HOUSE BILL 1157
State of Washington
2021 Regular Session
ByRepresentatives Bateman, Gilday, Taylor, Eslick, Robertson, Simmons, Ormsby, Lekanoff, Hackney, Ryu, Walen, Vick, Wicks, Berg, Fitzgibbon, Barkis, Harris-Talley, and Dolan
Read first time 01/12/21.Referred to Committee on Local Government.
AN ACT Relating to increasing housing supply through the growth management act and housing density tax incentives for local governments; amending RCW 36.70A.110
, and 82.45.060
; reenacting and amending RCW 36.70A.070
; and adding a new section to chapter 36.70A
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
and 2017 3rd sp.s. c 18 s 4 and 2017 3rd sp.s. c 16 s 4 are each reenacted and amended to read as follows:
The comprehensive plan of a county or city that is required or chooses to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
shall consist of a map or maps, and descriptive text covering objectives, principles, and standards used to develop the comprehensive plan. The plan shall be an internally consistent document and all elements shall be consistent with the future land use map. A comprehensive plan shall be adopted and amended with public participation as provided in RCW 36.70A.140
. Each comprehensive plan shall include a plan, scheme, or design for each of the following:
(1) A land use element designating the proposed general distribution and general location and extent of the uses of land, where appropriate, for agriculture, timber production, housing, commerce, industry, recreation, open spaces, general aviation airports, public utilities, public facilities, and other land uses. The land use element shall include population densities, building intensities to ensure that provisions for housing within subsection (2) of this section are properly planned for and housing targets are implemented for those subject to the requirements, and estimates of future population growth. The land use element shall provide for protection of the quality and quantity of groundwater used for public water supplies. Wherever possible, the land use element should consider utilizing urban planning approaches that promote physical activity. Where applicable, the land use element shall review drainage, flooding, and stormwater runoff in the area and nearby jurisdictions and provide guidance for corrective actions to mitigate or cleanse those discharges that pollute waters of the state, including Puget Sound or waters entering Puget Sound.
(2) A housing element ensuring the vitality and character of established residential neighborhoods that: (a) Includes an inventory and analysis of existing and projected housing needs that identifies the number of housing units necessary to manage projected growth; (b) includes a statement of goals, policies, objectives, and mandatory provisions for the preservation, improvement, and development of housing, including ((single-family residences
))all housing types identified in (c) of this subsection
; (c) identifies sufficient land for housing((,
)) including, but not limited to, government-assisted housing, housing for low-income families, manufactured housing, multifamily housing, ((and
)) group homes and foster care facilities, and single-family detached dwellings, duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, townhomes, accessory dwelling units, and courtyard apartments
)) (d) makes adequate provisions for existing and projected needs of all economic segments of the community, including consideration of housing locations in relation to employment locations; and (e) implements the requirements of RCW 36.70A.110 and countywide planning policies pursuant to RCW 36.70A.210
. In counties and cities subject to the review and evaluation requirements of RCW 36.70A.215
, any revision to the housing element shall include consideration of prior review and evaluation reports and any reasonable measures identified.
(3) A capital facilities plan element consisting of: (a) An inventory of existing capital facilities owned by public entities, showing the locations and capacities of the capital facilities; (b) a forecast of the future needs for such capital facilities; (c) the proposed locations and capacities of expanded or new capital facilities; (d) at least a six-year plan that will finance such capital facilities within projected funding capacities and clearly identifies sources of public money for such purposes; and (e) a requirement to reassess the land use element if probable funding falls short of meeting existing needs and to ensure that the land use element, capital facilities plan element, and financing plan within the capital facilities plan element are coordinated and consistent. Park and recreation facilities shall be included in the capital facilities plan element.
(4) A utilities element consisting of the general location, proposed location, and capacity of all existing and proposed utilities, including, but not limited to, electrical lines, telecommunication lines, and natural gas lines.
(5) Rural element. Counties shall include a rural element including lands that are not designated for urban growth, agriculture, forest, or mineral resources. The following provisions shall apply to the rural element:
(a) Growth management act goals and local circumstances. Because circumstances vary from county to county, in establishing patterns of rural densities and uses, a county may consider local circumstances, but shall develop a written record explaining how the rural element harmonizes the planning goals in RCW 36.70A.020
and meets the requirements of this chapter.
(b) Rural development. The rural element shall permit rural development, forestry, and agriculture in rural areas. The rural element shall provide for a variety of rural densities, uses, essential public facilities, and rural governmental services needed to serve the permitted densities and uses. To achieve a variety of rural densities and uses, counties may provide for clustering, density transfer, design guidelines, conservation easements, and other innovative techniques that will accommodate appropriate rural economic advancement, densities, and uses that are not characterized by urban growth and that are consistent with rural character.
(c) Measures governing rural development. The rural element shall include measures that apply to rural development and protect the rural character of the area, as established by the county, by:
(i) Containing or otherwise controlling rural development;
(ii) Assuring visual compatibility of rural development with the surrounding rural area;
(iii) Reducing the inappropriate conversion of undeveloped land into sprawling, low-density development in the rural area;
(iv) Protecting critical areas, as provided in RCW 36.70A.060
, and surface water and groundwater resources; and
(v) Protecting against conflicts with the use of agricultural, forest, and mineral resource lands designated under RCW 36.70A.170
(d) Limited areas of more intensive rural development. Subject to the requirements of this subsection and except as otherwise specifically provided in this subsection (5)(d), the rural element may allow for limited areas of more intensive rural development, including necessary public facilities and public services to serve the limited area as follows:
(i) Rural development consisting of the infill, development, or redevelopment of existing commercial, industrial, residential, or mixed-use areas, whether characterized as shoreline development, villages, hamlets, rural activity centers, or crossroads developments.
(A) A commercial, industrial, residential, shoreline, or mixed-use area are subject to the requirements of (d)(iv) of this subsection, but are not subject to the requirements of (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection.
(B) Any development or redevelopment other than an industrial area or an industrial use within a mixed-use area or an industrial area under this subsection (5)(d)(i) must be principally designed to serve the existing and projected rural population.
(C) Any development or redevelopment in terms of building size, scale, use, or intensity shall be consistent with the character of the existing areas. Development and redevelopment may include changes in use from vacant land or a previously existing use so long as the new use conforms to the requirements of this subsection (5);
(ii) The intensification of development on lots containing, or new development of, small-scale recreational or tourist uses, including commercial facilities to serve those recreational or tourist uses, that rely on a rural location and setting, but that do not include new residential development. A small-scale recreation or tourist use is not required to be principally designed to serve the existing and projected rural population. Public services and public facilities shall be limited to those necessary to serve the recreation or tourist use and shall be provided in a manner that does not permit low-density sprawl;
(iii) The intensification of development on lots containing isolated nonresidential uses or new development of isolated cottage industries and isolated small-scale businesses that are not principally designed to serve the existing and projected rural population and nonresidential uses, but do provide job opportunities for rural residents. Rural counties may allow the expansion of small-scale businesses as long as those small-scale businesses conform with the rural character of the area as defined by the local government according to RCW 36.70A.030
. Rural counties may also allow new small-scale businesses to utilize a site previously occupied by an existing business as long as the new small-scale business conforms to the rural character of the area as defined by the local government according to RCW 36.70A.030
. Public services and public facilities shall be limited to those necessary to serve the isolated nonresidential use and shall be provided in a manner that does not permit low-density sprawl;
(iv) A county shall adopt measures to minimize and contain the existing areas or uses of more intensive rural development, as appropriate, authorized under this subsection. Lands included in such existing areas or uses shall not extend beyond the logical outer boundary of the existing area or use, thereby allowing a new pattern of low-density sprawl. Existing areas are those that are clearly identifiable and contained and where there is a logical boundary delineated predominately by the built environment, but that may also include undeveloped lands if limited as provided in this subsection. The county shall establish the logical outer boundary of an area of more intensive rural development. In establishing the logical outer boundary, the county shall address (A) the need to preserve the character of existing natural neighborhoods and communities, (B) physical boundaries, such as bodies of water, streets and highways, and land forms and contours, (C) the prevention of abnormally irregular boundaries, and (D) the ability to provide public facilities and public services in a manner that does not permit low-density sprawl;
(v) For purposes of (d) of this subsection, an existing area or existing use is one that was in existence:
(A) On July 1, 1990, in a county that was initially required to plan under all of the provisions of this chapter;
(B) On the date the county adopted a resolution under RCW 36.70A.040
(2), in a county that is planning under all of the provisions of this chapter under RCW 36.70A.040
(C) On the date the office of financial management certifies the county's population as provided in RCW 36.70A.040
(5), in a county that is planning under all of the provisions of this chapter pursuant to RCW 36.70A.040
(e) Exception. This subsection shall not be interpreted to permit in the rural area a major industrial development or a master planned resort unless otherwise specifically permitted under RCW 36.70A.360
(6) A transportation element that implements, and is consistent with, the land use element.
(a) The transportation element shall include the following subelements:
(i) Land use assumptions used in estimating travel;
(ii) Estimated traffic impacts to state-owned transportation facilities resulting from land use assumptions to assist the department of transportation in monitoring the performance of state facilities, to plan improvements for the facilities, and to assess the impact of land-use decisions on state-owned transportation facilities;
(iii) Facilities and services needs, including:
(A) An inventory of air, water, and ground transportation facilities and services, including transit alignments and general aviation airport facilities, to define existing capital facilities and travel levels as a basis for future planning. This inventory must include state-owned transportation facilities within the city or county's jurisdictional boundaries;
(B) Level of service standards for all locally owned arterials and transit routes to serve as a gauge to judge performance of the system. These standards should be regionally coordinated;
(C) For state-owned transportation facilities, level of service standards for highways, as prescribed in chapters 47.06
RCW, to gauge the performance of the system. The purposes of reflecting level of service standards for state highways in the local comprehensive plan are to monitor the performance of the system, to evaluate improvement strategies, and to facilitate coordination between the county's or city's six-year street, road, or transit program and the office of financial management's ten-year investment program. The concurrency requirements of (b) of this subsection do not apply to transportation facilities and services of statewide significance except for counties consisting of islands whose only connection to the mainland are state highways or ferry routes. In these island counties, state highways and ferry route capacity must be a factor in meeting the concurrency requirements in (b) of this subsection;
(D) Specific actions and requirements for bringing into compliance locally owned transportation facilities or services that are below an established level of service standard;
(E) Forecasts of traffic for at least ten years based on the adopted land use plan to provide information on the location, timing, and capacity needs of future growth;
(F) Identification of state and local system needs to meet current and future demands. Identified needs on state-owned transportation facilities must be consistent with the statewide multimodal transportation plan required under chapter 47.06
(iv) Finance, including:
(A) An analysis of funding capability to judge needs against probable funding resources;
(B) A multiyear financing plan based on the needs identified in the comprehensive plan, the appropriate parts of which shall serve as the basis for the six-year street, road, or transit program required by RCW 35.77.010
for cities, RCW 36.81.121
for counties, and RCW 35.58.2795
for public transportation systems. The multiyear financing plan should be coordinated with the ten-year investment program developed by the office of financial management as required by RCW 47.05.030
(C) If probable funding falls short of meeting identified needs, a discussion of how additional funding will be raised, or how land use assumptions will be reassessed to ensure that level of service standards will be met;
(v) Intergovernmental coordination efforts, including an assessment of the impacts of the transportation plan and land use assumptions on the transportation systems of adjacent jurisdictions;
(vi) Demand-management strategies;
(vii) Pedestrian and bicycle component to include collaborative efforts to identify and designate planned improvements for pedestrian and bicycle facilities and corridors that address and encourage enhanced community access and promote healthy lifestyles.
(b) After adoption of the comprehensive plan by jurisdictions required to plan or who choose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
, local jurisdictions must adopt and enforce ordinances which prohibit development approval if the development causes the level of service on a locally owned transportation facility to decline below the standards adopted in the transportation element of the comprehensive plan, unless transportation improvements or strategies to accommodate the impacts of development are made concurrent with the development. These strategies may include increased public transportation service, ride-sharing
programs, demand management, and other transportation systems management strategies. For the purposes of this subsection (6), "concurrent with the development" means that improvements or strategies are in place at the time of development, or that a financial commitment is in place to complete the improvements or strategies within six years. If the collection of impact fees is delayed under RCW 82.02.050
(3), the six-year period required by this subsection (6)(b) must begin after full payment of all impact fees is due to the county or city.
(c) The transportation element described in this subsection (6), the six-year plans required by RCW 35.77.010
for cities, RCW 36.81.121
for counties, and RCW 35.58.2795
for public transportation systems, and the ten-year investment program required by RCW 47.05.030
for the state, must be consistent.
(7) An economic development element establishing local goals, policies, objectives, and provisions for economic growth and vitality and a high quality of life. A city that has chosen to be a residential community is exempt from the economic development element requirement of this subsection.
(8) A park and recreation element that implements, and is consistent with, the capital facilities plan element as it relates to park and recreation facilities. The element shall include: (a) Estimates of park and recreation demand for at least a ten-year period; (b) an evaluation of facilities and service needs; and (c) an evaluation of intergovernmental coordination opportunities to provide regional approaches for meeting park and recreational demand.
(9) It is the intent that new or amended elements required after January 1, 2002, be adopted concurrent with the scheduled update provided in RCW 36.70A.130
. Requirements to incorporate any such new or amended elements shall be null and void until funds sufficient to cover applicable local government costs are appropriated and distributed by the state at least two years before local government must update comprehensive plans as required in RCW 36.70A.130
and 2017 c 305 s 1 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) Each county that is required or chooses to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
shall designate an urban growth area or areas within which urban growth shall be encouraged and outside of which growth can occur only if it is not urban in nature. Each city that is located in such a county shall be included within an urban growth area. An urban growth area may include more than a single city. An urban growth area may include territory that is located outside of a city only if such territory already is characterized by urban growth whether or not the urban growth area includes a city, or is adjacent to territory already characterized by urban growth, or is a designated new fully contained community as defined by RCW 36.70A.350
(2) Based upon the growth management population projection made for the county by the office of financial management, the county and each city within the county shall include areas and densities sufficient to permit the urban growth that is projected to occur in the county or city for the succeeding twenty-year period, except for those urban growth areas contained totally within a national historical reserve. This includes areas and densities sufficient to meet mandatory provisions for the development of housing as provided for in RCW 36.70A.070 and 36.70A.210.
As part of this planning process, each city within the county must include areas sufficient to accommodate the broad range of needs and uses that will accompany the projected urban growth including, as appropriate, medical, governmental, institutional, commercial, service, retail, and other nonresidential uses.
Each urban growth area shall permit urban densities and shall include greenbelt and open space areas. For counties and cities within those counties planning under RCW 36.70A.215, urban densities of no less than six net dwelling units per acre for areas zoned for and which allow housing is required. A county or city subject to the minimum six net dwelling units per acre minimum requirement may opt out of this requirement when it can be demonstrated that the area being subjected to this requirement meets one or more of the following standards:
(a) The presence of critical areas would prevent the area or areas from being developed at six net dwelling units per acre;
(b) The area is more than .5 miles from a major transit stop as defined in RCW 43.21C.420(3);
(c) The area is within a national historic reserve;
(d) The county or city demonstrates that the area or areas are not necessary to meet housing requirements in this section or RCW 36.70A.070 or 36.70A.210; or
(e) The county or city documents a specific infrastructure or physical constraint that would make this requirement infeasible for a particular area, and efforts are being taken to remedy such deficiency.
In the case of urban growth areas contained totally within a national historical reserve, the city may restrict densities, intensities, and forms of urban growth as determined to be necessary and appropriate to protect the physical, cultural, or historic integrity of the reserve. An urban growth area determination may include a reasonable land market supply factor and shall permit a range of urban densities and uses. In determining this market factor, cities and counties may consider local circumstances. Cities and counties have discretion in their comprehensive plans to make many choices about accommodating growth. Within one year of July 1, 1990, each county that as of June 1, 1991, was required or chose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
, shall begin consulting with each city located within its boundaries and each city shall propose the location of an urban growth area. Within sixty days of the date the county legislative authority of a county adopts its resolution of intention or of certification by the office of financial management, all other counties that are required or choose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
shall begin this consultation with each city located within its boundaries. The county shall attempt to reach agreement with each city on the location of an urban growth area within which the city is located. If such an agreement is not reached with each city located within the urban growth area, the county shall justify in writing why it so designated the area an urban growth area. A city may object formally with the department over the designation of the urban growth area within which it is located. Where appropriate, the department shall attempt to resolve the conflicts, including the use of mediation services.
Urban growth should be located first in areas already characterized by urban growth that have adequate existing public facility and service capacities to serve such development, second in areas already characterized by urban growth that will be served adequately by a combination of both existing public facilities and services and any additional needed public facilities and services that are provided by either public or private sources, and third in the remaining portions of the urban growth areas. Urban growth may also be located in designated new fully contained communities as defined by RCW 36.70A.350
(((4)))(6) In general, cities are the units of local government most appropriate to provide urban governmental services. In general, it is not appropriate that urban governmental services be extended to or expanded in rural areas except in those limited circumstances shown to be necessary to protect basic public health and safety and the environment and when such services are financially supportable at rural densities and do not permit urban development.
On or before October 1, 1993, each county that was initially required to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
(1) shall adopt development regulations designating interim urban growth areas under this chapter. Within three years and three months of the date the county legislative authority of a county adopts its resolution of intention or of certification by the office of financial management, all other counties that are required or choose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
shall adopt development regulations designating interim urban growth areas under this chapter. Adoption of the interim urban growth areas may only occur after public notice; public hearing; and compliance with the state environmental policy act, chapter 43.21C
RCW, and under this section. Such action may be appealed to the growth management hearings board under RCW 36.70A.280
. Final urban growth areas shall be adopted at the time of comprehensive plan adoption under this chapter.
(((6)))(8) Each county shall include designations of urban growth areas in its comprehensive plan.
(((7)))(9) An urban growth area designated in accordance with this section may include within its boundaries urban service areas or potential annexation areas designated for specific cities or towns within the county.
(((8)))(10)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, the expansion of an urban growth area is prohibited into the one hundred year floodplain of any river or river segment that: (i) Is located west of the crest of the Cascade mountains; and (ii) has a mean annual flow of one thousand or more cubic feet per second as determined by the department of ecology.
(b) Subsection (((8)))(10)(a) of this section does not apply to:
(i) Urban growth areas that are fully contained within a floodplain and lack adjacent buildable areas outside the floodplain;
(ii) Urban growth areas where expansions are precluded outside floodplains because:
(A) Urban governmental services cannot be physically provided to serve areas outside the floodplain; or
(B) Expansions outside the floodplain would require a river or estuary crossing to access the expansion; or
(iii) Urban growth area expansions where:
(A) Public facilities already exist within the floodplain and the expansion of an existing public facility is only possible on the land to be included in the urban growth area and located within the floodplain; or
(B) Urban development already exists within a floodplain as of July 26, 2009, and is adjacent to, but outside of, the urban growth area, and the expansion of the urban growth area is necessary to include such urban development within the urban growth area; or
(C) The land is owned by a jurisdiction planning under this chapter or the rights to the development of the land have been permanently extinguished, and the following criteria are met:
(I) The permissible use of the land is limited to one of the following: Outdoor recreation; environmentally beneficial projects, including but not limited to habitat enhancement or environmental restoration; stormwater facilities; flood control facilities; or underground conveyances; and
(II) The development and use of such facilities or projects will not decrease flood storage, increase stormwater runoff, discharge pollutants to fresh or salt waters during normal operations or floods, or increase hazards to people and property.
(c) For the purposes of this subsection (((8)))(10), "one hundred year floodplain" means the same as "special flood hazard area" as set forth in WAC 173-158-040 as it exists on July 26, 2009.
(((9)))(11) If a county, city, or utility has adopted a capital facility plan or utilities element to provide sewer service within the urban growth areas during the twenty-year planning period, nothing in this chapter obligates counties, cities, or utilities to install sanitary sewer systems to properties within urban growth areas designated under subsection (2) of this section by the end of the twenty-year planning period when those properties:
(a)(i) Have existing, functioning, nonpolluting on-site sewage systems;
(ii) Have a periodic inspection program by a public agency to verify the on-site sewage systems function properly and do not pollute surface or groundwater; and
(iii) Have no redevelopment capacity; or
(b) Do not require sewer service because development densities are limited due to wetlands, flood plains, fish and wildlife habitats, or geological hazards.
and 2009 c 121 s 2 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) The legislature recognizes that counties are regional governments within their boundaries, and cities are primary providers of urban governmental services within urban growth areas. For the purposes of this section, a "countywide planning policy" is a written policy statement or statements used solely for establishing a countywide framework from which county and city comprehensive plans are developed and adopted pursuant to this chapter. This framework shall ensure that city and county comprehensive plans are consistent as required in RCW 36.70A.100
. Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter the land-use powers of cities.
(2) The legislative authority of a county that plans under RCW 36.70A.040
shall adopt a countywide planning policy in cooperation with the cities located in whole or in part within the county as follows:
(a) No later than sixty calendar days from July 16, 1991, the legislative authority of each county that as of June 1, 1991, was required or chose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
shall convene a meeting with representatives of each city located within the county for the purpose of establishing a collaborative process that will provide a framework for the adoption of a countywide planning policy. In other counties that are required or choose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
, this meeting shall be convened no later than sixty days after the date the county adopts its resolution of intention or was certified by the office of financial management.
(b) The process and framework for adoption of a countywide planning policy specified in (a) of this subsection shall determine the manner in which the county and the cities agree to all procedures and provisions including but not limited to desired planning policies, deadlines, ratification of final agreements and demonstration thereof, and financing, if any, of all activities associated therewith.
(c) If a county fails for any reason to convene a meeting with representatives of cities as required in (a) of this subsection, the governor may immediately impose any appropriate sanction or sanctions on the county from those specified under RCW 36.70A.340
(d) If there is no agreement by October 1, 1991, in a county that was required or chose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
as of June 1, 1991, or if there is no agreement within one hundred twenty days of the date the county adopted its resolution of intention or was certified by the office of financial management in any other county that is required or chooses to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
, the governor shall first inquire of the jurisdictions as to the reason or reasons for failure to reach an agreement. If the governor deems it appropriate, the governor may immediately request the assistance of the department of ((community, trade, and economic development
to mediate any disputes that preclude agreement. If mediation is unsuccessful in resolving all disputes that will lead to agreement, the governor may impose appropriate sanctions from those specified under RCW 36.70A.340
on the county, city, or cities for failure to reach an agreement as provided in this section. The governor shall specify the reason or reasons for the imposition of any sanction.
(e) No later than July 1, 1992, the legislative authority of each county that was required or chose to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
as of June 1, 1991, or no later than fourteen months after the date the county adopted its resolution of intention or was certified by the office of financial management the county legislative authority of any other county that is required or chooses to plan under RCW 36.70A.040
, shall adopt a countywide planning policy according to the process provided under this section and that is consistent with the agreement pursuant to (b) of this subsection, and after holding a public hearing or hearings on the proposed countywide planning policy.
(3) A countywide planning policy shall at a minimum, address the following:
(b) Policies for promotion of contiguous and orderly development and provision of urban services to such development;
(c) Policies for siting public capital facilities of a countywide or statewide nature, including transportation facilities of statewide significance as defined in RCW 47.06.140
(d) Policies for countywide transportation facilities and strategies;
(e) Policies that consider the need for ((affordable housing, such as
)) housing for all economic segments of the population and parameters for its distribution. For counties and cities within those counties planning under RCW 36.70A.215, housing targets for housing types identified in RCW 36.70A.070(2) shall be adopted in order to demonstrate that a county and cities within that county are collectively planning for the existing and projected housing needs of all economic segments of the community as required by RCW 36.70A.070(2). Policies must seek to balance housing supply with employment in the jurisdiction, giving special consideration to workforce housing and creating opportunities for first-time homeownership. For counties and cities within those counties subject to housing target requirements, this provision does not become effective until January 1, 2025
(f) Policies for joint county and city planning within urban growth areas;
(g) Policies for countywide economic development and employment, which must include consideration of the future development of commercial and industrial facilities; and
(h) An analysis of the fiscal impact.
(4) Federal agencies and Indian tribes may participate in and cooperate with the countywide planning policy adoption process. Adopted countywide planning policies shall be adhered to by state agencies.
(5) Failure to adopt a countywide planning policy that meets the requirements of this section may result in the imposition of a sanction or sanctions on a county or city within the county, as specified in RCW 36.70A.340
. In imposing a sanction or sanctions, the governor shall specify the reasons for failure to adopt a countywide planning policy in order that any imposed sanction or sanctions are fairly and equitably related to the failure to adopt a countywide planning policy.
(6) Cities and the governor may appeal an adopted countywide planning policy to the growth management hearings board within sixty days of the adoption of the countywide planning policy.
(7) Multicounty planning policies shall be adopted by two or more counties, each with a population of four hundred fifty thousand or more, with contiguous urban areas and may be adopted by other counties, according to the process established under this section or other processes agreed to among the counties and cities within the affected counties throughout the multicounty region.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 4.
A new section is added to chapter 36.70A
RCW to read as follows:
(1) Cities within counties planning under RCW 36.70A.215
and those counties may establish one or more real estate excise tax density incentive zones. A real estate excise tax density incentive zone is an area within an urban growth area where the city or county adopts zoning and development regulations to increase housing supply by allowing construction of additional housing types as outright permitted uses. Creation of a real estate excise tax density incentive zone enables the local government to receive a portion of the tax imposed under chapter 82.45
RCW for sales of qualified residential dwelling units within the zone.
(2) A real estate excise tax density incentive zone may only be located within a designated urban growth area, and must allow the following housing types: Single-family detached dwellings at a net density of at least six dwelling units per acre, duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, townhomes, accessory dwelling units, and courtyard apartments.
(3) A real estate excise tax density incentive zone may also allow as outright permitted uses housing types and densities that exceed the minimum requirements in subsection (2) of this section.
(4)(a) For the purposes of this section, a "qualified residential dwelling" is either an individual residential dwelling unit or a residential building of two or more dwelling units constructed within a real estate excise tax density incentive zone that achieves a net increase in the total number of residential dwelling units compared to the maximum number of residential dwelling units that could have been built prior to the adoption of zoning and development regulations creating the real estate excise tax density incentive zone.
(b) If the qualified residential dwelling has two or more dwelling units, the amount distributed to the local government under RCW 82.45.060
(4)(c) shall be reduced by the percent attributable to the number of new dwelling units within the building that could have been built under the zoning and development regulations that existed prior to the creation of the local real estate excise tax density incentive zone.
(5) A sale that does not involve a net increase above the maximum number of residential dwelling units that could have been constructed as an outright permitted use, prior to the creation of the real estate excise tax density incentive zone, is not a sale of a qualified residential dwelling unit.
(6) A real estate excise tax density incentive zone may be established for areas where a city or county previously enacted zoning and development regulations meeting the minimum requirements in this section, but not prior to January 1, 2017. A real estate excise tax density incentive zone may not be established later than one year after the date by which a city or county is required to update its growth management comprehensive plan under RCW 36.70A.130
. Once a real estate excise tax density incentive zone is established in compliance with this section, a qualified residential dwelling unit may be constructed at any time.
and 2019 c 424 s 1 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) There is imposed an excise tax upon each sale of real property.
(a) Through December 31, 2019, the rate of the tax imposed under this section is 1.28 percent of the selling price.
(b) Beginning January 1, 2020, except as provided in (c) of this subsection, the rate of the tax imposed under this section is as follows:
(i) 1.1 percent of the portion of the selling price that is less than or equal to five hundred thousand dollars;
(ii) 1.28 percent of the portion of the selling price that is greater than five hundred thousand dollars and equal to or less than one million five hundred thousand dollars;
(iii) 2.75 percent of the portion of the selling price that is greater than one million five hundred thousand dollars and equal to or less than three million dollars;
(iv) Three percent of the portion of the selling price that is greater than three million dollars.
(c) The sale of real property that is classified as timberland or agricultural land is subject to the tax imposed under this section at a rate of 1.28 percent of the selling price.
(2) Beginning July 1, 2022, and every fourth year thereafter:
(a) The department must adjust the selling price threshold in subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section to reflect the lesser of the growth of the consumer price index for shelter or five percent. If the growth is equal to or less than zero percent, the current selling price threshold continues to apply.
(b) The department must adjust the selling price thresholds in subsection (1)(b)(ii) through (iv) of this section by the dollar amount of any increase in the selling price threshold in subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section.
(c) The department must publish updated selling price thresholds by September 1, 2022, and September 1st of every fourth year thereafter. Updated selling price thresholds will apply beginning January 1, 2023, and January 1st every fourth year thereafter. Adjusted selling price thresholds must be rounded to the nearest one thousand dollars. No changes may be made to adjusted selling price thresholds once such adjustments take effect.
(d) The most recent selling price threshold becomes the base for subsequent adjustments.
(e) The department must report adjustments to the selling price thresholds to the fiscal committees of the legislature, beginning December 1, 2022, and December 1st every fourth year thereafter.
(3)(a) The department must publish guidance to assist sellers in properly classifying real property on the real estate excise tax affidavit for purposes of determining the proper amount of tax due under this section. Real property with multiple uses must be classified according to the property's predominant use. The department's guidance must include factors for use in determining the predominant use of real property.
(b) County treasurers are not responsible for verifying that the seller has properly classified real property reported on a real estate excise tax affidavit. The department is solely responsible for such verification as part of its audit responsibilities under RCW 82.45.150
(4)(a) Beginning July 1, 2013, and ending December 31, 2019, an amount equal to two percent of the proceeds of this tax must be deposited in the public works assistance account created in RCW 43.155.050
, an amount equal to four and one-tenth percent must be deposited in the education legacy trust account created in RCW 83.100.230
, an amount equal to one and six-tenths percent must be deposited in the city-county assistance account created in RCW 43.08.290
, and the remainder must be deposited in the general fund.
(b) Beginning January 1, 2020, amounts collected from the tax imposed under this section must be deposited as provided in RCW 82.45.230 less any amount distributed to a city or county pursuant to (c) of this subsection (4).
(c) Beginning July 1, 2023, the amounts collected on the sale of a qualified residential dwelling constructed within a real estate excise tax density incentive zone created under section 4 of this act shall be distributed to a city or county as follows:
(i) For a qualified residential dwelling unit located more than .5 miles from a mass transit stop as defined in RCW 43.21C.420(3), 50 percent of the amounts collected to the city or county where the dwelling is located; (ii) For a qualified residential dwelling unit located less than or equal to .5 miles from a mass transit stop as defined in RCW 43.21C.420(3), 25 percent of the amounts collected to the city or county where the dwelling is located.
(d) The distribution to a city or county under (c) of this subsection applies to both the initial and all subsequent sales of a qualified residential dwelling unit. The amounts distributed to a city and county may be used solely for:
(i) Costs associated with adoption or amendment of plans under chapter 36.70A RCW; (ii) Preparation of the review and evaluation report pursuant to RCW 36.70A.215;
(iii) Long-term planning;
(iv) Code and development regulation amendments for the purpose of increasing housing supply; or
(v) Code and development regulation amendments that decrease the amount of time necessary to obtain permits for housing.
(5) The definitions in this subsection apply throughout this section unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(a) "Agricultural land" means farm and agricultural land and farm and agricultural conservation land, as those terms are defined in RCW 84.34.020
, including any structures on such land.
(b) "Consumer price index for shelter" means the most current seasonally adjusted index for the shelter expenditure category of the consumer price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by July 31st by the bureau of labor statistics of the United States department of labor.
(c) "Growth of the consumer price index for shelter" means the percentage increase in the consumer price index for shelter as measured from data published by the bureau of labor statistics of the United States department of labor by July 31st for the most recent three-year period for the selling price threshold adjustment in 2022, and the most recent four-year period for subsequent selling price threshold adjustments.
(d) "Timberland" means land classified under chapter 84.34
RCW or designated under chapter 84.33
RCW, including any structures and standing timber on such land, and standing timber sold apart from the land upon which it sits.
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