SENATE BILL REPORT
This analysis was prepared by non-partisan legislative staff for the use of legislative members in their deliberations. This analysis is not a part of the legislation nor does it constitute a statement of legislative intent.
As Reported by Senate Committee On:
Higher Education & Workforce Development, January 23, 2018
Ways & Means, February 6, 2018
Title: An act relating to helping former foster youth and youth experiencing homelessness access and complete registered apprenticeships.
Brief Description: Helping foster and homeless youth complete apprenticeships. [Revised for 2nd Substitute: Helping former foster youth and youth experiencing homelessness access and complete college and registered apprenticeships.]
Sponsors: Senators Ranker, Palumbo, Keiser, Wellman, Darneille, Liias, Kuderer, Hasegawa, Hunt and Saldaña.
Committee Activity: Higher Education & Workforce Development: 1/18/18, 1/23/18 [DPS-WM, DNP, w/oRec].
Ways & Means: 2/01/18, 2/06/18 [DP2S, DNP, w/oRec].
SENATE COMMITTEE ON HIGHER EDUCATION & WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT
Majority Report: That Substitute Senate Bill No. 6274 be substituted therefor, and the substitute bill do pass and be referred to Committee on Ways & Means.
Signed by Senators Ranker, Chair; Palumbo, Vice Chair; Hawkins, Ranking Member; Carlyle, Liias, Miloscia and Nelson.
Minority Report: Do not pass.
Signed by Senator Ericksen.
Minority Report: That it be referred without recommendation.
Signed by Senator Short.
Staff: Kellee Gunn (786-7429)
SENATE COMMITTEE ON WAYS & MEANS
Majority Report: That Second Substitute Senate Bill No. 6274 be substituted therefor, and the second substitute bill do pass.
Signed by Senators Rolfes, Chair; Frockt, Vice Chair; Billig, Carlyle, Conway, Darneille, Hasegawa, Hunt, Keiser, Mullet, Palumbo, Pedersen, Ranker, Rivers and Van De Wege.
Minority Report: Do not pass.
Signed by Senators Braun, Ranking Member; Honeyford, Assistant Ranking Member; Becker, Brown, Schoesler and Warnick.
Minority Report: That it be referred without recommendation.
Signed by Senators Bailey and Wagoner.
Staff: Daniel Masterson (786-7454)
Background: Passport to College Promise. In 2007, the Legislature established a scholarship called the Passport to College Promise for students who have emancipated from the state foster care system after having spent at least one year in care after their 16th birthday. To qualify for the scholarship, a student must:
be a Washington resident;
be enrolled at least halftime in an institution of higher education by the age of 21;
be making satisfactory academic progress towards a degree or certificate program;
not have earned a bachelor's or professional degree; and
not pursue a degree in theology.
The scholarship cannot exceed undergraduate resident tuition and fees at the highest priced public institution in the state and may not exceed the student's financial need when combined with other public and private grants, scholarship, and waiver assistance. An eligible student may receive the scholarship for a maximum of five years after the student first enrolls, or until age 26, whichever occurs first.
The Washington Student Achievement Council (Council) administers the Passport to College Promise scholarship program. In the 2016-17 academic year, the Council awarded 335 scholarships.
The Passport to College Promise scholarship is set expire on June 30, 2022.
Summary of Bill (Second Substitute): Passport to Careers. The Passport to Careers program is established. Passport to Careers has two programmatic pathways; the Passport to College Promise scholarship program and the Passport to Apprenticeship Opportunities program. The Passport to Careers program must provide financial support and financial assistance to former foster and unaccompanied homeless youth in pursuing postsecondary options in higher education or a registered apprenticeship. Passport to careers must assist with the costs of a public undergraduate college education or with meeting registered apprenticeship program minimum qualifications and occupational-specific costs. Supportive services must help them apply, register for, and complete a registered apprenticeship. Homeless is defined as without a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence as set forth in the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and Runaway and Homeless Youth Act. Unaccompanied means a youth or young adult experiencing homelessness while not in the custody of a parent or guardian. The total amount awarded for any combination of participation in Passport to Careers’ two programs must not be more than the amount to attend the public university with the highest annual tuition and state-mandated fees in this state for five years. The student may utilize the Passport to College Promise program or the Passport to Apprenticeship Opportunities at different times, but not concurrently.
Eligibility for Passport to Careers Programs. Students may be eligible for supplemental scholarship and student assistance if they:
were in state, tribal or federal foster care prior to age 21 and subsequent to the following:
age 15 as of July 1, 2018;
age 14 as of July 1, 2019; and
age 13 as of July 2020.
are a resident student, with additional verification process by the Council if unable to establish residency because of placement in out-of-state foster care of homelessness;
are enrolled at least half-time with an institution of higher education or with a registered apprenticeship or recognized pre-apprenticeship;
are making satisfactory academic progress toward completion of a degree, certificate program, or registered apprenticeship or recognized pre-apprenticeship;
have verified their homelessness status with the Council; and
have not earned a bachelor's or professional degree.
Beginning July 1, 2019, unaccompanied homeless youth are eligible for Passport to Careers if they are under the age of 21 and have verified their unaccompanied homelessness status with the Council on or after July 1 of the prior academic year.
Passport to Apprenticeship Opportunities. The Passport to Apprenticeship Opportunities program must be administered by the Council. Applicants are eligible for:
financial support that does not exceed financial need defined by the Council and involved entities; and
a maximum of six years of financial support after first enrolling with a registered apprenticeship, or until the applicant turns 26, whichever some first.
Passport to College Promise Eligibility Expansion. The Passport to College Promise is expanded to include youth who have experienced homelessness and individuals who have spent a day or more in state, federal, or tribal foster care. The expiration date of the Passport to College Promise program is repealed.
Agency Outreach and Collaboration in Passport to Careers. The Department of Social and Health Services; the Department of Children, Youth, and Families; the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI); and the Department of Commerce's Office of Homeless Youth (OHY) must devise and implement ways to identify students and applicants who may eligible. Information must be shared among the other agencies and entities involved.
The OHY must work with the other state agencies currently involved with the Passport to College promise program in contracting with a nongovernmental entity to develop, implement, and administer a program of supplemental education transition planning for youth in foster care and youth experiencing homelessness. The supplemental transition planning must include establishing post-secondary plan initiation in coordination with the Passports to Careers program.
The Council must develop and maintain a website and outreach program to serve as a portal for Passport to Careers eligible youth. In addition to information that is currently available, the outreach and website must include how and when to apply for a registered apprenticeship, or pre-apprenticeship, and detailed sources of financial assistance available to homeless youth.
The Council, with approval from the employment security department and the apprenticeship council, must contract with at least one nongovernmental entity to provide quality training, employment navigation, and supportive services to disadvantaged populations seeking to complete apprenticeships and pre-apprenticeships through the Passport to Apprenticeship Opportunities program. The nongovernmental entity must disburse funds to eligible applicants to meet registered apprenticeship and pre-apprenticeship entrance requirements and occupational-specific costs.
EFFECT OF CHANGES MADE BY WAYS & MEANS COMMITTEE (Second Substitute):
Phases-in over three years the eligibility expansion of the Passport to College Promise program to those who have spent time in the foster care system subsequent to sixteen years old to after thirteen years old.
Clarifies that an unaccompanied homeless youth must be verified by the Council on July 1st for the prior academic year.
Establishes an effective date of July 1, 2019, for eligible unaccompanied homeless youth to apply for, and be beneficiaries of, Passport to Careers.
Removes reasonable transportation costs from the definition of occupational-specific costs.
Provides an opportunity for former foster youth who are unable to establish residency because of placement in out-of-state care to have residency determined through a verification process developed by the Council.
EFFECT OF CHANGES MADE BY HIGHER EDUCATION & WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (First Substitute):
Clarifies the age eligibility for the program, the entities who will be identifying the eligible students, and the entities that will be awarding the funds for the Passport to Apprenticeship Opportunities program.
Establishes that the total amount awarded for any combination of participation in Passport to Careers’ two programs must not be more than the amount to attend the public university with the highest annual tuition and state-mandated fees in this state for five years. The student may utilize the Passport to College Promise program or the Passport to Apprenticeship Opportunities at different times, but not concurrently.
Includes the OSPI with the other agencies identifying eligible students and applicants.
Adds the term unaccompanied for homeless youth eligibility.
Fiscal Note: Available.
Creates Committee/Commission/Task Force that includes Legislative members: No.
Effective Date: Ninety days after adjournment of session in which bill is passed.
Staff Summary of Public Testimony on Proposed Substitute (Higher Education & Workforce Development): The committee recommended a different version of the bill than what was heard. PRO: This bill expands on the Passport to College program by starting the eligibility for the program at 13 years old, including kids experiencing homelessness, and expanding the opportunities to include apprenticeship programs. Let us make this not only a passport to college, but make this a passport to a career.
Youth can benefit a great deal through the work to learn model. The Community and Technical College (CTC) system are critical partners to the apprenticeship system. That system is about closing equity gaps. Foster and homeless youth experience disproportionate amount of homelessness and poverty. Apprenticeship programs have different types of costs. This bill covers the cost of tools, work clothing, and transportation in addition to tuition and fees. Of the 34 CTCs, 21 have active apprenticeship programs. I wish this bill had been passed years ago when I was a foster child. Apprenticeships work because you earn while you learn—and allows for self-reliance. Apprenticeships assist people in establishing long-term careers.
It can be difficult for foster youth to get financial aid. Intelligence and determination is not what foster youth lack. They need wraparound support in additional to financial aid. Youth from foster care face the most difficult odds in earning a postsecondary degree of any youth subgroup. The passport model, which combines financial aid with other student support, is effective. The more foster youth who graduate high school and earn a postsecondary credential mean more financially independent adults. Historically, data-sharing agreements to facilitate the systematic ability to share student information efficiently and confidentially among agencies has been problematic and we recommend looking closely at that language.
This bill addresses a gap in postsecondary support for homeless students interested in pursuing postsecondary opportunities. There are some technical issues. There are concerns with the bill regarding the system's capacity of postsecondary institutions to support students experiencing homelessness, homeless student eligibility for the program, and the Office of Homeless Youth having the primary responsibility of identifying the youth eligible for this program. OSPI should be involved in identifying these students. This bill is very much in alignment with WSAC’s priorities. Everyone, especially disenfranchised populations, should have access to postsecondary credentials.
Persons Testifying (Higher Education & Workforce Development): PRO: Senator Kevin Ranker, Prime Sponsor; Peter Guzman, State Board for Community & Technical Colleges; Juliette Schindler Kelly, Director of Government Relations, College Success Foundation; Katara Jordan, Building Changes; Maddy Thompson, Washington Student Achievement Council; Sharon Stukalo, apprentice electrician; Sabian Hart-Wall, The Mockingbird Society; Johnathan Hemphill, The Mockingbird Society.
Persons Signed In To Testify But Not Testifying (Higher Education & Workforce Development): No one.
Staff Summary of Public Testimony on First Substitute (Ways & Means): The committee recommended a different version of the bill than what was heard. PRO: The current Passport to College program has been very successful for foster youth. Once enrolled, passport scholars have between 55 to 79 percent year-to-year persistence rates, depending on the year. This is comparable to all students who started college in 2014—72 percent.
Persons Testifying (Ways & Means): PRO: Juliette Schindler Kelly, College Success Foundation.
Persons Signed In To Testify But Not Testifying (Ways & Means): No one.