HOUSE BILL 1337
State of Washington
2023 Regular Session
ByRepresentatives Gregerson, Barkis, Berry, Christian, Duerr, Fitzgibbon, Taylor, Ramel, Reeves, Simmons, Walen, Graham, Bateman, Reed, Lekanoff, Doglio, Tharinger, Cortes, Macri, and Stonier
Read first time 01/16/23.Referred to Committee on Housing.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON:
NEW SECTION. Sec. 1. (1) The legislature makes the following findings:
(a) Washington state is experiencing a housing affordability crisis. Many communities across the state are in need of more housing for renters across the income spectrum.
(b) Many cities dedicate the majority of residentially zoned land to single detached houses that are increasingly financially out of reach for many households. Due to their smaller size, accessory dwelling units can provide a more affordable housing option in those single-family zones.
(c) Localities can start to correct for historic economic and racial exclusion in single-family zones by opening up these neighborhoods to more diverse housing types, including accessory dwelling units, that provide lower cost homes. Increasing housing options in expensive, high-opportunity neighborhoods will give more families access to schools, parks, and other public amenities otherwise accessible to only the wealthy.
(d) Accessory dwelling units are frequently rented below market rate, providing additional affordable housing options for renters.
(e) Accessory dwelling units can also help to provide housing for very low-income households. More than 10 percent of accessory dwelling units in some areas are occupied by tenants who pay no rent at all; among these tenants are grandparents, adult children, family members with disabilities, friends going through life transitions, and community members in need. Accessory dwelling units meet the needs of these people who might otherwise require subsidized housing space and resources.
(f) Accessory dwelling units can meet the needs of Washington's growing senior population, making it possible for this population to age in their communities by offering senior-friendly housing, which prioritizes physical accessibility, in walkable communities near amenities essential to successful aging in place, including transit and grocery stores, without requiring costly renovations of existing housing stock.
(g) Homeowners who add an accessory dwelling unit may benefit from added income and an increased sense of security.
(h) Accessory dwelling units provide environmental benefits. On average they are more energy efficient than single detached houses, and they incentivize adaptive reuse of existing homes and materials.
(i) Siting accessory dwelling units near transit hubs, employment centers, and public amenities can help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by increasing walkability, shortening household commutes, and curtailing sprawl.
(2) The legislature intends to promote and encourage the creation of accessory dwelling units as a means to address the need for additional affordable housing options.
and 2021 c 306 s 2 are each amended to read as follows:
The definitions in this section apply throughout RCW 36.70A.697
36.70A.698, and sections 3 and 4 of this act
unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(1) "Accessory dwelling unit" means a dwelling unit located on the same lot as a single-family housing unit, duplex, triplex, townhome, or other housing unit.
(2) "Attached accessory dwelling unit" means an accessory dwelling unit located within or attached to a single-family housing unit, duplex, triplex, townhome, or other housing unit.
(3) "City" means any city, code city, and town located in a county planning under RCW 36.70A.040
(4) "County" means any county planning under RCW 36.70A.040
(5) "Detached accessory dwelling unit" means an accessory dwelling unit that consists partly or entirely of a building that is separate and detached from a single-family housing unit, duplex, triplex, townhome, or other housing unit and is on the same property.
(6) "Dwelling unit" means a residential living unit that provides complete independent living facilities for one or more persons and that includes permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation.
(7) "Gross floor area" means the interior habitable area of a dwelling unit including basements and attics but not including a garage or accessory structure.
(8) "Major transit stop" means:
(a) A stop on a high capacity transportation system funded or expanded under the provisions of chapter 81.104
(b) Commuter rail stops;
(c) Stops on rail or fixed guideway systems, including transitways;
(d) Stops on bus rapid transit routes or routes that run on high occupancy vehicle lanes; or
(e) Stops for a bus or other transit mode providing actual fixed route service at intervals of at least fifteen minutes for at least five hours during the peak hours of operation on weekdays.
(((8)))(9) "Owner" means any person who has at least 50 percent ownership in a property on which an accessory dwelling unit is located.
(((9)))(10) "Principal unit" means the single-family housing unit, duplex, triplex, townhome, or other housing unit located on the same lot as an accessory dwelling unit.
(11) "Short-term rental" means a lodging use, that is not a hotel or motel or bed and breakfast, in which a dwelling unit, or portion thereof, is offered or provided to a guest by a short-term rental operator for a fee for fewer than 30 consecutive nights.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 3.
A new section is added to chapter 36.70A
RCW to read as follows:
(1)(a) Cities and counties planning under this chapter must adopt or amend by ordinance, and incorporate into their development regulations, zoning regulations, and other official controls the requirements of this section and of section 4 of this act by July 1, 2024.
(b) Beginning July 1, 2024, the requirements of this section and of section 4 of this act apply and take effect in any city or county that has not adopted or amended ordinances, regulations, or other official controls as required under this section and supersede, preempt, and invalidate any conflicting local development regulations.
(2) Ordinances, development regulations, and other official controls adopted or amended pursuant to this section and section 4 of this act need only apply in the portions of towns, cities, and counties that are within urban growth areas designated under this chapter.
(3) Attached or detached accessory dwelling units may not be considered as contributing to the overall underlying density within the urban growth area boundary of a county for purposes of compliance with this chapter.
(4) Any action taken by a city or county to comply with the requirements of this section or section 4 of this act is not subject to legal challenge under this chapter or chapter 43.21C
(5) Nothing in this section or section 4 of this act requires or authorizes a city or county to authorize the construction of an accessory dwelling unit in a location where development is restricted under other laws, rules, or ordinances as a result of physical proximity to on-site sewage system infrastructure, critical areas, or other unsuitable physical characteristics of a property.
(6) Nothing in this section or in section 4 of this act prohibits a city or county from:
(a) Restricting the use of accessory dwelling units for short-term rentals;
(b) Applying public health, safety, building code, and environmental permitting requirements to an accessory dwelling unit that would be applicable to the principal unit, including regulations to protect ground and surface waters from on-site wastewater;
(c) Applying generally applicable development regulations to the construction of an accessory unit, except when the application of such regulations would be contrary to this section or to section 4 of this act;
(d) Prohibiting the construction of accessory dwelling units on lots that are not connected to or served by public sewers; or
(e) Prohibiting or restricting the construction of accessory dwelling units in residential zones with a density of one dwelling unit per acre or less that are within areas designated as wetlands, fish and wildlife habitats, flood plains, or geologically hazardous areas.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 4.
A new section is added to chapter 36.70A
RCW to read as follows:
(1) In addition to ordinances, development regulations, and other official controls adopted or amended to comply with section 3 of this act and subsection (2) of this section, a city or county must comply with a minimum of three of the following policies:
(a) The city or county may not establish a requirement for the provision of off-street parking for accessory dwelling units;
(b) The city or county may not assess impact fees on the construction of accessory dwelling units that are greater than 50 percent of the impact fees that would be imposed on the principal unit;
(c) The city or county may not require the owner of a lot on which there is an accessory dwelling unit to reside in or occupy the accessory dwelling unit or another housing unit on the same lot; and
(d) The city or county must allow at least two accessory dwelling units on all lots that are located in all zoning districts that allow for single-family homes in the following configurations:
(i) One attached accessory dwelling unit and one detached accessory dwelling unit;
(ii) Two attached accessory dwelling units; or
(iii) Two detached accessory dwelling units, which may be comprised of either one or two detached structures.
(2) Through ordinances, development regulations, and other official controls adopted or amended to comply with section 3 of this act and subsection (1) of this section, a city or county must also comply with all of the following policies:
(a) The city or county must permit accessory dwelling units in structures detached from the principal unit;
(b) The city or county must allow an accessory dwelling unit on any lot that meets the minimum lot size required for the principal unit;
(c) The city or county may not establish a maximum gross floor area requirement for accessory dwelling units that is less than 1,000 square feet;
(d) The city or county may not establish roof height limits on an accessory dwelling unit of less than 24 feet, unless the height limitation that applies to the principal unit is less than 24 feet, in which case a city or county may not impose roof height limitation on accessory dwelling units that is less than the height limitation that applies to the principal unit;
(e) A city or county may not impose setback requirements, yard coverage limits, tree retention mandates, restrictions on entry door locations, aesthetic requirements, or requirements for design review for accessory dwelling units that are more restrictive than those for principal units;
(f) A city or county must allow detached accessory dwelling units to be sited at a lot line if the lot line abuts a public alley, unless the city or county routinely plows snow on the public alley;
(g) A city or county must allow accessory dwelling units to be converted from existing structures, including but not limited to detached garages, even if they violate current code requirements for setbacks or lot coverage;
(h) A city or county may not prohibit the sale or other conveyance of a condominium unit independently of a principal unit solely on the grounds that the condominium unit was originally built as an accessory dwelling unit; and
(i) A city or county may not require public street improvements as a condition of permitting accessory dwelling units.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 5.
A new section is added to chapter 36.70A
RCW to read as follows:
(1) No restrictive covenant or deed restriction created after the effective date of this section and applicable to a property located within an urban growth area may impose any restriction or prohibition on the construction, development, or use on a lot of an accessory dwelling unit that the city or county in which the urban growth area is located would be prohibited from imposing under section 4 of this act.
(2) For the purposes of this section, "urban growth area" has the same meaning as in RCW 36.70A.030
(3) A city or county issuing a permit for the construction of an accessory dwelling unit may not be held civilly liable on the basis that the construction of the accessory dwelling unit would violate a restrictive covenant or deed restriction that was created after the effective date of this section and that is contrary to subsection (1) of this section.
and 2022 c 246 s 3 are each amended to read as follows:
Adoption of ordinances, development regulations and amendments to such regulations, and other nonproject actions taken by a city to implement: The actions specified in section 2, chapter 246, Laws of 2022 unless the adoption of such ordinances, development regulations and amendments to such regulations, or other nonproject actions has a probable significant adverse impact on fish habitat; and the increased residential building capacity actions identified in RCW 36.70A.600
(1), with the exception of the action specified in RCW 36.70A.600
(1)(f), are not subject to administrative or judicial appeals under this chapter.
(2) Adoption of ordinances, development regulations and amendments to such regulations, and other nonproject actions taken by a city or county consistent with the requirements of sections 3 and 4 of this act are not subject to administrative or judicial appeals under this chapter.
and 2011 c 360 s 17 are each amended to read as follows:
(1) The growth management hearings board shall hear and determine only those petitions alleging either:
(a) That, except as provided otherwise by this subsection, a state agency, county, or city planning under this chapter is not in compliance with the requirements of this chapter, chapter 90.58
RCW as it relates to the adoption of shoreline master programs or amendments thereto, or chapter 43.21C
RCW as it relates to plans, development regulations, or amendments, adopted under RCW 36.70A.040
or chapter 90.58
RCW. Nothing in this subsection authorizes the board to hear petitions alleging noncompliance ((with RCW 36.70A.5801
))based on a city or county's actions taken to implement the requirements of sections 3 and 4 of this act
(b) That the ((twenty-
year growth management planning population projections adopted by the office of financial management pursuant to RCW 43.62.035
should be adjusted;
(c) That the approval of a work plan adopted under RCW 36.70A.735
(1)(a) is not in compliance with the requirements of the program established under RCW 36.70A.710
(d) That regulations adopted under RCW 36.70A.735
(1)(b) are not regionally applicable and cannot be adopted, wholly or partially, by another jurisdiction; or
(e) That a department certification under RCW 36.70A.735
(1)(c) is erroneous.
(2) A petition may be filed only by: (a) The state, or a county or city that plans under this chapter; (b) a person who has participated orally or in writing before the county or city regarding the matter on which a review is being requested; (c) a person who is certified by the governor within ((sixty
days of filing the request with the board; or (d) a person qualified pursuant to RCW 34.05.530
(3) For purposes of this section "person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, state agency, governmental subdivision or unit thereof, or public or private organization or entity of any character.
(4) To establish participation standing under subsection (2)(b) of this section, a person must show that his or her participation before the county or city was reasonably related to the person's issue as presented to the board.
(5) When considering a possible adjustment to a growth management planning population projection prepared by the office of financial management, the board shall consider the implications of any such adjustment to the population forecast for the entire state.
The rationale for any adjustment that is adopted by the board must be documented and filed with the office of financial management within ten working days after adoption.
If adjusted by the board, a county growth management planning population projection shall only be used for the planning purposes set forth in this chapter and shall be known as the "board adjusted population projection." None of these changes shall affect the official state and county population forecasts prepared by the office of financial management, which shall continue to be used for state budget and planning purposes.
NEW SECTION. Sec. 8. The following acts or parts of acts are each repealed:
(1) RCW 35.63.210
(Accessory apartments) and 1993 c 478 s 8;
(2) RCW 35A.63.230
(Accessory apartments) and 1993 c 478 s 9;
(3) RCW 36.70A.400
(Accessory apartments) and 1993 c 478 s 11;
(4) RCW 36.70.677
(Accessory apartments) and 1993 c 478 s 10; and
(5) RCW 43.63A.215
Development and placement—
Local governments) and 1993 c 478 s 7.
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