SUBSTITUTE SENATE BILL 5848
State of Washington
2019 Regular Session
BySenate Human Services, Reentry & Rehabilitation (originally sponsored by Senators Darneille and Nguyen; by request of Department of Corrections)
READ FIRST TIME 02/21/19.
AN ACT Relating to individuals under the department of corrections' jurisdiction; amending RCW 9.94A.589
, and 9.94A.716
; adding a new section to chapter 9.94A
RCW; creating new sections; providing an effective date; providing an expiration date; and declaring an emergency.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
NEW SECTION. Sec. 1.
A new section is added to chapter 9.94A
RCW to read as follows:
(1) Any offender sentenced for a drug offense committed prior to July 1, 2004, and serving a term of incarceration for that drug offense on the effective date of this section, is entitled to a resentencing hearing. The prosecuting attorney for the county in which any offender was sentenced and to whom this section applies must review the sentencing documents. If the offender is serving a term of incarceration for a drug offense committed prior to July 1, 2004, the prosecuting attorney shall, or the offender may, make a motion for relief from sentence to the original sentencing court.
(2) The sentencing court shall grant the motion if it finds that the offender is serving a sentence for a drug offense committed prior to July 1, 2004, and shall immediately set an expedited date for resentencing. At resentencing, the court shall sentence the offender as if sections 7 through 11 and 14 through 23, chapter 290, Laws of 2002 were effective at the time the original sentence was imposed.
(3) In no case may the resentencing under this order result in the offender serving a greater term of total confinement.
(4) This section expires July 1, 2021.
and 2015 2nd sp.s. c 3 s 13 are each amended to read as follows:
(1)(a) Except as provided in (b), (c), or (d) of this subsection, whenever a person is to be sentenced for two or more current offenses, the sentence range for each current offense shall be determined by using all other current and prior convictions as if they were prior convictions for the purpose of the offender score: PROVIDED, That if the court enters a finding that some or all of the current offenses encompass the same criminal conduct then those current offenses shall be counted as one crime. Sentences imposed under this subsection shall be served concurrently. Consecutive sentences may only be imposed under the exceptional sentence provisions of RCW 9.94A.535
. "Same criminal conduct," as used in this subsection, means two or more crimes that require the same criminal intent, are committed at the same time and place, and involve the same victim. This definition applies in cases involving vehicular assault or vehicular homicide even if the victims occupied the same vehicle.
(b) Whenever a person is convicted of two or more serious violent offenses arising from separate and distinct criminal conduct, the standard sentence range for the offense with the highest seriousness level under RCW 9.94A.515
shall be determined using the offender's prior convictions and other current convictions that are not serious violent offenses in the offender score and the standard sentence range for other serious violent offenses shall be determined by using an offender score of zero. The standard sentence range for any offenses that are not serious violent offenses shall be determined according to (a) of this subsection. All sentences imposed under this subsection (1)(b) shall be served consecutively to each other and concurrently with sentences imposed under (a) of this subsection. However, unless the court expressly orders that the community custody terms run consecutively to each other, the terms of community custody shall run concurrently to each other even if the court orders the confinement terms to run consecutively to each other.
(c) If an offender is convicted under RCW 9.41.040
for unlawful possession of a firearm in the first or second degree and for the felony crimes of theft of a firearm or possession of a stolen firearm, or both, the standard sentence range for each of these current offenses shall be determined by using all other current and prior convictions, except other current convictions for the felony crimes listed in this subsection (1)(c), as if they were prior convictions. The offender shall serve consecutive sentences for each conviction of the felony crimes listed in this subsection (1)(c), and for each firearm unlawfully possessed.
(2)(a) ((Except as provided in (b) of this subsection,))Whenever a person while under sentence for conviction of a felony commits another felony and is sentenced to another term of confinement, the latter term of confinement shall not begin until expiration of all prior terms of confinement. However, any terms of community custody shall run concurrently to each other, unless the court pronouncing the current sentence expressly orders that they be served consecutively.
(b) Whenever a second or later felony conviction results in consecutive community ((supervision))custody with conditions not currently in effect, under the prior sentence or sentences of community ((supervision))custody the court may require that the conditions of community ((supervision))custody contained in the second or later sentence begin during the immediate term of community ((supervision))custody and continue throughout the duration of the consecutive term of community ((supervision))custody.
(3) Subject to subsections (1) and (2) of this section, whenever a person is sentenced for a felony that was committed while the person was not under sentence for conviction of a felony, the sentence shall run concurrently with any felony sentence which has been imposed by any court in this or another state or by a federal court subsequent to the commission of the crime being sentenced unless the court pronouncing the current sentence expressly orders that ((they))the confinement terms be served consecutively to each other. Unless the court expressly orders that the community custody terms run consecutively, such terms of community custody run concurrently to each other even if the court orders the confinement terms to run consecutively to each other.
(4) Whenever any person granted probation under RCW 9.95.210
, or both, has the probationary sentence revoked and a prison sentence imposed, that sentence shall run consecutively to any sentence imposed pursuant to this chapter, unless the court pronouncing the subsequent sentence expressly orders that they be served concurrently.
(5) In the case of consecutive sentences, all periods of total confinement shall be served before any partial confinement, community restitution, community supervision, or any other requirement or conditions of any of the sentences. Except for exceptional sentences as authorized under RCW 9.94A.535
, if two or more sentences that run consecutively include periods of community supervision, the aggregate of the community supervision period shall not exceed twenty-four months.
and 2003 c 379 s 4 are each amended to read as follows:
When a court sentences an offender to a term of total confinement in the custody of the department for any of the offenses specified in this section, the court shall also sentence the offender to a term of community placement as provided in this section. Except as provided in RCW 9.94A.501
, the department shall supervise any sentence of community placement imposed under this section.
(1) The court shall order a one-year term of community placement for the following:
(a) A sex offense or a serious violent offense committed after July 1, 1988, but before July 1, 1990; or
(b) An offense committed on or after July 1, 1988, but before July 25, 1999, that is:
(i) Assault in the second degree;
(ii) Assault of a child in the second degree;
(iii) A crime against persons where it is determined in accordance with RCW ((9.94A.602))9.94A.825 that the offender or an accomplice was armed with a deadly weapon at the time of commission; or
(2) The court shall sentence the offender to a term of community placement of two years or up to the period of earned release awarded pursuant to RCW 9.94A.728
, whichever is longer, for:
(a) An offense categorized as a sex offense committed on or after July 1, 1990, but before June 6, 1996, including those sex offenses also included in other offense categories;
(b) A serious violent offense other than a sex offense committed on or after July 1, 1990, but before July 1, 2000; or
(c) A vehicular homicide or vehicular assault committed on or after July 1, 1990, but before July 1, 2000.
(3) The community placement ordered under this section shall begin either upon completion of the term of confinement or at such time as the offender is transferred to community custody in lieu of earned release. When the court sentences an offender to the statutory maximum sentence then the community placement portion of the sentence shall consist entirely of the community custody to which the offender may become eligible. Any period of community custody actually served shall be credited against the community placement portion of the sentence. The community placement shall run concurrently to any period of probation, parole, community supervision, community placement, or community custody previously imposed by any court in any jurisdiction, unless the court pronouncing the current sentence expressly orders that they be served consecutively to each other.
(4) Unless a condition is waived by the court, the terms of any community placement imposed under this section shall include the following conditions:
(a) The offender shall report to and be available for contact with the assigned community corrections officer as directed;
(b) The offender shall work at department-approved education, employment, or community restitution, or any combination thereof;
(c) The offender shall not possess or consume controlled substances except pursuant to lawfully issued prescriptions;
(d) The offender shall pay supervision fees as determined by the department; and
(e) The residence location and living arrangements shall be subject to the prior approval of the department during the period of community placement.
(5) As a part of any terms of community placement imposed under this section, the court may also order one or more of the following special conditions:
(a) The offender shall remain within, or outside of, a specified geographical boundary;
(b) The offender shall not have direct or indirect contact with the victim of the crime or a specified class of individuals;
(c) The offender shall participate in crime-related treatment or counseling services;
(d) The offender shall not consume alcohol; or
(e) The offender shall comply with any crime-related prohibitions.
(6) An offender convicted of a felony sex offense against a minor victim after June 6, 1996, shall comply with any terms and conditions of community placement imposed by the department relating to contact between the sex offender and a minor victim or a child of similar age or circumstance as a previous victim.
(7) Prior to or during community placement, upon recommendation of the department, the sentencing court may remove or modify any conditions of community placement so as not to be more restrictive.
and 2015 c 134 s 4 are each amended to read as follows:
(1)(a) The term of the sentence of an offender committed to a correctional facility operated by the department may be reduced by earned release time in accordance with procedures that shall be developed and adopted by the correctional agency having jurisdiction in which the offender is confined. The earned release time shall be for good behavior and good performance, as determined by the correctional agency having jurisdiction. The correctional agency shall not credit the offender with earned release credits in advance of the offender actually earning the credits.
(b) Any program established pursuant to this section shall allow an offender to earn early release credits for presentence incarceration. If an offender is transferred from a county jail to the department, the administrator of a county jail facility shall certify to the department the amount of time spent in custody at the facility and the number of days of early release credits lost or not earned. The department may approve a jail certification from a correctional agency that calculates early release time based on the actual amount of confinement time served by the offender before sentencing when an erroneous calculation of confinement time served by the offender before sentencing appears on the judgment and sentence. The department must adjust an offender's rate of early release listed on the jail certification to be consistent with the rate applicable to offenders in the department's facilities. However, the department is not authorized to adjust the number of presentence early release days that the jail has certified as lost or not earned.
(2) An offender who has been convicted of a felony committed after July 23, 1995, that involves any applicable deadly weapon enhancements under RCW 9.94A.533
(3) or (4), or both, shall not receive any good time credits or earned release time for that portion of his or her sentence that results from any deadly weapon enhancements.
(3) An offender may earn early release time as follows:
(a) In the case of an offender sentenced pursuant to RCW 10.95.030
(3) or 10.95.035
, the offender may not receive any earned early release time during the minimum term of confinement imposed by the court; for any remaining portion of the sentence served by the offender, the aggregate earned release time may not exceed ten percent of the sentence.
(b) In the case of an offender convicted of a serious violent offense, or a sex offense that is a class A felony, committed on or after July 1, 1990, and before July 1, 2003, the aggregate earned release time may not exceed fifteen percent of the sentence.
(c) In the case of an offender convicted of a serious violent offense, or a sex offense that is a class A felony, committed on or after July 1, 2003, the aggregate earned release time may not exceed ten percent of the sentence.
(d) An offender is qualified to earn up to fifty percent of aggregate earned release time if he or she:
(i) Is not classified as an offender who is at a high risk to reoffend as provided in subsection (4) of this section;
(ii) Is not confined pursuant to a sentence for:
(A) A sex offense;
(B) A violent offense;
(C) A crime against persons as defined in RCW 9.94A.411
(D) A felony that is domestic violence as defined in RCW 10.99.020
(E) A violation of RCW 9A.52.025
(F) A violation of, or an attempt, solicitation, or conspiracy to violate, RCW 69.50.401
by manufacture or delivery or possession with intent to deliver methamphetamine; or
(G) A violation of, or an attempt, solicitation, or conspiracy to violate, RCW 69.50.406
(delivery of a controlled substance to a minor);
(iii) Has no prior conviction for the offenses listed in (d)(ii) of this subsection;
(iv) Participates in programming or activities as directed by the offender's individual reentry plan as provided under RCW 72.09.270
to the extent that such programming or activities are made available by the department; and
(v) Has not committed a new felony after July 22, 2007, while under community custody.
(e) In the case of an offender convicted on or after July 1, 2019, the aggregate earned release time may not exceed fifty percent of the sentence when the conviction is for an offense that is not classified as a:
(i) Sex offense;
(ii) Violent offense; or
(iii) Crime against a person as defined in RCW 9.94A.411.
(f) In no other case shall the aggregate earned release time exceed one-third of the total sentence.
(4) The department shall perform a risk assessment of each offender who may qualify for earned early release under subsection (3)(d) of this section utilizing the risk assessment tool recommended by the Washington state institute for public policy. Subsection (3)(d) of this section does not apply to offenders convicted after July 1, 2010.
(5)(a) A person who is eligible for earned early release as provided in this section and who will be supervised by the department pursuant to RCW 9.94A.501
, shall be transferred to community custody in lieu of earned release time;
(b) The department shall, as a part of its program for release to the community in lieu of earned release, require the offender to propose a release plan that includes an approved residence and living arrangement. All offenders with community custody terms eligible for release to community custody in lieu of earned release shall provide an approved residence and living arrangement prior to release to the community;
(c) The department may deny transfer to community custody in lieu of earned release time if the department determines an offender's release plan, including proposed residence location and living arrangements, may violate the conditions of the sentence or conditions of supervision, place the offender at risk to violate the conditions of the sentence, place the offender at risk to reoffend, or present a risk to victim safety or community safety. The department's authority under this section is independent of any court-ordered condition of sentence or statutory provision regarding conditions for community custody;
(d) If the department is unable to approve the offender's release plan, the department may do one or more of the following:
(i) Transfer an offender to partial confinement in lieu of earned early release for a period not to exceed three months. The three months in partial confinement is in addition to that portion of the offender's term of confinement that may be served in partial confinement as provided in RCW 9.94A.728
(ii) Provide rental vouchers to the offender for a period not to exceed three months if rental assistance will result in an approved release plan.
A voucher must be provided in conjunction with additional transition support programming or services that enable an offender to participate in services including, but not limited to, substance abuse treatment, mental health treatment, sex offender treatment, educational programming, or employment programming;
(e) The department shall maintain a list of housing providers that meets the requirements of RCW 72.09.285
. If more than two voucher recipients will be residing per dwelling unit, as defined in RCW 59.18.030
, rental vouchers for those recipients may only be paid to a housing provider on the department's list;
(f) For each offender who is the recipient of a rental voucher, the department shall gather data as recommended by the Washington state institute for public policy in order to best demonstrate whether rental vouchers are effective in reducing recidivism.
(6) An offender serving a term of confinement imposed under RCW 9.94A.670
(5)(a) is not eligible for earned release credits under this section.
and 2012 1st sp.s. c 6 s 7 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) If an offender is accused of violating any condition or requirement of community custody, the department shall address the violation behavior. The department may hold offender disciplinary proceedings not subject to chapter 34.05
RCW. The department shall notify the offender in writing of the violation process.
(2)(a) The offender's violation behavior shall determine the sanction the department imposes. The department shall adopt rules creating a structured violation process that includes presumptive sanctions, aggravating and mitigating factors, and definitions for low level violations and high level violations.
(b) ((After an offender has committed and been sanctioned for five low level violations, all subsequent violations committed by that offender shall automatically be considered high level violations.
))(i) The department must define aggravating factors that indicate the offender may present a current and ongoing foreseeable risk and which therefore((,)) elevate an offender's behavior to a high level violation process.
(ii) The state and its officers, agents, and employees may not be held criminally or civilly liable for a decision to elevate or not to elevate an offender's behavior to a high level violation process under this subsection unless the state or its officers, agents, and employees acted with reckless disregard.
(3) The department may intervene when an offender commits a low level violation ((as follows:
))by sanctioning the offender to one or more nonconfinement sanctions((.
))or to not more than three days in total confinement.
(((i)))(a) The department shall develop rules to ensure that each offender subject to a short-term confinement sanction is provided the opportunity to respond to the alleged violation prior to imposition of total confinement.
(((ii)))(b) The offender may appeal the short-term confinement sanction to a panel of three reviewing officers designated by the secretary or by the secretary's designee. The offender's appeal must be in writing and hand-delivered to department staff, or postmarked, within seven days after the sanction is imposed.
(4) If an offender is accused of committing a high level violation, the department may sanction the offender to not more than thirty days in total confinement per hearing.
(a) The offender is entitled to a hearing prior to the imposition of sanctions; and
(b) The offender may be held in total confinement pending a sanction hearing. Prehearing time served must be credited to the offender's sanction time.
(5) ((If the offender's underlying offense is one of the following felonies and the violation behavior constitutes a new misdemeanor, gross misdemeanor or felony, the offender shall be held in total confinement pending a sanction hearing, and until the sanction expires or until if a prosecuting attorney files new charges against the offender, whichever occurs first:
(a) Assault in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.36.011; (b) Assault of a child in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.36.120; (c) Assault of a child in the second degree, as defined in RCW 9A.36.130; (d) Burglary in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.52.020; (e) Child molestation in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.44.083; (f) Commercial sexual abuse of a minor, as defined in RCW 9.68A.100; (g) Dealing in depictions of a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct, as defined in RCW 9.68A.050; (h) Homicide by abuse, as defined in RCW 9A.32.055; (i) Indecent liberties with forcible compulsion, as defined in RCW 9A.44.100(1)(a); (j) Indecent liberties with a person capable of consent, as defined in RCW 9A.44.100(1)(b); (k) Kidnapping in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.40.020; (l) Murder in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.32.030; (m) Murder in the second degree, as defined in RCW 9A.32.050; (n) Promoting commercial sexual abuse of a minor, as defined in RCW 9.68A.101; (o) Rape in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.44.040; (p) Rape in the second degree, as defined in RCW 9A.44.050; (q) Rape of a child in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.44.073; (r) Rape of a child in the second degree, as defined in RCW 9A.44.076; (s) Robbery in the first degree, as defined in RCW 9A.56.200; (t) Sexual exploitation of a minor, as defined in RCW 9.68A.040; or (u) Vehicular homicide while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, as defined in RCW 46.61.520(1)(a).
)) The department shall adopt rules creating hearing procedures for high level violations. The hearings are offender disciplinary proceedings and are not subject to chapter 34.05
RCW. The procedures shall include the following:
(a) The department shall provide the offender with written notice of the alleged violation and the evidence supporting it. The notice must include a statement of the rights specified in this subsection, and the offender's right to file a personal restraint petition under court rules after the final decision;
(b) Unless the offender waives the right to a hearing, the department shall hold a hearing, and shall record it electronically. For offenders not in total confinement, the department shall hold a hearing within fifteen business days, but not less than twenty-four hours, after written notice of the alleged violation. For offenders in total confinement, the department shall hold a hearing within five business days, but not less than twenty-four hours, after written notice of the alleged violation;
(c) The offender shall have the right to: (i) Be present at the hearing; (ii) have the assistance of a person qualified to assist the offender in the hearing, appointed by the hearing officer if the offender has a language or communications barrier; (iii) testify or remain silent; (iv) call witnesses and present documentary evidence; (v) question witnesses who appear and testify; and (vi) receive a written summary of the reasons for the hearing officer's decision; and
(d) The sanction shall take effect if affirmed by the hearing officer. The offender may appeal the sanction to a panel of three reviewing officers designated by the secretary or by the secretary's designee. The offender's appeal must be in writing and hand-delivered to department staff, or postmarked, within seven days after the sanction was imposed. The appeals panel shall affirm, reverse, modify, vacate, or remand based on its findings. If a majority of the panel finds that the sanction was not reasonably related to any of the following: (i) The crime of conviction; (ii) the violation committed; (iii) the offender's risk of reoffending; or (iv) the safety of the community, then the panel will reverse, vacate, remand, or modify the sanction.
(((7)))(6) For purposes of this section, the hearings officer may not rely on unconfirmed or unconfirmable allegations to find that the offender violated a condition.
(((8)))(7) Hearing officers shall report through a chain of command separate from that of community corrections officers.
and 2012 1st sp.s. c 6 s 1 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) If an offender violates any condition or requirement of a sentence, a community corrections officer may arrest or cause the arrest of the offender without a warrant, pending a determination by the court or by the department. If there is reasonable cause to believe that an offender has violated a condition or requirement of the sentence, a community corrections officer may require an offender to submit to a search and seizure of the offender's person, residence, automobile, or other personal property.
(2) For the safety and security of department staff, an offender may be required to submit to pat searches, or other limited security searches, by community corrections officers, correctional officers, and other agency approved staff, without reasonable cause, when in or on department premises, grounds, or facilities, or while preparing to enter department premises, grounds, facilities, or vehicles. Pat searches of offenders shall be conducted only by staff who are the same gender as the offender, except in emergency situations.
(3) A community corrections officer may also arrest an offender for any crime committed in his or her presence. The facts and circumstances of the conduct of the offender shall be reported by the community corrections officer, with recommendations, to the court, local law enforcement, or local prosecution for consideration of new charges. The community corrections officer's report shall serve as the notice that the department will hold the offender for not more than three days from the time of such notice for the new crime((, except if the offender's underlying offense is a felony offense listed in RCW 9.94A.737(5), in which case the department will hold the offender for thirty days from the time of arrest or until a prosecuting attorney charges the offender with a crime, whichever occurs first
)). This does not affect the department's authority under RCW 9.94A.737
If a community corrections officer arrests or causes the arrest of an offender under this section, the offender shall be confined and detained in the county jail of the county in which the offender was taken into custody, and the sheriff of that county shall receive and keep in the county jail, where room is available, all prisoners delivered to the jail by the community corrections officer, and such offenders shall not be released from custody on bail or personal recognizance, except upon approval of the court or authorized department staff, pursuant to a written order.
and 2012 1st sp.s. c 6 s 6 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) The secretary may issue warrants for the arrest of any offender who violates a condition of community custody. The arrest warrants shall authorize any law enforcement or peace officer or community corrections officer of this state or any other state where such offender may be located, to arrest the offender and place him or her in total confinement pending disposition of the alleged violation pursuant to RCW 9.94A.633
(2) A community corrections officer, if he or she has reasonable cause to believe an offender has violated a condition of community custody, may suspend the person's community custody status and arrest or cause the arrest and detention in total confinement of the offender, pending the determination of the secretary as to whether the violation has occurred. The community corrections officer shall report to the secretary all facts and circumstances and the reasons for the action of suspending community custody status.
(3) If an offender has been arrested by the department for a new felony offense while under community custody, the facts and circumstances of the conduct of the offender shall be reported by the community corrections officer to local law enforcement or local prosecution for consideration of new charges. The community corrections officer's report shall serve as notice that the department will hold the offender in total confinement for not more than three days from the time of such notice for the new crime((, except if the offender's underlying offense is a felony offense listed in RCW 9.94A.737(5), in which case the department will hold the offender for thirty days from the time of arrest or until a prosecuting attorney charges the offender with a crime, whichever occurs first
)). Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as to permit the department to hold an offender past his or her maximum term of total confinement if the offender has not completed the maximum term of total confinement or to permit the department to hold an offender past the offender's term of community custody.
(4) A violation of a condition of community custody shall be deemed a violation of the sentence for purposes of RCW 9.94A.631
. The authority granted to community corrections officers under this section shall be in addition to that set forth in RCW 9.94A.631
NEW SECTION. Sec. 8. The legislature declares that the department of corrections' recalculations of community custody terms pursuant to sections 2 and 3 of this act do not create any expectations that a particular community custody term will end before July 1, 2019, and offenders have no reason to conclude that the recalculation of their community custody terms before July 1, 2019, is an entitlement or creates any liberty interest in their community custody term ending before July 1, 2019. The department of corrections is authorized to take the time reasonably necessary to complete the recalculations of community custody terms after the effective date of this section.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 9. The department of corrections has the authority to begin implementing this act upon the effective date of this section.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 10. Sections 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 of this act apply retroactively and prospectively regardless of the date of an offender's underlying offense.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 11. The legislature declares that the changes to the maximum percentages of earned release time in RCW 9.94A.729 do not create any expectation that the percentage of earned release time cannot be revised and offenders have no reason to conclude that the maximum percentage of earned release time is an entitlement or creates any liberty interest. The legislature retains full control over the right to revise the percentages of earned release time available to offenders at any time. This section applies to persons convicted on or after the effective date of this section.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 12. This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect July 1, 2019.
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