the U-factors listed for Wood/Vinyl windows. Any vinyl frame window with metal reinforcement in more than one rail shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl window.

TABLE 10-6C

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR DOORS


Door Type No

Glazing

Single

Glazing

Double

Glazing

with 1/4 in.

Airspace

Double

Glazing

with 1/2

in.

Airspace

Double

Glazing

with

e = 0.10,

1/2 in.

Argon

SWINGING DOORS (Rough opening - 38 in. x 82 in.)
Slab Doors
Wood slab in wood framea 0.46
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.44
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.58 0.48 0.46 0.42
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.69 0.49 0.46 0.39
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Insulated steel slab with wood edge in wood framea 0.16
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.18
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.39 0.28 0.26 0.23
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.58 0.38 0.35 0.26
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Foam insulated steel slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.37
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.44 0.42 0.41 0.39
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.55 0.50 0.48 0.44
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.71 0.59 0.56 0.48
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Cardboard honeycomb slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.61
Style and Rail Doors
Sliding glass doors/French doors Use Table 10-6A
Site-Assembled Style and Rail Doors
Aluminum in aluminum frame - 1.32 0.99 0.93 0.79
Aluminum in aluminum frame with thermal break - 1.13 0.80 0.74 0.63
REVOLVING DOORS (Rough opening - 82 in. x 84 in.)
Aluminum in aluminum frame
Open - 1.32 - - -
Closed - 0.65 - - -
SECTIONAL OVERHEAD DOORS (Nominal - 10 ft x 10 ft)
Uninsulated steel (nominal U = 1.15)c 1.15 - - - -
Insulated steel (nominal U = 0.11)c 0.24 - - - -
Insulated steel with thermal break (nominal U = 0.08)c 0.13 - - - -

a. Thermally broken sill (add 0.03 for nonthermally broken sill)
b. Nonthermally broken sill
c. Nominal U-factors are through the center of the insulated panel before consideration of thermal bridges around the edges of the door sections and due to the frame.


TABLE 10-6D

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR GLAZED DOORS

See Table 10-6C


TABLE 10-6E

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR OVERHEAD GLAZING

Frame Type
Aluminum Aluminum Reinforced Wood or Vinyl-
Glazing Type without with Vinyl/ Clad Wood/
Thermal Thermal Aluminum-Clad Vinyl without
Break Break Wood or Vinyl Reinforcing
Single Glazing
glass U-1.58 U-1.51 U-1.40 U-1.18
acrylic/polycarb U-1.52 U-1.45 U-1.34 U-1.11
Double Glazing
air U-1.05 U-0.89 U-0.84 U-0.67
argon U-1.02 U-0.86 U-0.80 U-0.64
Double Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.96 U-0.80 U-0.75 U-0.59
argon U-0.91 U-0.75 U-0.70 U-0.54
Double Glazing, e = 0.10
air U-0.94 U-0.79 U-0.74 U-0.58
argon U-0.89 U-0.73 U-0.68 U-0.52
Double Glazing, e = 0.05
air U-0.93 U-0.78 U-0.73 U-0.56
argon U-0.87 U-0.71 U-0.66 U-0.50
Triple Glazing
air U-0.90 U-0.70 U-0.67 U-0.51
argon U-0.87 U-0.69 U-0.64 U-0.48
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.86 U-0.68 U-0.63 U-0.47
argon U-0.82 U-0.63 U-0.59 U-0.43
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.82 U-0.64 U-0.60 U-0.44
argon U-0.79 U-0.60 U-0.56 U-0.40
Triple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.81 U-0.62 U-0.58 U-0.42
argon U-0.77 U-0.58 U-0.54 U-0.38
Quadruple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.78 U-0.59 U-0.55 U-0.39
argon U-0.74 U-0.56 U-0.52 U-0.36
krypton U-0.70 U-0.52 U-0.48 U-0.32

1. U-factors are applicable to both glass and plastic, flat and domed units, all spacers and gaps.
2. Emissivities shall be less than or equal to the value specified.
3. Gap fill shall be assumed to be air unless there is a minimum of 90% argon or krypton.
4. Aluminum frame with thermal break is as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1006, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1006, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-1006, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1007   Section 1007 Ceilings.  

1007.1 General: Table 10-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units of Btu/hft2F of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 F and an outdoor temperature of 45F.

Metal Framed Ceilings: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A - EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY may be used for purposes of calculating metal framed ceiling section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter ((24)) 25 of Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1.

1007.2 Component Description: The four types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 hrft2F/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-factors for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:


U-Factor for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38
4/12 .036 .031
5/12 .035 .030
6/12 .034 .029
7/12 .034 .029
8/12 .034 .028
9/12 .034 .028
10/12 .033 .028
11/12 .033 .027
12/12 .033 .027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of 0.016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of 3.0 air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

Metal Truss Framing: Overall system tested values for the roof/ceiling Uo for metal framed truss assemblies from approved laboratories shall be used, when such data is acceptable to the building official.

Alternatively, the Uo for roof/ceiling assemblies using metal truss framing may be obtained from Tables 10-7A, 10-7B, 10-7C, 10-7D and 10-7E.


TABLE 10-7

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR CEILINGS

Ceilings Below Vented Attics

Standard Frame Advanced Frame
Flat Ceiling Baffled
R-19 0.049 0.047
R-30 0.036 0.032
R-38 0.031 0.026
R-49 0.027 0.020
R-60 0.025 0.017
Scissors Truss
R-30 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.043 0.031
R-38 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.040 0.025
R-49 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.038 0.020
R-30 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.039 0.032
R-38 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.035 0.026
R-49 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.032 0.020
Vaulted Ceilings
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Vented
R-19 2x10 joist 0.049 0.048
R-30 2x12 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x14 joist 0.027 0.027
Unvented
R-30 2x10 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x12 joist 0.029 0.027
R-21 + R-21 2x12 joist 0.026 0.025
Roof Deck
4x Beams, 48" O.C.
R-12.5 2" Rigid insulation 0.064
R-21.9 3.5" Rigid insulation 0.040
R-37.5 6" Rigid insulation 0.025
R-50 8" Rigid insulation 0.019

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR ROOFS WITH INSULATION ENTIRELY ABOVE DECK

(Other than 4x Wood Beams)

Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone Overall U-Factor for Entire Assembly
R-0 U-1.282
R-1 U-0.562
R-2 U-0.360
R-3 U-0.265
R-4 U-0.209
R-5 U-0.173
R-6 U-0.147
R-7 U-0.129
R-8 U-0.114
R-9 U-0.102
R-10 U-0.093
R-11 U-0.085
R-12 U-0.078
R-13 U-0.073
R-14 U-0.068
R-15 U-0.063
R-16 U-0.060
R-17 U-0.056
R-18 U-0.053
R-19 U-0.051
R-20 U-0.048
R-21 U-0.046
R-22 U-0.044
R-23 U-0.042
R-24 U-0.040
R-25 U-0.039
R-26 U-0.037
R-27 U-0.036
R-28 U-0.035
R-29 U-0.034
R-30 U-0.032
R-35 U-0.028
R-40 U-0.025
R-45 U-0.020
R-50 U-0.020
R-55 U-0.018

Table 10-7A

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.1075 0.0991 0.0928 0.0878 0.0839 0.0807 0.0780 0.0757 0.0737 0.0720 0.0706 0.0693 0.0681
30 0.0907 0.0823 0.0760 0.0710 0.0671 0.0638 0.0612 0.0589 0.0569 0.0552 0.0538 0.0525 0.0513
38 0.0844 0.0759 0.0696 0.0647 0.0607 0.0575 0.0548 0.0525 0.0506 0.0489 0.0474 0.0461 0.0449
49 0.0789 0.0704 0.0641 0.0592 0.0552 0.0520 0.0493 0.0470 0.0451 0.0434 0.0419 0.0406 0.0395

Table 10-7B

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-3 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0809 0.0763 0.0728 0.0701 0.0679 0.0661 0.0647 0.0634 0.0623 0.0614 0.0606 0.0599 0.0592
30 0.0641 0.0595 0.0560 0.0533 0.0511 0.0493 0.0478 0.0466 0.0455 0.0446 0.0438 0.0431 0.0424
38 0.0577 0.0531 0.0496 0.0469 0.0447 0.0430 0.0415 0.0402 0.0392 0.0382 0.0374 0.0367 0.0361
49 0.0523 0.0476 0.0441 0.0414 0.0393 0.0375 0.0360 0.0348 0.0337 0.0328 0.0319 0.0312 0.0306

Table 10-7C

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-5 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0732 0.0697 0.0670 0.0649 0.0633 0.0619 0.0608 0.0598 0.0590 0.0583 0.0577 0.0571 0.0567
30 0.0564 0.0529 0.0502 0.0481 0.0465 0.0451 0.0440 0.0430 0.0422 0.0415 0.0409 0.0403 0.0399
38 0.0501 0.0465 0.0438 0.0418 0.0401 0.0388 0.0376 0.0367 0.0359 0.0351 0.0345 0.0340 0.0335
49 0.0446 0.0410 0.0384 0.0363 0.0346 0.0333 0.0322 0.0312 0.0304 0.0297 0.0291 0.0285 0.0280

Table 10-7D

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-10 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0626 0.0606 0.0590 0.0578 0.0569 0.0561 0.0555 0.0549 0.0545 0.0541 0.0537 0.0534 0.0531
30 0.0458 0.0437 0.0422 0.0410 0.0401 0.0393 0.0387 0.0381 0.0377 0.0373 0.0369 0.0366 0.0363
38 0.0394 0.0374 0.0359 0.0347 0.0337 0.0330 0.0323 0.0318 0.0313 0.0309 0.0305 0.0302 0.0299
49 0.0339 0.0319 0.0304 0.0292 0.0283 0.0275 0.0268 0.0263 0.0258 0.0254 0.0251 0.0247 0.0245


Table 10-7E

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-15 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0561 0.0550 0.0541 0.0535 0.0530 0.0526 0.0522 0.0519 0.0517 0.0515 0.0513 0.0511 0.0509
30 0.0393 0.0382 0.0373 0.0367 0.0362 0.0358 0.0354 0.0351 0.0349 0.0347 0.0345 0.0343 0.0341
38 0.0329 0.0318 0.0310 0.0303 0.0298 0.0294 0.0291 0.0288 0.0285 0.0283 0.0281 0.0279 0.0278
49 0.0274 0.0263 0.0255 0.0249 0.0244 0.0239 0.0236 0.0233 0.0230 0.0228 0.0226 0.0225 0.0223

1 - Assembly values based on 24 inch on center truss spacing; 11 Truss member connections penetrating insulation (4 at the eaves, 7 in the interior space); 1/2 inch drywall ceiling; all truss members are 2x4 "C" channels with a solid web.
2 - Ceiling sheathing installed between bottom chord and drywall.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1007, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1007, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1007, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1009   Section 1009 Mass.  


1009.1 General: Tables 10-9 and 10-10 list default mass values for concrete masonry construction. Calculations are based on standard ASHRAE values for heat-storage capacity as listed in Standard ((RS-27)) RS-1, Chapter ((24)) 25.


Thermal capacity of furniture is ignored, as is heat storage beyond the first four inches of mass thickness. All mass is assumed to be in direct contact with the conditioned space. Concrete separated from the heated volume by other materials must multiply the listed concrete mass value by the result of the following formula:


Ln(R-value) x (-.221) + 0.5

Where:

Ln = Natural log

R-value = R-value of material covering concrete


Note: All default values for covered concrete slabs have been adjusted according to this procedure.

1009.2 Mass Description: Mass is divided into two types: Structural and additional.

Structural Mass: Includes heat-storage capacity of all standard building components of a typical residential structure, including floors, ceilings, and interior and exterior walls in Btu/ft2F of floor area. It also assumes exterior wall, interior wall and ceiling surface area approximately equals three times the floor area.


Additional Mass: Includes any additional building material not part of the normal structure, which is added specifically to increase the building's thermal-storage capability. This category includes masonry fireplaces, water or trombe walls, and extra layers of sheetrock. Coefficients are in Btu/ft2F of surface area of material exposed to conditioned space. The coefficient for water is Btu/Fgallon.


1009.3 Component Description: Light frame assumes one inch thick wood flooring with five-eighths inch sheetrock on ceilings and interior walls, and walls consisting of either five-eighths inch sheetrock or solid logs. Slab assumes a four-inch concrete slab on or below grade, with five-eighths inch sheetrock on exterior and interior walls and ceiling, and with separate values for interior or exterior wall insulation. Adjustments for slab covering is based on R-value of material. Additional mass values are based on the density multiplied by the specific heat of the material adjusted for listed thickness.


TABLE 10-9

HEAT CAPACITY

Partial Grout Solid Grout
8" CMU 9.65 15.0
12" CMU 14.5 23.6
8" Brick 10.9 16.4
6" Concrete NA 14.4

TABLE 10-10

DEFAULT MASS VALUES

Structural Mass M-value Btu/ft2F floor area
Light Frame:
Joisted/post & beam floor, sheetrock
walls and ceilings 3.0
Joisted/post & beam floor, log walls,
sheetrock ceilings 4.0
Slab With Interior Wall Insulation:
Slab, no covering or tile, sheetrock walls and ceilings 10.0
Slab, hardwood floor covering, sheetrock walls and ceilings 7.0
Slab, carpet and pad, sheetrock walls and ceilings 5.0
Slab With Exterior Wall Insulation:
Slab, no covering or tile, sheetrock walls and ceilings 12.0
Slab, hardwood floor covering, sheetrock walls and ceilings 9.0
Slab, carpet and pad, sheetrock walls and ceilings 7.0
Additional Mass M-Value: Btu/ft2F surface area
Gypsum wallboard, 1/2 inch thickness 0.54
Gypsum wallboard, 5/8 inch thickness 0.68
Hardwood floor 1.40
Concrete/Brick, 4 inch-thickness 10.30
Concrete/Brick, 6 inch-thickness 15.40
Btu/Fgallon
Water, 1 gallon 8.0

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1009, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1009, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1009, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1132   Alterations and repairs.   Alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without the use of the exception in Section 1130. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the following requirements are met:


1132.1 Building Envelope: Alterations or repairs shall comply with nominal R-values and glazing requirements in Table 13-1 or 13-2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Storm windows installed over existing glazing.
2. Glass replaced in existing sash and frame provided that glazing is of equal or lower U-factor.
3. For solar heat gain coefficient compliance, glazing with a solar heat gain coefficient equal to or lower than that of the other existing glazing.
4. Existing roof/ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are insulated to full depth with insulation having a minimum nominal value of R-3.0 per inch installed per Sections 1311 and 1313.
5. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities, provided that any new cavities added to existing walls and floors comply with Exception 4.
6. Existing roofs where the roof membrane is being replaced and
a. The roof sheathing or roof insulation is not exposed; or
b. If there is existing roof insulation below the deck.
In no case shall the energy efficiency of the building be decreased.

1132.2 Building Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with Chapter 14 of this Code.


1132.3 Lighting and Motors: Where the use in a space changes from one use in Table 15-1 to another use in Table 15-1, the installed lighting wattage shall comply with Section 1521 or 1531.

Other tenant improvements, alterations or repairs where 60 percent or more of the fixtures ((in a use)) in a space enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions (as defined in Table 15-1) within a tenant space or in an entire floor (((whichever is smaller))) are new shall comply with Sections 1531 and 1532. Where less than 60 percent of the fixtures in a space enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions are new, the installed lighting wattage shall be maintained or reduced. Where 60 percent or more of the lighting fixtures in a suspended ceiling are new, and the existing insulation is on the suspended ceiling, the roof/ceiling assembly shall be insulated according to the provisions of Chapter 13 Section 1311.2.


Where new wiring is being installed to serve added fixtures and/or fixtures are being relocated to a new circuit, controls shall comply with Sections 1513.1 through 1513.5 and, as applicable, 1513.7. In addition, office areas less than 300 ft2 enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions, and all meeting and conference rooms, and all school classrooms, shall be equipped with occupancy sensors that comply with Sections 1513.6 and 1513.7. Where a new lighting panel (or a moved lighting panel) with all new raceway and conductor wiring from the panel to the fixtures is being installed, controls ((shall comply with)) also comply with the other requirements in Sections 1513.6 and 1513.7.


Where new walls or ceiling-height partitions are added to an existing space and create a new enclosed space, but the lighting fixtures are not being changed, other than being relocated, the new enclosed space shall have controls that comply with Sections 1513.1 through 1513.2, 1513.4, and 1513.6 through 1513.7.


Those motors which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section 1511.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1132, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1132, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1132, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)

WAC 51-11-1143   Inspections.  


1143.1 General: All construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and all such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved by the building official. No work shall be done on any part of the building or structure beyond the point indicated in each inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official.


1143.2 Required Inspections: The building official, upon notification, shall make the inspection required in this Section, in addition to or as part of those inspections required in Section ((108.5 of the Uniform)) 109.3 of the International Building Code. Inspections may be conducted by special inspection pursuant to Section ((1701 of the Uniform)) 1704 of the International Building Code. Where applicable, inspections shall include at least:


1143.2.1 Envelope

a. Wall Insulation Inspection: To be made after all wall insulation and air vapor retarder sheet or film materials are in place, but before any wall covering is placed.

b. Glazing Inspection: To be made after glazing materials are installed in the building.

c. Exterior Roofing Insulation: To be made after the installation of the roof insulation, but before concealment.

d. Slab/Floor Insulation: To be made after the installation of the slab/floor insulation, but before concealment.


1143.2.2 Mechanical

a. Mechanical Equipment Efficiency and Economizer: To be made after all equipment and controls required by this Code are installed and prior to the concealment of such equipment or controls.

b. Mechanical Pipe and Duct Insulation: To be made after all pipe and duct insulation is in place, but before concealment.


1143.2.3 Lighting and Motors

a. Lighting Equipment and Controls: To be made after the installation of all lighting equipment and controls required by this Code, but before concealment of the lighting equipment.

b. Motor Inspections: To be made after installation of all equipment covered by this Code, but before concealment.


1143.3 Reinspection: The building official may require a structure to be reinspected. A reinspection fee may be assessed for each inspection or reinspection when such portion of work for which inspection is called is not complete or when corrections called for are not made.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-1143, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1143, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1150   Conflicts with other codes.   In case of conflicts among Codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 (1), (2), (3) and (4) and this Code, the first named Code shall govern. The duct insulation requirements in this Code or a local jurisdiction's energy code, whichever is more stringent, supersede the requirements in the ((Uniform)) Mechanical Code.

Where, in any specific case, different sections of this Code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1150, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1310   General requirements.   The building envelope shall comply with Sections 1311 through 1314.


((1310.1 Conditioned Spaces:)) The building envelope for conditioned spaces shall also comply with one of the following paths:


a. Prescriptive Building Envelope Option Sections 1320 through 1323.

b. Component Performance Building Envelope Option Sections 1330 through 1334.

c. Systems Analysis. See Section 1141.4.


((1310.2 Semi-Heated Spaces: All spaces shall be considered conditioned spaces, and shall comply with the requirements in Section 1310.1 unless they meet the following criteria for semi-heated spaces. The installed heating equipment output, in Climate Zone 1, shall be 3 Btu/(hft2) or greater but not greater than 8 Btu/(hft2) and in Climate Zone 2, shall be 5 Btu/(hft2) or greater but not greater than 12 Btu/(hft2). Heating shall be controlled by a thermostat mounted not lower than the heating unit and capable of preventing heating above 44 degrees space temperature. For semi-heated spaces, the only prescriptive, component performance, or systems analysis building envelope requirement shall be that:


((Climate Zone 1))

((a. U = 0.10 maximum for the roof assembly, or))
((b. continuous R-9 insulation installed entirely outside of the roof structure, or))
((c. R-11 insulation installed inside or within a wood roof structure, or))
((d. R-19 insulation installed inside or within a metal roof structure.))
Climate Zone 2

((a. U = 0.07 maximum for the roof assembly, or))
((b. continuous R-14 insulation installed entirely outside of the roof structure, or))
((c. R-19 insulation installed inside or within a wood roof structure, or))
((d. R-25 insulation installed inside or within a metal roof structure.))

EXCEPTION: Wall insulation for those walls that separate semi-heated spaces (see definition in Section 201.1) from the exterior provided that the space is heated solely by a heating system controlled by a thermostat with a maximum setpoint capacity of 45F, mounted no lower than the heating unit.

Figure 13A

Building Envelope Compliance Options


Section

Number

Subject

Prescriptive

Option

Component

Performance

Option

Systems

Analysis

Option

1310

1311

1312

1313

1314

General Requirements

Insulation

Glazing and Doors

Moisture Control

Air Leakage

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1320

1321

1322

1323

Prescriptive Building

Envelope Option

General

Opaque Envelope

Glazing

X

X

X

X

1330

1331

1332

1333

1334

Component

Performance Building

Envelope Option

General

Component U-Factors

UA Calculations

Solar Heat Gain

Coefficient Rate

Calculations

X

X

X

X

X

RS-29 Systems Analysis X

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1310, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1312   Glazing and doors.  


1312.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing and Door U-Factors: U-Factors for glazing and doors shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with Standard RS-31 by a certified independent agency licensed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). Compliance shall be based on the Residential or the Nonresidential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Unlabeled glazing and doors shall be assigned the default U-factor in Table 10-6.


1312.2 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient ((and Shading Coefficient)): Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), shall be determined, certified and labelled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard by a certified, independent agency, licensed by the NFRC.


EXCEPTION: Shading coefficients (SC) or Solar Heat Gain Coefficient for the center of glass shall be an acceptable alternate for compliance with solar heat gain coefficient requirements. Shading coefficients for the center of glass for glazing shall be taken from Chapter ((29 of RS-27)) 30 of RS-1 or from the manufacturer's test data. SHGC for the center of glass for glazing shall be taken from the spectral data file determined in accordance with NFRC 300.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1312, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1312, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1312, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1313   Moisture control.  


1313.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as required by this section.


EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

1313.2 Roof/Ceiling Assemblies: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of twelve inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. (For enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces see Section ((1505.3)) 1203.2 of the Washington State Building Code.) Roof/ceiling assemblies without a vented airspace, allowed only where neither the roof deck nor the roof structure are made of wood, shall provide a continuous vapor retarder with taped seams.


EXCEPTION: Vapor retarders need not be provided where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.

1313.3 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall be provided with a vapor retarder.


1313.4 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall be provided with a vapor retarder.


1313.5 Crawl Spaces: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped twelve inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.


EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of three and one-half inches.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1313, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1313, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1322   Opaque envelope.   Roof/ceilings, opaque exterior walls, opaque doors, floors over unconditioned space, below grade walls, slab on grade floors, and radiant floors enclosing conditioned spaces shall be insulated according to Section 1311 and Tables 13-1 or 13-2. Compliance with nominal R-values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only. Nominal R-values shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films.


For metal frame assemblies used in spaces with electric resistance space heat, compliance shall be demonstrated with the component U-factor for the overall assembly based on the assemblies in Chapter 10.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Opaque smoke vents are not required to meet insulation requirements.
2. ((The perimeter edge of an above grade floor slab which penetrates the exterior wall may be left uninsulated provided that the wall insulation is increased by R-2 above)) For prescriptive compliance only,
a. For glazing areas that are 30% and less of the gross wall area, the insulation of the perimeter edge of an above grade floor slab which penetrates the exterior wall may be reduced to R-5 provided the glazing U-factor is reduced by U-0.05 below that required in Tables 13-1 and 13-2.
b. For glazing areas that exceed 30% of the gross wall area, the perimeter edge of an above grade floor slab which penetrates the exterior wall may be left uninsulated provided that the glazing U-factor is reduced by U-0.10 below that required in Tables 13-1 and 13-2.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1322, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1322, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1323   Glazing.   Glazing shall comply with Section 1312 and Tables 13-1 or 13-2. All glazing shall be, at a minimum, double glazing.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Vertical glazing located on the display side of the street level story of a retail occupancy provided the glazing
a. is double-glazed with a minimum 1/2 inch airspace and with a low-e coating having a maximum emittance of e-0.40 or has an area weighted U-factor of 0.60 or less. (When this exception is used, there are no SHGC requirements) and,
b. does not exceed 75 percent of the gross exterior wall area of the display side of the street level story. However, if the display side of the street level story exceeds 20 feet in height, then this exception may only be used for the first 20 feet of that story.
When this exception is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes. The 75 percent area may be exceeded on the street level, if the additional glass area is provided from allowances from other areas of the building.
2. Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area, U-factor calculation and SHGC as allowed in the Tables 13-1 or 13-2. The maximum area allowed for the total of all single glazing is one percent of the gross exterior wall floor area.

1323.1 Area: The percentage of total glazing (vertical and overhead) area relative to the gross exterior wall area shall not be greater than the appropriate value from Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the vertical glazing U-factor, overhead glazing U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient selected.


1323.2 U-Factor: The area-weighted average U-factor of vertical glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. The area-weighted average U-factor of overhead glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with Section 1312.


1323.3 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient: The area-weighted average solar heat gain coefficient of all glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and U-factor.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Glazing separating conditioned space from semi-heated space or unconditioned space.
2. Vertical glazing which is oriented within 45 of north shall be allowed to have a maximum solar heat gain coefficient SHGC-0.10 above that required in Tables 13-1 and 13-2.
3. For demonstrating compliance for vertical glazing only, the SHGC in the proposed building shall be allowed to be reduced by using the multipliers in the table below for each glazing product shaded by permanent projections that will last as long as the building itself.


Projection Factor

SHGC Multiplier (all orientations except north) SHGC Multiplier (north-oriented)
0 - 0.10 1.00 1.00
<0.10 - 0.20 0.91 0.95
<0.20 - 0.30 0.82 0.91
<0.30 - 0.40 0.74 0.87
<0.40 - 0.50 0.67 0.84
<0.50 - 0.60 0.61 0.81
<0.60 - 0.70 0.56 0.78
<0.70 - 0.80 0.51 0.76
<0.80 - 0.90 0.47 0.75
<0.90 - 1.00 0.44 0.73

Projection factor (PF) is the ratio of the horizontal depth of the external shading projection (A) divided by the sum of the height of the fenestration and the distance from the top of the fenestration to the bottom of the farthest point of the external shading projection (B), in consistent units. (See Exhibit 1323.3.)

Place illustration here.
Exhibit 1323.3

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1323, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1323, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1323, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1331   General.   Buildings or structures whose design heat loss rate (UAp) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC*Ap) are less than or equal to the target heat loss rate (UAt) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC*At) shall be considered in compliance with this section. The stated U-factor, F-factor or allowable area of any component assembly, listed in Tables 13-1 or 13-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall, opaque door, glazing, floor over conditioned space, slab on grade floor, radiant floor or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor or F-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors, F-factors or allowable areas specified in this section.


((EXCEPTION: For buildings or structures utilizing the other space heat type (including heat pumps and VAV) compliance path, for the gross opaque wall, opaque door and glazing (vertical and overhead) area only, compliance may also be shown using the ENVSTD diskette version 2.1 of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989, or an approved alternative, with the following additional requirements:))
1. Only the Exterior Wall Requirements portion of the ENVSTD computer program may be used under this exception.
2. Overhead glazing shall be added to vertical glazing, and shall be input as 1/4 north, 1/4 east, 1/4 south and 1/4 west facing.
3. Lighting loads shall be determined according to Table 15-1.
4. Equipment loads shall be determined from Table 3-1 of Standard RS-29.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1331, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1331, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1331, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1332   Component U-factors.   The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter ((20)) 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter ((20)) 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters ((19-27 in RS-27)) 23 through 30 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter ((17)) 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter ((20)) 10. For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:


1. Results of laboratory measurements according to acceptable methods of test.
2. Standard ((RS-25)) RS-1, listed in Chapter ((17)) 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.
3. The zone method as provided in Chapter ((22 of RS-27)) 25 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter ((17)) 7.
4. Effective framing/cavity R-values as provided in Table ((20-5A)) 10-5A.

When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:


a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and
b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1332, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1334   Solar heat gain coefficient rate calculations.   Solar heat gain coefficient shall comply with Section 1323.3. The target SHGCAt and the proposed SHGCAp shall be calculated using Equation 13-3 and 13-4 and the corresponding areas and SHGCs from Table 13-1 or 13-2.

Equation 13-1:

Target UA[t]

UAt = UratArat + UogratAograt + UortAort + UogortAogort + UwtAwt + UvgtAvgt + UdtAdt + UftAft + FstPst + UbgwtAbgwt
UAt = The target combined specific heat transfer of the gross roof/ceiling assembly, exterior wall and floor area.
Where:
Urat = The thermal transmittance value for roofs over attics found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uograt = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uort = The thermal transmittance value for other roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uogort = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uvgt = The thermal transmittance value for vertical glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Udt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque doors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uft = The thermal transmittance value for floors over unconditioned space found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Fst = The F-factor for slab-on-grade and radiant slab floors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Ubgwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Adt = The proposed opaque door area, Ad.
Aft = The proposed floor over unconditioned space area, Af.
Pst = The proposed lineal feet of slab-on-grade and radiant slab floor perimeter, Ps.
Abgwt = The proposed below grade wall area, Abgw.
and;
if the total amount of glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area does not exceed the maximum allowed in Table 13-1 or 13-2:
Arat = The proposed roof over attic area, Ara.
Aograt = The proposed overhead glazing area in roofs over attics, Aogra.
Aort = The proposed other roof area, Aor.
Aogort = The proposed overhead glazing area in other roofs, Aogor.
Awt = The proposed opaque above grade wall area, Aw.
Avgt = The proposed vertical glazing area, Avg.
or;
if the total amount of glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area exceeds the maximum allowed in Table 13-1 or 13-2:
Arat = The greater of:

the proposed roof over attic area, and

the gross roof over attic area minus Aograt.

Aograt = The lesser of:

proposed overhead glazing area in roofs over attics, and

the maximum allowed glazing area from Table 13-1 or 13-2.

Aort = The greater of:

the proposed other roof area, and

the gross other roof area minus Aogort.

Aogort = The lesser of:

the proposed overhead glazing area in other roofs, and

the maximum allowed glazing area from Table 13-1 or 13-2 minus Aograt.

Awt = The greater of:

proposed opaque above grade wall area, and

the gross exterior above grade wall area minus Adt minus Avgt.

Avgt = The lesser of:

the proposed vertical glazing area, and

the maximum allowed glazing area from Table 13-1 or 13-2 minus Aograt minus Aogort.

EQUATION 13-2

Proposed UAp

UAp = UraAra+UorAor+UogAog+UwAw+UdAd+UvgAvg+UfAf+FsPs+UbgwAbgw
Where:
UAp = The combined proposed specific heat transfer of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
Ura = The thermal transmittance of the roof over attic area.
Ara = Opaque roof over attic area.
Uor = The thermal transmittance of the other roof area.
Aor = Opaque other roof area.
Uog = The thermal transmittance for the overhead glazing
Aog = Overhead glazing area.
Uw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque wall area.
Aw = Opaque above grade wall area (not including opaque doors).
Uvg = The thermal transmittance of the vertical glazing area.
Avg = Vertical glazing area.
Ud = The thermal transmittance value of the opaque door area.
Ad = Opaque door area.
Uf = The thermal transmittance of the floor over unconditioned space area.
Af = Floor area over unconditioned space.
Fs = Slab-on-grade or radiant floor component F-factor.
Ps = Lineal feet of slab-on-grade or radiant floor perimeter.
Ubgw = The thermal transmittance value of the below grade wall area.
Abgw = Below grade wall area as defined in Tables 13-1 or 13-2.
NOTE: Where more than one type of wall, window, roof/ceiling, door and skylight is used, the U and A terms for those items shall be expanded into sub-elements as:
Uw1Aw1+Uw2Aw2+Uw3Aw3+...etc.

EQUATION 13-3


Target SHGCAt

SHGCAt = SHGCt (Aograt + Aogort + Avgt)
Where:
SHGCAt = The target combined specific heat gain of the target glazing area.
SHGCt = The solar heat gain coefficient for glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area, and
Aograt, Aogort, and Avgt are defined under Equation 13-1.

EQUATION 13-4


Proposed SHGCAp

SHGCAp = SHGCogAog + SHGCvgAvg
Where:
SHGCAt = The combined proposed specific heat gain of the proposed glazing area.
SHGCog = The solar heat gain coefficient of the overhead glazing.
Aog = The overhead glazing area.
SHGCvg = The solar heat gain coefficient of the vertical glazing.
Avg = The vertical glazing area.


TABLE 13-1

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS FOR CLIMATE ZONE 1

MINIMUM INSULATION R-VALUES OR

MAXIMUM COMPONENT U-FACTORS FOR ZONE 1



Building Components

Space Heat Type Components
Roofs

Over

Attic

All Other Roofs Opaque Walls1,2 Opaque Doors Floor

Over

Uncond

Space

Slab On Grade5
1. Electric resistance heat**

R-38 or U = 0.031 R-30 or U = 0.034 R-19 or U = 0.062 U = 0.60 R-30 or U = 0.029 R-10 or

F = 0.54

2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV R-30 or

U = 0.036

R-21 or

((U = 0.050)) U = 0.046

((R-11 or

U= 0.14)) (a) Metal framing: R-19 or U = 0.109

U = 0.60 R-19 or U = 0.056 R-10 or

F = 0.54

(b) Wood framing and framing other than metal: R-19 or U = 0.062

** Compliance with nominal prescriptive R-values requires wood framing.

MAXIMUM GLAZING AREAS AND U-FACTORS AND

MAXIMUM GLAZING SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENTS

FOR ZONE 1



Glazing

((Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0% to 15% >15% to 20% >20% to 30% >30% to 40%
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 PRESCRIPTIVE PATH NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.75 1.40 1.0 0.60 1.30 0.65 0.50 1.25 0.45))

Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0% to 30% >30% to 45%
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.60 0.40 PRESCRIPTIVE PATH NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including heat pumps and VAV 0.55 0.70 0.45 0.45 0.60 0.40

Footnotes
1. Below Grade Walls:
When complying by the prescriptive approach, Section 1322:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use opaque wall values,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a minimum of R-10 insulation,
c) walls shall be insulated for the first 10 feet below grade. (There shall be no credit for those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade, and ((not)) those portions below 10 feet shall not be included in the gross exterior wall area((, may be left uninsulated))).

When complying by the component performance approach, Section 1331:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use the opaque wall values when determining Ubgwt,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a target = 0.070 for Ubgwt,
c) the calculations shall include the first 10 feet of walls below grade. (Those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade((, and not)) shall not be included in the gross exterior wall area((, need)) and shall not be included when determining Abgwt and Abgw).

2. Concrete Masonry Walls: If the area weighted heat capacity of the total opaque above grade wall is a minimum of 9.0 Btu/ft2 F, then ((the U-factor may be increased to 0.19 for interior insulation and 0.25 for integral and exterior insulation for insulation position as defined in Chapter 2. Individual walls with heat capacities less than 9.0 Btu/ft2 F and below grade walls shall meet opaque wall requirements listed above. Glazing shall comply with the following:))
a. the U-factor may be increased to U-0.15 maximum, or minimum additional R-5.7 continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing; or
b. the wall may be ASTM C90 concrete block walls, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 in. or less on center vertically and 48 in. or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with material having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu/ft2 F.

Individual walls with heat capacities less than 9.0 Btu/ft2 F and below grade walls shall meet opaque wall requirements listed above. Glazing shall comply with the glazing requirements listed above.


((Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0 to 10 % >10 to 15 % >15% to 20 % >20% to 25 %
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.75 1.40 1.0 0.65 1.30 0.80 0.60 1.30 0.65))

3. ((Reserved.)) Roof Types: A roof over attic is where the roof structure has at least 30 inches clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of a truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge, and the ceiling is attached to the ceiling joist or the bottom of the truss or ceiling joist. Anything else is considered all other roofs.
4. SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient per Section 1312.2): May substitute Maximum Shading Coefficient (SC) for SHGC (See Chapter 2 for definition of Shading Coefficient).
5. Radiant Floors: Where insulation is required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use a minimum of R-10 insulation or F = 0.55 maximum. Where insulation is not required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use R-10 perimeter insulation according to Section 1311.6 or F=0.78 maximum.


TABLE 13-2

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS

FOR CLIMATE ZONE 2

MINIMUM INSULATION R-VALUES OR

MAXIMUM COMPONENT U-FACTORS FOR ZONE 2



Building Components

Space Heat Type Components
Roofs

Over

Attic

All Other Roofs Opaque Walls1,2 Opaque Doors Floor

Over

Uncond

Space

Slab On Grade
1. Electric resistance heat**

R-38 or

U = 0.031

R-30 or

U = 0.034

R-24 or

U = 0.044

U = 0.60 R-30 or

U = 0.029

R-10 or

F = 0.54

2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV R-38 or

U = 0.031

R-25 or

((U =0.040)) U = 0.039

R-19 or U = 0.11

(a) Metal framing: R-13 cavity insul. + R-3.8 continuous insul. or U = 0.084 (b) Wood framing and framing other than metal: R-19 or U = 0.062

U = 0.60 R-21 or

U = 0.047

R-10 or

F = 0.54


** Compliance with nominal prescriptive R-values requires wood framing.

MAXIMUM GLAZING AREAS AND U-FACTORS AND

MAXIMUM GLAZING SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENTS

FOR ZONE 2



Glazing

((Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0% to 15% >15% to 20% >20% to 25% >25% to 30%
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 PRESCRIPTIVE PATH NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.75 1.40 1.0 0.60 1.30 0.60 0.50 1.25 0.50))

Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0% to 30% >30% to 45%
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.60 0.40 PRESCRIPTIVE PATH NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including heat pumps and VAV 0.55 0.70 0.45 0.45 0.60 0.40

Footnotes
1. Below Grade Walls:
When complying by the prescriptive approach, Section 1322:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use opaque wall values,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a minimum of R-12 insulation,
c) walls shall be insulated for the first 10 feet below grade. (There shall be no credit for insulating those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade, and ((not)) those portions below 10 feet shall not be included in the gross exterior wall area((, may be left uninsulated))).

When complying by the component performance approach, Section 1331:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use the opaque wall values when determining Ubgwt,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a target U-factor of U= 0.061 for Ubgwt,
c) the calculations shall include the first 10 feet of walls below grade. (Those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade((, and not)) shall not be included in the gross exterior wall area((, need)) and shall not be included when determining Abgwt and Abgw).

2. Concrete Masonry Walls: If the area weighted heat capacity of the total opaque above grade wall is a minimum of 9.0 Btu/ft2 F, then the U-factor may be increased to ((0.19 for interior insulation and 0.25 for integral and exterior insulation for insulation position as defined in Chapter 2.)) 0.123 maximum, or minimum additional R-7.6 continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing. Individual walls with heat capacities less than 9.0 Btu/ft2 F and below grade walls shall meet opaque wall requirements listed above. Glazing shall comply with the ((following:)) glazing requirements above.

((Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0 to 5 % >5 to 7 % >7% to 10 % >10% to 15 %
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.60 1.30 0.70 0.50 1.25 0.50 0.40 0.80 0.40))

3. ((Reserved.)) Roof Types: A roof over attic is where the roof structure has at least 30 inches clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of a truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge, and the ceiling is attached to the ceiling joist or the bottom of the truss or ceiling joist. Anything else is considered all other roofs.
4. SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient per Section 1312.2): May substitute Maximum Shading Coefficient (SC) for SHGC (See Chapter 2 for definition of Shading Coefficient).
5. Radiant Floors: Where insulation is required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use a minimum of R-10 insulation or F = 0.55 maximum. Where insulation is not required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use R-10 perimeter insulation according to Section 1311.6 or F = 0.78 maximum.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1334, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1334, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1334, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1411   HVAC equipment performance requirements.  


1411.1 General: Equipment shall have a minimum performance at the specified rating conditions not less than the values shown in Tables 14-1A through 14-1G. If a nationally recognized certification program exists for a product covered in Tables 14-1A through 14-1G, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, then the product shall be listed in the certification program.


Gas-fired and oil-fired forced air furnaces with input ratings ≥ 225,000 Btu/h (65 kW) shall also have an intermittent ignition or interrupted device (IID), and have either mechanical draft (including power venting) or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space. All furnaces with input ratings ≥ 225,000 Btu/h (65 kW), including electric furnaces, that are not located within the conditioned space shall have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75% of the input rating.


EXCEPTION: Water-cooled water-chilling packages that are not designed for operation at ARI standard 550/590 test conditions of 44F leaving chilled water temperature and 85F entering condenser water temperature shall have a minimum NPLV rating as shown in Tables 14-1K, 14-1L, and 14-1M. The table values are only applicable over the following full load design ranges:
Leaving Chiller Water Temp. 40 to 48F
Entering Condenser Water Temp. 75 to 85F
Condenser Water Temp. Rise 5 to 15F

Chillers designed to operate outside of these ranges are not covered by this code. Nonstandard Part-Load Value (NPLV) is defined as a single number part-load efficiency figure of merit for chillers references to conditions other than IPLV conditions. Design condenser water flow rate shall not be less than 2.5 gpm/ton.


Cooling towers serving chilled water systems with airside economizer complying with Section 1433 without using the exceptions shall be selected to be able to maintain a return condenser water temperature to the tower or 86F or less at peak design conditions.

EXCEPTION: Cooling towers which are replacing existing equipment can be selected to provide return condenser water temperature to the tower no warmer than the original design temperature.

Hydronic heat pump and other cooling and refrigeration equipment (e.g., icemakers, walk-in coolers) shall not use domestic water only one time before dumping it to waste. No single pass water cooling systems without heat recovery are allowed, except for medical and dental equipment, equipment using less than 1 gpm, and replacement of existing icemakers. However, single pass cooling is allowed during power outages and other emergencies.


1411.2 Rating Conditions: Cooling equipment shall be rated at ARI test conditions and procedures when available. Where no applicable procedures exist, data shall be furnished by the equipment manufacturer.


1411.3 Combination Space and Service Water Heating: For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:


Energy Factor

(EF)

Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE)
< 50 gallon storage 0.58 0.71
50 to 70 gallon storage 0.57 0.71
> 70 gallon storage 0.55 0.70

1411.4 Packaged and Split System Electric Heating and Cooling Equipment: Packaged and split system electric equipment providing both heating and cooling with a total cooling capacity greater than 20,000 Btu/h shall be a heat pump.


EXCEPTION: Unstaffed equipment shelters or cabinets used solely for personal wireless service facilities.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1411, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1411, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1411, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1411, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1412   Controls.  


1412.1 Temperature Controls: Each system shall be provided with at least one temperature control device. Each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls responding to temperature within the zone. At a minimum, each floor of a building shall be considered as a separate zone.


1412.2 Deadband Controls: When used to control both comfort heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall be capable of a deadband of at least 5 degrees F within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is shut off or reduced to a minimum.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Special occupancy, special usage, or code requirements where deadband controls are not appropriate.
2. Buildings complying with Section 1141.4, if in the proposed building energy analysis, heating and cooling thermostat setpoints are set to the same temperature between 70 degrees F and 75 degrees F inclusive, and assumed to be constant throughout the year.
3. Thermostats that require manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.
1412.3 Humidity Controls: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture, a humidistat shall be provided.


1412.4 Setback and Shutoff: HVAC systems shall be equipped with automatic controls capable of accomplishing a reduction of energy use through control setback or equipment shutdown during periods of nonuse or alternate use of the spaces served by the system. The automatic controls shall ((have a minimum seven-day clock and be capable of being set for seven different day types per week)):

a. Have a minimum seven-day clock and be capable of being set for seven different day types per week;

b. Be capable of retaining programming and time setting during loss of power for a period of at least ten hours; and

c. Include an accessible manual override, or equivalent function (e.g., telephone interface), that allows temporary operation of the system for up to two hours.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems serving areas which require continuous operation at the same temperature setpoint.
2. Equipment with full load demands of 2 Kw (6,826 Btu/h) or less may be controlled by readily accessible manual off-hour controls.
3. Systems controlled by an occupant sensor that is capable of shutting the system off when no occupant is sensed for a period of up to 30 minutes.
4. Systems controlled solely by a manually operated timer capable of operating the system for no more than two hours.

1412.4.1 Dampers: Outside air intakes, exhaust outlets and relief outlets serving conditioned spaces shall be equipped with motorized dampers which close automatically when the system is off or upon power failure.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems serving areas which require continuous operation.
2. Combustion air intakes.
3. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers are acceptable in buildings less than 3 stories in height.
4. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers are acceptable in exhaust and relief outlets in the first story and levels below the first story of buildings three or more stories in height.
5. Type 1 grease hoods exhaust.

Dampers installed to comply with this section, including dampers integral to HVAC equipment, shall have a maximum leakage rate when tested in accordance with AMCA Standard 500 of:

(a) Motorized dampers: 10 cfm/ft2 of damper area at 1.0 in w.g.

(b) Nonmotorized dampers: 20 cfm/ft2 of damper area at 1.0 in w.g., except that for nonmotorized dampers smaller than 24 inches in either dimension: 40 cfm/ft2 of damper area at 1.0 in w.g.

Drawings shall indicate compliance with this section.


1412.4.2 Optimum Start Controls: Heating and cooling systems with design supply air capacities exceeding 10,000 cfm shall have optimum start controls. Optimum start controls shall be designed to automatically adjust the start time of an HVAC system each day to bring the space to desired occupied temperature levels immediately before scheduled occupancy. The control algorithm shall, as a minimum, be a function of the difference between space temperature and occupied setpoint and the amount of time prior to scheduled occupancy.


1412.5 Heat Pump Controls: Unitary air cooled heat pumps shall include microprocessor controls that minimize supplemental heat usage during start up, set-up, and defrost conditions. These controls shall anticipate need for heat and use compression heating as the first stage of heat. Controls shall indicate when supplemental heating is being used through visual means (e.g., LED indicators).


1412.6 Combustion Heating Equipment Controls: Combustion heating equipment with a capacity over 225,000 Btu/h shall have modulating or staged combustion control.


EXCEPTIONS: Boilers.
Radiant heaters.
1412.7 Balancing: Each air supply outlet or air or water terminal device shall have a means for balancing, including but not limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1412, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1412, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1412, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1412, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1413   Economizers.  


1413.1 Operation: Air economizers shall be capable of automatically modulating outside and return air dampers to provide 100 percent of the design supply air as outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling. Air economizers shall be used for RS-29 analysis base case for all systems without exceptions in Sections 1413, 1423, or 1433. Water economizers shall be capable of providing the total concurrent cooling load served by the connected terminal equipment lacking airside economizer, at outside air temperatures of 45F dry-bulb/40F wet-bulb and below. For this calculation, all factors including solar and internal load shall be the same as those used for peak load calculations, except for the outside temperatures.


EXCEPTION: Water economizers using air-cooled heat rejection equipment may use a 35F dry-bulb outside air temperature for this calculation. This exception is limited to a maximum of 20 tons per building.


1413.2 Documentation: Water economizer plans submitted for approval shall include the following information:


1. Maximum outside air conditions for which economizer is sized to provide full cooling.

2. Design cooling load to be provided by economizer at this outside air condition.

3. Heat rejection and terminal equipment performance data including model number, flow rate, capacity, entering and leaving temperature in full economizer cooling mode.


1413.3 Integrated Operation: The HVAC system and its controls shall allow economizer operation when mechanical cooling is required simultaneously. Air and water economizers shall be capable of providing partial cooling even when additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the remainder of the cooling load.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Individual, direct expansion units that have a rated capacity less than 65,000 Btu/h and use nonintegrated economizer controls that preclude simultaneous operation of the economizer and mechanical cooling.
2. Water-cooled water chillers with waterside economizer.


1413.4 Humidification: If an air economizer is required on a cooling system for which humidification equipment is to be provided to maintain minimum indoor humidity levels, then the humidifier shall be of the adiabatic type (direct evaporative media or fog atomization type) that cools return air while humidifying outside air while in economizer. If a water economizer or no economizer is provided, the isothermal type of humidifier may be used (steam injection, gas, electric resistance or infrared generator type that uses new energy to boil moisture to be added).

EXCEPTION: Health care facilities where WAC 246-320-525 allows only steam injection humidifiers in ductwork downstream of final filters.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1413, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1413, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1414   Ducting systems.  


1414.1 Sealing: Duct work ((which is designed to operate at pressures above 1/2 inch water column static pressure)) shall be sealed ((in accordance with Standard RS-18. Extent of sealing required is)) as follows:


1. Static pressure: ((1/2 inch to 2 inches; seal transverse joints.))
((2. Static pressure: 2 inches)) Up to 3 inches; seal all transverse joints and longitudinal seams.
((3.))

2.

Static pressure: Above 3 inches; seal all transverse joints, longitudinal seams and duct wall penetrations.

((Duct tape and other pressure sensitive tape shall not be used as the primary sealant where ducts are designed to operate at static pressures of 1 inch W.C. or greater.)) All low-pressure supply and return air systems, including the unconditioned side of enclosed stud bays or joist cavities/spaces used to transport air, shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastic, or mastic-plus-embedded-fabric tape installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Enclosed stud bays or joist cavities/spaces used to transport air shall be sealed using mastic-plus-embedded-fabric tape or, when drywall used to enclose the air system, drywall and mud tape.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Fibrous glass duct systems installed in accordance with standard UL 181A and flexible duct systems installed in accordance with standard UL 181B may use tapes listed for those systems.
2. Tapes installed in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions, providing detailed information specific to application on ducts including approved duct materials and require duct surface cleaning, may be used for static pressures under 1 inch.
3. Spiral lock seams in round and flat oval ductwork do not require sealing; however, other seams shall be sealed.

Note that longitudinal seams are joints oriented in the direction of airflow. Transverse joints are connections of two duct sections oriented perpendicular to airflow. Duct wall penetrations are openings made by any screw fastener, pipe, rod or wire. All other connections are considered transverse joints, including, but not limited to, spin-ins, taps and other branch connections, access door frames and jambs, and duct connections to equipment.


1414.2 Insulation: Ducts and plenums that are constructed and function as part of the building envelope, by separating interior space from exterior space, shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 13. These requirements include insulation installation, moisture control, air leakage, and building envelope insulation levels. Unheated equipment rooms with combustion air louvers must be isolated from the conditioned space by insulating interior surfaces to a minimum of R-11 and any exterior envelope surfaces per Chapter 13. Outside air ducts serving individual supply air units with less than 2,800 cfm of total supply air capacity shall be insulated to a minimum of R-7 and are not considered building envelope. Other outside air duct runs are considered building envelope until they,

1. Connect to the heating or cooling equipment, or

2. Are isolated from the exterior with an automatic shutoff damper complying with Section 1412.4.1.

Once outside air ducts meet the above listed requirements, any runs within conditioned space shall comply with Table 14-5 requirements.

Other ducts and plenums shall be thermally insulated per Table 14-5.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Within the HVAC equipment.
2. Exhaust air ducts not subject to condensation.
3. Exposed ductwork within a zone that serves that zone.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1414, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1414, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1414, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1415   Piping systems.  


1415.1 Insulation: Piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 14-6.


EXCEPTION: Piping installed within unitary HVAC equipment.

Cold water pipes outside the conditioned space shall be insulated in accordance with the Washington State Plumbing Code (chapter ((51-46)) 51-56 WAC).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1415, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1415, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1416   Mechanical system commissioning and completion requirements.  


((1416.1 Drawings: Construction documents shall require that within 90 days after the date of system acceptance, record drawings of the actual installation be provided to the building owner. Record drawings shall include as a minimum the location and performance data on each piece of equipment, general configuration of duct and pipe distribution system, including sizes, and the terminal air and water design flow rates.


1416.2 Manuals: Construction documents shall require an operating manual and maintenance manual be provided to the building owner. The manual shall be in accordance with industry accepted standards and shall include, at a minimum, the following:


1. Submittal data stating equipment size and selected options for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance.


2. Operation and maintenance manuals for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance, except equipment not furnished as part of the project. Required routine maintenance actions shall be clearly identified.


3. Names and addresses of at least one service agency.


4. HVAC controls system maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics, and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field determined set points shall be permanently recorded on control drawings at control devices, or, for digital control systems, in programming comments.


5. A complete narrative of how each system is intended to operate including suggested set points.


1416.3 System Balancing


1416.3.1 General: Construction documents shall require that all HVAC systems be balanced in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards. Air and water flow rates shall be measured and adjusted to deliver final flow rates within 10% of design rates, except variable flow distribution systems need not be balanced upstream of the controlling device (for example, VAV box or control valve). Construction documents shall require a written balance report be provided to the owner.


1416.3.2 Air System Balancing: Air systems shall be balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses then, for fans with system power of greater than 1 hp, fan speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.


1416.3.3 Hydronic System Balancing: Hydronic systems shall be proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses, then the pump impeller shall be trimmed or pump speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions. Each hydronic system shall have either the ability to measure pressure across the pump, or test ports at each side of each pump.


((EXCEPTIONS: 1. Pumps with pump motors of 10 hp or less.))
((2. When throttling results in no greater than 5% of the nameplate horsepower draw above that required if the impeller were trimmed.))

1416.4 Systems Commissioning


1416.4.1 Simple Systems: For simple systems, as defined in Section 1421, and for warehouses and semi-heated spaces, HVAC control systems shall be tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to ensure they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. A complete report of test procedures and results shall be prepared and filed with the owner. Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this paragraph.


1416.4.2 Other Systems: All other HVAC control systems, and other automatically controlled systems for which energy consumption, performance, or mode of operation are regulated by this code, shall be tested to ensure that control devices, equipment and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to ensure they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.


1416.4.2.1 Documentation: Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this section. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further commissioning requirements. Plans and specifications shall require tests mandated by this section be performed and the results recorded. Plans and specifications shall require preparation of preliminary and final reports of test procedures and results as described in Section 1416.4.2.2. Plans and specifications shall identify the following for each test:


1. Equipment and systems to be tested, including the extent of sampling tests,


2. Functions to be tested (for example calibration, economizer control, etc.),


3. Conditions under which the test shall be performed (for example winter design conditions, full outside air, etc.),


4. Measurable criteria for acceptable performance.


1416.4.2.2 Commissioning Reports


1416.4.2.2.1 Preliminary Commissioning Report: A preliminary commissioning report of test procedures and results shall be prepared. The preliminary report shall identify:


1. Deficiencies found during testing required by this section which have not been corrected at the time of report preparation and the anticipated date of correction.


2. Deferred tests which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions.


3. Climatic conditions required for performance of the deferred tests, and the anticipated date of each deferred test.


1416.4.2.2.2 Final Commissioning Report: A complete report of test procedures and results shall be prepared and filed with the owner.


1416.4.2.3 Acceptance: Buildings or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section, shall not be issued a final certificate of occupancy until such time that the building official determines that the preliminary commissioning report required by this section has been completed.
))

1416.1 General: Commissioning is a systematic process of verification and documentation that ensures that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function properly, efficiently, and can be maintained in accordance with the contract documents in order to satisfy the building owner's design intent and operational requirements. Drawing notes shall require commissioning and completion requirements in accordance with this section. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further requirements.


1416.1.1 Simple Mechanical Systems: For simple mechanical systems, as defined in Section 1421, and for warehouse and semi-heated spaces, commissioning shall include, as a minimum:

a. A commissioning plan;

b. System testing and balancing;

c. Controls functional performance testing;

d. A preliminary commissioning report;

e. O&M and record drawing review documentation as described in Sections 1416.2.5.2 and 1416.2.5.3; and

f. A final commissioning report.


1416.1.2 All Other Mechanical Systems: For all other mechanical systems, commissioning shall include, as a minimum:

a. A commissioning plan;

b. System testing and balancing;

c. Equipment functional performance testing;

d. Controls functional performance testing;

e. A preliminary commissioning report;

f. Post construction documentation per Section 1416.2.5; and

g. A final commissioning report.


1416.2 Commissioning Requirements.


1416.2.1 General: Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this section. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further commissioning requirements.


1416.2.2 Commissioning Plan: The plan shall require tests mandated by this section be performed and the results recorded. The plan shall require preparation of preliminary and final reports of test procedures and results as described herein. At a minimum, the plan shall identify the following for each test:

a. A detailed explanation of the original design intent;

b. Equipment and systems to be tested, including the extent of tests;

c. Functions to be tested (e.g., calibration, economizer control, etc.);

d. Conditions under which the test shall be performed (e.g., winter and summer design conditions, full outside air, etc.); and

e. Measurable criteria for acceptable performance.


1416.2.3 System Balancing.


1416.2.3.1 General: Construction documents shall require that all HVAC systems be balanced in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards. Air and water flow rates shall be measured and adjusted to deliver final flow rates within 10% of design rates, except variable flow distribution systems need not be balanced upstream of the controlling device (e.g., VAV box or control valve). Construction documents shall require a written balance report be provided to the owner.


1416.2.3.2 Air System Balancing: Air systems shall be balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses then, for fans with system power of greater than 1 hp, fan speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.


1416.2.3.3 Hydronic System Balancing: Hydronic systems shall be proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses, then the pump impeller shall be trimmed or pump speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions. Each hydronic system shall have either the ability to measure pressure across the pump, or test ports at each side of each pump.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Pumps with pump motors of 10 hp or less.
2. When throttling results in no greater than 5% of the nameplate horsepower draw above that required if the impeller were trimmed.

1416.2.4 Functional Performance Testing.


1416.2.4.1 General: Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this section. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further commissioning requirements.


1416.2.4.2 Equipment/Systems Testing: Functional performance testing shall demonstrate the correct installation and operation of each component, system, and system-to-system intertie relationship in accordance with approved plans and specifications. This demonstration is to prove the operation, function, and maintenance serviceability for each of the commissioned systems. Testing shall include all modes of operation, including:

a. All modes as described in the sequence of operation;

b. Redundant or automatic back-up mode;

c. Performance of alarms; and

d. Mode of operation upon a loss of power and restored power.


1416.2.4.3 Controls Testing: HVAC control systems shall be tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to ensure they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.


1416.2.5 Postconstruction Commissioning.


1416.2.5.1 General: Construction documents shall require postconstruction commissioning to be provided to the building owner prior to date of final acceptance. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further commissioning requirements. Postconstruction commissioning shall include, as a minimum, review and approval of operation and maintenance materials, record drawings, and systems operational training.


1416.2.5.2 Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Materials: The O&M materials shall be in accordance with industry accepted standards and shall include, at a minimum, the following:

a. Submittal data stating equipment size and selected options for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance.

b. Operation and maintenance manuals for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance, except equipment not furnished as part of the project. Required routine maintenance actions shall be clearly identified.

c. Names and addresses of at least one service agency.

d. HVAC controls system maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field determined set points shall be permanently recorded on control drawings at control devices, or, for digital controls systems, in programming comments.

e. A complete written narrative of how each system and piece of equipment is intended to operate including:

i. A detailed explanation of the original design intent.

ii. The basis of design (how the design was selected to meet the design intent).

iii. A detailed explanation of how new equipment is to interface with existing equipment or systems (where applicable).

iv. Suggested control set points.

Note: Sequence of operation is not acceptable as a narrative for this requirement.

1416.2.5.3 Record Drawings: Record drawings shall include, as a minimum, the location and performance data on each piece of equipment, general configuration of duct and pipe distribution system, including sizes, and the terminal air and water design flow rates of the actual installation.


1416.2.5.4 Systems Operational Training: The training of the appropriate maintenance staff for each equipment type and/or system shall include, as a minimum, the following:

a. System/equipment overview (what it is, what it does and which other systems and/or equipment does it interface with).

b. Review of the available O&M materials.

c. Review of the record drawings on the subject system/equipment.

d. Hands-on demonstration of all normal maintenance procedures, normal operating modes, and all emergency shutdown and start-up procedures.


1416.2.6 Commissioning Reports.


1416.2.6.1 General: Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this section. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further commissioning requirements.


1416.2.6.2 Preliminary Commissioning Report: A preliminary report of commissioning test procedures and results shall be completed and provided to the owner. The preliminary commissioning report shall identify:

a. Deficiencies found during testing required by this section which have not been corrected at the time of report preparation and the anticipated date of correction.

b. Deferred tests which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions.

c. Climatic conditions required for performance of the deferred tests, and the anticipated date of each deferred test.


1416.2.6.3 Final Commissioning Report: A complete report of test procedures and results shall be prepared and filed with the owner. The final commissioning report shall identify:

a. Results of all functional performance tests.

b. Disposition of all deficiencies found during testing, including details of corrective measures used or proposed.

c. All functional performance test procedures used during the commissioning process including measurable criteria for test acceptance, provided herein for repeatability.

EXCEPTION: Deferred tests which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions.

1416.3 Acceptance Requirements.


1416.3.1 General: Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this section. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further commissioning requirements.


1416.3.2 Acceptance: Buildings or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section, shall not be issued a final certificate of occupancy until such time that the building official determines that the preliminary commissioning report required by this section Section 1416.2.6.2 has been completed.


1416.4 Reserved.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1416, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1423   Economizers.   Economizers meeting the requirements of Section 1413 shall be installed on ((single package unitary fan-)):

a. Cooling units installed outdoors or in a mechanical room adjacent to outdoors having a ((supply capacity of greater than 1,900 cfm or a total)) cooling capacity greater than ((54,000)) 20,000 Btu/h including those serving computer server rooms, electronic equipment, radio equipment, telephone switchgear; and

b. Other cooling units with a total cooling capacity greater than 54,000 Btu/h, including those serving computer server rooms, electronic equipment, radio equipment, and telephone switchgear.


The total capacity of all units without economizers (i.e., those units with a total cooling capacity less than a. and b. above) shall not exceed 240,000 Btu/h per building, or 10% of its aggregate cooling (economizer) capacity, whichever is greater. That portion of the equipment serving Group R Occupancy is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizers in a building.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1423, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1423, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1423, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1423, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1432   Controls.  


1432.1 Setback and Shutoff: Systems that serve zones with different uses, as defined in Table 15-1


1. Shall be served by separate systems, or

2. Shall include isolation devices and controls to shut off or set back the supply of heating and cooling to each zone independently.


EXCEPTION: Isolation or separate systems are not required for zones expected to operate continuously or expected to be inoperative only when all other zones are inoperative.

1432.2 Systems Temperature Reset Controls


1432.2.1 Air Systems for Multiple Zones: Systems supplying heated or cooled air to multiple zones shall include controls which automatically reset supply air temperatures by representative building loads or by outside air temperature. Temperature shall be reset by at least 25 percent of the design supply-air-to-room-air temperature difference.


EXCEPTION: Where specified humidity levels are required to satisfy process needs, such as computer rooms or museums.

1432.2.2 Hydronic Systems: Systems with a design capacity of ((600,000)) 300,000 Btu/h or greater supplying heated or mechanically refrigerated water ((to comfort conditioning systems)) shall include controls which automatically reset supply water temperatures by representative building loads (including return water temperature) or by outside air temperature. Temperature shall be reset by at least 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature differences.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Hydronic systems that use variable flow devices complying with Section 1438 to reduce pumping energy.
2. Steam boilers.
3. Systems that provide heating with 100F or lower supply temperature (e.g., water source heat pump loops).

To limit the heat loss from the heat rejection device (cooling tower), for hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection (e.g., cooling tower):


a. If a closed-circuit tower (fluid cooler) is used, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all but a minimal flow of water around the tower (for freeze protection), or low leakage positive closure dampers shall be provided.

b. If an open-circuit tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the tower.

c. If an open-circuit tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the tower from the heat pump loop, the heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.


For hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection (e.g., cooling tower) and having a total pump system power exceeding 10 hp, each hydronic heat pump shall have:

a. A two position two-way (but not three-way) valve; or

b. A variable head pressure two-way (water regulating) control valve or pump.


For the purposes of this section, pump system power is the sum of the nominal power demand (i.e., nameplate horsepower at nominal motor efficiency) of motors of all pumps that are required to operate at design conditions to supply fluid from the heating or cooling source to all heat transfer devices (e.g., coils, heat exchanger) and return it to the source. This converts the system into a variable flow system and, as such, the primary circulation pumps shall comply with the variable flow requirements in Section 1438.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1432, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1433   Economizers.   Air economizers meeting the requirements of Section 1413 shall be provided on all new systems including those serving computer server rooms, electronic equipment, radio equipment, telephone switchgear.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. ((Single package unitary fan-cooling units installed outdoors or in a mechanical room adjacent to outdoors with a total cooling capacity less than 20,000 Btu/h. Other single package unitary fan-cooling units with a total cooling capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h. The total capacity of all such systems without economizers shall not exceed 240,000 Btu/h per building, or 10% of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater. That portion of the equipment serving Group R Occupancy is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizers in a building.)) High-efficiency cooling units with EER values more than 10% higher than minimum efficiencies listed in Tables 14-1A, 14-1B and 14-1D, in the appropriate size category, using the same test procedures. The total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 480,000 Btu/h per building, or 20% of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater. That portion of the equipment serving Group R Occupancy is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizers in a building. This exception shall not be used for RS-29 analysis nor include unitary cooling equipment installed outdoors nor in a mechanical room adjacent to outdoors.
2. Water-cooled refrigeration equipment provided with a water economizer meeting the requirements of Section 1413. Water economizer capacity per building shall not exceed 500 tons. This exception shall not be used for RS-29 analysis.
3. Systems for which at least 75% of the annual energy used for mechanical cooling is provided from site-recovery or site-solar energy source.
4. Systems where special outside air filtration and treatment, for the reduction and treatment of unusual outdoor contaminants, makes an air economizer infeasible.
5. Systems that affect other systems (such as dehumidification and supermarket refrigeration systems) so as to increase the overall building energy consumption. New humidification equipment shall comply with Section 1413.4.
6. Systems complying with all of the following criteria:
a. Consist of multiple water source heat pumps connected to a common water loop;
b. Have a minimum of 60% air economizer;
c. Have water source heat pumps with an EER at least 15% higher for cooling and a COP at least 15% higher for heating than that specified in Section 1411;
d. Where provided, have a central boiler or furnace efficiency of:
i. 90% minimum for units up to 199,000 Btu/h; and
ii. 85% minimum for units above 199,000 Btu/h input; and
e. Provide heat recovery with a minimum 50% heat recovery effectiveness as defined in Section 1436 to preheat the outside air supply.
7. For Group R Occupancy, cooling units installed outdoors or in a mechanical room adjacent to outdoors with a total cooling capacity less than 20,000 Btu/h and other cooling units with a total cooling capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1433, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1433, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1433, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1433, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1436   Heat recovery.  

1436.1 Fan Systems: Fan systems which have both a capacity of 5,000 cfm or greater and which have a minimum outside air supply of 70 percent or greater of the total air circulation shall have a heat recovery system with at least 50 percent recovery effectiveness. Fifty percent heat recovery effectiveness shall mean an increase in the outside air supply temperature at design heating conditions of one half the difference between the outdoor design air temperature and 65 degrees F. Provision shall be made to bypass or control the heat recovery system to permit air economizer operation as required by Section 1433. Heat recovery energy may be provided from any site-recovered or site-solar source.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Laboratory systems equipped with both variable air volume supply and variable air volume or two-speed exhaust fume hoods.
2. Systems serving spaces heated to less than 60 degrees F.
3. Systems which can be shown to use as much energy with the addition of heat recovery equipment as without it.
4. Systems exhausting toxic, flammable, paint exhaust or corrosive fumes making the installation of heat recovery equipment impractical.
5. Type I commercial kitchen hoods.

1436.2 Condensate Systems: On-site steam heating systems shall have condensate recovery.


1436.3 Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating: Condenser heat recovery systems shall be installed for heating or preheating of service hot water provided all of the following are true:


a. The facility operates 24 hours a day.

b. The total installed heat rejection capacity of the water-cooled systems exceeds 6,000,000 Btu/h of heat rejection.

c. The capacity of service water heating equipment exceeds 1,000,000 Btu/h.


The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of:


i. 60% of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions; or

ii. Preheat of the peak service hot water draw to 82F.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating with a heat recovery design exceeding 30% of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions.
2. Facilities that provide 60% of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1436, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1437   Electric motor efficiency.   Design A & B squirrel-cage, T-frame induction permanently wired polyphase motors of 1 hp or more having synchronous speeds of 3,600, 1,800 and 1,200 rpm shall have a nominal full-load motor efficiency no less than the corresponding values for energy efficient motors provided in Table 14-4.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Motors used in systems designed to use more than one speed of a multispeed motor.
2. Motors used as a component of the equipment meeting the minimum equipment efficiency requirements of Section 1411 and Tables 14-1A through 14-1G provided that the motor input is included when determining the equipment efficiency.
3. Motors that are an integral part of specialized process equipment.
4. Where the motor is integral to a listed piece of equipment for which no complying motor has been approved.
Fan motors less than 1 hp in series terminal units shall:

a. Be electronically-commutated motors; or

b. Have a minimum motor efficiency of 65% when rated in accordance with NEMA Standard MG-1 at full load rating conditions.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1437, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1437, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1440   Service water heating.   Service water heating equipment shall comply with the applicable efficiencies in Tables 14-1A through 14-1M.


Commercial clothes washers shall have a minimum modified energy factor (MEF) of 1.26. The MEF definition and test procedure set forth at 10 CFR, Part 430 (Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products), as amended, is incorporated into this section by reference. Commercial clothes washers are defined as all clothes washers:


a. Installed for use on a fee basis, e.g., coin- or card-operated;

b. Not covered by federal residential clothes washer efficiency standards; and

c. Having a capacity of 20 lbs. or less.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1440, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-1454   Pool covers.   Heated pools shall be equipped with a vapor retardant pool cover on or at the water surface. Pools heated to more than 90 degrees F shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12.


Table 14-1A

Unitary Air Conditioners and Condensing Units, Electrically Operated, Minimum Efficiency Requirements


Equipment Type Size Category Sub-Category or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiencyb Test Procedurea
Air Conditioners, Air Cooled < 65,000 Btu/hd Split System 10.0 SEER ARI 210/240
Single Package 9.7 SEER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

Split System and

Single Package

10.3 EERc
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

Split System and

Single Package

9.7 EERc ARI 340/360
≥ 240,000 Btu/h and

< 760,000 Btu/h

Split System and

Single Package

9.5 EERc

9.7 IPLVc

≥ 760,000 Btu/h Split System and

Single Package

9.2 EERc

9.4 IPLVc

Air Conditioners, Water and Evaporatively Cooled < 65,000 Btu/h Split System and

Single Package

12.1 EER ARI 210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

Split System and

Single Package

11.5 EERc
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

≤ 240,000 Btu/h

Split System and

Single Package

11.0 EERc ARI 340/360
> 240,000 Btu/h Split System and

Single Package

11.0 EERc

10.3 IPLVc

Condensing Units, Air Cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 10.1 EER

11.2 IPLV

ARI 365
Condensing Units, Water or Evaporatively Cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER

13.1 IPLV

a Reserved.

b IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.

c Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat.

d Single-phase air-cooled air-conditioners < 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.


Table 14-1B

Unitary and Applied Heat Pumps, Electrically Operated, Minimum Efficiency Requirements



Equipment Type Size Category Sub-Category or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiencyb Test Procedurea
Air Cooled, (Cooling Mode) < 65,000 Btu/hd Split System 10.0 SEER ARI 210/240
Single Package 9.7 SEER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

Split System and

Single Package

10.1 EERc
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

Split System and

Single Package

9.3 EERc ARI 340/360

≥ 240,000 Btu/h Split System and

Single Package

9.0 EERc

9.2 IPLVc

Water-Source

(Cooling Mode)

< 17,000 Btu/h 86F Entering Water 11.2 EER ARI/ISO-13256-1
≥ 17,000 Btu/h and

< 65,000 Btu/h

86F Entering Water 12.0 EER ARI/ISO-13256-1
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

86F Entering Water 12.0 EER ARI/ISO-13256-1
Groundwater-Source (Cooling Mode) < 135,000 Btu/h 59F Entering Water 16.2 EER ARI/ISO-13256-1
Ground Source

(Cooling Mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h 77F Entering Water 13.4 EER ARI/ISO-13256-1
Air Cooled

(Heating Mode)

< 65,000 Btu/hd

(Cooling Capacity)

Split System 6.8 HSPF ARI 210/240
Single Package 6.6 HSPF
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling Capacity)

47F db/43F wb Outdoor Air

17F db/15F wb Outdoor Air

3.2 COP


2.2 COP

≥ 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling Capacity)

47F db/43F wb Outdoor Air

17F db/15F wb Outdoor Air

3.1 COP


2.0 COP

ARI 340/360

Water-Source

(Heating Mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling Capacity)

68F Entering Water 4.2 COP ARI/ISO-13256-1
Groundwater-Source

(Heating Mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling Capacity)

50F Entering Water 3.6 COP ARI/ISO-13256-1
Ground Source

(Heating Mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling Capacity)

32F Entering Water 3.1 COP ARI/ISO-13256-1
a Reserved.

b IPLVs and part load rating conditions are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.

c Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat.

d Single-phase air-cooled heat pumps < 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER and HSPF values are those set by NAECA.


Table 14-1C

Water Chilling Packages, Minimum Efficiency Requirements



Equipment Type Size Category Sub-Category or Rating Condition Minimum

Efficiencyb

Test Procedurea
Air Cooled, With Condenser,

Electrically Operated

All Capacities 2.80 COP

3.05 IPLV

ARI 550/590
Air Cooled,

Without Condenser,

Electrically Operated

All Capacities 3.10 COP

3.45 IPLV

Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Positive Displacement

(Reciprocating)

All Capacities 4.20 COP

5.05 IPLV

ARI 550/590
Water Cooled,

Electrically Operated,

Positive Displacement

(Rotary Screw and Scroll)

< 150 Tons 4.45 COP

5.20 IPLV

ARI 550/590
≥ 150 Tons and

< 300 Tons

4.90 COP

5.60 IPLV

≥ 300 Tons 5.50 COP

6.15 IPLV

Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Centrifugal < 150 Tons 5.00 COP

5.25 IPLV

ARI 550/590
≥ 150 Tons and

< 300 Tons

5.55 COP

5.90 IPLV

≥ 300 Tons 6.10 COP

6.40 IPLV

Air Cooled Absorption

Single Effect

All Capacities 0.60 COP

Water Cooled Absorption

Single Effect

All Capacities 0.70 COP
Absorption Double Effect,

Indirect-Fired

All Capacities 1.00 COP

1.05 IPLV

ARI 560
Absorption Double Effect,

Direct-Fired

All Capacities 1.00 COP

1.00 IPLV

a Reserved.

b The chiller equipment requirements do not apply for chillers used in low temperature applications where the design leaving fluid temperature is less than or equal to 40F.


Table 14-1D

Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners, Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Room Air Conditioners, and Room Air Conditioner Heat Pumps, Electrically Operated, Minimum Efficiency Requirements



Equipment Type Size Category (Input) Sub-Category or Rating Condition Minimum

Efficiencyb

Test Procedurea
PTAC (Cooling Mode)

New Construction

All Capacities 95F db Outdoor Air 12.5 - (0.213 x Cap/1000)b EER

PTAC (Cooling Mode) Replacementsc All Capacities 95F db Outdoor Air 10.9 - (0.213 x Cap/1000)b EER ARI 310/380
PTHP (Cooling Mode)

New Construction

All Capacities 95F db Outdoor Air 12.3 - (0.213 x Cap/1000)b EER
PTHP (Cooling Mode)

Replacementsc

All Capacities 95F db Outdoor Air 10.8 - (0.213 x Cap/1000)b EER
PTHP (Heating Mode)

New Construction

All Capacities

3.2 - (0.026 x Cap/1000)b COP
PTHP (Heating Mode)

Replacementsc

All Capacities 2.9 - (0.026 x Cap/1000)b COP

Room Air Conditioners, with Louvered Sides < 6,000 Btu/h 9.7 EER ANSI/AHAM RAC-1
≥ 6,000 Btu/h and

< 8,000 Btu/h

9.7 EER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and

< 14,000 Btu/h

9.8 EER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h and

< 20,000 Btu/h

9.7 EER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER
Room Air Conditioners, without Louvered Sides < 8,000 Btu/h 9.0 EER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and

< 20,000 Btu/h

8.5 EER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER
Room Air Conditioner Heat Pumps with Louvered Sides < 20,000 Btu/h 9.0 EER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER
Room Air Conditioner Heat Pumps without Louvered Sides < 14,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h 8.0 EER
Room Air Conditioner, Casement Only All Capacities 8.7 EER
Room Air Conditioner, Casement Slider All Capacities 9.5 EER
a Reserved.

b Cap means the rated cooling capacity of the product in Btu/h. If the unit's capacity is less than 7000 Btu/h, use 7000 Btu/h in the calculation. If the unit's capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculation.

c Replacement units must be factory labeled as follows: "MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY; NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS." Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16-in. high and less than 42-in. wide.

d Casement room air conditioners are not separate product classes under current minimum efficiency column.

e New room air conditioner standards, covered by NAECA became effective October 1, 2000.


Table 14-1E

Warm Air Furnaces and Combination Warm Air Furnaces/Air-Conditioning Units, Warm Air Duct Furnaces and Unit Heaters, Minimum Efficiency Requirements



Equipment Type Size Category (Input) Sub-Category or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiencyb Test Procedurea
Warm Air Furnace,

Gas-Fired

< 225,000 Btu/h

(66 kW)

78% AFUE or

80% Etc

DOE 10 CFR

Part 430 or

ANSI Z21.47

≥ 225,000 Btu/h

(66 kW)

Maximum Capacityc


Minimum Capacityc

80% Ecf ANSI Z21.47
Warm Air Furnace,

Oil-Fired

< 225,000 Btu/h

(66 kW)

78% AFUE or


80% Etc

DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or

UL 727

≥ 225,000 Btu/h

(66 kW)

Maximum Capacityb


Minimum Capacityb

81% Etg

____

UL 727
Warm Air

Duct Furnaces,

Gas-Fired

All Capacities Maximum Capacityb


Minimum Capacityb

80% Ece

____

ANSI Z83.9

Warm Air Unit Heaters,

Gas-Fired

All Capacities Maximum Capacityb


Minimum Capacityb

80% Ece

____

ANSI Z83.8

Warm Air

Unit Heaters,

Oil-Fired

All Capacities Maximum Capacityb


Minimum Capacityb

80% Ece

____

UL 731
a Reserved.

b Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.

c Combination units not covered by NAECA (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) may comply with either rating.

d Et = Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion.

e Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion.

f Ec = Combustion efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75% of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.

g Et = Thermal efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75% of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.


Table 14-1F

Boilers, Gas- and Oil-Fired, Minimum Efficiency Requirements



Equipment Typef Size Category Sub-Category or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiencyb Test Procedure
Boilers, Gas-Fired < 300,000 Btu/h Hot Water 80% AFUE DOE 10 CFR

Part 430

Steam 75% AFUE
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h Maximum Capacityb 75% Et

H.I. Htg Boiler Std

> 2,500,000 Btu/hf Hot Water 80% Ec
> 2,500,000 Btu/hf Steam 80% Ec
Boilers, Oil-Fired < 300,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE DOE 10 CFR

Part 430

≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h Maximum Capacityb

78% Et

H.I. Htg Boiler Std

> 2,500,000 Btu/hf Hot Water 83% Ec
> 2,500,000 Btu/hf Steam 83% Ec
Oil-Fired (Residual) ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h

Maximum Capacityb 78% Et

H.I. Htg Boiler Std

> 2,500,000 Btu/hf Hot Water 83% Ec
> 2,500,000 Btu/hf Steam 83% Ec
a Reserved.

b Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.

c Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See reference document for detailed information.

d Et = Thermal efficiency. See reference document for detailed information.

e Alternate test procedures used at the manufacturer's option are ASME PTC-4.1 for units over 5,000,000 Btu/h input, or ANSI Z21.13 for units greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h and less than or equal to 2,500,000 Btu/h input.

f These requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers, and to all packaged boilers. Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers.


Table 14-1G

Performance Requirements for Heat Rejection Equipment



Equipment Type Total System Heat Rejection Capacity at Rated Conditions Sub-Category or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiencyb Test Procedurec
((Propeller or Axial Fan Cooling Towers All 95F (35C) Entering Water

85F (29C) Leaving Water

75F (24C) wb Outdoor Air

≥38.2 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105

and

CTI STD-201

Centrifugal Fan Cooling Towers All 95F (35C) Entering Water

85F (29C) Leaving Water

75F (24C) wb Outdoor Air

≥ 20.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105

and

CTI STD-201))

Air Cooled Condensers All 125F (52C) Condensing Temperature

R22 Test Fluid

190F (88C) Entering Gas Temperature

15F (8C) Subcooling

95F (35C) Entering Drybulb

≥176,000 Btu/hhp ARI 460
a For purposes of this table, cooling tower performance is defined as the maximum flow rating of the tower divided by the fan nameplate rated motor power.

b For purposes of this table air-cooled condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected from the refrigerant divided by the fan nameplate rated motor power.

c Reserved.



TABLE 14-1H RESERVED




TABLE 14-1I RESERVED




TABLE 14-1J RESERVED


Table 14-1K

IPLV/NPLV for Water Cooled Chillers < 150 Tons



IPLVstd = 5.25
Condenser Flow Rate
2 gpm/tond 2.5 gpm/ton 3 gpm/ton 4 gpm/ton 5 gpm/ton 6

gpm/ton

Leaving Chilled Water Temp. (F) Entering Condenser Water Temp. (F) LIFTa

(F)

Required IPLV/NPLV
46 75 29 5.84 6.10 6.30 6.61 6.84 7.00
45 75 30 5.75 6.00 6.19 6.47 6.68 6.83
44 75 31 5.67 5.91 6.08 6.34 6.53 6.67
43 75 32 5.59 5.82 5.99 6.23 6.39 6.52
42 75 33 5.51 5.74 5.90 6.12 6.27 6.39
41 75 34 5.43 5.66 5.81 6.02 6.16 6.26
46 80 34 5.43 5.66 5.81 6.02 6.16 6.26
40 75 35 5.35 5.58 5.73 5.93 6.06 6.15
45 80 35 5.35 5.58 5.73 5.93 6.06 6.15
44 80 36 5.26 5.50 5.65 5.84 5.96 6.06
43 80 37 5.16 5.42 5.57 5.76 5.87 5.96
42 80 38 5.06 5.33 5.49 5.67 5.79 5.87
41 80 39 4.95 5.24 5.41 5.60 5.71 5.78
46 85 39 4.95 5.24 5.41 5.60 5.71 5.78
40 80 40 4.83 5.14 5.32 5.52 5.63 5.70
45 85 40 4.83 5.14 5.32 5.52 5.63 5.70
44 85 41 4.69 5.04 5.25c 5.43 5.55 5.62
43 85 42 4.55 4.93 5.13 5.35 5.47 5.54
42 85 43 4.38 4.80 5.03 5.26 5.38 5.46
41 85 44 4.21 4.67 4.91 5.17 5.30 5.38
40 85 45 4.01 4.52 4.79 5.06 5.20 5.29
Condenser DTb 14.04 11.23 9.36 7.02 5.62 4.68
a LIFT = Entering Condenser Water Temperature -- Leaving Chilled Water Temperature.
b Condenser DT = Leaving Condenser Water Temp. (F ) -- Leaving Chilled Water Temp. (F).
c All values shown are NPLV except at conditions of 3 gpm/ton and 41F LIFT which is IPLV.
Kadj = 6.1507 -- 0.30244(X) + 0.0062692(X)2 - 0.000045595(X)3

where X = Condenser DT + LIFT

COPadj = Kadj * COPstd
d Retrofit only.


Table 14-1L

IPLV/NPLV for Water Cooled Chillers ≥ 150 Tons, < 300 Tons



IPLVstd = 5.90
Condenser Flow Rate
2 gpm/tond 2.5 gpm/ton 3 gpm/ton 4 gpm/ton 5 gpm/ton 6

gpm/ton

Leaving Chilled Water Temp. (F) Entering Condenser Water Temp. (F) LIFTa

(F)

Required IPLV/NPLV
46 75 29 6.58 6.87 7.11 7.46 7.71 7.90
45 75 30 6.49 6.76 6.98 7.30 7.53 7.70
44 75 31 6.40 6.66 6.86 7.15 7.36 7.52
43 75 32 6.31 6.56 6.75 7.02 7.21 7.35
42 75 33 6.22 6.47 6.65 6.90 7.07 7.20
41 75 34 6.13 6.38 6.55 6.79 6.95 7.06
46 80 34 6.13 6.38 6.55 6.79 6.95 7.06
40 75 35 6.03 6.29 6.46 6.68 6.83 6.94
45 80 35 6.03 6.29 6.46 6.68 6.83 6.94
44 80 36 5.93 6.20 6.37 6.58 6.72 6.82
43 80 37 5.82 6.11 6.28 6.49 6.62 6.72
42 80 38 5.71 6.01 6.19 6.40 6.53 6.62
41 80 39 5.58 5.91 6.10 6.31 6.44 6.52
46 85 39 5.58 5.91 6.10 6.31 6.44 6.52
40 80 40 5.44 5.80 6.00 6.22 6.35 6.43
45 85 40 5.44 5.80 6.00 6.22 6.35 6.43
44 85 41 5.29 5.68 5.90c 6.13 6.26 6.34
43 85 42 5.13 5.55 5.79 6.03 6.16 6.25
42 85 43 4.94 5.41 5.67 5.93 6.07 6.16
41 85 44 4.74 5.26 5.54 5.82 5.97 6.07
40 85 45 4.52 5.09 5.40 5.71 5.87 5.97
Condenser DTb 14.04 11.23 9.36 7.02 5.62 4.68
a LIFT = Entering Condenser Water Temperature -- Leaving Chilled Water Temperature.
b Condenser DT = Leaving Condenser Water Temp. (F ) -- Leaving Chilled Water Temp. (F).
c All values shown are NPLV except at conditions of 3 gpm/ton and 41F LIFT which is IPLV.
Kadj = 6.1507 -- 0.30244(X) + 0.0062692(X)2 -- 0.000045595(X)3
where X = Condenser DT + LIFT
COPadj = Kadj * COPstd
d Retrofit only.


Table 14-1M

IPLV/NPLV for Water Cooled Chillers ≥ 300 Tons



IPLVstd = 6.40
Condenser Flow Rate
2 gpm/tond 2.5 gpm/ton 3 gpm/ton 4 gpm/ton 5 gpm/ton 6 gpm/ton
Leaving Chilled Water Temp. (F) Entering

Condenser Water Temp. (F)

LIFTa

(F)

Required IPLV/NPLV
46 75 29 7.15 7.47 7.72 8.10 8.37 8.58
45 75 30 7.05 7.35 7.58 7.93 8.18 8.36
44 75 31 6.95 7.23 7.45 7.77 8.00 8.16
43 75 32 6.85 7.13 7.33 7.63 7.83 7.98
42 75 33 6.75 7.03 7.22 7.49 7.68 7.82
41 75 34 6.65 6.93 7.12 7.37 7.55 7.67
46 80 34 6.65 6.93 7.12 7.37 7.55 7.67
40 75 35 6.55 6.83 7.01 7.26 7.42 7.54
45 80 35 6.55 6.83 7.01 7.26 7.42 7.54
44 80 36 6.44 6.73 6.92 7.15 7.30 7.41
43 80 37 6.32 6.63 6.82 7.05 7.19 7.30
42 80 38 6.20 6.53 6.72 6.95 7.09 7.19
41 80 39 6.06 6.42 6.62 6.85 6.99 7.08
46 85 39 6.06 6.42 6.62 6.85 6.99 7.08
40 80 40 5.91 6.30 6.52 6.76 6.89 6.98
45 85 40 5.91 6.30 6.52 6.76 6.89 6.98
44 85 41 5.75 6.17 6.40c 6.66 6.79 6.89
43 85 42 5.57 6.03 6.28 6.55 6.70 6.79
42 85 43 5.37 5.88 6.16 6.44 6.59 6.69
41 85 44 5.15 5.71 6.01 6.33 6.49 6.59
40 85 45 4.91 5.53 5.86 6.20 6.37 6.48
Condenser DTb 14.04 11.23 9.36 7.02 5.62 4.68
a LIFT = Entering Condenser Water Temperature -- Leaving Chilled Water Temperature.
b Condenser DT = Leaving Condenser Water Temp. (F ) -- Leaving Chilled Water Temp. (F).
c All values shown are NPLV except at conditions of 3 gpm/ton and 41F LIFT which is IPLV.
Kadj = 6.1507 -0.30244(X) + 0.0062692(X)2 -- 0.000045595(X)3
where X = Condenser DT + LIFT
COPadj = Kadj * COPstd
d Retrofit only.

TABLE 14-2 RESERVED




TABLE 14-3 RESERVED


TABLE 14-4

Energy Efficient Electric Motors

Minimum Nominal Full-Load Efficiency


Open Motors Closed Motors
Synchronous

Speed (RPM)

3,600 1,800 1,200 3,600 1,800 1,200
HP Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency
1.0 - 82.5 80.0 75.5 82.5 80.0
1.5 82.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 84.0 85.5
2.0 84.0 84.0 85.5 84.0 84.0 86.5
3.0 84.0 86.5 86.5 85.5 87.5 87.5
5.0 85.5 87.5 87.5 87.5 87.5 87.5
7.5 87.5 88.5 88.5 88.5 89.5 89.5
10.0 88.5 89.5 90.2 89.5 89.5 89.5
15.0 89.5 91.0 90.2 90.2 91.0 90.2
20.0 90.2 91.0 91.0 90.2 91.0 90.2
25.0 91.0 91.7 91.7 91.0 92.4 91.7
30.0 91.0 92.4 92.4 91.0 92.4 91.7
40.0 91.7 93.0 93.0 91.7 93.0 93.0
50.0 92.4 93.0 93.0 92.4 93.0 93.0
60.0 93.0 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.6 93.6
75.0 93.0 94.1 93.6 93.0 94.1 93.6
100.0 93.0 94.1 94.1 93.6 94.5 94.1
125.0 93.6 94.5 94.1 94.5 94.5 94.1
150.0 93.6 95.0 94.5 94.5 95.0 95.0
200.0 94.5 95.0 94.5 95.0 95.0 95.0

TABLE 14-5

Duct Insulation


Duct Type Duct Location Insulation

R-Value

Other

Requirements

Supply, Return Not within conditioned space: On exterior of building, on roof, in attic, in enclosed ceiling space, in walls, in garage, in crawl spaces R-7 Approved weather proof barrier
Outside air intake Within conditioned space R-7 See Section 1414.2
Supply, Return, Outside air intake Not within conditioned space: in concrete, in ground R-5.3
Supply with supply air temperature < 55F or

> 105F

Within conditioned space R-3.3
Note: Requirements apply to the duct type listed, whether heated or mechanically cooled. Mechanically cooled ducts requiring insulation shall have a vapor retarder, with a perm rating not greater than 0.5 and all joints sealed.

TABLE 14-6

Minimum Pipe Insulation (inches)1


Fluid Design

Operating

Temp. Range,

F

Insulation Conductivity Nominal Pipe Diameter (in.)
Conductivity Range

Btu in. / (h ft2 F)

Mean Rating

Temp. F

Runouts2

up to 2

1 and

less

> 1 to 2 > 2 to 4 > 4 to 6 > 6
Heating systems (Steam, Steam Condensate[,] and Hot water) Nominal Insulation Thickness
Above 350

251-350

201-250

141-200

105-140

0.32-0.34

0.29-0.31

0.27-0.30

0.25-0.29

0.24-0.28

250

200

150

125

100

1.5

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.5

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.5

1.0

2.5

2.5

1.5

1.5

1.0

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

3.5

3.5

2.0

1.5

1.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

1.5

1.5

Domestic and Service Hot Water Systems
105 and Greater 0.24-0.28 100 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5
Cooling Systems (Chilled Water, Brine[,] and Refrigerant)
40-55

Below 40

0.23-0.27

0.23-0.27

75

75

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.75

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5


1. Alternative Insulation Types. Insulation thicknesses in Table 14-6 are based on insulation with thermal conductivities within the range listed in Table14-6 for each fluid operating temperature range, rated in accordance with ASTM C 335-84 at the mean temperature listed in the table. For insulation that has a conductivity outside the range shown in Table 14-6 for the applicable fluid operating temperature range at the mean rating temperature shown (when rounded to the nearest 0.01 Btu in./(hft2F)), the minimum thickness shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:

T = PR[[(]1+ t/PR)K/k - 1]
Where

T = Minimum insulation thickness for material with conductivity K, inches.
PR = Pipe actual outside radius, inches[.]
t = Insulation thickness from Table 14-6, inches
K = conductivity of alternate material at the mean rating temperature indicated in Table 14-6 for the applicable fluid temperature range, Btu in[.]/(hft2 F)
k = the lower value of the conductivity range listed in Table 14-6 for the applicable fluid temperature range, Btu in[.]/(h ft2 F)

2. Runouts to individual terminal units not exceeding 12 ft. in length.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1454, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1454, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1454, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1454, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1513   Lighting controls.   Lighting, including exempt lighting in Section 1512, shall comply with this section. Where occupancy sensors are cited, they shall have the features listed in Section 1513.6.1. Where automatic time switches are cited, they shall have the features listed in Section 1513.6.2.


1513.1 Local Control and Accessibility: Each space, enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions, shall be provided with lighting controls located within that space. The lighting controls, whether one or more, shall be capable of turning off all lights within the space. The controls shall be readily accessible, at the point of entry/exit, to personnel occupying or using the space.


EXCEPTIONS: The following lighting controls may be centralized in remote locations:
1. Lighting controls for spaces which must be used as a whole.
2. Automatic controls.
3. Controls requiring trained operators.
4. Controls for safety hazards and security.

1513.2 Area Controls: The maximum lighting power that may be controlled from a single switch or automatic control shall not exceed that which is provided by a twenty ampere circuit loaded to not more than eighty percent. A master control may be installed provided the individual switches retain their capability to function independently. Circuit breakers may not be used as the sole means of switching.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Industrial or manufacturing process areas, as may be required for production.
2. Areas less than five percent of footprint for footprints over 100,000 square feet.

1513.3 Daylight Zone Control: All daylighted zones, as defined in Chapter 2, both under overhead glazing and adjacent to vertical glazing, shall be provided with individual controls, or daylight-or occupant-sensing automatic controls, which control the lights independent of general area lighting.

Contiguous daylight zones adjacent to vertical glazing are allowed to be controlled by a single controlling device provided that they do not include zones facing more than two adjacent cardinal orientations (i.e. north, east, south, west). Daylight zones under overhead glazing more than 15 feet from the perimeter shall be controlled separately from daylight zones adjacent to vertical glazing.


EXCEPTION: Daylight spaces enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions and containing 2 or fewer light fixtures are not required to have a separate switch for general area lighting.

1513.4 Display, Exhibition, and Specialty Lighting Controls: All display, exhibition, or specialty lighting shall be controlled independently of general area lighting.


1513.5 Automatic Shut-Off Controls, Exterior: Exterior lighting not intended for 24-hour continuous use shall be automatically switched by timer, photocell, or a combination of timer and photocell. Automatic time switches must also have program back-up capabilities, which prevent the loss of program and time settings for at least 10 hours, if power is interrupted.


1513.6 Automatic Shut-Off Controls, Interior: ((Office)) Buildings greater than 5,000 sq. ft. and all school classrooms shall be equipped with separate automatic controls to shut off the lighting during unoccupied hours. Within these buildings, all office areas less than 300 ft2 enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions, and all meeting and conference rooms, and all school classrooms, shall be equipped with occupancy sensors that comply with Section 1513.6.1. For other spaces, automatic controls may be an occupancy sensor, time switch, or other device capable of automatically shutting off lighting.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Areas that must be continuously illuminated (e.g., 24-hour convenience stores), or illuminated in a manner requiring manual operation of the lighting.
2. Emergency lighting systems.
3. Switching for industrial or manufacturing process facilities as may be required for production.
4. Hospitals and laboratory spaces.
5. Areas in which medical or dental tasks are performed are exempt from the occupancy sensor requirement.

1513.6.1 Occupancy Sensors: Occupancy sensors shall be capable of automatically turning off all the lights in an area, no more than 30 minutes after the area has been vacated. Light fixtures controlled by occupancy sensors shall have a wall-mounted, manual switch capable of turning off lights when the space is occupied.


1513.6.2 Automatic Time Switches: Automatic time switches shall have a minimum 7 day clock and be capable of being set for 7 different day types per week and incorporate an automatic holiday "shut-off" feature, which turns off all loads for at least 24 hours and then resumes normally scheduled operations. Automatic time switches shall also have program back-up capabilities, which prevent the loss of program a