SSB 5078
C 163 L 23
Synopsis as Enacted
Brief Description: Protecting public safety by establishing duties of firearm industry members.
Sponsors: Senate Committee on Ways & Means (originally sponsored by Senators Pedersen, Dhingra, Frame, Hasegawa, Hunt, Keiser, Kuderer, Liias, Nguyen, Nobles, Rolfes, Salda?a, Stanford, Trudeau, Valdez and Wellman; by request of Office of the Governor, Attorney General).
Senate Committee on Law & Justice
Senate Committee on Ways & Means
House Committee on Civil Rights & Judiciary
House Committee on Appropriations

Firearms. Under federal law, a firearms dealer cannot sell a firearm or ammunition to a person whom the dealer knows, or has reasonable cause to know, is federally prohibited from possessing a firearm. The consequence for willful violations of the federal law is revocation of the federal firearm license, and imposition of a civil fine.

Both federal and Washington law prohibit purchasing through a straw purchaser. A straw purchaser is a person who buys a firearm for someone who is prohibited by law from possessing a firearm, or buying a firearm for someone who does not want their name associated with the transaction.

Under the federal protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act, states retain the authority to enact and enforce statutes regulating the sale and marketing of firearms and related products and may pursue causes of action where there are violations of such statutes.

Nuisance. A nuisance is a substantial and unreasonable interference with the use and enjoyment of another person's property. Washington's nuisance law defines nuisance as an act or omission that either annoys, injures, or endangers the comfort, repose, health, or safety of others, or in any way renders another person insecure in life or the use of property.

A moral nuisance is any nuisance which is injurious to public morals. A public nuisance is one which affects equally the rights of an entire community or neighborhood, even if the extent of the damage is unequal. A private nuisance is any nuisance that is not included within the definition of a public nuisance.

Public nuisance was established in state law by Washington's territorial Legislature in 1875 and has been interpreted by the state supreme court to enjoin the operation of illegal businesses as nuisances by individuals suffering special injury. Since at least 1895, public nuisance has included manufacturing and storing gunpowder and other highly explosive substances.

An action against a purported nuisance may be brought by any person whose property is, or whose patrons or employees are, injuriously affected or whose personal enjoyment is lessened by the nuisance. The remedies available for those affected by a public nuisance are indictment or information, a civil action, or abatement.


Firearm Industry Members' Duties. Firearm industry members are defined as persons engaged in the wholesale or retail sale, manufacturing, distribution, importing, or marketing of firearms or related products, or any officer or agent to act on behalf of such persons or who acts in active concert or participation with such persons.  Firearm industry members are prohibited from knowingly creating, maintaining, or contributing to a public nuisance in Washington through the sale, manufacture, distribution, importing, or marketing of firearms or related products.

Firearm industry members are required to implement and enforce reasonable controls, such as screening, security, and inventory practices, to prevent specified harms. This includes requiring firearm industry members to take reasonable precautions to ensure they do not sell or distribute firearms and related products to straw purchasers and gun traffickers, or sell or distribute firearms and related products to a downstream distributor or retailer that fails to implement reasonable controls.

Firearm industry members may not manufacture, distribute, import, market, or offer for wholesale or retail sale a firearm or related product that is designed, sold, or marketed in a manner that is targeted at minors or individuals who are legally prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms, or that foreseeably promotes conversion of a legal firearm or related product into an illegal firearm or related product.

A violation of these duties is a public nuisance. A firearm industry member's conduct in violation of these duties constitutes a proximate cause of the public nuisance if the harm is a reasonably foreseeable effect of the conduct including criminal actions by third parties.

Attorney General. For purposes of the Consumer Protection Act, a violation of the firearm industry members' duties is considered an unfair or deceptive act in trade or commerce and an unfair method of competition. If the attorney general has reason to believe a firearm industry member has violated these duties, they may commence an action to seek and obtain any remedies available against the firearm industry member. The attorney general may also seek and obtain punitive damages up to three times the actual damages sustained by the state, reasonable attorneys' fees, and costs of the action.

Whenever the attorney general believes a person may be in possession of information related to an investigation into a violation of the firearm industry members' duties, or who may have knowledge of information related to the subject matter of such an investigation, the attorney general may, prior to initiating a civil proceeding on the matter, serve such person with a civil investigative demand requiring the person to divulge this information.


The attorney general's authority does not deny, abrogate, limit, or impair any person's right to bring a private right of action seeking damages, abatement or any other remedy available for a public nuisance, or seeking damages, equitable relief, or any other remedy available under the Consumer Protection Act.

Votes on Final Passage:
Senate 28 21
House 57 41 (House amended)
Senate 26 20 (Senate concurred)

July 23, 2023