WSR 98-05-046

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[Filed February 13, 1998, 11:30 a.m., effective April 15, 1998]

Date of Adoption: February 13, 1998.

Purpose: Scaffolding, chapter 296-155 WAC.

Scaffolds in Construction: Federal-initiated adopted amendments as published in Federal Register Volume 61, Number 170, dated August 30, 1996, and Federal Register Volume 61, Number 228, dated November 25, 1996, are made to be at-least-as-effective-as the federal standard. These federal-initiated amendments will establish additional compliance requirements.

Amended chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1, Scaffolding, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to change the title of this part from "scaffolding" to "scaffolds."

Amended section WAC 296-155-24525 Appendix B to Part C-1--Fall restraint and fall arrest (employer information only), state-initiated adopted amendments are made to update and correct references as a result of the reorganization of this proposed standard.

Amended section WAC 296-155-481 Scope and application, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Change the word "scaffolding" to "scaffolds."

Indicate the requirements for crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms are located in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L, Cranes, derricks, hoists, elevators, and conveyors.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to add four sentences to specify where requirements for manually propelled elevating work platforms, self propelled elevating work platforms, boom supported elevating work platforms, and aerial lifts are located in chapter 296-155 WAC.

New section WAC 296-155-482 Definitions applicable to this part, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Add this new section for better organization of information.

Add the following federal definitions: Adjustable suspension scaffold, bearer (putlog), boatswains' chair, body belt (safety belt), body harness, brace, bricklayers' square scaffold, carpenters' bracket scaffold, catenary scaffold, chimney hoist, cleat, competent person, continuous run scaffold (run scaffold), coupler, crawling board (chicken ladder), deceleration device, double pole (independent pole) scaffold, equivalent, exposed power lines, eye or eye splice, fabricated decking and planking, fabricated frame scaffold (tubular welded frame scaffold), failure, float (ship) scaffold, form scaffold, guardrail system, hoist, horse scaffold, independent pole scaffold, interior hung scaffold, ladder jack scaffold, ladder stand, landing, large area scaffold, lean-to scaffold, lifeline, lower levels, masons' adjustable supported scaffold, masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold, maximum intended load, mobile scaffold, multi-level suspended scaffold, multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold, needle beam scaffold, open sides and ends, outrigger, outrigger beam (thrustout), outrigger scaffold, overhand bricklaying, personal fall arrest system, platform, pole scaffold, power operated hoist, pump jack scaffold, qualified, rated load, repair bracket scaffold, runner (ledger or ribbon), scaffold, self-contained adjustable scaffold, shore scaffold, single-point adjustable suspension scaffold, single-pole scaffold, stair tower (scaffold stairway/tower), stall load, step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffold, stilts, stonesetters' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold, supported scaffold, suspension scaffold, system scaffold, tank builders' scaffold, top plate bracket scaffold, tube and coupler scaffold, tubular welded frame scaffold, two-point suspension scaffold (swing stage), unstable objects, vertical pickup, walkway, window jack scaffold.

Delete the following definitions from the existing standard: Bearer, boatswains' chair, brace, bricklayers' square scaffold, built-up scaffold, carpenters' bracket scaffold, coupler, crawling board or chicken ladder, double pole or independent pole scaffold, float or ship scaffold, standard guardrail, heavy duty scaffold, horse scaffold, interior hung scaffold, ladder jack scaffold, leaning horse scaffold, ledgers (stringers), light duty scaffold, manually propelled mobile scaffold, masons' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold, maximum rated load, medium duty scaffold, midrail, needle beam scaffold, outrigger scaffold, plasters-lathers scaffold, putlog, roofing or bearer bracket, runner, scaffold, single-point adjustable suspension scaffold, single-pole scaffold, stonesetters' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold, suspended scaffold, toeboard, tube and coupler scaffold, tubular welded frame scaffold, two-point suspension scaffold (swinging scaffold), window jack scaffold, working load.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Add the term "ledger" to the list of definitions referencing the definition of "runner." The definition of these terms is identical.

Add the term "putlog" to the list of definitions referencing the definition of "bearer." The definition of these terms is identical.

Add the term "ribbon" to the list of definitions referencing the definition of "runner." The definition of these terms is identical.

Delete numbering of definitions as required by the Code Reviser's Office.

Amended section WAC 296-155-483 Definitions applicable to this part, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Change the section title from "Definitions applicable to this part" to "General requirements."

Require scaffolds be constructed in accordance with a design by a qualified person.

Establish design, capacity, and construction requirements for scaffolds, their components and associated hardware, connections, and hoists.

Establish requirements for scaffold platform construction including:

Planking

Width

Distance from the work face

Relation to support members

Coating

Intermixing of components

Establish requirements for preventing displacement of supported scaffolds.

Establish requirements for components of suspension scaffolds and their supports.

Establish requirements for scaffold access use, components and installation including; ladders, stairway type ladders, stairtowers, ramps and walkways, access frames, and direct access for all workers on scaffolds - including erectors and dismantlers.

Prohibit the use of shore or lean-to scaffolds.

Require inspection for defects by a competent person before each work shift and after any potentially weakening event.

Require repair or removal of damaged or weak scaffold parts.

Prohibit horizontal movement of scaffolds when employees are on them unless the scaffolds are designed for that purpose.

Establish minimum clearance distances between scaffolds and power lines.

Require scaffolds be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only by experienced and trained employees under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffold erection.

Prohibit work on a scaffold covered with slippery materials.

Require tag lines on loads that may come in contact with a scaffold.

Require protection of suspension ropes.

Prohibit work during storms or high winds.

Prohibit accumulation of debris on platforms.

Prohibit use of makeshift devices to increase working height on scaffold platforms.

Establish requirements for use of ladders on large area scaffolds.

Establish precaution requirements to be followed when employees are welding from suspended scaffolds.

Establish fall protection requirements and protection system specifications for all employees on scaffolds - including erectors and dismantlers.

Establish falling object protection requirements and protective system specifications.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Indicate where criteria for aerial lifts are located.

Add four sentences to indicate where requirements for manually propelled elevating work platforms, self-propelled elevating work platforms, boom supported elevating work platforms, and aerial lifts are located in chapter 296-155 WAC.

Add a sentence referencing fall protection requirements.

Subsection (2)(e) was renumbered and reformatted for clarity.

Add a sentence at the end of subsection (7)(b) which requires maximum feasible fall protection be used.

Clarify that the planking needed on platforms, which are used solely as walkways or for erection or dismantling, is dictated by safe working condition needs.

Correct language in the note following subsection (2)(b)(i) to indicate the twelve-inch minimum width requirement on a roof bracket scaffold is stayed (delayed) until federal rule making on this issue is completed.

New section WAC 296-155-484 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to establish specifications and additional requirements for construction, components, and use of:

Pole scaffolds - including the registered professional engineer design requirement if the pole scaffold is more than sixty feet tall.

Tube and coupler scaffold - including the registered professional engineer design requirement if the tube and coupler scaffold is more than one hundred twenty-five feet tall.

Fabricated frame scaffolds - including the registered professional engineer design requirement if the fabricated frame scaffold is more than one hundred twenty-five feet tall.

Plasterers', decorators' and large area scaffolds.

Bricklayers' square scaffolds.

Horse scaffolds.

Form scaffolds and carpenters' bracket scaffolds.

Roof bracket scaffolds.

Outrigger scaffolds, including the requirement for its design by a registered professional engineer.

Pump jack scaffolds.

Ladder jack scaffolds.

Window jack scaffolds.

Crawling boards.

Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds.

Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

Catenary scaffolds.

Float scaffolds.

Needle beam scaffolds.

Multi-level suspension scaffolds.

Mobile scaffolds.

Repair bracket scaffolds.

Stilts.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to add subsection (23)(j) to emphasize existing requirements listed in subsections (2) and (3) of this section. Existing subsection (23)(j) is changed to (23)(k).

Amended section WAC 296-155-485 Scaffolding, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to move and merge the information in this section throughout chapter 296-155 WAC, primarily Part J-1. This section is reserved for future use.

Repealed sections WAC 296-155-48503 Table J-1, 296-155-48504 Table J-2, 296-155-48505 Table J-3, 296-155-48506 Table J-4, 296-155-48507 Table J-5, 296-155-48508 Table J-6, 296-155-48509 Table J-7, 296-155-48510 Table J-8, 296-155-48511 Table J-9, 296-155-48512 Table J-10, 296-155-48513 Table J-11, 296-155-48514 Table J-12, 296-155-48515 Table J-13, 296-155-48516 Table J-14, 296-155-48517 Table J-15, 296-155-48518 Table J-16 and 296-155-48519 Table J-17, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to provide updated tables relating to scaffolds in a nonmandatory appendix located in WAC 296-155-494 Non-Mandatory Appendix A to Part J-1, Scaffold Specifications. The existing tables are deleted and the sections repealed.

Repealed section WAC 296-155-48523 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers), federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to move and merge the information in this section throughout chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1, primarily WAC 296-155-484(23). This section is repealed.

Repealed section WAC 296-155-48525 Manually propelled elevating work platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to move existing requirements relating to manually propelled elevating work platforms to WAC 296-155-487 for better organization of information. This section is repealed.

Repealed section WAC 296-155-48527 Self propelled elevating work platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to move existing requirements relating to self propelled elevating work platforms to WAC 296-155-488 for better organization of information. This section is repealed.

Repealed section WAC 296-155-48529 Boom supported elevating work platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to move existing requirements relating to boom supported elevating work platforms to WAC 296-155-489 for better organization of information. This section is repealed.

Repealed section WAC 296-155-48531 Vehicle mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to merge the information in this section throughout chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1, primarily WAC 296-155-490. This section is repealed.

Repealed section WAC 296-155-48533 Crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to incorporate existing requirements relating to crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms into chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L, Cranes, derricks, hoists, elevators, and conveyors creating a new section, WAC 296-155-528. This section is repealed.

Repealed section WAC 296-155-48536 Forklift elevated work platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to merge the information in this section to chapter 296-155 WAC, Part M, primarily WAC 296-155-615 [(1)](h). This section is repealed.

New section WAC 296-155-487 Manually propelled elevating work platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Incorporate existing requirements relating to manually propelled elevating work platforms from WAC 296-155-48525 to this section for better organization of information.

Update all ANSI references in this section to the most current ANSI edition.

New section WAC 296-155-488 Self propelled elevating work platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Incorporate existing requirements relating to self propelled elevating work platforms from WAC 296-155-48527 to this section for better organization of information.

Update all ANSI references in this section to the most current ANSI edition.

New section WAC 296-155-489 Boom supported elevating work platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Incorporate existing requirements relating to boom supported elevating work platforms from WAC 296-155-48529 to this section for better organization of information.

Update all ANSI references in this section to the most current ANSI edition.

New section WAC 296-155-490 Aerial lifts, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Incorporate WAC 296-155-48531 Vehicle mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices, into this section. This amendment merges federal and state requirements into one section.

Identify the types of devices referred to as "aerial lifts."

Identify ANSI standards employers must comply with.

Require aerial ladders be secured in the lower traveling position before highway travel.

Establish requirements for extensible and articulating boom platform lifts including:

Testing, location, and operation of controls.

Operation by authorized person.

Loading.

Moving.

Use.

Maintaining insulation.

Fall protection.

Prohibits wearing climbers.

Specific acceptable electrical tests.

Identify critical hydraulic and pneumatic components and specify the applicable standard.

Require a bursting safety factor of at least 2 to 1 for noncritical hydraulic and pneumatic components.

Specify applicable standards for welding.

State-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Modify and reformat subsection (2) by separating information and adding subdivisions (i) and (ii).

Retain the existing state requirement (February 1991) which prohibits the use of body belts for fall arrest by changing the federal term "body belt" to "full body harness."

New section WAC 296-155-493 Training, federal-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Require hazard recognition and hazard control training for each employee who works while on a scaffold. The training includes electrical, fall, and falling object hazards as well as use, loading and load capacity of the scaffold, in addition to any other pertinent requirements of the standard.

Require hazard recognition training for any employee erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing, or inspecting a scaffold. The training includes scaffold hazards, correct working procedures, scaffold design and load capacity, and any other pertinent requirements of the standard.

Require retraining whenever jobsite conditions change or the employer has reason to believe the employee lacks the skill or understanding needed to work safely.

New section WAC 296-155-494 Non-Mandatory Appendix A to Part J-1, Scaffold Specifications, federal-initiated amendments are made to adopt this appendix to be identical to the federal standard. State-initiated adopted amendments are made to correct references relating to the department.

New section WAC 296-155-496 Non-Mandatory Appendix C to Part J-1, List of National Consensus Standards, federal-initiated amendments are made to adopt this appendix to be identical to the federal standard.

New section WAC 296-155-497 Non-Mandatory Appendix D to Part J-1, List of Training Topics for Scaffold Erectors and Dismantlers, federal-initiated amendments are made to adopt this appendix to be identical to the federal standard.

New section WAC 296-155-498 Non-Mandatory Appendix E to Part J-1, Drawings and Illustrations, federal-initiated amendments are made to adopt this new appendix to be identical to the federal standard.

New section WAC 296-155-528 Crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Incorporate existing requirements relating to crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms from WAC 296-155-48533 to this new section for better organization of information.

Correct the reference in WAC 296-155-528 (3)(c) to WAC 296-155-525 (4)(b).

Correct the reference in WAC 296-155-528 (10)(g) to WAC 296-155-525 (2)(c).

Amended section WAC 296-155-605 Equipment, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Correct the reference in WAC 296-155-605 (1)(f) to WAC 296-155-525 (3)(a).

Correct the reference in WAC 296-155-605 (1)(h) to WAC 296-155-525 (3)(a).

Amended section WAC 296-155-615 Material handling equipment, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Add "(including forklifts)" after "Industrial trucks" in subsection (3) to indicate that requirements for forklifts are located in this section.

Incorporate existing requirements relating to forklift elevated work platforms from WAC 296-155-48536 to this section for better organization of information.

Amended section WAC 296-155-683 Concrete finishing, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to:

Change the word "Scaffolding" to "Scaffolds" in subsection (1) to be consistent with the title change to Part J-1.

Change various references to chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1.

Amended section WAC 296-155-688 Vertical slip forms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to delete the phrase "wear a full body harness tied off by lanyards or otherwise securely fastened" and add a reference to chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

Amended section WAC 296-155-689 Placing and removal of forms, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to delete the phrase "required to wear a full body harness" and add the phrase "protected from falls in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1."

Amended section WAC 296-155-700 General requirements, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to update a reference in subsection (4).

Amended section WAC 296-155-730 Tunnels and shafts, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to update references in subsection (22).

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work, amending Part J-1, Scaffolding, WAC 296-155-24525 Appendix B to Part C-1--Fall restraint and fall arrest (employer information only), 296-155-481 Scope and application, 296-155-483 Definitions applicable to this part, 296-155-485 Scaffolding, 296-155-605 Equipment, 296-155-615 Material handling equipment, 296-155-683 Concrete finishing, 296-155-688 Vertical slip forms, 296-155-689 Placing and removal of forms, 296-155-700 General requirements and 296-155-730 Tunnels and shafts; and repealing WAC 296-155-48503 Table J-1, 296-155-48504 Table J-2, 296-155-48505 Table J-3, 296-155-48506 Table J-4, 296-155-48507 Table J-5, 296-155-48508 Table J-6, 296-155-48509 Table J-7, 296-155-48510 Table J-8, 296-155-48511 Table J-9, 296-155-48512 Table J-10, 296-155-48513 Table J-11, 296-155-48514 Table J-12, 296-155-48515 Table J-13, 296-155-48516 Table J-14, 296-155-48517 Table J-15, 296-155-48518 Table J-16, 296-155-48519 Table J-17, 296-155-48523 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers), 296-155-48525 Manually propelled elevating work platforms, 296-155-48527 Self propelled elevating work platforms, 296-155-48529 Boom supported elevating work platforms, 296-155-48531 Vehicle mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices, 296-155-48533 Crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms, and 296-155-48536 Forklift elevated work platforms.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050, [49.17].060.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 97-16-091 on August 5, 1997.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: As a result of written and oral comments received, the following sections are being amended: (Modify as necessary.)

Chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1, Scaffolding.

Federal-initiated proposed amendments are made to change the title of this part from "Scaffolding" to "Scaffolds."

WAC 296-155-481 Scope and application.

Added a sentence at the end of the section which reads, "Additional requirements for forklift supported personnel platforms are set out in WAC 296-155-615 (3)(h)."

WAC 296-155-482 Definitions applicable to this part.

Modified the definition of "body belt" which reads, "means a strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard or lifeline, used only in fall restraint or positioning device systems. A body belt may not be used for fall arrest."

Added a definition for "falling object protection" which reads, "means those devices, systems, structures, work practices or other means intended to prevent tools, materials, debris and other objects from falling or to deflect or contain falling objects in order to prevent them striking workers below."

Modified the definition of "personal fall arrest system." Deleted the words "body belt."

Added a definition for "toeboard" which reads, "means a barrier installed at the outermost edge of a walking/working surface to prevent objects from falling onto workers below."

WAC 296-155-483 General requirements.

WAC 296-155-483 (2)(j), this subdivision was modified. The phrase "manufactured by different manufacturers" was deleted and the word "competent" was replaced with "qualified." The corrected paragraph reads, "Scaffold components shall not be intermixed unless the components fit together without force and the scaffold's structural integrity is maintained by the user. Scaffold components shall not be modified in order to intermix them unless a qualified person determines the resulting scaffold is structurally sound."

WAC 296-155-483 (3)(a)(iii), this item was changed to a subdivision, therefore the following subdivisions were renumbered.

WAC 296-155-483 (3)(c), this subdivision was modified. The corrected paragraph reads, "Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates resting on adequate firm foundation, such as dry compacted soil, mud sills or concrete slabs."

WAC 296-155-483 (5)(b)(iii), this item was modified. The measurement of thirty-five feet was changed to twenty-four feet and the measurement of thirty-five foot was changed to twenty foot. Also, an exception was added at the end. The corrected paragraph reads, "When hook-on and attachable ladders are used on a supported scaffold more than 24 feet (7.3 m) high, they shall have rest platforms at 20 foot (6.1 m) maximum vertical intervals except the first platform may be up to 24 feet above the ground."

WAC 296-155-483 (5)(e)(i), this item was modified for consistency. The measurement "6 feet" was changed to "4 feet" to be identical to chapter 296-155 WAC, Part K. The corrected sentence reads, "Ramps and walkways 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above lower levels shall have guardrail systems which comply with Part K of this chapter--Floor openings, wall openings and stairways."

WAC 296-155-483 (5)(f)(v), this item was modified. The measurement of thirty-five feet was changed to twenty-four feet and the measurement of thirty-five foot was changed to twenty foot. The corrected paragraph reads, "Be provided with rest platforms at 20 foot (6.1 m) maximum vertical intervals on all supported scaffolds more than 24 feet (7.3 m) high; and."

WAC 296-155-483 (7)(c), replaced the word "scaffold" with "appropriate." The corrected sentence reads, "In addition to meeting the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, personal fall arrest systems used on scaffolds shall be attached by lanyard to a vertical lifeline, horizontal lifeline, or appropriate structural member.

WAC 296-155-483 (7)(d)(ii), the word "first" was inserted before the word "placed." The corrected sentence reads, "The top edge height of toprails or equivalent member on supported scaffolds manufactured or first placed in service after January 1, 2000, shall be installed between 38 inches (0.97 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m) above the platform surface."

WAC 296-155-483 (7)(d)(xv), modified this item which reads, "Crossbraces may be used in lieu of either the toprail or midrail providing the resulting guardrail system meets all the other criteria of (d) of this subsection and this does not result in openings in the guardrail system or between the guardrail system and the platform through which a nineteen-inch diameter sphere can pass."

WAC 296-155-483 (8)(b)(ii), deleted the phrase "more than 10 feet." The corrected sentence reads, "A toeboard shall be erected along the edge of platforms above lower levels for a distance sufficient to protect employees below, except on float (ship) scaffolds where an edging of 3/4 x 1 1/2 inch (2 x 4 cm) wood or equivalent may be used in lieu of toeboards."

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 12, amended 11, repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's own Initiative: New 0, amended 0, repealed 24.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 12, amended 11, repealed 24.

Effective Date of Rule: April 15, 1998.

February 13, 1998

Gary Moore

Director

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-24525 Appendix B to Part C-1--Fall restraint and fall arrest (employer information only). Additional standards that require the use of fall restraint and/or fall arrest protection for employees are listed below:

Ladders WAC 296-155-480 (1)(r)

WAC 296-155-480 (1)(s)

((Suspended Scaffold WAC 296-155-485 (7)(h)

Two Points Suspension WAC 296-155-485 (7)(h)(i)

Scaffold

Boatswain's Chain Scaffold WAC 296-155-485 (10)(d)

Needle Beam Scaffold WAC 296-155-485 (14)(i)

Ladder Jack Scaffold WAC 296-155-485 (17)(f)

Window Jack Scaffold WAC 296-155-485 (18)(c)

Float or Ship Scaffold WAC 296-155-485 (21)(f)

Pump Jack Scaffold WAC 296-155-485 (23)(k)))

Scaffolds WAC 296-155-483(7)

Boom Supported Elevating ((WAC 296-155-48529 (19)(b)(vi)))

Work Platforms WAC 296-155-489

Vehicle Mounted Elevated ((WAC 296-155-48531 (14)(h)))

and Rotating Work WAC 296-155-490 (2)(b)(v)

Platforms

Crane and Derrick ((WAC 296-155-48533 (6)(c)))

Supported WAC 296-155-528 (6)(c)

Work Platforms ((WAC 296-155-48533 (6)(d)))

WAC 296-155-528 (6)(d)

((WAC 296-155-48533 (7)(i)))

WAC 296-155-528 (7)(i)

((WAC 296-155-48533 (7)(j)))

WAC 296-155-528 (7)(j)

((WAC 296-155-48533 (7)(k)))

WAC 296-155-528 (7)(k)

((WAC 296-155-48533 (10)(h)))

WAC 296-155-528 (10)(h)

Open Sided Floors WAC 296-155-505 (4)(a) through (f)

Pile Driving WAC 296-155-620 (1)(i)

Vertical Slip Forms WAC 296-155-688(9)

Placing and Removal WAC 296-155-689(4)

of Forms

Steel Erection Temporary WAC 296-155-705 (2)(b)

Floors

Tunneling (Skips and WAC 296-155-730 (8)(e)

Platforms)



[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-24525, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-24525, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-24525, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.]

PART J-1

((SCAFFOLDING)) SCAFFOLDS

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-155-481 Scope and application. ((This part applies to all scaffolding used in construction, alteration, repair (including painting and decorating), and demolition workplaces covered under chapter 296-155 WAC, and also sets forth, in specified circumstances, when scaffolding is required to be provided. Additional requirements for ladders used on or with scaffolds are contained in Part J chapter 296-155 WAC.)) This part applies to all scaffolds used in workplaces covered by this chapter. It does not apply to crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms, which are covered by chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L. The criteria for manually propelled elevating work platforms are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-487.

The criteria for self-propelled elevating work platforms are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-488.

The criteria for boom supported elevating work platforms are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-489.

The criteria for aerial lifts are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-490.

Additional requirements for forklift supported personnel platforms are set out in WAC 296-155-615 (3)(h).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-481, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-482 Definitions applicable to this part. "Adjustable suspension scaffold" means a suspension scaffold equipped with a hoist(s) that can be operated by an employee(s) on the scaffold.

"Bearer (putlog)" means a horizontal transverse scaffold member (which may be supported by ledgers or runners) upon which the scaffold platform rests and which joins scaffold uprights, posts, poles, and similar members.

"Boatswains' chair" means a single-point adjustable suspension scaffold consisting of a seat or sling designed to support one employee in a sitting position.

"Body belt (safety belt)" means a strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard or lifeline, used only in fall restraint or positioning device systems. A body belt may not be used for fall arrest.

"Body harness" means a design of straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner to distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders, with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.

"Brace" means a rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member, or to a building or structure.

"Bricklayers' square scaffold" means a supported scaffold composed of framed squares which support a platform.

"Carpenters' bracket scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by brackets attached to building or structural walls.

"Catenary scaffold" means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform supported by two essentially horizontal and parallel ropes attached to structural members of a building or other structure. Additional support may be provided by vertical pickups.

"Chimney hoist" means a multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold used to provide access to work inside chimneys. (See "multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold.")

"Cleat" means a structural block used at the end of a platform to prevent the platform from slipping off its supports. Cleats are also used to provide footing on sloped surfaces such as crawling boards.

"Competent person" means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

"Continuous run scaffold (run scaffold)" means a two-point or multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold constructed using a series of interconnected braced scaffold members or supporting structures erected to form a continuous scaffold.

"Coupler" means a device for locking together the tubes of a tube and coupler scaffold.

"Crawling board (chicken ladder)" means a supported scaffold consisting of a plank with cleats spaced and secured to provide footing, for use on sloped surfaces such as roofs.

"Deceleration device" means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self-retracting lifeline lanyard, which dissipates a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest or limits the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.

"Double pole (independent pole) scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform(s) resting on cross beams (bearers) supported by ledgers and a double row of uprights independent of support (except ties, guys, braces) from any structure.

"Equivalent" means alternative designs, materials or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

"Exposed power lines" means electrical power lines which are accessible to employees and which are not shielded from contact. Such lines do not include extension cords or power tool cords.

"Eye or eye splice" means a loop with or without a thimble at the end of a wire rope.

"Fabricated decking and planking" means manufactured platforms made of wood (including laminated wood, and solid sawn wood planks), metal or other materials.

"Fabricated frame scaffold (tubular welded frame scaffold)" means a scaffold consisting of a platform(s) supported on fabricated end frames with integral posts, horizontal bearers, and intermediate members.

"Failure" means load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.

"Falling object protection" means those devices, systems, structures, work practices or other means intended to prevent tools, materials, debris and other objects from falling or to deflect or contain falling objects in order to prevent them striking workers below.

"Float (ship) scaffold" means a suspension scaffold consisting of a braced platform resting on two parallel bearers and hung from overhead supports by ropes of fixed length.

"Form scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by brackets attached to formwork.

"Guardrail system" means a vertical barrier, consisting of, but not limited to, toprails, midrails, and posts, erected to prevent employees from falling off a scaffold platform or walkway to lower levels.

"Hoist" means a manual or power-operated mechanical device to raise or lower a suspended scaffold.

"Horse scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by construction horses (saw horses). Horse scaffolds constructed of metal are sometimes known as trestle scaffolds.

"Independent pole scaffold" (see "double pole scaffold").

"Interior hung scaffold" means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform suspended from the ceiling or roof structure by fixed length supports.

"Ladder jack scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on brackets attached to ladders.

"Ladder stand" means a mobile, fixed-size, self-supporting ladder consisting of a wide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs.

"Landing" means a platform at the end of a flight of stairs.

"Large area scaffold" means a pole scaffold, tube and coupler scaffold, systems scaffold, or fabricated frame scaffold erected over substantially the entire work area. For example: A scaffold erected over the entire floor area of a room.

"Lean-to scaffold" means a supported scaffold which is kept erect by tilting it toward and resting it against a building or structure.

"Ledger" - see runner.

"Lifeline" means a component consisting of a flexible line that connects to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or that connects to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

"Lower levels" means areas below the level where the employee is located and to which an employee can fall. Such areas include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, roofs, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, materials, water, and equipment.

"Masons' adjustable supported scaffold" (see "self-contained adjustable scaffold").

"Masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold" means a continuous run suspension scaffold designed and used for masonry operations.

"Maximum intended load" means the total load of all persons, equipment, tools, materials, transmitted loads, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold component at any one time.

"Mobile scaffold" means a powered or unpowered, portable, caster or wheel-mounted supported scaffold.

"Multi-level suspended scaffold" means a two-point or multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold with a series of platforms at various levels resting on common stirrups.

"Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold" means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform(s) which is suspended by more than two ropes from overhead supports and equipped with means to raise and lower the platform to desired work levels. Such scaffolds include chimney hoists.

"Needle beam scaffold" means a platform suspended from needle beams.

"Open sides and ends" means the edges of a platform that are more than 14 inches (36 cm) away horizontally from a sturdy, continuous, vertical surface (such as a building wall) or a sturdy, continuous horizontal surface (such as a floor), or a point of access. Exception: For plastering and lathing operations the horizontal threshold distance is 18 inches (46 cm).

"Outrigger" means the structural member of a supported scaffold used to increase the base width of a scaffold in order to provide support for and increased stability of the scaffold.

"Outrigger beam (thrustout)" means the structural member of a suspension scaffold or outrigger scaffold which provides support for the scaffold by extending the scaffold point of attachment to a point out and away from the structure or building.

"Outrigger scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on outrigger beams (thrustouts) projecting beyond the wall or face of the building or structure, the inboard ends of which are secured inside the building or structure.

"Overhand bricklaying" means the process of laying bricks and masonry units such that the surface of the wall to be jointed is on the opposite side of the wall from the mason, requiring the mason to lean over the wall to complete the work. It includes mason tending and electrical installation incorporated into the brick wall during the overhand bricklaying process.

"Personal fall arrest system" means a system used to arrest an employee's fall. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, and body harness and may also include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or combinations of these.

"Platform" means a work surface elevated above lower levels. Platforms can be constructed using individual wood planks, fabricated planks, fabricated decks, and fabricated platforms.

"Pole scaffold" (see definitions for "single-pole scaffold" and "double (independent) pole scaffold").

"Power operated hoist" means a hoist which is powered by other than human energy.

"Pump jack scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by vertical poles and movable support brackets.

"Putlog" - see bearer.

"Qualified" means one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

"Rated load" means the manufacturer's specified maximum load to be lifted by a hoist or to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold component.

"Repair bracket scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by brackets which are secured in place around the circumference or perimeter of a chimney, stack, tank or other supporting structure by one or more wire ropes placed around the supporting structure.

"Ribbon" - see runner.

"Roof bracket scaffold" means a rooftop supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on angular-shaped supports.

"Runner (ledger or ribbon)" means the lengthwise horizontal spacing or bracing member which may support the bearers.

"Scaffold" means any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and its supporting structure (including points of anchorage), used for supporting employees or materials or both.

"Self-contained adjustable scaffold" means a combination supported and suspension scaffold consisting of an adjustable platform(s) mounted on an independent supporting frame(s) not a part of the object being worked on, and which is equipped with a means to permit the raising and lowering of the platform(s). Such systems include rolling roof rigs, rolling outrigger systems, and some masons' adjustable supported scaffolds.

"Shore scaffold" means a supported scaffold which is placed against a building or structure and held in place with props.

"Single-point adjustable suspension scaffold" means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform suspended by one rope from an overhead support and equipped with means to permit the movement of the platform to desired work levels.

"Single-pole scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform(s) resting on bearers, the outside ends of which are supported on runners secured to a single row of posts or uprights, and the inner ends of which are supported on or in a structure or building wall.

"Stair tower (scaffold stairway/tower)" means a tower comprised of scaffold components and which contains internal stairway units and rest platforms. These towers are used to provide access to scaffold platforms and other elevated points such as floors and roofs.

"Stall load" means the load at which the prime-mover of a power-operated hoist stalls or the power to the prime-mover is automatically disconnected.

"Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffold" means a platform resting directly on the rungs of step ladders or trestle ladders.

"Stilts" means a pair of poles or similar supports with raised footrests, used to permit walking above the ground or working surface.

"Stonesetters' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold" means a continuous run suspension scaffold designed and used for stonesetters' operations.

"Supported scaffold" means one or more platforms supported by outrigger beams, brackets, poles, legs, uprights, posts, frames, or similar rigid support.

"Suspension scaffold" means one or more platforms suspended by ropes or other nonrigid means from an overhead structure(s).

"System scaffold" means a scaffold consisting of posts with fixed connection points that accept runners, bearers, and diagonals that can be interconnected at predetermined levels.

"Tank builders' scaffold" means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on brackets that are either directly attached to a cylindrical tank or attached to devices that are attached to such a tank.

"Toeboard" means a barrier installed at the outermost edge of a walking/working surface to prevent objects from falling onto workers below.

"Top plate bracket scaffold" means a scaffold supported by brackets that hook over or are attached to the top of a wall. This type of scaffold is similar to carpenters' bracket scaffolds and form scaffolds and is used in residential construction for setting trusses.

"Tube and coupler scaffold" means a supported or suspended scaffold consisting of a platform(s) supported by tubing, erected with coupling devices connecting uprights, braces, bearers, and runners.

"Tubular welded frame scaffold" (see "fabricated frame scaffold").

"Two-point suspension scaffold (swing stage)" means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform supported by hangers (stirrups) suspended by two ropes from overhead supports and equipped with means to permit the raising and lowering of the platform to desired work levels.

"Unstable objects" means items whose strength, configuration, or lack of stability may allow them to become dislocated and shift and therefore may not properly support the loads imposed on them. Unstable objects do not constitute a safe base support for scaffolds, platforms, or employees. Examples include, but are not limited to, barrels, boxes, loose brick, and concrete blocks.

"Vertical pickup" means a rope used to support the horizontal rope in catenary scaffolds.

"Walkway" means a portion of a scaffold platform used only for access and not as a work level.

"Window jack scaffold" means a platform resting on a bracket or jack which projects through a window opening.

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-155-483 ((Definitions applicable to this part.)) General requirements. (((1) "Bearer" means a horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rests and which may be supported by ledgers.

(2) "Boatswain's chair" means a seat supported by slings attached to a suspended rope, designed to accommodate one employee in a sitting position.

(3) "Brace" means a tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member.

(4) "Bricklayers' square scaffold" means a scaffold composed of framed wood squares which support a platform, limited to light and medium duty.

(5) "Built-up scaffold" means a rigidly constructed scaffold, built up where it is going to be used and dismantled when its purpose has been accomplished.

(6) "Carpenters' bracket scaffold" means a scaffold consisting of wood or metal brackets supporting a platform.

(7) "Coupler" means a device for locking together the component parts of a tubular metal scaffold. (The material used for the couplers shall be of a structural type, such as a dropforged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum.)

(8) "Crawling board or chicken ladder" means a plank with cleats spaced and secured at equal intervals, for use by a worker on roofs, not designed to carry any material.

(9) "Double pole or independent pole scaffold" means a scaffold supported from the base by a double row of uprights, independent of support from the walls and constructed of uprights, ledgers, horizontal platform bearers, and diagonal bracing.

(10) "Float or ship scaffold" means a scaffold hung from overhead supports by means of ropes and consisting of a substantial platform having diagonal bracing underneath, resting upon and securely fastened to two parallel plank bearers at right angles to the span.

(11) "Standard guardrail" means a horizontal barrier at the perimeter of any surface edge presenting a potential fall hazard constructed to provide a smooth surfaced top rail a distance of not more than 42 inches or less than 36 inches above the walking surface. An intermediate rail shall be installed half way between the walking surface and the top of the top rail.

The anchoring of posts and framing of members for railings of all types shall be such that the completed structure is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail with a minimum deflection.

Note: Where 2 x 4 inch lumber is used for rails and posts, upright posts spaced at intervals not exceeding 8 feet will achieve the 200 pounds loading criteria.

(12) "Heavy duty scaffold" means a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 75 pounds per square foot.

(13) "Horse scaffold" means a scaffold for light or medium duty, composed of horses supporting a work platform.

(14) "Interior hung scaffold" means a scaffold suspended from the ceiling or roof structure.

(15) "Ladder jack scaffold" means a light duty scaffold supported by brackets attached to ladders.

(16) "Leaning horse scaffold" means scaffold planks resting on two half horses supported by two legs on the ground with the point of the bearer resting against a solid portion of a structure.

(17) "Ledgers (stringer)" mean a horizontal scaffold member which extends from post to post and which supports the putlogs or bearers forming a tie between the posts.

(18) "Light duty scaffold" means a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 25 pounds per square foot.

(19) "Manually propelled mobile scaffold" means a portable rolling scaffold supported by casters.

(20) "Masons' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold" means a scaffold having a continuous platform supported by bearers suspended by wire rope from overhead supports, so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to desired working positions.

(21) "Maximum rated load" means the total of all loads including the working load, the weight of the scaffold, and such other loads as may be reasonably anticipated for which the scaffold is designed.

(22) "Medium duty scaffold" means a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 50 pounds per square foot.

(23) "Midrail" means a rail approximately midway between the guardrail and platform, secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.

(24) "Needle beam scaffold" means a light duty scaffold consisting of needle beams supporting a platform.

(25) "Outrigger scaffold" means a scaffold supported by outriggers or thrustouts projecting beyond the wall or face of the building or structure, the inboard ends of which are secured inside or on the roof of such building or structure.

(26) "Plasters-lathers scaffold" means a tubular welded scaffold erected for, and used primarily by, the plasterer and lather trades.

(27) "Putlog" means a scaffold member upon which the platform rests.

(28) "Roofing or bearer bracket" means a bracket used in slope roof construction, having provisions for fastening to the roof or supported by ropes fastened over the ridge and secured to some suitable object.

(29) "Runner" means the lengthwise horizontal bracing or bearing members or both.

(30) "Scaffold" means any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workers or materials, or both.

(31) "Single-point adjustable suspension scaffold" means a manually or power-operated unit designed for light duty use, supported by a single wire rope from an overhead support so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to desired working positions.

(32) "Single-pole scaffold" means platforms resting on putlogs or cross beams, the outside ends of which are supported on ledgers secured to a single row or posts or uprights, and the inner ends of which are supported on or in a wall.

(33) "Stone setters' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold" means a swinging type scaffold having a platform supported by hangers suspended at four points so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by the use of hoisting machines.

(34) "Suspended scaffold" means a scaffold supported from above, the platform of which is supported at more than two points by steel wire cables suspended from overhead outriggers which are anchored to the steel or concrete frame of the building. It is equipped with a hoisting drum or machine so the platform can be raised or lowered.

(35) "Toeboard" means a standard toeboard and shall be 4 inches nominal in vertical height from its top edge to the level of the walking surface. It shall be securely fastened in place and have not more than 1/4-inch clearance above walking surface level. It may be made of any substantial material, either solid, or with openings not over 1 inch in greatest dimension.

(36) "Tube and coupler scaffold" means an assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, and runners, a base supporting the posts, and special couplers which serve to connect the uprights and to join the various members.

(37) "Tubular welded frame scaffold" means a sectional panel or frame metal scaffold substantially built up of prefabricated welded sections which consists of posts and horizontal bearer with intermediate members.

(38) "Two-point suspension scaffold (swinging scaffold)" means a scaffold, the platform of which is supported by hangers (stirrups) at two points, suspended from overhead supports so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by tackle or hoisting machines.

(39) "Window jack scaffold" means a scaffold, the platform of which is supported by a bracket or jack which projects through a window opening.

(40) "Working load" means the load imposed by persons, materials, and equipment.)) This section does not apply to manually propelled elevating work platforms, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-487.

This section does not apply to self-propelled elevating work platforms, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-488.

This section does not apply to boom supported elevating work platforms, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-489.

This section does not apply to aerial lifts, the criteria for which are set out exclusively in WAC 296-155-490.

(1) "Capacity"

(a) Except as provided in (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this subsection and subsection (7) of this section, each scaffold and scaffold component shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least 4 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to it.

(b) Direct connections to roofs and floors, and counterweights used to balance adjustable suspension scaffolds, shall be capable of resisting at least 4 times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at the rated load of the hoist, or 1.5 (minimum) times the tipping moment imposed by the scaffold operating at the stall load of the hoist, whichever is greater.

(c) Each suspension rope, including connecting hardware, used on nonadjustable suspension scaffolds shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 6 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that rope.

(d) Each suspension rope, including connecting hardware, used on adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 6 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that rope with the scaffold operating at either the rated load of the hoist, or 2 (minimum) times the stall load of the hoist, whichever is greater.

(e) The stall load of any scaffold hoist shall not exceed 3 times its rated load.

(f) Scaffolds shall be designed by a qualified person and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design. Nonmandatory Appendix A to this part contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with subsection (1) of this section.

(2) "Scaffold platform construction."

(a) Each platform on all working levels of scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked between the front uprights and the guardrail supports as follows:

(i) Each platform unit (e.g., scaffold plank, fabricated plank, fabricated deck, or fabricated platform) shall be installed so that the space between adjacent units and the space between the platform and the uprights is no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, except where the employer can demonstrate that a wider space is necessary (for example, to fit around uprights when side brackets are used to extend the width of the platform).

(ii) Where the employer makes the demonstration provided for in subsection (2)(a)(i) of this section, the platform shall be planked or decked as fully as possible and the remaining open space between the platform and the uprights shall not exceed 9 1/2 inches (24.1 cm).

Exception to subsection (2)(a) of this section: The requirement in subsection (2)(a) of this section to provide full planking or decking does not apply to platforms used solely as walkways or solely by employees performing scaffold erection or dismantling. In these situations, only the planking necessary to provide safe working conditions is required. Employees on those platforms shall be protected from fall hazards in accordance with subsection (7) of this section.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (2)(b)(i) and (ii) of this section, each scaffold platform and walkway shall be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide.

(i) Each ladder jack scaffold, top plate bracket scaffold, roof bracket scaffold, and pump jack scaffold shall be at least 12 inches (30 cm) wide. There is no minimum width requirement for boatswains' chairs.

(ii) Where scaffolds must be used in areas that the employer can demonstrate are so narrow that platforms and walkways cannot be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide, such platforms and walkways shall be as wide as feasible, and employees on those platforms and walkways shall be protected from fall hazards by the use of guardrails and/or personal fall arrest systems.

(c) Except as provided in subsection (2)(c)(i) and (ii) of this section, the front edge of all platforms shall not be more than 14 inches (36 cm) from the face of the work, unless guardrail systems are erected along the front edge and/or personal fall arrest systems are used in accordance with subsection (7) of this section to protect employees from falling.

(i) The maximum distance from the face for outrigger scaffolds shall be 3 inches (8 cm);

(ii) The maximum distance from the face for plastering and lathing operations shall be 18 inches (46 cm).

(d) Each end of a platform, unless cleated or otherwise restrained by hooks or equivalent means, shall extend over the centerline of its support at least 6 inches (15 cm).

(e) Unless the platform is designed and installed so that the cantilevered portion of the platform is able to support employees and/or materials without tipping, or has guardrails which block employee access to the cantilevered end, the end of a platform shall not extend over its support more than:

(i) 12 inches (30 cm) for platforms 10 feet or less in length;

(ii) 18 inches (46 cm ) for platforms greater than 10 feet in length.

(f) On scaffolds where scaffold planks are abutted to create a long platform, each abutted end shall rest on a separate support surface. This provision does not preclude the use of common support members, such as "T" sections, to support abutting planks, or hook on platforms designed to rest on common supports.

(g) On scaffolds where platforms are overlapped to create a long platform, the overlap shall occur only over supports, and shall not be less than 12 inches (30 cm) unless the platforms are nailed together or otherwise restrained to prevent movement.

(h) At all points of a scaffold where the platform changes direction, such as turning a corner, any platform that rests on a bearer at an angle other than a right angle shall be laid first, and platforms which rest at right angles over the same bearer shall be laid second, on top of the first platform.

(i) Wood platforms shall not be covered with opaque finishes, except that platform edges may be covered or marked for identification. Platforms may be coated periodically with wood preservatives, fire-retardant finishes, and slip-resistant finishes; however, the coating may not obscure the top or bottom wood surfaces.

(j) Scaffold components shall not be intermixed unless the components fit together without force and the scaffold's structural integrity is maintained by the user. Scaffold components shall not be modified in order to intermix them unless a qualified person determines the resulting scaffold is structurally sound.

(k) Scaffold components made of dissimilar metals shall not be used together unless a competent person has determined that galvanic action will not reduce the strength of any component to a level below that required by subsection (1)(a) of this section.

(3) "Criteria for supported scaffolds."

(a) Supported scaffolds with a height to base width (including outrigger supports, if used) ratio of more than four to one (4:1) shall be restrained from tipping by guying, tying, bracing, or equivalent means, as follows:

(i) Guys, ties, and braces shall be installed at locations where horizontal members support both inner and outer legs.

(ii) Guys, ties, and braces shall be installed according to the scaffold manufacturer's recommendations or at the closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height and be repeated vertically at locations of horizontal members every 20 feet (6.1 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds 3 feet (0.91 m) wide or less, and every 26 feet (7.9 m) or less thereafter for scaffolds greater than 3 feet (0.91 m) wide. The top guy, tie or brace of completed scaffolds shall be placed no further than the 4:1 height from the top. Such guys, ties and braces shall be installed at each end of the scaffold and at horizontal intervals not to exceed 30 feet (9.1 m) (measured from one end (not both) towards the other).

(b) Ties, guys, braces, or outriggers shall be used to prevent the tipping of supported scaffolds in all circumstances where an eccentric load, such as a cantilevered work platform, is applied or is transmitted to the scaffold.

(c) Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates resting on adequate firm foundation, such as dry compacted soil, mud sills or concrete slabs.

(i) Footings shall be level, sound, rigid, and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement.

(ii) Unstable objects shall not be used to support scaffolds or platform units.

(iii) Unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms.

(iv) Front-end loaders and similar pieces of equipment shall not be used to support scaffold platforms unless they have been specifically designed by the manufacturer for such use.

(v) Fork-lifts shall not be used to support scaffold platforms unless the entire platform is attached to the fork and the fork-lift is not moved horizontally while the platform is occupied.

(d) Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall be plumb and braced to prevent swaying and displacement.

(4) "Criteria for suspension scaffolds."

(a) All suspension scaffold support devices, such as outrigger beams, cornice hooks, parapet clamps, and similar devices, shall rest on surfaces capable of supporting at least 4 times the load imposed on them by the scaffold operating at the rated load of the hoist (or at least 1.5 times the load imposed on them by the scaffold at the stall capacity of the hoist, whichever is greater).

(b) Suspension scaffold outrigger beams, when used, shall be made of structural metal or equivalent strength material, and shall be restrained to prevent movement.

(c) The inboard ends of suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall be stabilized by bolts or other direct connections to the floor or roof deck, or they shall have their inboard ends stabilized by counterweights, except masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall not be stabilized by counterweights.

(i) Before the scaffold is used, direct connections shall be evaluated by a competent person who shall confirm, based on the evaluation, that the supporting surfaces are capable of supporting the loads to be imposed. In addition, masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold connections shall be designed by an engineer experienced in such scaffold design.

(ii) Counterweights shall be made of nonflowable material. Sand, gravel and similar materials that can be easily dislocated shall not be used as counterweights.

(iii) Only those items specifically designed as counterweights shall be used to counterweight scaffold systems. Construction materials such as, but not limited to, masonry units and rolls of roofing felt, shall not be used as counterweights.

(iv) Counterweights shall be secured by mechanical means to the outrigger beams to prevent accidental displacement.

(v) Counterweights shall not be removed from an outrigger beam until the scaffold is disassembled.

(vi) Outrigger beams which are not stabilized by bolts or other direct connections to the floor or roof deck shall be secured by tiebacks.

(vii) Tiebacks shall be equivalent in strength to the suspension ropes.

(viii) Outrigger beams shall be placed perpendicular to its bearing support (usually the face of the building or structure). However, where the employer can demonstrate that it is not possible to place an outrigger beam perpendicular to the face of the building or structure because of obstructions that cannot be moved, the outrigger beam may be placed at some other angle, provided opposing angle tiebacks are used.

(ix) Tiebacks shall be secured to a structurally sound anchorage on the building or structure. Sound anchorages include structural members, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit.

(x) Tiebacks shall be installed perpendicular to the face of the building or structure, or opposing angle tiebacks shall be installed. Single tiebacks installed at an angle are prohibited.

(d) Suspension scaffold outrigger beams shall be:

(i) Provided with stop bolts or shackles at both ends;

(ii) Securely fastened together with the flanges turned out when channel iron beams are used in place of I-beams;

(iii) Installed with all bearing supports perpendicular to the beam center line;

(iv) Set and maintained with the web in a vertical position; and

(v) When an outrigger beam is used, the shackle or clevis with which the rope is attached to the outrigger beam shall be placed directly over the center line of the stirrup.

(e) Suspension scaffold support devices such as cornice hooks, roof hooks, roof irons, parapet clamps, or similar devices shall be:

(i) Made of steel, wrought iron, or materials of equivalent strength;

(ii) Supported by bearing blocks; and

(iii) Secured against movement by tiebacks installed at right angles to the face of the building or structure, or opposing angle tiebacks shall be installed and secured to a structurally sound point of anchorage on the building or structure. Sound points of anchorage include structural members, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit.

(iv) Tiebacks shall be equivalent in strength to the hoisting rope.

(f) When winding drum hoists are used on a suspension scaffold, they shall contain not less than four wraps of the suspension rope at the lowest point of scaffold travel. When other types of hoists are used, the suspension ropes shall be long enough to allow the scaffold to be lowered to the level below without the rope end passing through the hoist, or the rope end shall be configured or provided with means to prevent the end from passing through the hoist.

(g) The use of repaired wire rope as suspension rope is prohibited.

(h) Wire suspension ropes shall not be joined together except through the use of eye splice thimbles connected with shackles or coverplates and bolts.

(i) The load end of wire suspension ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles and secured by eyesplicing or equivalent means.

(j) Ropes shall be inspected for defects by a competent person prior to each workshift and after every occurrence which could affect a rope's integrity. Ropes shall be replaced if any of the following conditions exist:

(i) Any physical damage which impairs the function and strength of the rope.

(ii) Kinks that might impair the tracking or wrapping of rope around the drum(s) or sheave(s).

(iii) Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.

(iv) Abrasion, corrosion, scrubbing, flattening or peening causing loss of more than one-third of the original diameter of the outside wires.

(v) Heat damage caused by a torch or any damage caused by contact with electrical wires.

(vi) Evidence that the secondary brake has been activated during an overspeed condition and has engaged the suspension rope.

(k) Swaged attachments or spliced eyes on wire suspension ropes shall not be used unless they are made by the wire rope manufacturer or a qualified person.

(l) When wire rope clips are used on suspension scaffolds:

(i) There shall be a minimum of 3 wire rope clips installed, with the clips a minimum of 6 rope diameters apart;

(ii) Clips shall be installed according to the manufacturer's recommendations;

(iii) Clips shall be retightened to the manufacturer's recommendations after the initial loading;

(iv) Clips shall be inspected and retightened to the manufacturer's recommendations at the start of each workshift thereafter;

(v) U-bolt clips shall not be used at the point of suspension for any scaffold hoist;

(vi) When U-bolt clips are used, the U-bolt shall be placed over the dead end of the rope, and the saddle shall be placed over the live end of the rope.

(m) Suspension scaffold power-operated hoists and manual hoists shall be tested by a qualified testing laboratory.

(n) Gasoline-powered equipment and hoists shall not be used on suspension scaffolds.

(o) Gears and brakes of power-operated hoists used on suspension scaffolds shall be enclosed.

(p) In addition to the normal operating brake, suspension scaffold power-operated hoists and manually operated hoists shall have a braking device or locking pawl which engages automatically when a hoist makes either of the following uncontrolled movements: An instantaneous change in momentum or an accelerated overspeed.

(q) Manually operated hoists shall require a positive crank force to descend.

(r) Two-point and multi-point suspension scaffolds shall be tied or otherwise secured to prevent them from swaying, as determined to be necessary based on an evaluation by a competent person. Window cleaners' anchors shall not be used for this purpose.

(s) Devices whose sole function is to provide emergency escape and rescue shall not be used as working platforms. This provision does not preclude the use of systems which are designed to function both as suspension scaffolds and emergency systems.

(5) "Access." This paragraph applies to scaffold access for all employees. Access requirements for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds are specifically addressed in (i) of this subsection.

(a) When scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet (0.6 m) above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers (scaffold stairways/towers), stairway-type ladders (such as ladder stands), ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be used. Crossbraces shall not be used as a means of access.

(b) Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders (additional requirements for the proper construction and use of portable ladders are contained in Part J of this chapter -- Stairways and ladders):

(i) Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders shall be positioned so as not to tip the scaffold;

(ii) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be positioned so that their bottom rung is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level;

(iii) When hook-on and attachable ladders are used on a supported scaffold more than 24 feet (7.3 m) high, they shall have rest platforms at 20 foot (6.1 m) maximum vertical intervals except the first platform may be up to 24 feet above the ground;

(iv) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be specifically designed for use with the type of scaffold used;

(v) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have a minimum rung length of 11 1/2 inches (29 cm); and

(vi) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have uniformly spaced rungs with a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches.

(c) Stairway-type ladders shall:

(i) Be positioned such that their bottom step is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level;

(ii) Be provided with rest platforms at 12-foot (3.7 m) maximum vertical intervals;

(iii) Have a minimum step width of 16 inches (41 cm), except that mobile scaffold stairway-type ladders shall have a minimum step width of 11 1/2 inches (30 cm); and

(iv) Have slip-resistant treads on all steps and landings.

(d) Stairtowers (scaffold stairway/towers) shall be positioned such that their bottom step is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level.

(i) A stairrail consisting of a toprail and a midrail shall be provided on each side of each scaffold stairway.

(ii) The toprail of each stairrail system shall also be capable of serving as a handrail, unless a separate handrail is provided.

(iii) Handrails, and toprails that serve as handrails, shall provide an adequate handhold for employees grasping them to avoid falling.

(iv) Stairrail systems and handrails shall be surfaced to prevent injury to employees from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.

(v) The ends of stairrail systems and handrails shall be constructed so that they do not constitute a projection hazard.

(vi) Handrails, and toprails that are used as handrails, shall be at least 3 inches (7.6 cm) from other objects.

(vii) Stairrails shall be not less than 28 inches (71 cm) nor more than 37 inches (94 cm) from the upper surface of the stairrail to the surface of the tread, in line with the face of the riser at the forward edge of the tread.

(viii) A landing platform at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) wide by at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) long shall be provided at each level.

(ix) Each scaffold stairway shall be at least 18 inches (45.7 cm) wide between stairrails.

(x) Treads and landings shall have slip-resistant surfaces.

(xi) Stairways shall be installed between 40 degrees and 60 degrees from the horizontal.

(xii) Guardrails meeting the requirements of subsection (7)(d) of this section shall be provided on the open sides and ends of each landing.

(xiii) Riser height shall be uniform, within 1/4 inch, (0.6 cm) for each flight of stairs. Greater variations in riser height are allowed for the top and bottom steps of the entire system, not for each flight of stairs.

(xiv) Tread depth shall be uniform, within 1/4 inch, for each flight of stairs.

(e) Ramps and walkways.

(i) Ramps and walkways 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above lower levels shall have guardrail systems which comply with Part K of this chapter--Floor openings, wall openings and stairways:

(ii) No ramp or walkway shall be inclined more than a slope of one vertical to three horizontal (20 degrees above the horizontal).

(iii) If the slope of a ramp or a walkway is steeper than one vertical in eight horizontal, the ramp or walkway shall have cleats not more than fourteen inches (35 cm) apart which are securely fastened to the planks to provide footing.

(f) Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames shall:

(i) Be specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs;

(ii) Have a rung length of at least 8 inches (20 cm);

(iii) Not be used as work platforms when rungs are less than 11 1/2 inches in length, unless each affected employee uses fall protection, or a positioning device, which complies with WAC 296-155-24510;

(iv) Be uniformly spaced within each frame section;

(v) Be provided with rest platforms at 20-foot (6.1 m) maximum vertical intervals on all supported scaffolds more than 24 feet (7.3 m) high; and

(vi) Have a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches (43 cm). Nonuniform rung spacing caused by joining end frames together is allowed, provided the resulting spacing does not exceed 16 3/4 inches (43 cm).

(g) Steps and rungs of ladder and stairway type access shall line up vertically with each other between rest platforms.

(h) Direct access to or from another surface shall be used only when the scaffold is not more than 14 inches (36 cm) horizontally and not more than 24 inches (61 cm) vertically from the other surface.

(i) Access for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds shall be in accordance with the following:

(i) The employer shall provide safe means of access for each employee erecting or dismantling a scaffold where the provision of safe access is feasible and does not create a greater hazard. The employer shall have a competent person determine whether it is feasible or would pose a greater hazard to provide, and have employees use a safe means of access. This determination shall be based on site conditions and the type of scaffold being erected or dismantled.

(ii) Hook-on or attachable ladders shall be installed as soon as scaffold erection has progressed to a point that permits safe installation and use.

(iii) When erecting or dismantling tubular welded frame scaffolds, (end) frames, with horizontal members that are parallel, level and are not more than 22 inches apart vertically may be used as climbing devices for access, provided they are erected in a manner that creates a usable ladder and provides good hand hold and foot space.

(iv) Cross braces on tubular welded frame scaffolds shall not be used as a means of access or egress.

(6) "Use."

(a) Scaffolds and scaffold components shall not be loaded in excess of their maximum intended loads or rated capacities, whichever is less.

(b) The use of shore or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.

(c) Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be inspected for visible defects by a competent person before each work shift, and after any occurrence which could affect a scaffold's structural integrity.

(d) Any part of a scaffold damaged or weakened such that its strength is less than that required by subsection (1)(a) of this section shall be immediately repaired or replaced, braced to meet those provisions, or removed from service until repaired.

(e) Scaffolds shall not be moved horizontally while employees are on them, unless they have been designed by a registered professional engineer specifically for such movement or, for mobile scaffolds, where the provisions of WAC 296-155-484(23) are followed.

(f) The clearance between scaffolds and power lines shall be as follows: Scaffolds shall not be erected, used, dismantled, altered, or moved such that they or any conductive material handled on them might come closer to exposed and energized power lines than as follows:

*Insulated Lines

Voltage Minimum distance Alternatives

Less than 300 volts. 3 feet (0.9 m)

*300 volts to 50 kv. 10 feet (3.1 m)

More than 50 kv..... 10 feet (3.1 m) plus 2 times the length

0.4 inches (1.0 cm) of the line

for each 1 kv over insulator, but never

50 kv. less than 10

feet (3.1 m).

*Uninsulated lines

Voltage Minimum distance Alternatives

Less than 50 kv..... 10 feet (3.1 m).

More than 50 kv..... 10 feet (3.1 m) plus 2 times the length of

0.4 inches (1.0 cm) the line insulator,

for each 1 kv over but never less than

50 kv. 10 feet (3.1 m).

Exception to subsection (6)(f): Scaffolds and materials may be closer to power lines than specified above where such clearance is necessary for performance of work, and only after the utility company, or electrical system operator, has been notified of the need to work closer and the utility company, or electrical system operator, has deenergized the lines, relocated the lines, or installed protective coverings to prevent accidental contact with the lines.

(g) Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffold erection, moving, dismantling or alteration. Such activities shall be performed only by experienced and trained employees selected for such work by the competent person.

(h) Employees shall be prohibited from working on scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such materials.

(i) Where swinging loads are being hoisted onto or near scaffolds such that the loads might contact the scaffold, tag lines or equivalent measures to control the loads shall be used.

(j) Suspension ropes supporting adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be of a diameter large enough to provide sufficient surface area for the functioning of brake and hoist mechanisms.

(k) Suspension ropes shall be shielded from heat-producing processes. When acids or other corrosive substances are used on a scaffold, the ropes shall be shielded, treated to protect against the corrosive substances, or shall be of a material that will not be damaged by the substance being used.

(l) Work on or from scaffolds is prohibited during storms or high winds unless a competent person has determined that it is safe for employees to be on the scaffold and those employees are protected by a personal fall arrest system or wind screens. Wind screens shall not be used unless the scaffold is secured against the anticipated wind forces imposed.

(m) Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms.

(n) Makeshift devices, such as but not limited to boxes and barrels, shall not be used on top of scaffold platforms to increase the working level height of employees.

(o) Ladders shall not be used on scaffolds to increase the working level height of employees, except on large area scaffolds where employers have satisfied the following criteria:

(i) When the ladder is placed against a structure which is not a part of the scaffold, the scaffold shall be secured against the sideways thrust exerted by the ladder;

(ii) The platform units shall be secured to the scaffold to prevent their movement;

(iii) The ladder legs shall be on the same platform or other means shall be provided to stabilize the ladder against unequal platform deflection; and

(iv) The ladder legs shall be secured to prevent them from slipping or being pushed off the platform.

(p) Platforms shall not deflect more than 1/60 of the span when loaded.

(q) To reduce the possibility of welding current arcing through the suspension wire rope when performing welding from suspended scaffolds, the following precautions shall be taken, as applicable:

(i) An insulated thimble shall be used to attach each suspension wire rope to its hanging support (such as cornice hook or outrigger). Excess suspension wire rope and any additional independent lines from grounding shall be insulated;

(ii) The suspension wire rope shall be covered with insulating material extending at least 4 feet (1.2 m) above the hoist. If there is a tail line below the hoist, it shall be insulated to prevent contact with the platform. The portion of the tail line that hangs free below the scaffold shall be guided or retained, or both, so that it does not become grounded;

(iii) Each hoist shall be covered with insulated protective covers;

(iv) In addition to a work lead attachment required by the welding process, a grounding conductor shall be connected from the scaffold to the structure. The size of this conductor shall be at least the size of the welding process work lead, and this conductor shall not be in series with the welding process or the work piece;

(v) If the scaffold grounding lead is disconnected at any time, the welding machine shall be shut off; and

(vi) An active welding rod or uninsulated welding lead shall not be allowed to contact the scaffold or its suspension system.

(7) "Fall protection."

(a) Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet (3.1 m) above a lower level shall be protected from falling to that lower level. Subsection (7)(a)(i) through (vii) of this section establish the types of fall protection to be provided to the employees on each type of scaffold. Subsection (7)(b) of this section addresses fall protection for scaffold erectors and dismantlers.

Note to subsection (7)(a): The fall protection requirements for employees installing suspension scaffold support systems on floors, roofs, and other elevated surfaces are set forth in Parts C-1 and K of this chapter.

(i) Each employee on a boatswains' chair, catenary scaffold, float scaffold, needle beam scaffold, or ladder jack scaffold shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system;

(ii) Each employee on a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold shall be protected by both a personal fall arrest system and guardrail system;

(iii) Each employee on a crawling board (chicken ladder) shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system, a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity), or by a three-fourth inch (1.9 cm) diameter grabline or equivalent handhold securely fastened beside each crawling board;

(iv) Each employee on a self-contained adjustable scaffold shall be protected by a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity) when the platform is supported by the frame structure, and by both a personal fall arrest system and a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity) when the platform is supported by ropes;

(v) Each employee on a walkway located within a scaffold shall be protected by a guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity) installed within 9 1/2 inches (24.1 cm) of and along at least one side of the walkway;

(vi) Each employee performing overhand bricklaying operations from a supported scaffold shall be protected from falling from all open sides and ends of the scaffold (except at the side next to the wall being laid) by the use of a personal fall arrest system or guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity);

(vii) For all scaffolds not otherwise specified in (a)(i) through (vi) of this subsection, each employee shall be protected by the use of personal fall arrest systems or guardrail systems meeting the requirements of (d) of this subsection.

(b) The employer shall have a competent person determine the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds. Employers are required to provide fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds where the installation and use of such protection is feasible and does not create a greater hazard. The maximum feasible fall protection shall be used.

(c) In addition to meeting the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, personal fall arrest systems used on scaffolds shall be attached by lanyard to a vertical lifeline, horizontal lifeline, or appropriate structural member. Vertical lifelines shall not be used when overhead components, such as overhead protection or additional platform levels, are part of a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold.

(i) When vertical lifelines are used, they shall be fastened to a fixed safe point of anchorage, shall be independent of the scaffold, and shall be protected from sharp edges and abrasion. Safe points of anchorage include structural members of buildings, but do not include standpipes, vents, other piping systems, electrical conduit, outrigger beams, or counterweights.

(ii) When horizontal lifelines are used, they shall be secured to two or more structural members of the scaffold, or they may be looped around both suspension and independent suspension lines (on scaffolds so equipped) above the hoist and brake attached to the end of the scaffold. Horizontal lifelines shall not be attached only to the suspension ropes.

(iii) When lanyards are connected to horizontal lifelines or structural members on a single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffold, the scaffold shall be equipped with additional independent support lines and automatic locking devices capable of stopping the fall of the scaffold in the event one or both of the suspension ropes fail. The independent support lines shall be equal in number and strength to the suspension ropes.

(iv) Vertical lifelines, independent support lines, and suspension ropes shall not be attached to each other, nor shall they be attached to or use the same point of anchorage, nor shall they be attached to the same point on the scaffold or personal fall arrest system.

(d) Guardrail systems installed to meet the requirements of this section shall comply with the following provisions (guardrail systems built in accordance with Appendix A to this part will be deemed to meet the requirements of (d)(vii), (viii), and (ix) of this subsection):

(i) Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms. Guardrail systems shall be installed before the scaffold is released for use by employees other than erection/dismantling crews.

(ii) The top edge height of toprails or equivalent member on supported scaffolds manufactured or first placed in service after January 1, 2000, shall be installed between 38 inches (0.97 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m) above the platform surface. The top edge height on supported scaffolds manufactured and placed in service before January 1, 2000, and on all suspended scaffolds where both a guardrail and a personal fall arrest system are required shall be between 36 inches (0.9 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m). When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of (d) of this subsection.

(iii) When midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent structural members are used, they shall be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the scaffold platform.

(iv) When midrails are used, they shall be installed at a height approximately midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the platform surface.

(v) When screens and mesh are used, they shall extend from the top edge of the guardrail system to the scaffold platform, and along the entire opening between the supports.

(vi) When intermediate members (such as balusters or additional rails) are used, they shall not be more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart.

(vii) Each toprail or equivalent member of a guardrail system shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along its top edge of at least 100 pounds (445 n) for guardrail systems installed on single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds or two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, and at least 200 pounds (890 n) for guardrail systems installed on all other scaffolds.

(viii) When the loads specified in (d)(vii) of this subsection are applied in a downward direction, the top edge shall not drop below the height above the platform surface that is prescribed in (d)(ii) of this subsection.

(ix) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and equivalent structural members of a guardrail system shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the midrail or other member of at least 75 pounds (333 n) for guardrail systems with a minimum 100 pound toprail capacity, and at least 150 pounds (666 n) for guardrail systems with a minimum 200 pound toprail capacity.

(x) Suspension scaffold hoists and nonwalk-through stirrups may be used as end guardrails, if the space between the hoist or stirrup and the side guardrail or structure does not allow passage of an employee to the end of the scaffold.

(xi) Guardrails shall be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.

(xii) The ends of all rails shall not overhang the terminal posts except when such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard to employees.

(xiii) Steel or plastic banding shall not be used as a toprail or midrail.

(xiv) Manila or plastic (or other synthetic) rope being used for toprails or midrails shall be inspected by a competent person as frequently as necessary to ensure that it continues to meet the strength requirements of subsection (7) of this section.

(xv) Crossbraces may be used in lieu of either the toprail or midrail providing the resulting guardrail system meets all the other criteria of (d) of this subsection and this does not result in openings in the guardrail system or between the guardrail system and the platform through which a nineteen-inch diameter sphere can pass.

(8) "Falling object protection."

(a) In addition to wearing hardhats each employee on a scaffold shall be provided with additional protection from falling hand tools, debris, and other small objects through the installation of toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems, or through the erection of debris nets, catch platforms, or canopy structures that contain or deflect the falling objects. When the falling objects are too large, heavy or massive to be contained or deflected by any of the above-listed measures, the employer shall place such potential falling objects away from the edge of the surface from which they could fall and shall secure those materials as necessary to prevent their falling.

(b) Where there is a danger of tools, materials, or equipment falling from a scaffold and striking employees below, the following provisions apply:

(i) The area below the scaffold to which objects can fall shall be barricaded, and employees shall not be permitted to enter the hazard area; or

(ii) A toeboard shall be erected along the edge of platforms above lower levels for a distance sufficient to protect employees below, except on float (ship) scaffolds where an edging of 3/4 x 1 1/2 inch (2 x 4 cm) wood or equivalent may be used in lieu of toeboards; or

(iii) Where tools, materials, or equipment are piled to a height higher than the top edge of the toeboard, paneling or screening extending from the toeboard or platform to the top of the guardrail shall be erected for a distance sufficient to protect employees below; or

(iv) A guardrail system shall be installed with openings small enough to prevent passage of potential falling objects; or

(v) A canopy structure, debris net, or catch platform strong enough to withstand the impact forces of the potential falling objects shall be erected over the employees below.

(c) Canopies, when used for falling object protection, shall comply with the following criteria:

(i) Canopies shall be installed between the falling object hazard and the employees.

(ii) When canopies are used on suspension scaffolds for falling object protection, the scaffold shall be equipped with additional independent support lines equal in number to the number of points supported, and equivalent in strength to the strength of the suspension ropes.

(iii) Independent support lines and suspension ropes shall not be attached to the same points of anchorage.

(d) Where used, toeboards shall be:

(i) Capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard (toeboards built in accordance with Appendix A to this part will be deemed to meet this requirement); and

(ii) At least three and one-half inches (9 cm) high from the top edge of the toeboard to the level of the walking/working surface. Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have not more than 1/4 inch (0.7 cm) clearance above the walking/working surface. Toeboards shall be solid or with openings not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the greatest dimension.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-483, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-484 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of WAC 296-155-483, the following requirements apply to the specific types of scaffolds indicated. Scaffolds not specifically addressed by WAC 296-155-484, such as but not limited to systems scaffolds, must meet the requirements of WAC 296-155-483.

(1) "Pole scaffolds."

(a) When platforms are being moved to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new bearers have been set in place and braced, prior to receiving the new platforms.

(b) Crossbracing shall be installed between the inner and outer sets of poles on double pole scaffolds.

(c) Diagonal bracing in both directions shall be installed across the entire inside face of double-pole scaffolds used to support loads equivalent to a uniformly distributed load of 50 pounds (222 kg) or more per square foot (929 square cm).

(d) Diagonal bracing in both directions shall be installed across the entire outside face of all double- and single-pole scaffolds.

(e) Runners and bearers shall be installed on edge.

(f) Bearers shall extend a minimum of 3 inches (7.6 cm) over the outside edges of runners.

(g) Runners shall extend over a minimum of two poles, and shall be supported by bearing blocks securely attached to the poles.

(h) Braces, bearers, and runners shall not be spliced between poles.

(i) Where wooden poles are spliced, the ends shall be squared and the upper section shall rest squarely on the lower section. Wood splice plates shall be provided on at least two adjacent sides, and shall extend at least 2 feet (0.6 m) on either side of the splice, overlap the abutted ends equally, and have at least the same cross-sectional areas as the pole. Splice plates of other materials of equivalent strength may be used.

(j) Pole scaffolds over 60 feet in height shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design. Nonmandatory Appendix A to this part contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with design and loading requirements for pole scaffolds under 60 feet in height.

(2) "Tube and coupler scaffolds."

(a) When platforms are being moved to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new bearers have been set in place and braced prior to receiving the new platforms.

(b) Transverse bracing forming an "X" across the width of the scaffold shall be installed at the scaffold ends and at least at every third set of posts horizontally (measured from only one end) and every fourth runner vertically. Bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner or outer posts or runners upward to the next outer or inner posts or runners. Building ties shall be installed at the bearer levels between the transverse bracing and shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-155-483 (3)(a).

(c) On straight run scaffolds, longitudinal bracing across the inner and outer rows of posts shall be installed diagonally in both directions, and shall extend from the base of the end posts upward to the top of the scaffold at approximately a 45 degree angle. On scaffolds whose length is greater than their height, such bracing shall be repeated beginning at least at every fifth post. On scaffolds whose length is less than their height, such bracing shall be installed from the base of the end posts upward to the opposite end posts, and then in alternating directions until reaching the top of the scaffold. Bracing shall be installed as close as possible to the intersection of the bearer and post or runner and post.

(d) Where conditions preclude the attachment of bracing to posts, bracing shall be attached to the runners as close to the post as possible.

(e) Bearers shall be installed transversely between posts, and when coupled to the posts, shall have the inboard coupler bear directly on the runner coupler. When the bearers are coupled to the runners, the couplers shall be as close to the posts as possible.

(f) Bearers shall extend beyond the posts and runners, and shall provide full contact with the coupler.

(g) Runners shall be installed along the length of the scaffold, located on both the inside and outside posts at level heights (when tube and coupler guardrails and midrails are used on outside posts, they may be used in lieu of outside runners).

(h) Runners shall be interlocked on straight runs to form continuous lengths, and shall be coupled to each post. The bottom runners and bearers shall be located as close to the base as possible.

(i) Couplers shall be of a structural metal, such as drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. The use of gray cast iron is prohibited.

(j) Tube and coupler scaffolds over 125 feet in height shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design. Nonmandatory Appendix A to this part contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with design and loading requirements for tube and coupler scaffolds under 125 feet in height.

(3) "Fabricated frame scaffolds" (tubular welded frame scaffolds).

(a) When moving platforms to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new end frames have been set in place and braced prior to receiving the new platforms.

(b) Frames and panels shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, which secure vertical members together laterally. The cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and align vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, level, and square. All brace connections shall be secured.

(c) Frames and panels shall be joined together vertically by coupling or stacking pins or equivalent means.

(d) Where uplift can occur which would displace scaffold end frames or panels, the frames or panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or equivalent means.

(e) Brackets used to support cantilevered loads shall:

(i) Be seated with side-brackets parallel to the frames and end-brackets at 90 degrees to the frames;

(ii) Not be bent or twisted from these positions; and

(iii) Be used only to support personnel, unless the scaffold has been designed for other loads by a qualified engineer and built to withstand the tipping forces caused by those other loads being placed on the bracket-supported section of the scaffold.

(f) Scaffolds over 125 feet (38.0 m) in height above their base plates shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design.

(4) "Plasterers', decorators', and large area scaffolds." Scaffolds shall be constructed in accordance with subsection (1), (2), or (3) of this section, as appropriate.

(5) "Bricklayers' square scaffolds (squares)."

(a) Scaffolds made of wood shall be reinforced with gussets on both sides of each corner.

(b) Diagonal braces shall be installed on all sides of each square.

(c) Diagonal braces shall be installed between squares on the rear and front sides of the scaffold, and shall extend from the bottom of each square to the top of the next square.

(d) Scaffolds shall not exceed three tiers in height, and shall be so constructed and arranged that one square rests directly above the other. The upper tiers shall stand on a continuous row of planks laid across the next lower tier, and shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.

(6) "Horse scaffolds."

(a) Scaffolds shall not be constructed or arranged more than two tiers or 10 feet (3.0 m) in height, whichever is less.

(b) When horses are arranged in tiers, each horse shall be placed directly over the horse in the tier below.

(c) When horses are arranged in tiers, the legs of each horse shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.

(d) When horses are arranged in tiers, each tier shall be crossbraced.

(7) "Form scaffolds and carpenters' bracket scaffolds."

(a) Each bracket, except those for wooden bracket-form scaffolds, shall be attached to the supporting formwork or structure by means of one or more of the following: Nails; a metal stud attachment device; welding; hooking over a secured structural supporting member, with the form wales either bolted to the form or secured by snap ties or tie bolts extending through the form and securely anchored; or, for carpenters' bracket scaffolds only, by a bolt extending through to the opposite side of the structure's wall.

(b) Wooden bracket-form scaffolds shall be an integral part of the form panel.

(c) Folding type metal brackets, when extended for use, shall be either bolted or secured with a locking-type pin.

(8) "Roof bracket scaffolds."

(a) Scaffold brackets shall be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof and shall provide a level support for the platform.

(b) Brackets (including those provided with pointed metal projections) shall be anchored in place by nails unless it is impractical to use nails. When nails are not used, brackets shall be secured in place with first-grade manila rope of at least three-fourth inch (1.9 cm) diameter, or equivalent.

(9) "Outrigger scaffolds."

(a) The inboard end of outrigger beams, measured from the fulcrum point to the extreme point of anchorage, shall be not less than one and one-half times the outboard end in length.

(b) Outrigger beams fabricated in the shape of an I-beam or channel shall be placed so that the web section is vertical.

(c) The fulcrum point of outrigger beams shall rest on secure bearings at least 6 inches (15.2 cm) in each horizontal dimension.

(d) Outrigger beams shall be secured in place against movement, and shall be securely braced at the fulcrum point against tipping.

(e) The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be securely anchored either by means of braced struts bearing against sills in contact with the overhead beams or ceiling, or by means of tension members secured to the floor joists underfoot, or by both.

(f) The entire supporting structure shall be securely braced to prevent any horizontal movement.

(g) To prevent their displacement, platform units shall be nailed, bolted, or otherwise secured to outriggers.

(h) Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be designed by a registered professional engineer and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design.

(10) "Pump jack scaffolds."

(a) Pump jack brackets, braces, and accessories shall be fabricated from metal plates and angles. Each pump jack bracket shall have two positive gripping mechanisms to prevent any failure or slippage.

(b) Poles shall be secured to the structure by rigid triangular bracing or equivalent at the bottom, top, and other points as necessary. When the pump jack has to pass bracing already installed, an additional brace shall be installed approximately 4 feet (1.2 m) above the brace to be passed, and shall be left in place until the pump jack has been moved and the original brace reinstalled.

(c) When guardrails are used for fall protection, a workbench may be used as the toprail only if it meets all the requirements in WAC 296-155-483 (7)(d)(ii), (vii), (viii), and (xiii).

(d) Work benches shall not be used as scaffold platforms.

(e) When poles are made of wood, the pole lumber shall be straight-grained, free of shakes, large loose or dead knots, and other defects which might impair strength.

(f) When wood poles are constructed of two continuous lengths, they shall be joined together with the seam parallel to the bracket.

(g) When two by fours are spliced to make a pole, mending plates shall be installed at all splices to develop the full strength of the member.

(11) "Ladder jack scaffolds."

(a) Platforms shall not exceed a height of 20 feet (6.1 m).

(b) All ladders used to support ladder jack scaffolds shall meet the requirements of Part J of this chapter -- Stairways and ladders, except that job-made ladders shall not be used to support ladder jack scaffolds.

(c) The ladder jack shall be so designed and constructed that it will bear on the side rails and ladder rungs or on the ladder rungs alone. If bearing on rungs only, the bearing area shall include a length of at least 10 inches (25.4 cm) on each rung.

(d) Ladders used to support ladder jacks shall be placed, fastened, or equipped with devices to prevent slipping.

(e) Scaffold platforms shall not be bridged one to another.

(12) "Window jack scaffolds."

(a) Scaffolds shall be securely attached to the window opening.

(b) Scaffolds shall be used only for the purpose of working at the window opening through which the jack is placed.

(c) Window jacks shall not be used to support planks placed between one window jack and another, or for other elements of scaffolding.

(13) "Crawling boards (chicken ladders)."

(a) Crawling boards shall extend from the roof peak to the eaves when used in connection with roof construction, repair, or maintenance.

(b) Crawling boards shall be secured to the roof by ridge hooks or by means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength and durability).

(14) "Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds."

(a) Scaffold platforms shall not be placed any higher than the second highest rung or step of the ladder supporting the platform.

(b) All ladders used in conjunction with step, platform and trestle ladder scaffolds shall meet the pertinent requirements of Part J of this chapter -- Stairways and ladders, except that job-made ladders shall not be used to support such scaffolds.

(c) Ladders used to support step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds shall be placed, fastened, or equipped with devices to prevent slipping.

(d) Scaffolds shall not be bridged one to another.

(15) "Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds."

(a) When two single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds are combined to form a two-point adjustable suspension scaffold, the resulting two-point scaffold shall comply with the requirements for two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds in subsection (16) of this section.

(b) The supporting rope between the scaffold and the suspension device shall be kept vertical unless all of the following conditions are met:

(i) The rigging has been designed by a qualified person; and

(ii) The scaffold is accessible to rescuers; and

(iii) The supporting rope is protected to ensure that it will not chafe at any point where a change in direction occurs; and

(iv) The scaffold is positioned so that swinging cannot bring the scaffold into contact with another surface.

(c) Boatswains' chair tackle shall consist of correct size ball bearings or bushed blocks containing safety hooks and properly "eye-spliced" minimum five-eighth (5/8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter first-grade manila rope, or other rope which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., strength and durability) of manila rope.

(d) Boatswains' chair seat slings shall be reeved through four corner holes in the seat; shall cross each other on the underside of the seat; and shall be rigged so as to prevent slippage which could cause an out-of-level condition.

(e) Boatswains' chair seat slings shall be a minimum of five-eight (5/8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter fiber, synthetic, or other rope which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., strength, slip resistance, durability, etc.) of first grade manila rope.

(f) When a heat-producing process such as gas or arc welding is being conducted, boatswains' chair seat slings shall be a minimum of three-eight (3/8) inch (1.0 cm) wire rope.

(g) Noncross-laminated wood boatswains' chairs shall be reinforced on their underside by cleats securely fastened to prevent the board from splitting.

(16) "Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds (swing stages)." The following requirements do not apply to two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds used as masons' or stonesetters' scaffolds. Such scaffolds are covered by subsection (17) of this section.

(a) Platforms shall not be more than 36 inches (0.9 m) wide unless designed by a qualified person to prevent unstable conditions.

(b) The platform shall be securely fastened to hangers (stirrups) by U-bolts or by other means which satisfy the requirements of WAC 296-155-483(1).

(c) The blocks for fiber or synthetic ropes shall consist of at least one double and one single block. The sheaves of all blocks shall fit the size of the rope used.

(d) Platforms shall be of the ladder-type, plank-type, beam-type, or light-metal type. Light metal-type platforms having a rated capacity of 750 pounds or less and platforms 40 feet (12.2 m) or less in length shall be tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(e) Two-point scaffolds shall not be bridged or otherwise connected one to another during raising and lowering operations unless the bridge connections are articulated (attached), and the hoists properly sized.

(f) Passage may be made from one platform to another only when the platforms are at the same height, are abutting, and walk-through stirrups specifically designed for this purpose are used.

(17) "Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, stonesetters' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds, and masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds."

(a) When two or more scaffolds are used they shall not be bridged one to another unless they are designed to be bridged, the bridge connections are articulated, and the hoists are properly sized.

(b) If bridges are not used, passage may be made from one platform to another only when the platforms are at the same height and are abutting.

(c) Scaffolds shall be suspended from metal outriggers, brackets, wire rope slings, hooks, or means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, durability).

(18) "Catenary scaffolds."

(a) No more than one platform shall be placed between consecutive vertical pickups, and no more than two platforms shall be used on a catenary scaffold.

(b) Platforms supported by wire ropes shall have hook-shaped stops on each end of the platforms to prevent them from slipping off the wire ropes. These hooks shall be so placed that they will prevent the platform from falling if one of the horizontal wire ropes breaks.

(c) Wire ropes shall not be tightened to the extent that the application of a scaffold load will overstress them.

(d) Wire ropes shall be continuous and without splices between anchors.

(19) "Float (ship) scaffolds."

(a) The platform shall be supported by a minimum of two bearers, each of which shall project a minimum of 6 inches (15.2 cm) beyond the platform on both sides. Each bearer shall be securely fastened to the platform.

(b) Rope connections shall be such that the platform cannot shift or slip.

(c) When only two ropes are used with each float:

(i) They shall be arranged so as to provide four ends which are securely fastened to overhead supports.

(ii) Each supporting rope shall be hitched around one end of the bearer and pass under the platform to the other end of the bearer where it is hitched again, leaving sufficient rope at each end for the supporting ties.

(20) "Interior hung scaffolds."

(a) Scaffolds shall be suspended only from the roof structure or other structural member such as ceiling beams.

(b) Overhead supporting members (roof structure, ceiling beams, or other structural members) shall be inspected and checked for strength before the scaffold is erected.

(c) Suspension ropes and cables shall be connected to the overhead supporting members by shackles, clips, thimbles, or other means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, durability).

(21) "Needle beam scaffolds."

(a) Scaffold support beams shall be installed on edge.

(b) Ropes or hangers shall be used for supports, except that one end of a needle beam scaffold may be supported by a permanent structural member.

(c) The ropes shall be securely attached to the needle beams.

(d) The support connection shall be arranged so as to prevent the needle beam from rolling or becoming displaced.

(e) Platform units shall be securely attached to the needle beams by bolts or equivalent means. Cleats and overhang are not considered to be adequate means of attachment.

(22) "Multi-level suspended scaffolds."

(a) Scaffolds shall be equipped with additional independent support lines, equal in number to the number of points supported, and of equivalent strength to the suspension ropes, and rigged to support the scaffold in the event the suspension rope(s) fail.

(b) Independent support lines and suspension ropes shall not be attached to the same points of anchorage.

(c) Supports for platforms shall be attached directly to the support stirrup and not to any other platform.

(23) "Mobile scaffolds."

(a) Scaffolds shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, to prevent racking or collapse of the scaffold and to secure vertical members together laterally so as to automatically square and align the vertical members. Scaffolds shall be plumb, level, and squared. All brace connections shall be secured.

(i) Scaffolds constructed of tube and coupler components shall also comply with the requirements of subsection (2) of this section;

(ii) Scaffolds constructed of fabricated frame components shall also comply with the requirements of subsection (3) of this section.

(b) Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked with positive wheel and/or wheel and swivel locks, or equivalent means, to prevent movement of the scaffold while the scaffold is used in a stationary manner.

(c) Manual force used to move the scaffold shall be applied as close to the base as practicable, but not more than 5 feet (1.5 m) above the supporting surface.

(d) Power systems used to propel mobile scaffolds shall be designed for such use. Forklifts, trucks, similar motor vehicles or add-on motors shall not be used to propel scaffolds unless the scaffold is designed for such propulsion systems.

(e) Scaffolds shall be stabilized to prevent tipping during movement.

(f) Employees shall not be allowed to ride on scaffolds unless the following conditions exist:

(i) The surface on which the scaffold is being moved is within 3 degrees of level, and free of pits, holes, and obstructions;

(ii) The height to base width ratio of the scaffold during movement is two to one or less, unless the scaffold is designed and constructed to meet or exceed nationally recognized stability test requirements such as those listed in (ANSI/SIA A92.5 and A92.6);

(iii) Outrigger frames, when used, are installed on both sides of the scaffold;

(iv) When power systems are used, the propelling force is applied directly to the wheels, and does not produce a speed in excess of 1 foot per second (.3 mps); and

(v) No employee is on any part of the scaffold which extends outward beyond the wheels, casters, or other supports.

(g) Platforms shall not extend outward beyond the base supports of the scaffold unless outrigger frames or equivalent devices are used to ensure stability.

(h) Where leveling of the scaffold is necessary, screw jacks or equivalent means shall be used.

(i) Caster stems and wheel stems shall be pinned or otherwise secured in scaffold legs or adjustment screws.

(j) Where uplift may occur, panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent means.

(k) Before a scaffold is moved, each employee on the scaffold shall be made aware of the move.

(24) "Repair bracket scaffolds."

(a) Brackets shall be secured in place by at least one wire rope at least 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) in diameter.

(b) Each bracket shall be attached to the securing wire rope (or ropes) by a positive locking device capable of preventing the unintentional detachment of the bracket from the rope, or by equivalent means.

(c) Each bracket, at the contact point between the supporting structure and the bottom of the bracket, shall be provided with a shoe (heel block or foot) capable of preventing the lateral movement of the bracket.

(d) Platforms shall be secured to the brackets in a manner that will prevent the separation of the platforms from the brackets and the movement of the platforms or the brackets on a completed scaffold.

(e) When a wire rope is placed around the structure in order to provide a safe anchorage for personal fall arrest systems used by employees erecting or dismantling scaffolds, the wire rope shall meet the requirements of Part C-1 of this chapter, but shall be at least 5/16 inch (0.8 cm) in diameter.

(f) Each wire rope used for securing brackets in place or as an anchorage for personal fall arrest systems shall be protected from damage due to contact with edges, corners, protrusions, or other discontinuities of the supporting structure or scaffold components.

(g) Tensioning of each wire rope used for securing brackets in place or as an anchorage for personal fall arrest systems shall be by means of a turnbuckle at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter, or by equivalent means.

(h) Each turnbuckle shall be connected to the other end of its rope by use of an eyesplice thimble of a size appropriate to the turnbuckle to which it is attached.

(i) U-bolt wire rope clips shall not be used on any wire rope used to secure brackets or to serve as an anchor for personal fall arrest systems.

(j) The employer shall ensure that materials shall not be dropped to the outside of the supporting structure.

(k) Scaffold erection shall progress in only one direction around any structure.

(25) "Stilts." Stilts, when used, shall be used in accordance with the following requirements:

(a) An employee may wear stilts on a scaffold only if it is a large area scaffold.

(b) When an employee is using stilts on a large area scaffold where a guardrail system is used to provide fall protection, the guardrail system shall be increased in height by an amount equal to the height of the stilts being used by the employee.

(c) Surfaces on which stilts are used shall be flat and free of pits, holes and obstructions, such as debris, as well as other tripping and falling hazards.

(d) Stilts shall be properly maintained. Any alteration of the original equipment shall be approved by the manufacturer.

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-24-051, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97)

WAC 296-155-485 ((Scaffolding. (1) General requirements. Scaffolds shall be furnished and erected in accordance with this standard for persons engaged in work that cannot be done safely from the ground or from solid construction, except that ladders used for such work shall conform to Part J chapter 296-155 WAC.

(a) All rules for design, construction, maintenance, operation, testing, and use of scaffolds contained in Part J-1 chapter 296-24 WAC apply within the construction industry.

(b) Scaffolds shall be erected in accordance with requirements of this section.

(c) The footing or anchorage for scaffolds shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick, or concrete blocks, shall not be used to support scaffolds or planks.

(d) No scaffold shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered except under the supervision of competent persons.

(e) Standard guardrails and toeboards shall be installed on all open sides and ends of platforms more than 10 feet above the ground or floor, except needle beam scaffolds and floats. Scaffolds 4 feet to 10 feet in height, having a minimum horizontal dimension in either direction of less than 45 inches, shall have standard guardrails and toeboards installed on all open sides and ends of the scaffold platform.

(f) Where persons are required to work or pass under the scaffold, scaffolds shall be provided with a screen between the toeboard and the guardrail, extending along the entire opening, consisting of No. 18 gauge U.S. Standard wire 1/2-inch mesh, or the equivalent.

(g) Scaffolds and their components shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 4 times the maximum intended load.

(h) Any scaffold including accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc. damaged or weakened from any cause shall be immediately repaired or replaced.

(i) All load-carrying timber members of scaffold framing shall be a minimum of 1,500 fiber (stress grade) construction grade lumber. All dimensions are nominal sizes as provided in the American Lumber Standards, except that where rough sizes are noted, only rough or undressed lumber of the size specified will satisfy minimum requirements.

(j) All planking shall be scaffold grades, or equivalent, as recognized by approved grading rules for the species of wood used. The maximum permissible spans for 2- x 10-inch or wider planks shall be as shown in Table J-1.

(k) The maximum permissible span for 1 1/4- x 9-inch or wider plank of full thickness shall be 4 feet with medium duty loading of 50 p.s.f.

(l) Platforms shall be level. All planking or platforms shall be overlapped (minimum 12 inches), or secured from movement. The platform shall be a minimum of two 2-inch by 10-inch planks in width or a minimum of 18 inches.

(m) An access ladder or equivalent safe access shall be provided.

(n) Scaffold planks shall extend over their end supports not less than 6 inches nor more than 12 inches.

(o) The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall be plumb, and securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement.

(p) Overhead protection shall be provided for persons on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards.

(q) Slippery conditions on scaffolds shall be eliminated as soon as possible after they occur.

(r) Welding, burning, riveting, or open flame work shall not be performed on any staging suspended by means of fiber or synthetic rope unless suspended components are well insulated to protect against damaging contacts. Only treated or protected fiber or synthetic ropes shall be used for or near any work involving the use of corrosive substances or chemicals. Specific requirements for boatswain's chairs and float or ship scaffolds are contained in subsections (10) and (21) of this section.

(s) Wire, synthetic, or fiber rope used for scaffold suspension shall be capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load.

(t) The use of shore or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.

(u) The height of freestanding scaffold towers shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension.

(v) Factory-built (laminated) scaffold planks meeting the requirements of wood scaffold planks may be substituted for wood scaffold planks.

(w) Materials being hoisted onto a scaffold shall have a tag line.

(x) Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds.

(y) Tools, materials, and debris shall not be allowed to accumulate in quantities to cause a hazard.

(2) Wood pole scaffolds.

(a) Scaffold poles shall bear on a foundation of sufficient size and strength to spread the load from the pole over a sufficient area to prevent settlement. All poles shall be set plumb.

(b) Where wood poles are spliced, the ends shall be squared and the upper section shall rest squarely on the lower section. Wood splice plates shall be provided on at least two adjacent sides and shall be not less than 4 feet in length, overlapping the abutted ends equally, and have the same width and not less than the cross-sectional area of the pole. Splice plates or other materials of equivalent strength may be used.

(c) Independent pole scaffolds shall be set as near to the wall of the building as practicable.

(d) All pole scaffolds shall be securely guyed or tied to the building or structure. Where the height or length exceeds 25 feet, the scaffold shall be secured at intervals not greater than 25 feet vertically and horizontally.

(e) Putlogs or bearers shall be set with their greater dimension vertical, and long enough to project over the ledgers of the inner and outer rows of poles at least 3 inches for proper support.

(f) Every wooden putlog on single pole scaffolds shall be reinforced with a 3/16- x 2-inch steel strip, or equivalent, secured to its lower edge throughout its entire length.

(g) Ledgers shall be long enough to extend over two pole spaces. Ledgers shall not be spliced between the poles. Ledgers shall be reinforced by bearing blocks securely nailed to the side of the pole to form a support for the ledger.

(h) Diagonal bracing shall be provided to prevent the poles from moving in a direction parallel with the wall of the building, or from buckling

(i) Cross bracing shall be provided between the inner and outer sets of poles in independent pole scaffolds. The free ends of pole scaffolds shall be cross braced.

(j) Full diagonal face bracing shall be erected across the entire face of pole scaffolds in both directions. The braces shall be spliced only at the poles. The inner row of poles on medium and heavy duty scaffolds shall be braced in a similar manner.

(k) Platform planks shall be laid with their edges close together so the platform will be tight with no spaces through which tools or fragments of material can fall.

(l) Where planking is lapped, each plank shall lap its end supports at least 12 inches. Where the ends of planks abut each other to form a flush floor, the butt joint shall be at the centerline of a pole. The abutted ends shall rest on separate bearers. Intermediate beams shall be provided where necessary to prevent dislodgment of planks due to deflection, and the ends shall be secured to prevent their dislodgment.

(m) When a scaffold materially changes its direction, the platform planks shall be laid to prevent tipping. The planks that meet the corner putlog at an angle shall be laid first, extending over the diagonally placed putlog far enough to have a good safe bearing, but not far enough to involve any danger from tipping. The planking running in the opposite direction at an angle shall be laid so as to extend over and rest on the first layer of planking.

(n) When moving platforms to the next level, the old platform shall be left undisturbed until the new putlogs or bearers have been set in place, ready to receive the platform planks.

(o) All wood pole scaffolds 60 feet or less in height shall be constructed and erected in accordance with Tables J-2 to J-8. If they are over 60 feet in height, they shall be designed by a qualified engineer competent in this field, and shall be constructed and erected in accordance with such design. Design drawings shall be available at the jobsite.

(3) Tube and coupler scaffolds.

(a) A light duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, bearers, runners, and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing. The posts shall be spaced no more than 6 feet apart by 10 feet along the length of the scaffold. Other structural metals when used must be designed to carry an equivalent load. No dissimilar metals shall be used together.

(b) A medium duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, runners, and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing. Posts spaced not more than 6 feet apart by 8 feet along the length of the scaffold shall have bearers of nominal 2 1/2-inch O.D. steel tubing. Posts spaced not more than 5 feet apart by 8 feet along the length of the scaffold shall have bearers of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing. Other structural metals, when used, must be designed to carry an equivalent load. No dissimilar metals shall be used together.

(c) A heavy duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, runners, and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing, with the posts spaced not more than 6 feet by 6 feet-6 inches. Other structural metals, when used, must be designed to carry an equivalent load. No dissimilar metals shall be used together.

(d) Tube and coupler scaffolds shall be limited in heights and working levels to those permitted in Tables J-8, J-9 and J-10. Drawings and specifications of all tube and coupler scaffolds above the limitations in Tables J-8, J-9 and J-10 shall be designed by a qualified engineer competent in this field. Design drawings shall be available at the jobsite.

(e) All tube and coupler scaffolds shall be constructed and erected to support four times the maximum intended loads, as set forth in Tables J-8, J-9 and J-10, or as set forth in the specifications by a licensed professional engineer competent in this field.

(f) Posts shall be accurately spaced, erected on suitable bases, and maintained plumb.

(g) Runners shall be erected along the length of the scaffold, located on both the inside and the outside posts at even height. Runners shall be interlocked to the inside and the outside posts at even heights. Runners shall be interlocked to form continuous lengths and coupled to each post. The bottom runners shall be located as close to the base as possible. Runners shall be placed not more than 6 feet-6 inches on centers. When tube and coupler guardrails and midrails are used on outside posts, they may be used in lieu of outside runners.

(h) Bearers shall be installed transversely between posts and shall be securely coupled to the posts with the inboard coupler bearing on the runner coupler. Where guardrails and midrails are required, no outboard runner is required.

(i) The length of the bearer shall exceed the post spacing of the width of the scaffold by the amount necessary to have full contact with the coupler. Bearers used to provide a cantilever support for use as brackets for light and medium-duty scaffolds shall not carry more than two ten-inch planks unless knee braced.

(j) Bracing across the width of the scaffold shall be installed at the ends of the scaffold at least at every fourth level. Such bracing shall extend diagonally from the outer post or runner at this level upward to the inner post or runner at the next level.

(k) Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed on the outer rows of poles at approximately forty degrees to fifty degrees angle from near the base of the first and last outer post upward to the top center of the scaffold. If the scaffold is long, the above diagonal bracing shall be repeated. On short but high runs, the diagonal bracing shall be installed at forty degrees to fifty degrees from the base of the first outer post to the last outer post alternating directions to the top of the scaffold. When conditions preclude the attachment of this bracing to the posts, it may be attached to the runners.

(l) When a scaffold exceeds either 30 feet horizontally or 26 feet vertically, the entire scaffold shall be tied to and securely braced against the building at intervals not to exceed 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.

(4) Fabricated tubular welded frame scaffolds.

(a) Metal tubular frame scaffolds, including accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc., shall safely support four times the maximum rated load. The maximum rated load shall not be exceeded.

(b) Spacing of panels or frames shall be consistent with the loads imposed.

(c) Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross bracing or diagonal braces, or both, for securing vertical members together laterally, and the cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and aline vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, level, square, and rigid. All brace connections shall be made secure.

(d) Panel or frame legs shall be set on adjustable bases or plain bases placed on mud sills or other foundations adequate to support the maximum rated load.

(e) The panels or frames shall be placed one on top of the other with coupling or stacking pins to provide proper vertical alinement of the legs.

(f) Where uplift may occur, panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or equivalent method.

(g) To prevent movement, the scaffold shall be secured to the building or structure at intervals not to exceed 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.

(h) Maximum permissible spans or planking shall be in conformity with (1)(j) of this section.

(i) Fabricated tubular frame scaffolds over 125 feet in height above the base plates shall be designed by a registered professional engineer. Copies of the drawings and specifications shall be available at the jobsite.

(j) Guardrails, midrails, and toeboards shall be installed as required by subsection (1)(e) of this section. Wire mesh shall be provided between the toprail and toeboard when persons are working below.

(k) All fabricated tubular frame scaffolds shall be erected by competent and experienced personnel.

(l) All brackets shall be seated correctly with side brackets parallel to the frames and end brackets at ninety degrees to the frames. Brackets shall not be bent or twisted from normal position. Brackets (except mobile brackets designed to carry materials) are to be used as work platforms only and shall not be used for storage of material or equipment.

(m) Scaffold frames and their components manufactured by different companies shall not be intermixed unless they are compatible and the manufacturer has given written approval. The manufacturers letter of approval shall be available at the jobsite.

(n) Periodic inspections by the employer shall be made of all fabricated tubular frames and accessories. Any maintenance required shall be made before further use.

(5) Outrigger scaffolds, general.

(a) Outrigger beams shall extend not more than 6 feet beyond the face of the building. The inboard end of outrigger beams, measured from the fulcrum point to the inboard point of support, shall be not less than 1 1/2 times the outboard end in length. The beams shall rest on edge, the sides shall be plumb, and the edges shall be horizontal. The fulcrum point of the beam shall rest on a secure bearing at least 6 inches in each horizontal dimension. The beam shall be secured in place against movement and shall be securely braced at the fulcrum point against tipping.

(b) The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be positively secured either by means of struts bearing against sills in contact with the overhead beams or ceiling, or by means of tension members secured to the floor joists underfoot, or by both if necessary, or by a securely fastened solid body counterweight. (Water in an open container or loose material in bags shall not be permitted.) The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be secured against tipping and the entire supporting structure shall be securely braced in both directions to prevent any horizontal movement.

(c) Unless outrigger scaffolds are designed by a registered professional engineer competent in this field, they shall be constructed and erected in accordance with Table J-11. Outrigger scaffolds, designed by a registered professional engineer, shall be constructed and erected in accordance with such design. A copy of the drawings and specifications shall be available at the jobsite.

(d) Planking shall be laid tight and shall extend to within 3 inches of the building wall. Planking shall be secured to the beams.

(6) Masons' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffolds.

(a) The scaffold shall be capable of sustaining a working load of 50 pounds per square foot and shall not be loaded in excess of that figure.

(b) The scaffold shall be provided with hoisting machines that meet the requirements of Underwriters' Laboratories, Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation, or other agency or laboratory approved by the department of labor and industries.

(c) The platform shall be supported by wire ropes, capable of supporting at least 6 times the intended load, suspended from overhead outrigger beams.

(d) The scaffold outrigger beams shall consist of structural metal securely fastened or anchored to the frame or floor system of the building or structure.

(e) Each outrigger beam shall be equivalent in strength to at least a standard 7-inch, 15.3-pound steel I-beam, at least 15 feet long, and shall not project more than 6 feet 6 inches beyond the bearing point.

(f) Where the overhang exceeds 6 feet 6 inches, outrigger beams shall be composed of stronger beams or multiple beams and be installed under the supervision of a competent person.

(g) All outrigger beams shall be set and maintained with their webs in a vertical position.

(h) A stop bolt shall be placed at each end of every outrigger beam.

(i) The outrigger beam shall rest on suitable wood bearing blocks.

(j) The free end of the suspension wire ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles and secured by splicing or other equivalent means. The running ends shall be securely attached to the hoisting drum. At least four turns of wire rope shall remain on the drum when the platform is at ground level. The use of fiber rope is prohibited.

(k) Where a single outrigger beam is used, the steel shackles or clevises with which the wire ropes are attached to the outrigger beams shall be placed directly over the hoisting drums.

(l) The scaffold platform shall be equivalent in strength to at least 2-inch planking. (For maximum planking spans, see subsection (1)(j) of this section.)

(m) When employees are at work on the scaffold and an overhead hazard exists, overhead protection shall be provided on the scaffold, not more than 9 feet above the platform, consisting of 2-inch planking, or material of equivalent strength, laid tight, and extending not less than the width of the scaffold.

(n) Each scaffold shall be installed or relocated under the supervision of a competent person.

(o) When channel iron outrigger beams are used instead of I-beams, they shall be securely fastened together with the flanges turned out.

(p) All parts of the scaffold, such as bolts, nuts, fittings, clamps, wire rope, outrigger beams and their fastenings shall be maintained in sound condition and shall be inspected before each installation and periodically thereafter. All parts shall be of the grade specified by the manufacturer.

(7) Two-point suspension scaffolds.

(a) Two-point suspension scaffold platforms shall be not less than 20 inches nor more than 36 inches wide overall. The platform shall be securely fastened to the hangers by U-bolts or by other equivalent means.

(b) The hangers of two-point suspension scaffolds shall be made of wrought iron, mild steel, or other equivalent material, having a cross-sectional area capable of sustaining 4 times the maximum rated load, and shall be designed with a support for guardrail, intermediate rail, and toeboard.

(c) When hoisting machines are used on two-point suspension scaffolds, such machines shall be of a design tested and approved by Underwriters' Laboratories, Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation, or by an agency or laboratory approved by the department of labor and industries.

(d) The roof irons or hooks shall be of mild steel, or other equivalent material, of proper size and design, securely installed and anchored. The roof irons or hooks and any other devices shall have tiebacks of 3/4-inch manila rope, or the equivalent, to serve as a secondary means of anchorage, installed at right angles to the face of the building, whenever possible, and secured to a structurally sound portion of the building.

(e) Two-point suspension scaffolds shall be suspended by wire, synthetic or fiber ropes capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load. All other components shall be capable of supporting at least four times the rated load.

(f) The sheaves of all blocks, consisting of at least one double and one single block, shall fit the size and type of rope used and shall be a minimum of six inches in diameter.

(g) All wire ropes, fiber and synthetic ropes, slings, hangers, platforms, and other supporting parts shall be inspected before every installation. Periodic inspections shall be made while the scaffold is in use.

(h) On suspension scaffolds designed for a working load of 500 pounds, no more than two persons shall be permitted to work at one time. On suspension scaffolds with a working load of 750 pounds, no more than three persons shall be permitted to work at one time. On suspension scaffolds with a working load of 1,000 pounds, no more than four persons shall be permitted to work at one time. Each employee shall be protected by an approved full body harness attached to a dropline. The droplines shall be securely attached to substantial members of the structure (not scaffold), or to securely rigged lines, which will safely suspend the employee in case of a fall. In order to keep the dropline continuously attached, with a minimum of slack, to a fixed structure, the attachment point of the dropline shall be appropriately changed as the work progresses.

(i) When a multi-tiered two-point suspension scaffold is used, it shall be provided with safety droplines that attach to each end of the scaffold through an approved quick acting safety device, in case either or both of the main suspension lines should break. The lanyard of the full body harness shall be tied off to a substantial member of the scaffold itself or to a horizontal lifeline attached to each end of the scaffold or a sliding device on the horizontal lifeline. The two additional safety droplines shall be individually suspended from roof irons, hooks, or other approved devices and shall be near the suspension droplines to prevent unnecessary side impact. The safety dropline shall have a 6 to 1 safety factor. Such scaffolds shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer and a copy of the drawings and specifications shall be available at the jobsite.

(j) Two-point suspension scaffolds shall be securely lashed to the building or structure to prevent the scaffolds from swaying. Window cleaners' anchors shall not be used for this purpose.

(k) The platform of every two-point suspension scaffold shall be one of the following types:

(i) Ladder-type platforms. The side stringer shall be of clear straight-grained spruce or materials of equivalent strength and durability. The rungs shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or hickory, at least 1 1/8 inch in diameter, with 7/8-inch tenons mortised into the side stringers at least 7/8-inch. The stringers shall be tied together with the tie rods not less than one-quarter inch in diameter, passing through the stringers and riveted up tight against washers on both ends. The flooring strips shall be spaced not more than five-eighths inch apart except at the side rails where the space may be 1 inch. Ladder-type platforms shall be constructed in accordance with Table J-12.

(ii) Plank-type platforms. Plank-type platforms shall be composed of not less than two nominal 2- x 10-inch unspliced planks, properly cleated together on the underside, starting 6 inches from each end; intervals in between shall not exceed 4 feet. The plank-type platform shall not extend beyond the hangers more than 12 inches. A bar or other effective means shall be securely fastened to the platform at each end to prevent its slipping off the hanger. The span between hangers for plank-type platforms shall not exceed 8 feet.

(iii) Beam-type platforms. Beam platforms shall have side stringers of lumber not less than 2 x 6 inches set on edge. The span between hangers shall not exceed 12 feet when beam platforms are used. The flooring shall be supported on 2- x 6-inch cross beams, laid flat and set into the upper edge of the stringers with a snug fit, at intervals of not more than 4 feet, securely nailed in place. The flooring shall be of 1- x 6-inch material properly nailed. Floor boards shall not be spaced more than one-half inch apart.

(iv) Light metal-type platforms, when used, shall be tested and listed according to Underwriters' Laboratories, Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation, or the department of labor and industries.

(l) In addition to the normal operating brake, all power-driven units shall have an emergency brake which engages automatically when the normal speed of descent is exceeded.

(m) When acid solutions are used, natural or synthetic fiber rope shall not be used.

(n) Every swinging scaffold shall be tested before using by raising the platform one foot from the ground and loading it with at least four times the maximum weight to be imposed when aloft.

(8) Stone setters' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffolds.

(a) The scaffold shall be capable of sustaining a working load of 25 pounds per square foot and shall not be overloaded. Scaffolds shall not be used for storage of stone or other heavy materials.

(b) When used, the hoisting machine and its supports shall be of a type tested and listed by Underwriters' Laboratories, Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation or the department of labor and industries.

(c) The platform shall be securely fastened to the hangers by U-bolts or other equivalent means. (For materials and spans, see item (ii) of subsection (7)(k), Plank-type Platforms and Table J-12 of this section.)

(d) The scaffold unit shall be suspended from metal outriggers, iron brackets, wire rope slings, or iron hooks.

(e) Outriggers, when used, shall be set with their webs in a vertical position, securely anchored to the building or structure and provided with stop bolts at each end.

(f) The scaffold shall be supported by wire rope capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load. All other components shall be capable of supporting at least 4 times the rated load.

(g) The free ends of the suspension wire ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles, secured by splicing or other equivalent means. The running ends shall be securely attached to the hoisting drum and at least four turns of wire rope shall remain on the drum at all times.

(h) When two or more scaffolds are used on a building or structure, they shall not be bridged one to the other; but shall be maintained at even height with platforms abutting closely.

(i) In addition to the normal operating brake, all power-driven units shall have an emergency brake which engages automatically when the normal speed of descent is exceeded.

(j) Each scaffold shall be installed or relocated in accordance with approved designs and instructions under the supervision of a competent designated person.

(k) Where additional working levels are required to be supported, the plans and specifications of the support and scaffold components shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer. These plans and specifications shall be available at the site.

(9) Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

(a) The scaffolding, including power units or manually operated winches, shall be of a type tested and listed by Underwriters' Laboratories, Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation or the department of labor and industries.

(b) The power units may be either electrically or air motor driven.

(c) All power-operated gears and brakes shall be enclosed.

(d) In addition to the normal operating brake, all power-driven units shall have an emergency brake which engages automatically when the normal speed of descent is exceeded.

(e) The hoisting machines, cables, and equipment shall be regularly serviced and inspected.

(f) The units may be combined to form a two-point suspension scaffold. Such scaffold shall comply with subsection (7) of this section.

(g) When the supporting wire rope is not plumb for its entire length, supports shall be designed to sustain any additional load or stress upon the line.

(h) Suspension methods and employee safeguards shall conform to the provisions of subsections (6) and (7) of this section.

(i) For additional details not covered in this subsection applicable technical portions of American National Standards Institute, A120.1-1970, Power-Operated Devices for Exterior Building Maintenance Powered Platforms, shall be used.

(10) Boatswain's chairs.

(a) The chair seat shall not be less than 12 x 24 inches, and 1-inch thick. The seat shall be reinforced on the underside by cleats securely fastened to prevent the board from splitting. Specially designed seats having dimensions other than those specified in this subsection may be used provided they have been designed and tested (with a safety factor of four) to sustain a load of two hundred fifty pounds.

(b) The two fiber rope seat slings shall be of 5/8-inch diameter, reeved through the four seat holes so as to cross each other on the underside of the seat.

(c) Seat slings shall be of at least 3/8-inch wire rope when an employee is conducting a heat-producing process, such as gas welding.

(d) The employee shall be protected by a full body harness and lifeline in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1. The attachment point of the lifeline to the structure shall be appropriately changed as the work progresses.

(e) The tackle shall consist of correct size ball bearing or bushed blocks and properly spliced 5/8-inch diameter first grade manila rope, or equivalent.

(f) The roof irons, hooks, or the object to which the tackle is anchored, shall be securely installed. Tiebacks, when used, shall be installed at right angles to the face of the building and securely fastened.

(g) The scaffolding, including power units shall be of tested design.

(h) All power operated gears and brakes shall be enclosed.

(i) In addition to the normal operating brake, all power-driven units shall have an emergency brake which engages automatically when the normal speed of descent is exceeded.

(11) Carpenters' bracket scaffolds.

(a) The brackets shall consist of a triangular wood frame not less than 2 x 3 inches in cross section, or of metal of equivalent strength. Each member shall be properly fitted and securely joined.

(b) Each bracket shall be attached to the structure by means of one of the following:

(i) A bolt, no less than 5/8-inch in diameter, which shall extend through to the inside of the building wall;

(ii) A metal stud attachment device;

(iii) Welding to steel tanks;

(iv) Hooking over a well-secured and adequately strong supporting member.

(c) The brackets shall be spaced no more than 8 feet apart.

(d) No more than two employees shall occupy any given 8 feet of a bracket scaffold at any one time. Tools and materials shall not exceed 75 pounds in addition to the occupancy.

(e) The platform shall consist of not less than two 2- x 10-inch planks extending not more than 12 inches or less than 6 inches beyond each end support. Fabricated planking may be used if properly engineered and tested.

(12) Bricklayers' square scaffolds.

(a) The squares shall not exceed 5 feet in width and 5 feet in height.

(b) Members shall be not less than those specified in Table J-13.

(c) The squares shall be reinforced on both sides of each corner with 1- x 6-inch gusset pieces. They shall also have diagonal braces 1 x 8 inches on both sides running from center to center of each member, or other means to secure equivalent strength and rigidity.

(d) The squares shall be set not more than 5 feet apart for medium duty scaffolds, and not more than 8 feet apart for light duty scaffolds. Bracing, 1 x 8 inches, extending from the bottom of each square to the top of the next square, shall be provided on both front and rear sides of the scaffold.

(e) Platform planks shall be at least 2 x 10-inch. The ends of the planks shall overlap the bearers of the squares and each plank shall be supported by not less than three squares. Fabricated planking may be used if properly engineered and tested.

(f) Bricklayers' square scaffolds shall not exceed three tiers in height and shall be so constructed and arranged that one square shall rest directly above the other. The upper tiers shall stand on a continuous row of planks laid across the next lower tier and be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.

(g) Scaffolds shall be level and set upon a firm foundation.

(13) Horse scaffolds.

(a) Horse scaffolds shall not be constructed or arranged more than two tiers or 10 feet in height.

(b) The members of the horses shall be not less than those specified in Table J-14.

(c) Horses shall be spaced not more than 5 feet for medium duty and not more than 8 feet for light duty.

(d) When arranged in tiers, each horse shall be placed directly over the horse in the tier below.

(e) On all scaffolds arranged in tiers, the legs shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to the planks to prevent displacement or thrust and each tier shall be substantially cross braced.

(f) Horses or parts which have become weak or defective shall not be used.

(14) Needle beam scaffold.

(a) Wood needle beams shall be not less than 4 x 6 inches in size, with the greater dimension placed in a vertical direction. Metal beams or the equivalent, conforming to subsections (1)(h) and (j) of this section, may be used and shall not be altered or moved horizontally while they are in use.

(b) Ropes or hangers shall be provided for supports. The span between supports on the needle beam shall not exceed 10 feet for 4- x 6-inch timbers. Rope supports shall be equivalent in strength to 1-inch diameter first-grade manila rope.

(c) The ropes shall be attached to the needle beams by a scaffold hitch or a properly made eye splice. The loose end of the rope shall be tied by a bowline knot or by a round turn and a half hitch.

(d) The scaffold hitch shall be arranged so as to prevent the needle beam from rolling or becoming otherwise displaced.

(e) The platform span between the needle beams shall not exceed 8 feet when using 2-inch scaffold plank. For spans greater than 8 feet, platforms shall be designed based on design requirements for the special span. The overhang of each end of the platform planks shall be not less than 6 inches and not more than 12 inches.

(f) When needle beam scaffolds are used, the planks shall be secured against slipping.

(g) All unattached tools, bolts, and nuts used on needle beam scaffolds shall be kept in suitable containers, properly secured.

(h) One end of a needle beam scaffold may be supported by a permanent structural member conforming to subsections (1)(h) and (j) of this section.

(i) Each employee working on a needle beam scaffold shall be protected by a full body harness and lifeline in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(15) Plasterers', decorators', and large area scaffolds.

(a) Plasters', lathers', and ceiling workers' inside scaffolds shall be constructed in accordance with the general requirements set forth for independent wood pole scaffolds. (See subsection (2) of this section and Tables J-5, J-6 and J-7.)

(b) All platform planks shall be laid with the edges close together.

(c) When independent pole scaffold platforms are erected in sections, such sections shall be provided with connecting runways equipped with substantial guardrails.

(16) Interior hung scaffolds.

(a) An interior hung scaffold shall be hung or suspended from the roof structure or ceiling beams.

(b) The suspending wire or fiber rope shall be capable of supporting at least 6 times the rated load. The rope shall be wrapped at least twice around the supporting members and twice around the bearers of the scaffold, with each end of the wire rope secured by at least three standard wire-rope clips properly installed.

(c) For hanging wood scaffolds, the following minimum nominal size material shall be used:

(i) Supporting bearers 2 x 10 inches on edge;

(ii) Planking 2 x 10 inches, with maximum span 7 feet for heavy duty and 10 feet for light duty or medium duty.

(d) Steel tube and coupler members may be used for hanging scaffolds with both types of scaffold designed to sustain a uniform distributed working load up to heavy duty scaffold loads with a safety factor of four.

(e) All overhead supporting members shall be inspected and have required strength assured before the scaffold is erected.

(17) Ladder jack scaffolds.

(a) All ladder jack scaffolds shall be limited to light duty and shall not exceed a height of 20 feet above the floor or ground.

(b) All ladders used in connection with ladder jack scaffolds shall be Type I heavy-duty ladders and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with American National Standards Institute A14.1-1982, Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders, and A14.2-1982, Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders. Cleated ladders shall not be used for this purpose.

(c) The ladder jack shall be so designed and constructed that it will bear on the side rails in addition to the ladder rungs, or if bearing on rungs only, the bearing area shall be at least 10 inches on each rung.

(d) Ladders used in conjunction with ladder jacks shall be so placed, fastened, held, or equipped with devices so as to prevent slipping.

(e) The wood platform planks shall be not less than 2 inches in thickness. Both metal and wood platform planks shall overlap the bearing surface not less than 12 inches and shall be secured to prevent movement. The span between supports for wood shall not exceed 8 feet. Platform width shall be not less than 18 inches.

(f) No more than two persons shall be within any 8 feet section of any ladder jack scaffold at any one time. When the use of standard guardrails as required by subsection (1)(e) of this section is impractical, full body harnesses and lifelines shall be used in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(18) Window jack scaffolds.

(a) Window jack scaffolds shall be used only for the purpose of working at the window opening through which the jack is placed.

(b) Window jacks shall not be used to support planks placed between one window jack and another or for other elements of scaffolding.

(c) Window jack scaffolds shall be provided with guardrails unless full body harnesses with lifelines are attached and used by the employee.

(d) Not more than one employee shall occupy a window jack scaffold at any one time.

(e) Window jacks shall be designed and constructed so as to provide a secure anchorage on the window opening and be capable of supporting the design load.

(19) Roofing brackets.

All roofing brackets must be installed and used in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part K.

(20) Crawling boards or chicken ladders.

All crawling boards or chicken ladders shall be installed and used in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-155-50503(3).

(21) Float or ship scaffolds.

(a) Float or ship scaffolds shall not be used to support more than three persons and a few light tools, such as those needed for riveting, bolting, and welding. They shall be constructed as designed in subdivisions (b) through (f) of this subsection, unless substitute designs and materials provide equivalent strength, stability, and safety.

(b) The platform shall be not less than 3 feet wide and 6 feet long, made of 3/4-inch plywood, equivalent to American Plywood Association Grade B-B, Group I, Exterior, or other similar material.

(c) Under the platform, there shall be two supporting bearers made from 2- x 4-inch, or 1- x 10-inch rough, "selected lumber," or better. They shall be free of knots or other flaws and project 6 inches beyond the platform on both sides. The ends of the platform shall extend 6 inches beyond the outer edges of the bearers. Each bearer shall be securely fastened to the platform.

(d) An edging of wood not less than 3/4 x 1 1/2 inches or equivalent shall be placed around all sides of the platform to prevent tools from rolling off.

(e) Supporting ropes shall be 1-inch diameter manila rope or equivalent, free from deterioration, chemical damage, flaws, or other imperfections and shall be well insulated to protect against damaging contacts of arcs, flames, or other mechanical objects. Rope connections shall be such that the platform cannot shift or slip. If two ropes are used with each float, they shall be arranged so as to provide four ends which are to be securely fastened to an overhead support. Each of the two supporting ropes shall be hitched around one end of bearer and pass under the platforms to the other end of the bearer where it is hitched again, leaving sufficient rope at each end for the supporting ties.

(f) Each employee shall be protected by an approved safety lifebelt or harness and lifeline, in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(22) Form scaffolds.

(a) Form scaffolds shall be constructed of wood or other suitable materials, such as steel or aluminum members of known strength characteristics. All scaffolds shall be designed and erected with a minimum safety factor of 4, computed on the basis of the maximum rated load.

(b) All scaffold planking shall be a minimum of 2- x 10-inch nominal scaffold grade, as recognized by approved grading rules for the species of lumber used, or equivalent material. Maximum permissible spans shall not exceed 8 feet on centers for 2- x 10-inch nominal planking. Scaffold planks shall be either nailed or bolted to the ledgers or of such length that they overlap the ledgers at least 6 inches. Unsupported projecting ends of scaffolding planks shall be limited to a maximum overhang of 12 inches.

(c) Scaffolds shall not be loaded in excess of the working load for which they were designed.

(d) Figure-four form scaffolds:

(i) Figure-four scaffolds are intended for light duty and shall not be used to support loads exceeding 25 pounds per square foot unless specifically designed for heavier loading. For minimum design criteria, see Table J-15.

(ii) Figure-four form scaffold frames shall be spaced not more than 8 feet on centers and constructed from sound lumber, as follows: The outrigger ledger shall consist of two pieces of 1- x 6-inch or heavier material nailed on opposite sides of the vertical form support. Ledgers shall project not more than 3 feet 6 inches from the outside of the form support and shall be substantially braced and secured to prevent tipping or turning. The knee or angle brace shall intersect the ledger at least 3 feet from the form at an angle of approximately 45, and the lower end shall be nailed to a vertical support. The platform shall consist of two or more 2- x 10-inch planks, which shall be of such length that they extend at least 6 inches beyond ledgers at each end unless secured to the ledgers. When planks are secured to the ledgers (nailed or bolted), a wood filler strip shall be used between the ledgers. Unsupported projecting ends of planks shall be limited to an overhang of 12 inches.

(e) Metal bracket form scaffolds:

(i) Metal brackets or scaffold jacks which are an integral part of the form shall be securely bolted or welded to the form. Folding type brackets shall be either bolted or secured with a locking-type pin when extended for use.

(ii) "Clip-on" or "hook-over" brackets may be used, provided the form walers are bolted to the form or secured by snap ties or shea-bolt extending through the form and securely anchored.

(iii) Metal brackets shall be spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.

(iv) Scaffold planks shall be either bolted to the metal brackets or of such length that they overlap the brackets at each end by at least 6 inches. Unsupported projecting ends of scaffold planks shall be limited to a maximum overhang of 12 inches.

(v) Metal bracket form scaffolds shall be equipped with wood guardrails, intermediate rails, toeboards, and scaffold planks meeting the minimum dimensions shown in Table J-16. (Metal may be substituted for wood, providing it affords equivalent or greater design strength.)

(f) Wooden bracket form scaffolds:

(i) Wooden bracket form scaffolds shall be an integral part of the form panel. The minimum design criteria set forth herein and in Table J-17 cover scaffolding intended for light duty and shall not be used to support loads exceeding 25 pounds per square foot, unless specifically designed for heavier loading.

(ii) Scaffold planks shall be either nailed or bolted to the ledgers or of such length that they overlap the ledgers at each end by at least 6 inches. Unsupported projecting ends of scaffold planks shall be limited to a maximum overhang of 12 inches.

(23) Pump jack scaffolds.

(a) Pump jack scaffolds shall:

(i) Not carry a working load exceeding 500 pounds;

(ii) Be capable of supporting without failure at least four times the maximum intended load; and

(iii) Shall not have components loaded in excess of the manufacturer's recommended limits.

(b) Pump jack brackets, braces, and accessories shall be fabricated from metal plates and angles. Each pump jack bracket shall have two positive gripping mechanisms to prevent any failure or slippage.

(c) The platform bracket shall be fully docked and the planking secured. Planking, or equivalent, shall conform with subsection (1) of this section.

(d)(i) When wood scaffold planks are used as platforms, poles used for pump jacks shall not be spaced more than 10 feet center to center. When fabricated platforms are used that fully comply with all other provisions of this subsection, pole spacing may exceed 10 feet center to center.

(ii) Poles shall not exceed 30 feet in height.

(iii) Poles shall be secured to the work wall by rigid triangular bracing, or equivalent, at the bottom, top, and other points as necessary, to provide a maximum vertical spacing of not more than 10 feet between braces. Each brace shall be capable of supporting a minimum of 225 pounds tension or compression.

(iv) For the pump jack bracket to pass bracing already installed, an extra brace shall be used approximately 4 feet above the one to be passed until the original brace is reinstalled.

(e) All poles shall bear on mud sills or other adequate firm foundations.

(f) Pole lumber shall be two 2 x 4's, of Douglas fir or equivalent, straight-grained, clear, free of cross-grain, shakes, large loose or dead knots, and other defects which might impair strength.

(g) When poles are constructed of two continuous lengths, they shall be two by fours, spiked together with the seam parallel to the bracket, and with 10d common nails, no more than 12 inches center to center, staggered uniformly from opposite outside edges.

(h) If two by fours are spliced to make up the pole, the splices shall be so constructed as to develop the full strength of the member. Three-eighths inch or one-half inch exterior grade plywood shall be used for a spacer between the two by fours. The joints for the splices shall be staggered on opposite sides of the pole at least four feet apart. Joints shall be no less than four feet from either end of the pole.

(i) A ladder, in accordance with WAC 296-155-480, shall be provided for access to the platform during use.

(j) Not more than two persons shall be permitted at one time upon a pump jack scaffold between any two supports.

(k) Pump jack scaffolds shall be provided with standard guardrails, unless full body harnesses with lifelines are used by employees.

(l) When a work bench is used at an approximate height of 42 inches, the top guardrail may be eliminated, if the work bench is fully decked, the planking secured, and is capable of withstanding 200 pounds pressure in any direction.

(m) Employees shall not be permitted to use a work bench as a scaffold platform.

(24) Factory-built scaffold units. Factory-built or prefabricated scaffold units intended for assembly on the job, prefabricated plank, staging, etc., mechanical hoisting units, or other devices for use on or in connection with any type scaffolds, shall be approved by an agency or laboratory approved by the department before being used.

(25) Waler bracket scaffolds.

(a) Waler brackets shall be constructed of 1 5/8" x 1 1/2" x 3/16" angle iron minimum size, or material of equivalent strength.

(b) All steel connections shall be welded and riveted or bolted, except where detrimental to strength of materials.

(c) The maximum length of horizontal leg shall not be more than 36" between bracket hook and railing standard.

(d) A 4" x 4" x 3/16" gusset plate shall be securely welded at inside of leg angle.

(e) Nailing holes shall be provided in lower end of vertical leg for purpose of securing bracket against lifting or shifting.

(f) Waler hook or hooks shall be a minimum of 4-inch depth and be constructed of material of a strength to support a minimum of 400 pounds at extreme outer end of bracket.

(26) Chimney, stack and tank bracket scaffolds.

(a) General. A chimney, stack or tank bracket scaffold shall be composed of a platform supported by brackets which are hooked over a steel cable which surrounds the circumference of the chimney, stack or tank approximately in a horizontal plane. The platform shall be not less than two 2 x 10 inch planks. For a minimum width of eighteen inches wide and be designed with a safety factor of not less than 4.

(b) All brackets shall have a mild steel suspension hook 2 inches by 1/4-inch with at least 3 inches projecting beyond the throat of the hook. Hooks shall be integral with or securely attached to the bracket.

(c) Wood spacer blocks shall be provided to hold the suspending cable away from the structure at the points where brackets are hooked on. These spacer blocks shall be not less than 2 inches by 4 inches by 12 inches.

(d) All suspending cables shall be improved plow steel 6 x 19 wire rope or equivalent. In no case shall less than 1/2-inch diameter wire rope be used.

(e) The turnbuckle used to tighten suspending cables shall be not less than 1 inch drop forged steel. The cables shall be provided with thimbles and not less than 3 U-bolt type clips at each end and be attached to the turnbuckles by means of shackles. Open hooks shall not be used.

(f) All chimney, stack and tank bracket scaffolds shall be provided with standard guard rails, intermediate rails and toeboards.

(g) For access to a chimney, stack or tank bracket scaffold, ladders or a boatswain's chair shall be used.

(h) All chimney, stack or tank brackets for scaffolds shall be welded and riveted or bolted.

(27) Scaffold platforms supported by catenary or stretch cables.

(a) When a scaffold platform is supported by cables at least 4 cables shall be used, two near each end of the scaffold.

(b) The cables shall be attached to the scaffold by means of U-bolts or the equivalent through which the cables pass.

(c) Cables shall not be tightened beyond their safe working load. A hanger or set of falls shall be used approximately every 50 feet to pick up the sag in the cable.)) Reserved.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, 296-155-485, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, 296-155-485, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-155-485, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-155-485, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-485, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-155-485, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), 296-155-485, filed 1/21/86; 82-08-026 (Order 82-10), 296-155-485, filed 3/30/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.150, and 49.17.240. 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), 296-155-485, filed 7/31/79; Order 76-29, 296-155-485, filed 9/30/76; Order 76-6, 296-155-485, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-26, 296-155-485, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-487 Manually propelled elevating work platforms. (1) All applicable rules for design, construction, maintenance, operation, testing and use of manually propelled elevating work platforms shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.3-1990.

(2) General requirements.

(a) Any manually propelled elevating work platform, when raised to its maximum working height, on level ground, shall be capable of sustaining, without reaching instability, a minimum horizontal test force of fifty pounds or fifteen percent of the rated capacity, whichever is greater, applied to any point on the perimeter of the platform while the platform is carrying the rated work load.

(b) Any manually propelled elevating work platform, unless designed for such use by the manufacturer, shall not be used on an inclined surface.

(c) Any work platform designed by the manufacturer to be operated on an inclined surface shall also be capable of passing the stability tests outlined in (a) of this subsection while on such a surface. Procedures for maintaining stability shall be clearly outlined in the special warnings section of the operating instructions and users shall follow these instructions.

(d) If outriggers or stabilizers must be employed to meet the tests for stability outlined in (a) of this subsection, the operating instructions shall require their use and such outriggers or stabilizers shall be provided and used.

(e) The platform width shall not be less than eighteen inches and shall be provided with a surface to minimize slipping.

(f) The platform shall be provided with a guardrail or other structure around its upper periphery and the guardrail shall be approximately forty-two inches high, plus or minus three inches, with a midrail approximately midway between the top rail and the platform surface.

(i) The guardrail system shall be designed and constructed to withstand a load of twenty-five pounds per linear foot applied in a horizontal direction to the top rail or midrail.

(ii) The top rail or midrail shall withstand a concentrated load of three hundred pounds applied vertically to the top of either rail midway between the supporting posts.

(iii) Guardrail terminal posts shall withstand two hundred pounds applied in any direction at the top of the post.

(g) The platform shall be provided with four-inch (nominal dimension) toeboards on all sides.

(h) Toeboards may be omitted at the access openings.

(i) The configuration of the work platform shall include access for personnel to use in reaching the platform deck when it is in the lowered position.

(i) Any access system used in this way shall have rungs or steps located on uniform centers not to exceed sixteen inches.

(ii) Steps or rungs shall be provided with a face that minimizes slipping.

(3) Safety factor specifications.

(a) Where the platform is supporting its rated work load by a system of wire ropes or chains, or both, the safety factor of the wire rope or chain shall not be less than eight to one, based on ultimate strength.

(b) All critical components of a hydraulic or pneumatic system used in a work platform shall have a bursting strength that exceeds the pressure attained when the system is subjected to the equivalent of four times the rated work load. (Critical components are those in which failure would result in a free descent.)

(c) All noncritical hydraulic components shall have a bursting strength safety factor of at least two to one.

(4) Fail safe requirements.

(a) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by an electromechanical assembly, the system shall be designed to prevent free descent in the event of a generator or power failure.

(b) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder assembly, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent free descent in the event of failure of a hydraulic or pneumatic line.

(c) Where the platform is horizontally extendable beyond the base of the machine, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent descent in the event of failure of a hydraulic or pneumatic line, wire rope, or chain.

(d) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a single hoist cable, the system shall be protected by a broken-cable safety device which will prevent free descent of the platform.

(e) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a manual-mechanical or manual-hydraulic assembly, the considerations established above shall apply.

(f) The control system shall be designed so that a single malfunction in the control system will not result in unintended machine motion.

(g) Hydraulically or pneumatically actuated outriggers or stabilizers, or both, shall be so constructed as to prevent their retraction in the event of failure of a hydraulic or pneumatic line.

(5) Emergency lowering means. Any work platform equipped with a powered elevating assembly shall be supplied with clearly marked emergency lowering means readily accessible from ground or floor level.

(6) Guarding. Mechanical power transmission apparatus shall be guarded in accordance with WAC 296-24-205, General safety and health standards.

(7) Directional controls.

(a) All directional controls shall be marked for the direction they control and shall be of the type which automatically returns to the "off" or the neutral position when released.

(b) Controls shall be protected against inadvertent operation.

(8) Motor requirements.

(a) Fuel lines of internal-combustion-engine-powered work platforms shall be supported to minimize chafing and positioned to minimize exposure to engine exhaust heat. Liquid fuel lines shall be hard lines except where isolation from vibration requires a flexible connection.

(b) LP-gas engine fuel systems shall comply with the American National Standard for Storage and Handling of Liquified Petroleum Gases, ANSI/NFPA 58-1995.

(c) The exhaust system shall be provided with a muffler that is positioned to minimize exposure to noise and exhaust gas of the operators and personnel located in proximity to the unit.

(9) Prevention of lateral movement. Each work platform shall be provided with locking screws, floor locks, wheel-locking mechanisms, or other means of preventing unintended lateral motions while in use.

(10) Specifications display. The following information shall be displayed on all work platforms in as permanent and as visible a manner as practical:

(a) Warnings, cautions, or restrictions for safe operation in accordance with American National Standard Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs, ANSI Z535.2-1991.

(b) Make, model, serial number, and manufacturer's name and address.

(c) Rated work load.

(d) Maximum platform height.

(e) Nominal voltage rating of batteries or rated voltage of AC line.

(f) Statement of the need for the operator's familiarity with the work platform before it is used.

(11) Alternative configuration statement. When a work platform is designed with alternative configurations:

(a) The manufacturer shall clearly describe these alternatives, including the rated capacity in each situation.

(b) If the rated work load of a platform is the same in any designed configuration, these additional descriptions are not necessary.

(12) Insulation marking. A statement of whether or not the work platform is electrically insulated. If insulated, the level of protection and the applicable test standard shall be stated in accordance with ANSI A92.2-1990.

(13) Maintenance and operating manuals requirement. An operating and maintenance manual(s) shall be provided with each work platform and shall contain:

(a) Descriptions, specifications, and ratings of the work platform, including the data specified in subsection (10) of this section.

(b) The maximum hydraulic and pneumatic systems pressure and the maximum voltage of the electrical systems which are part of the work platform.

(c) Instructions regarding operation and maintenance.

(d) Replacement part(s) information.

(14) Rated load display. The rated work load shall be clearly displayed at each entrance to the work platform.

(15) Management responsibilities.

(a) Employers responsibilities shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.3-1990.

(b) Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to operate the work platform.

(c) Work platforms that are not in safe operating condition shall be removed from service until repaired.

(d) Repairs shall be made by a qualified person in conformance with the manufacturer's operating and maintenance manuals.

(e) Operators shall be trained in care and use before operation, care and use during operation, horizontal relocation, and additional requirements as specified in ANSI A92.3-1990.

(f) Modifications or alterations of work platforms shall be made only with written permission of the manufacturer or any other equivalent entity.

[]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-488 Self propelled elevating work platforms. (1) All applicable rules for design, construction, maintenance, operation, testing and use of self propelled elevating work platforms shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.6-1990.

(2) Minimum rated work load.

(a) The minimum rated work load of work platforms shall not be less than two hundred fifty pounds.

(b) All structural load-supporting elements of the work platform shall have a structural safety factor of not less than two based on the minimum yield strength of the material.

(c) All structural load-supporting elements of the work platform that are made of nonductile material (such as cast iron and fiberglass) shall have a structural safety factor of not less than five based on the minimum ultimate strength of the material.

(d) Design and stability tests shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.6-1990.

(e) Each production unit on level ground shall sustain a load test with a platform load at least one hundred fifty percent of the rated capacity imposed. The test shall include the movement of the platform through its entire range of motion.

(3) Driving interlock.

(a) The unit shall use interlock means that will prevent driving the unit unless the platform height, platform configuration, or any combination of these, are adjusted to meet the stability test requirements.

(b) A work platform limited in driveable height by the interlock means may be elevated and used while stationary up to the maximum platform heights at which it will maintain stability during the following static test. At the maximum platform height, on level ground, with the platform carrying the rated work load, apply a horizontal test force of one hundred fifty pounds or fifteen percent of the rated platform load (whichever is greater) at the point on the perimeter of the platform most likely to cause overturning.

(4) Platform outrigger interlocks. Where outriggers, stabilizers, or extendable axles are required to meet the side load test, interlocks shall prevent the platform from being raised above the height at which these devices are required unless the required devices are extended. Interlocks shall also prevent the retraction of these devices while the platform is above that level.

(5) Platform requirement.

(a) A guardrail or other structure shall be provided around its upper periphery, which shall be approximately forty-two inches plus or minus three inches in height, a midrail, and toeboards which shall be not less than four inches high (nominal dimension). Guardrail and midrail chains, or the equivalent, may be substituted across an access opening. Toeboards may be omitted at the access opening.

(b) The work platform shall have a minimum width of eighteen inches. Proper access shall be provided for personnel to use in reaching the platform deck when it is in the lowered position.

(c) A floor surface shall be provided for both the platform and the access that will minimize slipping.

(6) System safety factors.

(a) When the platform supports its rated work load by a system of wire ropes or chains, or both, the safety factor of the wire rope or chains shall not be less than eight to one, based on ultimate strength.

(b) All critical hydraulic components, all pneumatic components, and all hoses of hydraulic or pneumatic systems shall have a minimum bursting strength of at least four times the operating pressure for which the system is designed.

(c) Noncritical hydraulic components shall have a minimum bursting strength of at least twice the operating pressure for which the system is designed.

(7) Safety design requirements.

(a) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by an electromechanical assembly, the system shall be designed to prevent free descent in the event of a generator or power failure.

(b) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder assembly, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent free descent in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic line failure.

(c) Where the platform is horizontally extendable beyond the base of the machine, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent descent in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic line failure.

(d) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a single hoist cable, the system shall be protected by a broken-cable safety device that will prevent free descent of the platform.

(e) In addition to the primary operator controls, the work platform shall be equipped with an emergency stop device located at the primary control station that will deactivate all powered functions.

(f) Hydraulically or pneumatically actuated outriggers or stabilizers, or both, shall be designed to prevent their retraction in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic line failure.

(g) Any work platform equipped with a powered elevating assembly shall be supplied with clearly marked emergency lowering means readily accessible from ground level.

(h) Mechanical power transmission apparatus shall be guarded in accordance with WAC 296-24-205, General safety and health standards.

(8) Directional controls.

(a) Directional controls shall move in the direction of the function they control. The controls shall be of the type that automatically return to the off or the neutral position when released.

(b) Such controls shall be protected against inadvertent operation and shall be clearly marked.

(9) Engine requirement.

(a) Fuel lines of internal-combustion-engine-powered work platforms shall be supported to keep chafing to a minimum. They shall be located to keep exposure to engine and exhaust heat to a minimum.

(b) Liquid fuel lines shall be hard except where flexible connections are required for isolation from vibration.

(c) LP gas fuel systems shall use flexible LP gas hose or hard lines.

(d) Exhaust lines shall be equipped with mufflers. The lines shall be located to minimize the exposure of noise and fumes to operators and personnel near the units.

(10) Each work platform shall be equipped with a mechanical parking brake, which will hold the unit on any slope it is capable of climbing. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline, provided they can be safely installed.

(11) Specifications display. The following information shall be displayed on all work platforms in a clearly visible, accessible area and in as permanent a manner as possible:

(a) Warnings, cautions, or restrictions for safe operation in accordance with ANSI Z535.2-1991.

(b) Make, model, serial number, and manufacturer's name and address.

(c) Rated work load.

(d) Maximum platform height.

(e) Nominal voltage of the batteries if battery powered.

(f) A notice to study the operating/maintenance manual before using the equipment.

(g) Alternative configuration statement. If a work platform is susceptible to several alternative configurations, then the manufacturer shall clearly describe these alternatives, including the rated capacity in each situation. If the rated work load of a work platform is the same in any configuration, these additional descriptions are not necessary.

(h) A clear statement of whether or not the platform and its enclosure are electrically insulated. If insulated, the level of protection and the applicable test standard shall be stated, in accordance with ANSI 92.2-1990.

(i) The rated work load shall be clearly displayed at each entrance to the platform.

(12) Lift manual requirement. Each work platform shall be provided with an appropriate manual. The manual shall contain:

(a) Descriptions, specifications, and ratings of the work platform, including the data specified in subsection (11)(h) and (i) of this section.

(b) The maximum system pressure and the maximum voltage of the electrical systems that are part of the work platform.

(c) Instructions regarding operation, maintenance, and weld specifications.

(d) Replacement parts information.

(13) Inspection and maintenance.

(a) Each work platform shall be inspected, maintained, repaired and kept in proper working order in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance and repair manuals.

(b) Any work platform not in safe operating condition shall be removed from service until it is repaired.

(c) All repairs shall be made by a qualified service person in conformance with the manufacturer's maintenance and repair manuals.

(14) Operator requirements. Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to operate the work platform. Before using the work platform, the operator shall:

(a) Read and understand the manufacturer's operating instructions and safety rules, and be trained by a qualified person on the contents of the manufacturer's instructions and safety rules.

(b) Read and understand all decals, warnings, and instructions on the work platform.

(c) On a daily basis, before the work platform is used, it shall be given a thorough inspection, which shall include:

(i) Inspection for defects such as cracked welds, hydraulic leaks, damaged control cable, loose wire connections, and tire damage.

(ii) Inspection of functional controls for proper operation.

(d) Any suspect items discovered through inspection shall be carefully examined and a determination made by a qualified service person as to whether they constitute a safety hazard. All unsafe items shall be corrected before further use of the work platform.

(e) Before the work platform is used, the operator shall survey the area for hazards such as:

(i) Untamped earth fills.

(ii) Ditches.

(iii) Dropoffs or holes.

(iv) Bumps and floor obstructions.

(v) Debris.

(vi) Overhead obstructions and high-voltage conductors.

(vii) Other possible hazardous conditions.

(15) Requirement for operations. The work platform shall be used only in accordance with the Manufacturer's Operating Instructions and Safety Rules, ANSI A92.6-1990, and this standard.

(a) Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to operate the work platform.

(b) Before each elevation of the work platform, the operator shall:

(i) Check for overhead obstructions and high-voltage conductors. A minimum distance of ten feet from energized high-voltage conductors shall be maintained at all times between the conductors and the operator and platform equipment.

(ii) Ensure that the work platform is elevated only on a firm and level surface.

(iii) Ensure that the load and its distribution on the platform are in accordance with the manufacturer's rated capacity. The manufacturer's recommended load limits shall never be exceeded.

(iv) Ensure that outriggers and stabilizers are used if the manufacturer's instructions require their use.

(v) Ensure that guardrails are properly installed, and gates or openings are closed.

(c) Before and during driving while the platform is elevated, the operator shall:

(i) Be required to look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of, the path of travel and assure that the path of travel is firm and level.

(ii) Maintain a safe distance from obstacles, debris, dropoffs, holes, depressions, ramps, or other hazards to safe elevated travel.

(iii) Maintain a safe distance from overhead obstacles.

(d) The operator shall limit travel speed according to conditions. Conditions to be observed are: Ground surface, congestion, slope, location of personnel, and other factors that may create a hazard of collision or injury to personnel.

(e) Stunt driving and horseplay shall not be permitted.

(f) Personnel shall maintain a firm footing on the platform while working thereon unless they are secured by safety harness and lanyard devices fixed to manufacturer-approved hard points. Use of railings or planks, ladders or any other device on the work platform for achieving additional height shall be prohibited.

(g) The operator shall immediately report defects or malfunctions which become evident during operation and shall stop use of the work platform until correction has been made.

(h) Altering or disabling of safety devices or interlocks shall be prohibited.

(i) Care shall be taken to prevent ropes, electric cords, hoses, etc., from tangling with the work platform when the platform is being elevated, lowered, or moved.

(j) Work platform rated capacities shall not be exceeded when loads are transferred to the platform at elevated heights.

(k) The operator shall ensure that the area surrounding the work platform is clear of personnel and equipment before lowering the platform.

(16) Fuel tanks shall not be filled while the engine is running. Spillage shall be avoided.

(17) Batteries shall not be charged except in an open, well-ventilated area, free of flame, smoking, spark, or fire.

(18) Modifications. All modifications and alterations to work platforms shall be certified in writing as being in conformance with ANSI A92.6-1990 by the manufacturer or any equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

(WAC 296-155-488, Illus. 1)


[Open Style:Columns On]



[]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-489 Boom supported elevating work platforms. (1) All applicable rules for design, construction, maintenance, operation, testing and use of boom supported elevating work platforms shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.5-1992.

(2) Minimum rated work load. The minimum rated work load of a work platform shall be three hundred pounds. Either single or multiple ratings may be used.

(a) Work platforms with single ratings shall include means which clearly present the rated work load to the operator at the platform control station.

(b) Work platforms having multiple configurations with multiple ratings shall have means which clearly describe the rated work load of each configuration to the operator at the platform control station. Examples of multiple configurations are:

(i) Outriggers extended to firm footing versus outriggers not extended.

(ii) Large platform versus small platform.

(iii) Extendable boom retracted versus extended.

(iv) Boom elevated versus lowered.

(v) Extendable axles extended versus retracted.

(3) Boom angle indicator: When the rated capacity of the alternate configuration depends on the angle the boom makes with the horizontal, the manufacturer shall install means by which that angle can be determined. Such means shall be clearly displayed to the operator at the platform control station.

(4) Structural safety.

(a) All load-supporting structural elements of the work platform shall have a structural safety factor of not less than two to one based on the minimum yield strength of the materials used.

(b) The load-supporting structural elements of the work platform that are made of nonductile material which will not deform plastically before breaking shall have a structural safety factor of not less than five to one based on the minimum ultimate strength of the materials used.

(c) The design stress used in determining the structural safety factor shall be the maximum stresses developed within the element with the machine operating at its rated work load, used in the type of service for which it was designed, and operated in accordance with manufacturer's operation instructions.

(d) The design stress shall include the effects of stress concentration and dynamic loading as shown in ANSI A92.5-1992.

(5) Platform stability.

(a) Each work platform shall be capable of maintaining stability while sustaining a static load equal to one and one-third times its rated work load, concentrated anywhere twelve inches inside the perimeter of the platform, throughout its entire range of motion while on a slope of five degrees from the horizontal in the direction most likely to cause overturning.

(i) If having the outriggers, stabilizers, or extendable axles in contact with the supporting surface is part of the normal configuration to meet the stability requirements, they shall be extended.

(ii) A visual inspection shall be made to determine whether this test has produced an adverse effect on any component.

(b) Each work platform shall sustain on level ground a test load equal to one and one-half times its rated work load throughout the entire range of motion in which the boom can be placed.

(i) The test load shall be placed with its center of gravity twelve inches inboard from the guardrail while the unit is in the least stable position.

(ii) The work platform shall remain stable during this test.

(iii) A visual inspection shall be made to determine whether this test has produced an adverse effect on any component.

(c) Each work platform shall be capable of maintaining stability when positioned on a five degree slope in its backward stability configuration in the direction and condition most likely to cause overturning, while sustaining a horizontal force of one hundred fifty pounds or fifteen percent of rated capacity, whichever is greater, applied to the upper perimeter of the platform in the direction most likely to cause overturning (see Fig. 1). Note that the most adverse condition may be with zero or with rated work load (concentrated one foot inside perimeter of platform), depending on basket configuration.

(i) If having the outriggers, stabilizers, or extendable axles in contact with the supporting surface is part of the normal configuration to meet stability requirements, they shall be extended.

(ii) A visual inspection shall be made to determine whether this test has produced an adverse effect on any component.

(WAC 296-155-489, Illus. 1.)


(6) Work platform design requirement. The work platform shall be provided with a guardrail or other structure approximately forty-two inches plus or minus three inches high around its upper periphery, with a midrail, and with toeboards not less than four inches high. Guardrails and midrail chains or the equivalent may be substituted across an access opening.

(a) All stepping, standing, and working surfaces shall be skid resistant.

(b) Attachment points shall be provided for a body belt and lanyard for each person occupying the platform.

(7) Work platform controls. Work platforms shall have both primary and secondary controls.

(a) Primary controls shall be readily accessible to the operator on the platform.

(b) Secondary controls shall be designed to override the primary controls and shall be readily accessible from ground level.

(c) Both primary and secondary controls shall be clearly marked, using permanent legible identification which can be easily understood.

(d) All directional controls shall move in the direction of the function which they control when possible, and shall be of the type which automatically returns to the "off" or the neutral position when released.

(e) Such controls shall be protected against inadvertent operation.

(8) Outrigger interlocks. Where the work platform is equipped with outriggers, stabilizers, or extendable axles, interlocks shall be provided to ensure that the platform cannot be positioned beyond the maximum travel height unless the outriggers, stabilizers, or extendable axles are properly set. Control circuits shall ensure that the driving motor(s) cannot be activated unless the outriggers or stabilizers are disengaged and the platform has been lowered to the maximum travel height (MTH).

(9) Auxiliary operating means: All work platforms shall be provided with an auxiliary means of lowering, retracting, and rotating in the event of primary power loss.

(10) Emergency stop: All work platforms shall be equipped with an emergency stop device, readily accessible to the operator, which will effectively de-energize all powered systems in case of a malfunction.

(11) Tilt alarm: All work platforms shall be fitted with an alarm or other suitable warning at the platform, which will be activated automatically when the machine base is more than five degrees out of level in any direction.

(12) System safety factors.

(a) Where the platform is supporting its rated work load by a system of wire ropes or lift chains, or both, the safety factor of the wire rope or chain shall not be less than eight to one, based on ultimate strength.

(b) All critical components and hoses of hydraulic and pneumatic systems shall have a minimum bursting strength of four times the operating pressure for which the system is designed.

(c) Noncritical components shall have a minimum bursting strength of two times the operating pressure for which the system is designed.

(d) Critical components are defined as those in which a malfunction would result in a free descent of the platform.

(13) Failsafe requirements.

(a) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by an electromechanical assembly, the system shall be so designed as to prevent free descent in the event of a generator or power failure.

(b) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder assembly, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent free descent in the event a hydraulic or pneumatic line bursts.

(c) Hydraulically or pneumatically actuated outriggers or stabilizers, or both, shall be so designed as to prevent their retraction in the event a hydraulic or pneumatic line bursts.

(14) Engine requirement.

(a) Fuel lines of internal-combustion-engine-powered work platforms shall be supported to keep chafing to a minimum and located to keep exposure to engine and exhaust heat to a minimum.

(b) Liquid fuel lines shall be hard except where flexible connections are required for isolation from vibration.

(c) LP gas fuel systems shall use flexible LP gas hose or hard lines.

(d) Exhaust lines shall be equipped with mufflers and shall be located to minimize the exposure to noise and fumes of operators and personnel located in the proximity of such units.

(15) Specifications display. There shall be displayed on all work platforms, in a permanent manner, at a readily visible location, the following information:

(a) Special warnings, cautions, or restrictions necessary for safe operation in accordance with ANSI Z535.2-1991.

(b) Make, model, serial number, and manufacturer's name and address.

(c) Rated work load.

(d) Maximum platform height and maximum travel height.

(e) Reference to studying operating instructions in manual before use.

(f) Alternative configuration statement. If a work platform is capable of several alternative configurations and loads, the alternatives shall be clearly described.

(g) A clear statement of whether or not the platform and its enclosure are electrically insulated. If they are electrically insulated, the voltage at which the platform is rated and the applicable test standard shall be stated.

(h) The rated work load shall be clearly displayed at each entrance to the platform and the operator control station.

(16) Lift manual requirements. Each work platform shall be provided with a manufacturer's manual(s) containing the following information:

(a) Descriptions, specifications, and ratings of the work platform, including the data specified in subsection (17) of this section.

(b) The maximum hydraulic operating pressure and the maximum voltage of the electrical systems which are part of the platform.

(c) Instructions regarding operation, safety rules, maintenance, and repair.

(d) Replacement parts information.

(17) Inspection and maintenance.

(a) Each work platform shall be inspected, maintained, repaired, and kept in proper working condition in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance and repair manuals.

(b) Any work platform found not to be in safe operating condition shall be removed from service until repaired.

(c) All repairs shall be made by a qualified person in conformance with the manufacturer's maintenance and repair manual(s).

(18) Operator requirements. Only trained and authorized persons shall be permitted to operate the work platform. Before using the work platform, the operator shall:

(a) Be instructed by a qualified person in the intended purpose and function of each of the controls.

(b) Read and understand the manufacturer's operating instructions and safety rules, or be trained by a qualified person on the contents of the manufacturer's operating instructions and safety rules.

(c) Understand by reading or by having a qualified person explain all decals, warnings, and instructions displayed on the work platform.

(d) Prior to use on each work shift, the work platform shall be inspected for defects that would affect its safe operation and use. The inspection shall consist of the following:

(i) Visual inspection for cracked welds or other structural defects, hydraulic leaks, damaged control cables, loose wire connections, and tire damage.

(ii) Function test of the operating controls to ensure that they perform their intended functions. Any suspect items shall be carefully examined and a determination made by a qualified person as to whether they constitute a safety hazard. All unsafe items shall be corrected before further use of the work platform.

(iii) Before the work platform is used and during use, the job site shall be checked for hazards such as ditches, dropoffs or holes, bumps and floor obstructions, debris, overhead obstructions and high-voltage conductors, and other possible hazardous conditions.

(19) Requirements for operation. The work platform shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions and safety rules, ANSI 92.6-1990 and this standard.

(a) Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to operate the work platform.

(b) Before each elevation of the work platform, the operator shall:

(i) Check for overhead obstructions and high-voltage conductors. A minimum distance of ten feet from energized high-voltage conductors shall be maintained at all times between the conductors and the operator and platform equipment.

(ii) Ensure the work platform is elevated only on a firm and level surface.

(iii) Ensure that the load and its distribution on the platform are in accordance with the manufacturer's rated capacity. The manufacturer's rated work load shall never be exceeded.

(iv) Ensure that outriggers or stabilizers are used in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline, provided they can be safely installed.

(v) Ensure that platform guardrails are properly installed and gates or openings are closed.

(vi) Check to see that all occupants' full body harnesses are on and properly attached.

(c) Before and during driving while elevated, the operator shall:

(i) Be required to look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of, the path of travel and make sure that the path is firm and level.

(ii) Maintain a safe distance from obstacles, debris, dropoffs, holes, depressions, ramps, and other hazards to safe elevated travel.

(iii) Maintain a safe distance from overhead obstacles.

(d) Under all travel conditions the operator shall limit speed according to conditions of ground surface, congestion, slope, location of personnel, and other factors which may create a hazard of collision or injury to personnel.

(e) Stunt driving and horseplay shall not be permitted.

(f) Personnel shall maintain a firm footing on the platform while working thereon. Safety harness and lanyard devices fixed to attachment points provided and approved by the manufacturer shall be used by all occupants. Use of railings, planks, ladders, or any other device on the work platform for achieving additional height shall be prohibited.

(g) The operators shall immediately report to their supervisor any defects or malfunctions which become evident during operation. Any defects or malfunctions that affect the safety of operation shall be repaired prior to continued use of the work platform.

(h) Altering, modifying, or disabling safety devices or interlocks is prohibited.

(i) Care shall be taken to prevent ropes, electric cords, hoses, and the like from becoming entangled in the work platform when it is being elevated, lowered, or moved.

(j) Work platform rated capacities shall not be exceeded when live loads are transferred to the platform at elevated heights.

(k) The operator shall ensure that the area surrounding the work platform is clear of personnel and equipment before lowering the platform.

(20) Refueling: Fuel tanks shall not be filled while the engine is running. Caution shall be used while filling tanks to avoid spilling fuel.

(21) Battery charging: Batteries shall not be charged except in an open, well ventilated area free of flame, smoking, spark, and fire.

(22) Modifications: There shall be no modification or alteration to work platforms without the modifications being approved and certified in writing by the manufacturer or other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformance with all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.5-1992 and this standard.

[]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-490 Aerial lifts. (1) "General requirements."

(a) Unless otherwise provided in this section, aerial lifts acquired for use on or after January 22, 1973, shall be designed and constructed in conformance with the applicable requirements of the American National Standards for "Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms," ANSI A92.2-1969, including appendix. Aerial lifts acquired before January 22, 1973, which do not meet the requirements of ANSI A92.2-1969, may not be used after January 1, 1976, unless they shall have been modified so as to conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A92.2-1969. Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel to job-sites above ground:

(i) Extensible boom platforms;

(ii) Aerial ladders;

(iii) Articulating boom platforms;

(iv) Vertical towers; and

(v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or other material; may be powered or manually operated; and are deemed to be aerial lifts whether or not they are capable of rotating about a substantially vertical axis.

(b) Aerial lifts may be "field modified" for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformity with all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.2-1969 and this section and to be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification.

(2) "Specific requirements."

(a) Ladder trucks and tower trucks:

(i) Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device on top of the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder before the truck is moved for highway travel.

(ii) A full body harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the ladder rail or tower when working from ladder trucks or tower trucks.

(b) Extensible and articulating boom platforms.

(i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition.

(ii) Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift.

(iii) Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted.

(iv) Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.

(v) A full body harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift.

(vi) Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded.

(vii) The brakes shall be set and when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline, provided they can be safely installed.

(viii) An aerial lift truck shall not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except for equipment which is specifically designed for this type of operation in accordance with the provisions of subsection (1)(a) and (b) of this section.

(ix) Articulating boom and extensible boom platforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shall be in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the upper controls. Controls shall be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency.

(x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial lift.

(xi) The insulated portion of an aerial lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value.

(xii) Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position except as provided in (b)(viii) of this subsection.

(c) Electrical tests. All electrical tests shall conform to the requirements of ANSI A92.2-1990 section 5. However equivalent d.c. voltage tests may be used in lieu of the a.c. voltage specified in A92.2-1990; d.c. voltage tests which are approved by the equipment manufacturer or equivalent entity shall be considered an equivalent test for the purpose of this subsection (2)(c).

(d) Bursting safety factor. The provisions of the American National Standards Institute standard ANSI A92.2-1990, section 4.9 Bursting Safety Factor shall apply to all critical hydraulic and pneumatic components. Critical components are those in which a failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom. All noncritical components shall have a bursting safety factor of at least 2 to 1.

(e) Welding standards. All welding shall conform to the following standards as applicable:

(i) Standard Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0-41.

(ii) Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS D8.4-61.

Note: Nonmandatory Appendix C to this part lists examples of national consensus standards that are considered to provide employee protection equivalent to that provided through the application of ANSI A92.2-1990, where appropriate. Copies may be obtained from the American National Standards Institute.

[]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-493 Training. This section supplements and clarifies the requirements of WAC 296-155-100 (1)(c) and 296-155-110 (3)(g) as these relate to the hazards of work on scaffolds.

(1) The employer shall have each employee who performs work while on a scaffold trained by a person qualified in the subject matter to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards. The training shall include the following areas, as applicable:

(a) The nature of any electrical hazards, fall hazards and falling object hazards in the work area;

(b) The correct procedures for dealing with electrical hazards and for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems and falling object protection systems being used;

(c) The proper use of the scaffold, and the proper handling of materials on the scaffold;

(d) The maximum intended load and the load-carrying capacities of the scaffolds used; and

(e) Any other pertinent requirements of this subpart.

(2) The employer shall have each employee who is involved in erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing, maintaining, or inspecting a scaffold trained by a competent person to recognize any hazards associated with the work in question. The training shall include the following topics, as applicable:

(a) The nature of scaffold hazards;

(b) The correct procedures for erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing, inspecting, and maintaining the type of scaffold in question;

(c) The design criteria, maximum intended load-carrying capacity and intended use of the scaffold;

(d) Any other pertinent requirements of this subpart.

(3) When the employer has reason to believe that an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving the erection, use or dismantling of scaffolds, the employer shall retrain each such employee so that the requisite proficiency is regained. Retraining is required in at least the following situations:

(a) Where changes at the worksite present a hazard about which an employee has not been previously trained; or

(b) Where changes in the types of scaffolds, fall protection, falling object protection, or other equipment present a hazard about which an employee has not been previously trained; or

(c) Where inadequacies in an affected employee's work involving scaffolds indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite proficiency.

[]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-494 Non-Mandatory Appendix A to Part J-1, Scaffold Specifications. This Appendix provides non-mandatory guidelines to assist employers in complying with the requirements of Part J-1 of this chapter. An employer may use these guidelines and tables as a starting point for designing scaffold systems. However, the guidelines do not provide all the information necessary to build a complete system, and the employer is still responsible for designing and assembling these components in such a way that the completed system will meet the requirements of WAC 296-155-483(1). Scaffold components which are not selected and loaded in accordance with this Appendix, and components for which no specific guidelines or tables are given in this Appendix (e.g., joints, ties, components for wood pole scaffolds more than 60 feet in height, components for heavy-duty horse scaffolds, components made with other materials, and components with other dimensions, etc.) must be designed and constructed in accordance with the capacity requirements of WAC 296-155-483(1), and loaded in accordance with WAC 296-155-483 (4)(a).

Index to Appendix A for Part J-1

1. General guidelines and tables.

2. Specific guidelines and tables.

(a) Pole scaffolds:

Single-pole wood pole scaffolds.

Independent wood pole scaffolds.

(b) Tube and coupler scaffolds.

(c) Fabricated frame scaffolds.

(d) Plasterers', decorators' and large area scaffolds.

(e) Bricklayers' square scaffolds.

(f) Horse scaffolds.

(g) Form scaffolds and carpenters' bracket scaffolds.

(h) Roof bracket scaffolds.

(i) Outrigger scaffolds (one level).

(j) Pump jack scaffolds.

(k) Ladder jack scaffolds.

(l) Window jack scaffolds.

(m) Crawling boards (chicken ladders).

(n) Step, platform and trestle ladder scaffolds.

(o) Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

(p) Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

(q)(1) Stonesetters' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

(q)(2) Masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.

(r) Catenary scaffolds.

(s) Float (ship) scaffolds.

(t) Interior hung scaffolds.

(u) Needle beam scaffolds.

(v) Multi-level suspension scaffolds.

(w) Mobile scaffolds.

(x) Repair bracket scaffolds.

(y) Stilts.

(z) Tank builders' scaffolds.

1. General Guidelines and Tables

(a) The following tables, and the tables in Part 2 -- Specific guidelines and tables, assume that all load-carrying timber members (except planks) of the scaffold are a minimum of 1,500 lb-f/in(2) (stress grade) construction grade lumber. All dimensions are nominal sizes as provided in the American Softwood Lumber Standards, dated January 1970, except that, where rough sizes are noted, only rough or undressed lumber of the size specified will satisfy minimum requirements.

(b) Solid sawn wood used as scaffold planks shall be selected for such use following the grading rules established by a recognized lumber grading association or by an independent lumber grading inspection agency. Such planks shall be identified by the grade stamp of such association or agency. The association or agency and the grading rules under which the wood is graded shall be certified by the Board of Review, American Lumber Standard Committee, as set forth in the American Softwood Lumber Standard of the U.S. Department of Commerce.

(i) Allowable spans shall be determined in compliance with the National Design Specification for Wood Construction published by the National Forest Products Association; paragraph 5 of ANSI A10.8-1988 Scaffolding-Safety Requirements published by the American National Standards Institute; or for 2 x 10 inch (nominal) or 2 x 9 inch (rough) solid sawn wood planks, as shown in the following table:

Maximum Maximum Maximum

intended permissible permissible

nominal span using span using

load full thickness nominal

(lb/ft2) undressed thickness

lumber (ft) lumber (ft)

25........ 10 8

50........ 8 6

75........ 6



(ii) The maximum permissible span for 1 1/4 x 9-inch or wider wood plank of full thickness with a maximum intended load of 50 lb/ft.(2) shall be 4 feet.

(c) Fabricated planks and platforms may be used in lieu of solid sawn wood planks. Maximum spans for such units shall be as recommended by the manufacturer based on the maximum intended load being calculated as follows:

Rated load capacity Intended load

Light-duty............... * 25 pounds per square foot applied

uniformly over the entire span area.

Medium-duty.............. * 50 pounds per square foot applied

uniformly over the entire span area.

Heavy-duty............... * 75 pounds per square foot applied

uniformly over the entire span area.

One-person............... * 250 pounds placed at the center of

the span (total 250 pounds).

Two-person............... * 250 pounds placed 18 inches to the

left and right of the center of the

span (total 500 pounds).

Three-person............. * 250 pounds placed at the center of the span and 250 pounds placed 18

inches to the left and right of the

center of the span (total 750 pounds).

Note: Platform units used to make scaffold platforms intended for light-duty use shall be capable of supporting at least 25 pounds per square foot applied uniformly over the entire unit-span area, or a 250-pound point load placed on the unit at the center of the span, whichever load produces the greater shear force.

(d) Guardrails shall be as follows:

(i) Toprails shall be equivalent in strength to 2 inch by 4 inch lumber; or

1 1/4 inch x 1/8 inch structural angle iron; or

1 inch x .070 inch wall steel tubing; or 1.990 inch x .058 inch wall aluminum tubing.

(ii) Midrails shall be equivalent in strength to 1 inch by 6 inch lumber; or

1 1/4 inch x 1 1/4 inch x 1/8 inch structural angle iron; or

1 inch x .070 inch wall steel tubing; or

1.990 inch x .058 inch wall aluminum tubing.

(iii) Toeboards shall be equivalent in strength to 1 inch by 4 inch lumber; or

1 1/4 inch x 1 1/4 inch structural angle iron; or

1 inch x .070 inch wall steel tubing; or

1.990 inch x .058 inch wall aluminum tubing.

(iv) Posts shall be equivalent in strength to 2 inch by 4 inch lumber; or

1 1/4 inch x 1 1/4 inch x 1/8 structural angle iron; or

1 inch x .070 inch wall steel tubing; or

1.990 inch x .058 inch wall aluminum tubing.

(v) Distance between posts shall not exceed 8 feet.

(e) Overhead protection shall consist of 2 inch nominal planking laid tight, or 3/4-inch plywood.

(f) Screen installed between toeboards and midrails or toprails shall consist of No. 18 gauge U.S. Standard wire one inch mesh.

2. Specific guidelines and tables.

(a) Pole Scaffolds.

[Open Style:Columns Off]

Single Pole Wood Pole Scaffolds

Light duty Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty

up to 20 up to 60 up to 60 up to 60

feet high feet high feet high feet high

Maximum intended

load

(lbs/ft).... 25......... 25......... 50.......... 75

Poles or uprights 2 x 4 in... 4 x 4 in... 4 x 4 in.... 4 x 6 in.

Maximum pole

spacing 6 feet..... 10 feet.... 8 feet...... 6 feet

(longitudinal)

Maximum pole

spacing

(transverse) 5 feet..... 5 feet..... 5 feet...... 5 feet

Runners.......... 1 x 4 in... 1 1/4 x 9 in. 2 x 10 in... 2 x 10 in.

Bearers and

maximum spacing

of bearers:

3 feet...... 2 x 4 in... 2 x 4 in... 2 x 10 in.. 2 x 10 in.

or 3 x 4 in. or 3 x 5 in.

5 feet...... 2 x 6 in. 2 x 6 in. 2 x 10 in. 2 x 10 in.

or 3 x 4 in... or 3 x 4 in.. or 3 x 4 in.... or 3 x 5 in.

(rough)

6 feet...... ........... ........... 2 x 10 in. 2 x 10 in.

or 3 x 4 in.... or 3 x 5 in.

8 feet...... ........... ........... 2 x 10 in.

or 3 x 4 in....

Planking........ 1 1/4 x 9 in. 2 x 10 in.. 2 x 10 in.... 2 x 10 in.

Maximum vertical

spacing of

horizontal

members 7 feet...... 9 feet...... 7 feet....... 6 ft. 6 in.

Bracing

horizontal.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 6 in. 2 x 4 in.

or 1 1/4 x 4 in

Bracing diagonal 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in..... 2 x 4 in.

Tie-ins.......... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in..... 1 x 4 in.



Note: All members except planking are used on edge. All wood bearers shall be reinforced with 3/16 x 2 inch steel strip, or the equivalent, secured to the lower edges for the entire length of the bearer.

Independent Wood Pole Scaffolds

Light duty Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty

up to 20 up to 60 up to 60 up to 60

feet high feet high feet high feet high

Maximum intended

load.......... 25 lbs/ft 25 lbs/ft 50 lbs/ft 75 lbs/ft

Poles or uprights 2 x 4 in.... 4 x 4 in.... 4 x 4 in..... 4 x 4 in.

Maximum pole

spacing

(longitudinal) 6 feet...... 10 feet..... 8 feet....... 6 feet.

Maximum

(transverse).. 6 feet...... 10 feet..... 8 feet....... 8 feet.

Runners......... 1 1/4 x 4 in 1 1/4 x 9 in 2 x 10 in.... 2 x 10 in.

Bearers and

maximum spacing

of bearers:

3 feet...... 2 x 4 in.... 2 x 4 in.... 2 x 10 in.... 2 x 10 in.

(rough).

6 feet...... 2 x 6 in. or 2 x 10 in.. 2 x 10 in.... 2 x 10 in.

3 x 4 in... (rough) or (rough)

3 x 8 in.

8 feet...... 2 x 6 in. or 2 x 10 in.. 2 x 10 in............

3 x 4 in... (rough) or

3 x 8 in.

10 feet..... 2 x 6 in. or 2 x 10 in.

3 x 4 in... (rough) or

3 x 3 in...

Planking........ 1 1/4 x 9 in. 2 x 10 in... 2 x 10 in.... 2 x 10 in.

Maximum vertical

spacing of

horizontal

members 7 feet...... 7 feet...... 6 feet....... 6 feet.

Bracing

horizontal.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 6 in. or 2 x 4 in.

1 1/4 x 4 in.

Bracing diagonal 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in..... 2 x 4 in.

Tie-ins......... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in.... 1 x 4 in..... 1 x 4 in.



Note: All members except planking are used on edge. All wood bearers shall be reinforced with 3/16 x 2 inch steel strip, or the equivalent, secured to the lower edges for the entire length of the bearer.

(b) Tube and coupler scaffolds.

Minimum Size of Members

Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty

Maximum intended

load............. 25 lbs/ft 50 lbs/ft 75 lbs/ft

Posts, runners and

braces........... Nominal 2 in. Nominal 2 in. Nominal 2 in.

(1.90 inches) (1.90 inches) (1.90 inches)

OD steel OD steel tube OD steel tube

tube or pipe. or pipe. or pipe.

Bearers............ Nominal 2 in. Nominal 2 in. Nominal 2 1/2 in.

(1.90 inches) (1.90 inches) (2.375 in.)

OD steel tube OD steel tube OD steel tube

or pipe and a or pipe and a or pipe and a

maximum post maximum post maximum post

spacing of spacing of spacing of

4 ft. x 10 ft. 4 ft. x 7 ft. 6 ft. x 6 ft.

or Nominal

2 1/2 in.

(2.375 in.)

OD steel tube

or pipe and a

maximum post

spacing of

6 ft. x 8 ft.(*)

Maximum runner

spacing

vertically....... 6 ft. 6 in. 6 ft. 6 in. 6 ft. 6 in.

(*) Bearers shall be installed in the direction of the shorter dimension.



[Open Style:Columns On]

Note: Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed at an angle of 45 deg. (+/- 5 deg.).

Maximum Number of Planked Levels

Maximum number of

additional planked levels Maximum

height of

Light Medium Heavy scaffold

duty duty duty (in feet)

Number of Working Levels:

1..................... 16 11 6 125

2..................... 11 1 0 125

3..................... 6 0 0 125

4..................... 1 0 0 125

(c) "Fabricated frame scaffolds." Because of their prefabricated nature, no additional guidelines or tables for these scaffolds are being adopted in this Appendix.

(d) "Plasterers', decorators', and large area scaffolds." The guidelines for pole scaffolds or tube and coupler scaffolds (Appendix A (a) and (b)) may be applied.

(e) "Bricklayers' square scaffolds."

Maximum intended load: 50 lb/ft.(2)(*)

Footnote(*) The squares shall be set not more than 8 feet apart for light duty scaffolds and not more than 5 feet apart for medium duty scaffolds.

Maximum width: 5 ft.

Maximum height: 5 ft.

Gussets: 1 x 6 in.

Braces: 1 x 8 in.

Legs: 2 x 6 in.

Bearers (horizontal members): 2 x 6 in.

(f) Horse scaffolds.

Maximum intended load (light duty): 25 lb/ft.(2)(**)

Footnote(**) Horses shall be spaced not more than 8 feet apart for light duty loads, and not more than 5 feet apart for medium duty loads.

Maximum intended load (medium duty): 50 lb/ft.(2)(**)

Footnote(**) Horses shall be spaced not more than 8 feet apart for light duty loads, and not more than 5 feet apart for medium duty loads.

Horizontal members or bearers:

Light duty: 2 x 4 in.

Medium duty: 3 x 4 in.

Legs: 2 x 4 in.

Longitudinal brace between legs: 1 x 6 in.

Gusset brace at top of legs: 1 x 8 in.

Half diagonal braces: 2 x 4 in.

(g) "Form scaffolds and carpenters' bracket scaffolds."

(1) Brackets shall consist of a triangular-shaped frame made of wood with a cross-section not less than 2 inches by 3 inches, or of 1 1/4 inch x 1 1/4 inch x 1/8 inch structural angle iron.

(2) Bolts used to attach brackets to structures shall not be less than 5/8 inches in diameter.

(3) Maximum bracket spacing shall be 8 feet on centers.

(4) No more than two employees shall occupy any given 8 feet of a bracket or form scaffold at any one time. Tools and materials shall not exceed 75 pounds in addition to the occupancy.

(5) Wooden figure-four scaffolds:

Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.(2)

Uprights: 2 x 4 in. or 2 x 6 in.

Bearers (two): 1 x 6 in.

Braces: 1 x 6 in.

Maximum length of bearers (unsupported): 3 ft. 6 in.

(i) Outrigger bearers shall consist of two pieces of 1 x 6 inch lumber nailed on opposite sides of the vertical support.

(ii) Bearers for wood figure-four brackets shall project not more than 3 feet 6 inches from the outside of the form support, and shall be braced and secured to prevent tipping or turning. The knee or angle brace shall intersect the bearer at least 3 feet from the form at an angle of approximately 45 degrees, and the lower end shall be nailed to a vertical support.

(6) Metal bracket scaffolds:

Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.(2)

Uprights: 2 x 4 inch

Bearers: As designed.

Braces: As designed.

(7) Wood bracket scaffolds:

Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.(2)

Uprights: 2 x 4 in. or 2 x 6 in.

Bearers: 2 x 6 in.

Maximum scaffold width: 3 ft 6 in.

Braces: 1 x 6 in.

(h) "Roof bracket scaffolds." No specific guidelines or tables are given.

(i) "Outrigger scaffolds (single level)." No specific guidelines or tables are given.

(j) "Pump jack scaffolds." Wood poles shall not exceed 30 feet in height. Maximum intended load -- 500 lbs between poles; applied at the center of the span. Not more than two employees shall be on a pump jack scaffold at one time between any two supports. When 2 x 4's are spliced together to make a 4 x 4 inch wood pole, they shall be spliced with "10 penny" common nails no more than 12 inches center to center, staggered uniformly from the opposite outside edges.

(k) "Ladder jack scaffolds." Maximum intended load -- 25 lb/ft(2). However, not more than two employees shall occupy any platform at any one time. Maximum span between supports shall be 8 feet.

(l) "Window jack scaffolds." Not more than one employee shall occupy a window jack scaffold at any one time.

(m) "Crawling boards (chicken ladders)." Crawling boards shall be not less than 10 inches wide and 1 inch thick, with cleats having a minimum 1 x 1 1/2 inch cross-sectional area. The cleats shall be equal in length to the width of the board and spaced at equal intervals not to exceed 24 inches.

(n) "Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds." No additional guidelines or tables are given.

(o) "Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds." Maximum intended load -- 250 lbs. Wood seats for boatswains' chairs shall be not less than 1 inch thick if made of nonlaminated wood, or 5/8 inches thick if made of marine quality plywood.

(p) "Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds."

(1) In addition to direct connections to buildings (except window cleaners' anchors) acceptable ways to prevent scaffold sway include angulated roping and static lines. Angulated roping is a system of platform suspension in which the upper wire rope sheaves or suspension points are closer to the plane of the building face than the corresponding attachment points on the platform, thus causing the platform to press against the face of the building. Static lines are separate ropes secured at their top and bottom ends closer to the plane of the building face than the outermost edge of the platform. By drawing the static line taut, the platform is drawn against the face of the building.

(2) On suspension scaffolds designed for a working load of 500 pounds, no more than two employees shall be permitted on the scaffold at one time. On suspension scaffolds with a working load of 750 pounds, no more than three employees shall be permitted on the scaffold at one time.

(3) Ladder-type platforms. The side stringer shall be of clear straight-grained spruce. The rungs shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or hickory, at least 1 1/8 inches in diameter, with 7/8 inch tenons mortised into the side stringers at least 7/8 inch. The stringers shall be tied together with tie rods not less than 1/4 inch in diameter, passing through the stringers and riveted up tight against washers on both ends. The flooring strips shall be spaced not more than 5/8 inch apart, except at the side rails where the space may be 1 inch. Ladder-type platforms shall be constructed in accordance with the following table:



[Open Style:Columns Off]

Schedule for Ladder-Type Platforms

Length of Platform 12 feet.......... 14 & 16 feet..... 18 & 20 feet

Side stringers,

minimum cross

section

(finished sizes):

At ends........ 1 3/4 x 2 3/4 in. 1 3/4 x 2 3/4 in. 1 3/4 x 3 in.

At middle...... 1 3/4 x 3 3/4 in. 1 3/4 x 3 3/4 in. 1 3/4 x 4 in.

Reinforcing strip

(minimum)........ A 1/8 x 7/8 inch steel reinforcing strip shall be

attached to the side or underside, full length.

Rungs.............. Rungs shall be 1 1/8 inch minimum diameter with

at least 7/8 inch in diameter tenons, and the maximum

spacing shall be 12 inches to center.

Tie rods:

Number (minimum) 3................ 4................ 4

Diameter

(minimum)...... 1/4 inch......... 1/4 inch......... 1/4 inch

Flooring, minimum

finished size.... 1/2 x 2 3/4 in... 1/2 x 2 3/4 in... 1/2 x 2 3/4 in.



Schedule for Ladder-Type Platforms

Length of Platform......... 22 & 24 ft.......... 28 & 30 ft.

Side stringers, minimum

cross section (finished

sizes):

At ends................ 1 3/4 x 3 in........ 1 3/4 x 3 1/2 in.

At middle.............. 1 3/4 x 4 1/4 in.... 1 3/4 x 5 in.

Reinforcing strip A 1/8 x 7/8 inch steel reinforcing

(minimum)....... strip shall be attached to the side

or underside, full length.

Rungs...................... Rungs shall be 1 1/8 inch minimum

diameter with at least 7/8 inch in

diameter tenons, and the maximum

spacing shall be 12 inches to center.

Tie rods:

Number (minimum)....... 5................... 6

Diameter (minimum)..... 1/4 in.............. 1/4 in.

Flooring, minimum finished

size..................... 1/2 x 2 3/4 in...... 1/2 x 2 3/4 in.

[Open Style:Columns On]

(4) Plank-Type Platforms. Plank-type platforms shall be composed of not less than nominal 2 x 8 inch unspliced planks, connected together on the underside with cleats at intervals not exceeding 4 feet, starting 6 inches from each end. A bar or other effective means shall be securely fastened to the platform at each end to prevent the platform from slipping off the hanger. The span between hangers for plank-type platforms shall not exceed 10 feet.

(5) Beam-Type Platforms. Beam platforms shall have side stringers of lumber not less than 2 x 6 inches set on edge. The span between hangers shall not exceed 12 feet when beam platforms are used. The flooring shall be supported on 2 x 6 inch cross beams, laid flat and set into the upper edge of the stringers with a snug fit, at intervals of not more than 4 feet, securely nailed to the cross beams. Floor-boards shall not be spaced more than 1/2 inch apart.

(q)(1) "Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds and stonesetters' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds." No specific guidelines or tables are given for these scaffolds.

(q)(2) "Masons' multi-point adjustable suspension scaffolds." Maximum intended load -- 50 lb/ft(2). Each outrigger beam shall be at least a standard 7 inch, 15.3 pound steel I-beam, at least 15 feet long. Such beams shall not project more than 6 feet 6 inches beyond the bearing point. Where the overhang exceeds 6 feet 6 inches, outrigger beams shall be composed of stronger beams or multiple beams.

(r) "Catenary scaffolds."

(1) Maximum intended load -- 500 lbs.

(2) Not more than two employees shall be permitted on the scaffold at one time.

(3) Maximum capacity of come-along shall be 2,000 lbs.

(4) Vertical pickups shall be spaced not more than 50 feet apart.

(5) Ropes shall be equivalent in strength to at least 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) diameter improved plow steel wire rope.

(s) "Float (ship) scaffolds."

(1) Maximum intended load -- 750 lbs.

(2) Platforms shall be made of 3/4 inch plywood, equivalent in rating to American Plywood Association Grade B-B, Group I, Exterior.

(3) Bearers shall be made from 2 x 4 inch, or 1 x 10 inch rough lumber. They shall be free of knots and other flaws.

(4) Ropes shall be equivalent in strength to at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter first grade manila rope.

(t) Interior hung scaffolds.

Bearers (use on edge): 2 x 10 in.

Maximum intended load: Maximum span

25 lb/ft.(2): 10 ft.

50 lb/ft.(2): 10 ft.

75 lb/ft.(2): 7 ft.

(u) "Needle beam scaffolds."

Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.(2)

Beams: 4 x 6 in.

Maximum platform span: 8 ft.

Maximum beam span: 10 ft.

(1) Ropes shall be attached to the needle beams by a scaffold hitch or an eye splice. The loose end of the rope shall be tied by a bowline knot or by a round turn and a half hitch.

(2) Ropes shall be equivalent in strength to at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter first grade manila rope.

(v) "Multi-level suspension scaffolds." No additional guidelines or tables are being given for these scaffolds.

(w) "Mobile Scaffolds." Stability test as described in the ANSI A92 series documents, as appropriate for the type of scaffold, can be used to establish stability for the purpose of WAC 296-155-484 (23)(f)(ii).

(x) "Repair bracket scaffolds." No additional guidelines or tables are being given for these scaffolds.

(y) "Stilts." No specific guidelines or tables are given.

(z) "Tank builder's scaffold."

(1) The maximum distance between brackets to which scaffolding and guardrail supports are attached shall be no more than 10 feet 6 inches.

(2) Not more than three employees shall occupy a 10 feet 6 inch span of scaffold planking at any time.

(3) A taut wire or synthetic rope supported on the scaffold brackets shall be installed at the scaffold plank level between the innermost edge of the scaffold platform and the curved plate structure of the tank shell to serve as a safety line in lieu of an inner guardrail assembly where the space between the scaffold platform and the tank exceeds 12 inches (30.48 cm). In the event the open space on either side of the rope exceeds 12 inches (30.48 cm), a second wire or synthetic rope appropriately placed, or guardrails in accordance with WAC 296-155-483 (7)(d), shall be installed in order to reduce that open space to less than 12 inches (30.48 cm).

(4) Scaffold planks of rough full-dimensioned 2-inch (5.1 cm) x 12-inch (30.5 cm) Douglas Fir or Southern Yellow Pine of Select Structural Grade shall be used. Douglas Fir planks shall have a fiber stress of at least 1900 lb/in(2) (130,929 n/cm(2)) and a modulus of elasticity of at least 1,900,000 lb/in(2) (130,929,000 n/cm(2)), while Yellow Pine planks shall have a fiber stress of at least 2500 lb/in(2) (172,275 n/cm(2)) and a modulus of elasticity of at least 2,000,000 lb/in(2) (137,820,000 n/cm(2)).

(5) Guardrails shall be constructed of a taut wire or synthetic rope, and shall be supported by angle irons attached to brackets welded to the steel plates. These guardrails shall comply with WAC 296-155-483 (7)(d) guardrail supports shall be located at no greater than 10 feet 6 inch intervals.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-496 Non-Mandatory Appendix C to Part J-1, List of National Consensus Standards. ANSI/SIA A92.2-1990 Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices

ANSI/SIA A92.3-1990 Manually Propelled Elevating Aerial Platforms

ANSI/SIA A92.5-1990 Boom Supported Elevating Work Platforms

ANSI/SIA A92.6-1990 Self-Propelled Elevating Work Platforms

ANSI/SIA A92.7-1990 Airline Ground Support Vehicle-Mounted Vertical Lift Devices

ANSI/SIA A92.8-1993 Vehicle-Mounted Bridge Inspection and Maintenance Devices

ANSI/SIA A92.9-1993 Mast-Climbing Work Platforms

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-497 Non-Mandatory Appendix D to Part J-1, List of Training Topics for Scaffold Erectors and Dismantlers. This Appendix D is provided to serve as a guide to assist employers when evaluating the training needs of employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds.

The Agency believes that employees erecting or dismantling scaffolds should be trained in the following topics:

* General Overview of Scaffolding

* regulations and standards

* erection/dismantling planning

* PPE and proper procedures

* fall protection

* materials handling

* access

* working platforms

* foundations

* guys, ties and braces

* Tubular Welded Frame Scaffolds

* specific regulations and standards

* components

* parts inspection

* erection/dismantling planning

* guys, ties and braces

* fall protection

* general safety

* access and platforms

* erection/dismantling procedures

* rolling scaffold assembly

* putlogs

* Tube and Clamp Scaffolds

* specific regulations and standards

* components

* parts inspection

* erection/dismantling planning

* guys, ties and braces

* fall protection

* general safety

* access and platforms

* erection/dismantling procedures

* buttresses, cantilevers, & bridges

* System Scaffolds

* specific regulations and standards

* components

* parts inspection

* erection/dismantling planning

* guys, ties and braces

* fall protection

* general safety

* access and platforms

* erection/dismantling procedures

* buttresses, cantilevers, & bridges

Scaffold erectors and dismantlers should all receive the general overview, and, in addition, specific training for the type of supported scaffold being erected or dismantled.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-498 Non-Mandatory Appendix E to Part J-1, Drawings and Illustrations. This Appendix provides drawings of particular types of scaffolds and scaffold components, and graphic illustrations of bracing patterns and tie spacing patterns.

This Appendix is intended to provide visual guidance to assist the user in complying with the requirements of Part J-1, chapter 296-155 WAC.

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NEW SECTION

WAC 296-155-528 Crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms. (1) Scope, application, and definitions.

(a) Scope and application. This standard applies to the design, construction, testing, use and maintenance of personnel platforms, and the hoisting of personnel platforms on the load lines of cranes or derricks.

(b) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(i) "Failure" means load refusal, breakage, or separation of components.

(ii) "Hoist" (or hoisting) means all crane or derrick functions such as lowering, lifting, swinging, booming in and out or up and down, or suspending a personnel platform.

(iii) "Load refusal" means the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.

(iv) "Maximum intended load" means the total load of all employees, tools, materials, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a personnel platform or personnel platform component at any one time.

(v) "Runway" means a firm, level surface designed, prepared, and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the crane being used to lift and travel with the crane suspended platform. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.

(2) General requirements. The use of a crane or derrick to hoist employees on a personnel platform is prohibited, except when the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of structural design or worksite conditions.

(3) Cranes and derricks.

(a) Operational criteria.

(b) Hoisting of the personnel platform shall be performed in a slow, controlled, cautious manner with no sudden movements of the crane or derrick, or the platform.

(c) Load lines shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least seven times the maximum intended load, except that where rotation resistant rope is used, the lines shall be capable of supporting without failure, at least ten times the maximum intended load. The required design factor is achieved by taking the current safety factor of 3.5 (required under WAC 296-155-525 (4)(b)) and applying the fifty percent derating of the crane capacity which is required by (f) of this subsection.

(d) Load and boom hoist drum brakes, swing brakes, and locking devices such as pawls or dogs shall be engaged when the occupied personnel platform is in a stationary working position.

(e) The crane shall be uniformly level within one percent of level grade and located on firm footing. Cranes equipped with outriggers shall have them all fully deployed following manufacturer's specifications, insofar as applicable, when hoisting employees.

(f) The total weight of the loaded personnel platform and related rigging shall not exceed fifty percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the crane or derrick.

(g) The use of machines having live booms (booms in which lowering is controlled by a brake without aid from other devices which slow the lowering speeds) is prohibited.

(h) Multiple-part line block: When a multiple-part line block is in use, a substantial strap shall be used between the crane hook and common ring, shackle, or other equivalent device, to eliminate employee exposure to the lines running through the block, and to the block itself.

(4) Instruments and components.

(a) Cranes and derricks with variable angle booms shall be equipped with a boom angle indicator, readily visible to the operator.

(b) Cranes with telescoping booms shall be equipped with a device to indicate clearly to the operator, at all times, the boom's extended length, or an accurate determination of the load radius to be used during the lift shall be made prior to hoisting personnel.

(c) A positive acting device shall be used which prevents contact between the load block or overhaul ball and the boom tip (anti-two-blocking device), or a system shall be used which deactivates the hoisting action before damage occurs in the event of a two-blocking situation (two block damage prevention feature).

(d) The load line hoist drum shall have a system or device on the power train, other than the load hoist brake, which regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist mechanism (controlled load lowering). Free fall is prohibited.

(5) Rigging.

(a) Lifting bridles on box-type platforms shall consist of four legs of equal length, with one end securely shackled to each corner of the platform and the other end securely attached to a common ring, shackle, or other equivalent device to accommodate the crane hook, or a strap to the crane hook.

(b) Shackle bolts used for rigging of personnel platforms shall be secured against displacement.

(c) A substantial safety line shall pass through the eye of each leg of the bridle adjacent to the common ring, shackle, or equivalent device.

(d) Securely fastened with a minimum amount of slack to the lift line above the headache ball or to the crane hook itself.

(e) All eyes in wire rope slings shall be fabricated with thimbles.

(f) Wire rope, shackles, rings, master links, and other rigging hardware must be capable of supporting, without failure, at least five times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component. Where rotation resistant wire rope is used for slings, they shall be capable of supporting without failure at least ten times the maximum intended load.

(g) Hooks on headache ball assemblies, lower load blocks, or other attachment assemblies shall be of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating the hook throat opening. Alternatively, an alloy anchor type shackle with a bolt, nut and retaining pin may be used.

(h) Bridles and associated rigging for attaching the personnel platform to the hoist line shall be used only for the platform and the necessary employees, their tools and the materials necessary to do their work, and shall not be used for any other purpose when not hoisting personnel.

(6) Personnel platforms - design criteria.

(a) The personnel platform and suspension system shall be designed by a qualified engineer or a qualified person competent in structural design.

(b) The suspension system shall be designed to minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform.

(c) The personnel platform itself, except the guardrail system and body harness anchorages, shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load based on a minimum allowance of five hundred pounds for the first person with light tools, and an additional two hundred fifty pounds for each additional person.

(d) Criteria for guardrail systems contained in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part K and body harness anchorages are contained in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(e) The personnel platform shall be conspicuously posted with a plate or other permanent marking which indicates the weight of the platform and its rated load capacity or maximum intended load.

(7) Platform specifications.

(a) Each personnel platform shall be equipped with a guardrail system which meets the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part K and, shall be enclosed at least from the toeboard to mid-rail with either solid construction or expanded metal having openings no greater than one-half inch (1.27 cm).

(b) A grab rail shall be installed inside the entire perimeter of the personnel platform.

(c) Access gates, if installed, shall not swing outward during hoisting.

(d) Access gates, including sliding or folding gates, shall be equipped with a restraining device to prevent accidental opening.

(e) Headroom shall be provided which allows employees to stand upright in the platform.

(f) In addition to the use of hard hats, employees shall be protected by overhead protection on the personnel platform when employees are exposed to falling objects.

(g) All rough edges exposed to contact by employees shall be surfaced or smoothed in order to prevent injury to employees from punctures or lacerations.

(h) All welding of the personnel platform and its components shall be performed by a qualified welder familiar with the weld grades, types, and material specified in the platform design.

(i) Occupants of all personnel platforms shall wear a safety belt or harness and lanyard which meets the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(j) Box-type platform: The workers lanyard shall be secured to an anchorage within the platform meeting the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(k) Rescue platform:

(i) If the platform is used as a rescue vehicle, the injured worker shall be strapped into the stretcher or basket.

(ii) The basket shall then be secured by lanyard to an anchorage within the platform meeting the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

(l) Boatswains chair: The workers lanyard shall be secured to the lift line above the headache ball or to the crane hook itself.

(m) Barrel-type platform:

(i) The workers lanyard shall be secured to the lift line above the headache ball or to the crane hook itself.

(ii) A solid bar or rod shall be substantially attached in a rigid position to the bottom or side of the platform.

(iii) The bottom of the barrel-type platform shall be of a convex shape to cause the platform to lay on its side when lowered to the ground or floor.

(iv) The bar or rod shall extend a minimum of eight feet above the floor of the platform.

(v) Workers shall enter and exit from barrel-type platforms only when they are in an upright position, stable, and securely attached to the load line.

(vi) The employer shall use methods or devices which allow employees to safely enter or exit barrel-type platforms.

(8) Personnel platform loading.

(a) The personnel platform shall not be loaded in excess of its rated load capacity.

(b) The number of employees occupying the personnel platform shall not exceed the number required for the work being performed.

(c) Personnel platforms shall be used only for employees, their tools, and the materials necessary to do their work, and shall not be used to hoist only materials or tools when not hoisting personnel.

(d) Materials and tools for use during a personnel lift shall be secured to prevent displacement.

(e) Materials and tools for use during a personnel lift shall be evenly distributed within the confines of the platform while the platform is suspended.

(9) Trial lift, inspection, and proof testing.

(a) A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least to the anticipated liftweight shall be made from ground level, or any other location where employees will enter the platform, to each location at which the personnel platform is to be hoisted and positioned. This trial lift shall be performed immediately prior to placing personnel on the platform. The operator shall determine that all systems, controls, and safety devices are activated and functioning properly; that no interferences exist; and that all configurations necessary to reach those work locations will allow the operator to remain under the fifty percent limit of the hoist's rated capacity. Materials and tools to be used during the actual lift can be loaded in the platform, as provided in subsection (8)(d) and (e) of this section for the trial lift. A single trial lift may be performed at one time for all locations that are to be reached from a single set-up position.

(b) The trial lift shall be repeated prior to hoisting employees whenever the crane or derrick is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location. Additionally, the trial lift shall be repeated when the lift route is changed unless the operator determines that the route change is not significant (i.e., the route change would not affect the safety of hoisted employees).

(c) After the trial lift, and just prior to hoisting personnel, the platform shall be hoisted a few inches and inspected to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced. Employees shall not be hoisted unless the following conditions are determined to exist:

(i) Hoist ropes shall be free of kinks;

(ii) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other;

(iii) The primary attachment shall be centered over the platform; and

(iv) The hoisting system shall be inspected if the load rope is slack to ensure all ropes are properly stated on drums and in sheaves.

(d) A visual inspection of the crane or derrick, rigging, personnel platform, and the crane or derrick base support or ground shall be conducted by a competent person immediately after the trial lift to determine whether the testing has exposed any defect or produced any adverse effect upon any component or structure.

(e) Any defects found during inspections which create a safety hazard shall be corrected before hoisting personnel.

(f) At each job site, prior to hoisting employees on the personnel platform, and after any repair or modification, the platform and rigging shall be proof tested to one hundred twenty-five percent of the platform's rated capacity by holding it in a suspended position for five minutes with the test load evenly distributed on the platform (this may be done concurrently with the trial lift). After proof testing, a competent person shall inspect the platform and rigging. Any deficiencies found shall be corrected and another proof test shall be conducted. Personnel hoisting shall not be conducted until the proof testing requirements are satisfied.

(10) Work practices.

(a) Employees shall keep all parts of the body inside the platform during raising, lowering, and positioning. This provision does not apply to an occupant of the platform performing the duties of a signal person.

(b) Before employees exit or enter a hoisted personnel platform that is not landed, the platform shall be secured to the structure where the work is to be performed, unless securing to the structure creates an unsafe situation.

(c) Tag lines shall be used unless their use creates an unsafe condition.

(d) The crane or derrick operator shall remain at the controls at all times when the crane engine is running and the platform is occupied.

(e) Hoisting of employees shall be promptly discontinued upon indication of any dangerous weather conditions or other impending danger.

(f) Employees being hoisted shall remain in continuous sight of and in direct communication with the operator or signal person. In those situations where direct visual contact with the operator is not possible, and the use of a signal person would create a greater hazard for that person, direct communication alone such as by radio may be used.

(g) Hand signals to the operator shall be in accordance with WAC 296-155-525 (2)(c).

(h) Except over water, employees occupying the personnel platform shall use a full body harness system with lanyard appropriately attached to the lower load block or overhaul ball, or to a structural member within the personnel platform capable of supporting a fall impact for employees using the anchorage as specified in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1. When working over water, the requirements of WAC 296-155-235 shall apply.

No lifts shall be made on another of the crane's or derrick's load lines while personnel are suspended on a platform.

(11) Traveling.

(a) Hoisting of employees while the crane is traveling is prohibited, except for portal, tower and locomotive cranes, or where the employer demonstrates that there is no less hazardous way to perform the work.

(b) Under any circumstances where a crane would travel while hoisting personnel, the employer shall implement the following procedures to safeguard employees:

(i) Crane travel shall be restricted to a fixed track or runway;

(ii) Travel shall be limited to the load radius of the boom used during the lift; and

(iii) The boom must be parallel to the direction of travel.

(c) A complete trial run shall be performed to test the route of travel before employees are allowed to occupy the platform. This trial run can be performed at the same time as the trial lift required by subsection (9)(a) of this section which tests the route of the lift.

(d) If travel is done with a rubber tired-carrier, the condition and air pressure of the tires shall be checked. The chart capacity for lifts on rubber shall be used for application of the fifty percent reduction of rated capacity. Notwithstanding subsection (3)(e) of this section, outriggers may be partially retracted as necessary for travel.

(12) Prelift meeting.

(a) A meeting attended by the crane or derrick operator, signal person(s) (if necessary for the lift), employee(s) to be lifted, and the person responsible for the task to be performed shall be held to review the appropriate requirements of this section and the procedures to be followed.

(b) This meeting shall be held prior to the trial lift at each new work location, and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation.

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AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 86-14, filed 1/21/86)

WAC 296-155-605 Equipment. (1) General requirements.

(a) All equipment left unattended at night, adjacent to a highway in normal use, or adjacent to construction areas where work is in progress, shall have appropriate lights or reflectors, or barricades equipped with appropriate lights or reflectors, to identify the location of the equipment.

(b) All tire servicing of multi-piece and single-piece rim wheels are subject to the requirements of WAC 296-155-61701 through 296-155-61713.

(c)(i) Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts thereof, which are suspended or held aloft by use of slings, hoists, or jacks shall be substantially blocked or cribbed to prevent falling or shifting before employees are permitted to work under or between them. Bulldozer and scraper blades, end-loader buckets, dump bodies, and similar equipment, shall be either fully lowered or blocked when being repaired or when not in use. All controls shall be in a neutral position, with the motors stopped and brakes set, unless work being performed required otherwise.

(ii) Whenever the equipment is parked, the parking brake shall be set. Equipment parked on inclines shall have the wheels chocked and the parking brake set.

(d) The use, care and charging of all batteries shall conform to the requirements of part I of this chapter.

(e) All cab glass shall be safety glass, or equivalent, that introduces no visible distortion affecting the safe operation of any machine covered by this part.

(f) All equipment covered by this part shall comply with the requirements of WAC 296-155-525 (((2)(e))) (3)(a) when working or being moved in the vicinity of power lines or energized transmitters.

(g) Where traffic is diverted onto dusty surfaces, good visibility shall be maintained by the suppression of dust, through the periodic application of oil or water to the grade surface, as required.

(h) No equipment, vehicle, tool, or individual shall operate within 10 feet of any power line or electrical distribution equipment except in conformity with the requirements of WAC 296-155-525 (((2)(e))) (3)(a).

(2) Specific requirements. (Reserved.)

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), 296-155-605, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, 296-155-605, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-155-615 Material handling equipment. (1) Earthmoving equipment; general.

(a) These rules apply to the following types of earth-moving equipment: Scrapers, loaders, crawler or wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and similar equipment. The promulgation of specific rules for compactors and rubber-tired "skid-steer" equipment is reserved pending consideration of standards currently being developed.

(b) Seat belts.

(i) Seat belts shall be provided on all equipment covered by this section and shall meet the requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers, J386-1969, Seat Belts for Construction Equipment. Seat belts for agricultural and light industrial tractors shall meet the seat belt requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers J333a-1970, Operator Protection for Agricultural and Light Industrial Tractors.

(ii) Seat belts need not be provided for equipment which is designed only for standup operation.

(iii) Seat belts shall not be provided for equipment which does not have rollover protective structure (ROPS) or adequate canopy protection.

(c) Access roadways and grades.

(i) No employer shall move or cause to be moved construction equipment or vehicles upon any access roadway or grade unless the access roadway or grade is constructed and maintained to accommodate safely the movement of the equipment and vehicles involved.

(ii) Every emergency access ramp and berm used by an employer shall be constructed to restrain and control runaway vehicles.

(d) Brakes. All earthmoving equipment mentioned in WAC 296-155-615 (1)(a) shall have a service braking system capable of stopping and holding the equipment fully loaded, as specified in Society of Automotive Engineers SAE-J237, Loader Dozer-197l, J236, Graders-1971, and J319b, Scrapers-1971. Brake systems for self-propelled rubber-tired off-highway equipment manufactured after January 1, 1972 shall meet the applicable minimum performance criteria set forth in the following Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices:

Self-propelled

scrapers ----------------- SAE J319b-1971

Self-propelled

graders ----------------- SAE J236-1971

Trucks and

wagons ----------------- SAE J166-1971

Front end loaders

and dozer --------------- SAE J237-1971

(e) Fenders. Pneumatic-tired earthmoving haulage equipment (trucks, scrapers, tractors, and trailing units) whose maximum speed exceeds 15 miles per hour, shall be equipped with fenders on all wheels to meet the requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J321a- 1970, Fenders for Pneumatic-Tired Earthmoving Haulage Equipment. An employer may, of course, at any time seek to show under WAC 296-155-010, that the uncovered wheels present no hazard to personnel from flying materials.

(f) Rollover protective structures (ROPS). See Part V of this chapter for requirements for rollover protective structures and overhead protection.

(g) Rollover protective structures for off-highway trucks. The promulgation of standards for rollover protective structures for off-highway trucks is reserved pending further study and development.

(h) Specific effective dates--Brakes and fenders. Equipment mentioned in WAC 296-155-615 (d) and (e) and manufactured after January 1, 1972, which is used by any employer after that date, shall comply with the applicable rules prescribed therein concerning brakes. Equipment mentioned in WAC 296-155-615 (d) and (e) and manufactured before January 1, 1972, which is used by any employer after that date, shall meet the applicable rules prescribed herein not later than October 1, 1974. It should be noted that employers may request variations from the applicable brakes standards required by this part. Employers wishing to seek variations from the applicable brakes rules may submit any requests for variations in accordance with WAC 296-155-010. Any statements should specify how the variation would protect the safety of the employees by providing for any compensating restrictions on the operation of equipment.

(i) Audible alarms.

(i) All bidirectional machines, such as rollers, compactors, front-end loaders, bulldozers, and similar equipment, shall be equipped with a horn, distinguishable from the surrounding noise level, which shall be operated as needed when the machine is moving in either direction. The horn shall be maintained in an operative condition.

(ii) No employer shall permit earthmoving or compacting equipment which has an obstructed view to the rear to be used in reverse gear unless the equipment has in operation a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from the surrounding noise level or an employee signals that it is safe to do so.

(iii) In circumstances where the surrounding noise level is of such amplitude that reverse signal alarms are not effective, amber strobe lights shall be used.

(iv) Operators of equipment which does not have an obstructed view to the rear shall look to the rear while operating the equipment in reverse.

(j) Scissor points. Scissor points on all front-end loaders, which constitute a hazard to the operator during normal operation, shall be guarded.

(k) Tractor motors shall be cranked only by operators or other experienced persons.

(l) Waterproof and comfortable seat cushions shall be provided on tractors at all times when working.

(m) Riders, except mechanics and persons in training to operate equipment, shall not be allowed on equipment unless a seat with a seatbelt is provided and used.

(n) Winch lines shall be maintained in good condition and provided with spliced eye, knob or hook in working end, except under conditions where unspliced end is required.

(o) No repairs on blade or dozer equipment shall be initiated unless motor has been stopped and dozer blade is resting on the ground or securely blocked. The same shall apply to carry-all gates.

(p) Bulldozer blades and carryall gates shall rest on the ground or on blocking when machines are not in operation.

(q) Operator shall not leave controls of tractor with master clutch engaged.

(r) Personnel shall not get on or off machine while machine is in motion.

(s) Where excessive dust conditions are created, such areas shall be sprinkled with water to maintain dust at a minimum.

(t) Respirators shall be worn by operators when subject to harmful dust exposure.

(2) Excavating and other equipment.

(a) Tractors covered in subsection (1) of this section shall have seat belts as required for the operators when seated in the normal seating arrangement for tractor operation, even though backhoes, breakers, or other similar attachments are used on these machines for excavating or other work.

(b) For the purposes of this part and of Part L of this chapter, the nomenclatures and descriptions for measurement of dimensions of machinery and attachments shall be as described in Society of Automotive Engineers 1970 Handbook, pages 1088 through 1103.

(c) The safety requirements, ratios, or limitations applicable to machines or attachment usage covered in Power Crane and Shovel Association's Standards No. 1 and No. 2 of 1968, and No. 3 of 1969, shall be complied with, and shall apply to cranes, machines, and attachments under this part.

(3) Lifting and hauling equipment (other than equipment covered under Part L of this chapter). Industrial trucks (including forklifts) shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-155-605 and the following:

(a) Lift trucks, stackers, etc., shall have the rated capacity clearly posted on the vehicle so as to be clearly visible to the operator. When auxiliary removable counter-weights are provided by the manufacturer, corresponding alternate rated capacities also shall be clearly shown on the vehicle. These ratings shall not be exceeded.

(b) No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made without the manufacturer's or professional engineer's written approval. If such modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, shall be changed accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.

(c) If a load is lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the proportion of the total load carried by any one truck shall not exceed its capacity.

(d) Steering or spinner knobs shall not be attached to the steering wheel unless the steering mechanism is of a type that prevents road reactions from causing the steering handwheel to spin. The steering knob shall be mounted within the periphery of the wheel.

(e) All high lift rider industrial trucks shall be equipped with overhead guards which meet the configuration and structural requirements as defined in paragraph 502 of American National Standards Institute B56.1-1975, Safety Standards for Powered Industrial Trucks.

(f) All industrial trucks in use shall meet the applicable requirements of design, construction, stability, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, as defined in American National Standards Institute B56.1-1975, Safety Standards for Powered Industrial Trucks.

(g) Unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on powered industrial trucks. A safe place to ride shall be provided where riding of trucks is authorized.

(h) When a forklift truck is used for elevating workers a platform shall be specifically built for that purpose and shall comply with the following requirements:

(i) The platform shall be securely attached to the forks and shall have standard guardrails and toeboards on all open sides.

(ii) The hydraulic system of the forklift shall be so designed that the lift mechanism will not drop faster than one hundred thirty-five feet per minute in the event of a failure in any part of the system. Forklifts used for elevating platforms shall be identified that they are so designed.

(iii) A safety strap shall be installed or the control lever shall be locked to prevent the boom from tilting.

(iv) An operator shall be at the controls of the forklift equipment while persons are on the platform.

(v) The operator shall be in the normal operating position while raising or lowering the platform.

(vi) The vehicle shall not travel from point to point while workers are on the platform except that inching or maneuvering at very slow speed is permissible.

(vii) The area between workers on the platform and the mast shall be adequately guarded to prevent contact with chains or other shear points.

(viii) All platforms shall be visually inspected daily or before each use by the person in charge of the work being performed, and shall be tested as frequently as is necessary to maintain minimum safety factors.

(ix) Whenever a truck, except for high lift order picker trucks, is equipped with vertical hoisting controls elevatable with the lifting carriage or forks, the following precautions shall be taken for the protection of personnel being elevated.

(A) Provide a platform secured to the lifting carriage and/or forks.

(B) Provide means whereby personnel on the platform can shut off power to the truck.

(C) Provide such protection from falling objects as indicated necessary by the operating conditions.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-155-615, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), 296-155-615, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, 296-155-615, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 89-03, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89)

WAC 296-155-683 Concrete finishing. (1) ((Scaffolding)) Scaffolds for use of cement finishers shall comply with ((all applicable subsections of WAC 296-155-485)) the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1, Scaffolds.

(2) Where grinders, chippers, and other equipment is used which creates a thrust force while working on scaffolding, such scaffold shall be securely tied to a structure or held in with weighted drop lines.

(3) Grinding and dressing operations carried on within closed rooms, stairwells, elevator shafts, etc., shall be provided with forced air ventilation.

(4) Grinding machine operators shall wear respirators whenever machines are in operation or where dust hazard exists.

(5) Eye protection shall be worn by workers engaged in grinding, chipping, or sacking concrete as required by WAC 296-155-215.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-155-683, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 90-18, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91)

WAC 296-155-688 Vertical slip forms. (1) Slip forms shall be designed and constructed, and the form movement carried out, under the immediate supervision of a person or persons experienced in slip form design and operation. Drawings prepared by a qualified engineer, showing the jack layout, formwork, working decks, and scaffolding, shall be available at the jobsite, and followed.

(2) The steel rods or pipe on which the jacks climb or by which the forms are lifted shall be designed for this purpose. Such rods must be adequately braced where not encased in concrete.

(3) Forms shall be designed to prevent excessive distortion of the structure during the jacking operation.

(4) All vertical slip forms shall be provided with scaffolding or work platforms completely encircling the area of placement.

(5) Jacks and vertical supports shall be positioned in such a manner that the loads do not exceed the rated capacity of the jacks.

(6) The jacks or other lifting devices shall be provided with mechanical dogs or other automatic holding devices to support the slip forms whenever failure of the power supply or lifting mechanism occurs.

(7) The form structure shall be maintained within all design tolerances specified for plumbness during the jacking operation.

(8) Lifting shall proceed steadily and uniformly and shall not exceed the predetermined safe rate of lift. A jacking system, which provides precise, simultaneous movement of the entire form in small preselected increments, is recommended for large structures.

(9) Workers placing reinforcing steel shall ((wear a full body harness tied off by lanyards or otherwise securely fastened)) comply with the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 when working above the scaffold level.

(10) The total allowable load on slip form platforms shall be determined by the design engineer and enforced by the field supervisor.

(11) Lateral and diagonal bracing of the forms shall be provided to prevent excessive distortion of the structure during the sliding operation.

(12) While the slide is in operation, the form structure shall be maintained in line and plumb.

(13) A field supervisor experienced in slip form construction shall be present on the deck at all times.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-688, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-155-688, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 90-18, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91)

WAC 296-155-689 Placing and removal of forms. (1) When moved or raised by crane, cableway, A-frame, or similar mechanical device, forms shall be securely attached to slings having a minimum safety factor of five. Use of No. 9 tie wire, fiber rope, and similar makeshift lashing shall be prohibited.

(2) Taglines shall be used in moving panels or other large sections of forms by crane or hoist.

(3) All hoisting equipment, including hoisting cable used to raise and move forms shall have a minimum safety factor incorporated in the manufacturer's design, and the manufacturer's recommended loading shall not be exceeded. Field-fabricated or shop-fabricated hoisting equipment shall be designed or approved by a registered professional engineer, incorporating a minimum safety factor of five in its design. Panels and built-up form sections shall be equipped with metal hoisting brackets for attachment of slings.

(4) Forms intended for use where there is a free fall of over ten feet shall be equipped with adequate scaffolding and guardrails, or employees working on the forms shall be ((required to wear a full body harness)) protected from falls in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 during forming and stripping operations.

(5) Vertical forms being raised or removed in sections shall not be released until adequately braced or secured. Overhead forms shall not be released until adequately braced or secured.

(6) Workers or others at lower levels shall be protected from falling materials. Appropriate warning signs shall be erected along walkways.

(7) Forms shall not be removed until the concrete is cured. The concrete shall be adequately set in order to permit safe removal of the forms, shoring, and bracing. Engineer's specifications and local building codes shall be adhered to in determining the length of time forms should remain in place following concrete placement. In addition, tests shall be made on field-cured concrete specimens in order to insure that concrete has obtained sufficient strength to safely support the load prior to removal of forms.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-689, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-155-689, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-155-700 General requirements. (1) Erection gangs on structural steel erection shall work under the direction of experienced crew leader.

(2) Workers shall not ride on steel being hoisted, nor slide down ropes, columns or ladders.

(3) Wire rope slings shall be used when lifting loads. Care shall be taken to avoid sharp bends by using wood or similar type padding between wire rope and load. Reinforcing steel shall not be lifted by bundling ties.

(4) If float scaffolds are used during steel erection, they shall be used in accordance with WAC ((296-155-485(24))) 296-155-484(19).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-155-700, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-155-700, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), 296-155-700, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, 296-155-700, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, 296-155-700, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)

WAC 296-155-730 Tunnels and shafts. (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to the construction of underground tunnels, shafts, chambers, and passageways. This section also applies to cut-and-cover excavations which are both physically connected to ongoing underground construction operations within the scope of this section, and covered in such a manner as to create conditions characteristic of underground construction.

(b) This section does not apply to excavation and trenching operations covered by Part N of this chapter, such as foundation operations for above-ground structures that are not physically connected to underground construction operations, and surface excavation.

(c) The employer shall comply with the requirements of this part and chapter in addition to applicable requirements of chapter 296-36 WAC, Safety standards--Compressed air work.

(2) Access and egress.

(a) Each operation shall have a check-in/check-out system that will provide positive identification of every employee underground. An accurate record of identification and location of the employees shall be kept on the surface. This procedure is not required when the construction of underground facilities designed for human occupancy has been sufficiently completed so that the permanent environmental controls are effective, and when the remaining construction activity will not cause any environmental hazard, or structural failure within the facilities.

(b) The employer shall provide and maintain safe means of access and egress to all work stations.

(c) The employer shall provide access and egress in such a manner that employees are protected from being struck by excavators, haulage machines, trains, and other mobile equipment.

(d) The employer shall control access to all openings to prevent unauthorized entry underground. Unused chutes, manways, or other openings shall be tightly covered, bulkheaded, or fenced off, and shall be posted with warning signs indicating "keep out" or similar language. Completed or unused sections of the underground facility shall be barricaded.

(3) Safety instruction. All employees shall be instructed in the recognition and avoidance of hazards associated with underground construction activities including, where appropriate, the following subjects:

(a) Air monitoring;

(b) Ventilation;

(c) Confined space entry procedures;

(d) Permit-required confined space entry procedures;

(e) Illumination;

(f) Communications;

(g) Flood control;

(h) Mechanical equipment;

(i) Personal protective equipment;

(j) Explosives;

(k) Fire prevention and protection; and

(l) Emergency procedures, including evacuation plans and check-in/check-out systems.

(4) Notification.

(a) Oncoming shifts shall be informed of any hazardous occurrences or conditions that have affected, or might affect employee safety, including liberation of gas, equipment failures, earth or rock slides, cave-ins, floodings, fire(s), or explosions.

(b) Information specified in (a) of this subsection shall be recorded in a shift journal which shall be current prior to the end of each shift, and shall be located aboveground.

(c) Oncoming supervisory personnel shall read the notification prior to going underground, and shall signify their understanding of the contents by affixing their respective initials to the log.

(d) The hazard notification log shall be retained on the site until the completion of the project.

(e) The employer shall establish and maintain direct communications for coordination of activities with other employers whose operations at the jobsite affect or may affect the safety of employees underground.

(5) Communications.

(a) When natural unassisted voice communication is ineffective, a power-assisted means of voice communication shall be used to provide communication between the work face, the bottom of the shaft, and the surface.

(b) Two effective means of communication, at least one of which shall be voice communication, shall be provided in all shafts which are being developed or used either for personnel access or for hoisting. Additional requirements for hoist operator communication are contained in subsection (22)(c)(xv) of this section.

(c) Powered communication systems shall operate on an independent power supply, and shall be installed so that the use of or disruption of any one phone or signal location will not disrupt the operation of the system from any other location.

(d) Communication systems shall be tested upon initial entry of each shift to the underground, and as often as necessary at later times, to ensure that they are in working order.

(e) Any employee working alone underground in a hazardous location, who is both out of the range of natural unassisted voice communication and not under observation by other persons, shall be provided with an effective means of obtaining assistance in an emergency.

(6) Emergency provisions. Hoisting capability. When a shaft is used as a means of egress, the employer shall make advance arrangements for power-assisted hoisting capability to be readily available in an emergency, unless the regular hoisting means can continue to function in the event of an electrical power failure at the jobsite. Such hoisting means shall be designed so that the load hoist drum is powered in both directions of rotation and so that the brake is automatically applied upon power release or failure.

(7) Self-rescuers. The employer shall provide self-rescuers having current approval from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Mine Safety and Health Administration to be immediately available to all employees at work stations in underground areas where employees might be trapped by smoke or gas. The selection, issuance, use, and care of respirators shall be in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(8) Designated person. At least one designated person shall be on duty aboveground whenever any employee is working underground. This designated person shall be responsible for securing immediate aid and keeping an accurate record of the number, identification, and location of employees who are underground in case of emergency. The designated person must not be so busy with other responsibilities that the personnel counting and identification function is encumbered.

(9) Emergency lighting. Each employee underground shall have an acceptable portable hand lamp or cap lamp in his or her work area for emergency use, unless natural light or an emergency lighting system provides adequate illumination for escape.

(10) Rescue teams.

(a) On jobsites where 25 or more employees work underground at one time, the employer shall provide (or make arrangements in advance with locally available rescue services to provide) at least two 5-person rescue teams, one on the jobsite or within one-half hour travel time from the entry point, and the other within 2 hours travel time.

(b) On jobsites where less than 25 employees work underground at one time, the employer shall provide (or make arrangements in advance with locally available rescue services to provide) at least one 5-person rescue team to be either on the jobsite or within one-half hour travel time from the entry point.

(c) Rescue team members shall be qualified in rescue procedures, the use and limitations of breathing apparatus, and the use of fire fighting equipment. Qualifications shall be reviewed not less than annually.

(d) On jobsites where flammable or noxious gases are encountered or anticipated in hazardous quantities, rescue team members shall practice donning and using pressure demand mode, self-contained breathing apparatuses monthly.

(e) The employer shall ensure that rescue teams are familiar with conditions at the jobsite.

(11) Hazardous classifications.

(a) Potentially gassy operations. Underground construction operations shall be classified as potentially gassy if either:

(i) Air monitoring discloses 10 percent or more of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases measured at 12 inches (304.8 mm) +/-0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor, or walls in any underground work area for more than a 24-hour period; or

(ii) The history of the geographical area or geological formation indicates that 10 percent or more of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases is likely to be encountered in such underground operations.

(b) Gassy operations. Underground construction operations shall be classified as gassy if:

(i) Air monitoring discloses 10 percent or more of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases measured at 12 inches (304.8 mm) +/-0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor, or walls in any underground work area for three consecutive days; or

(ii) There has been an ignition of methane or of other flammable gases emanating from the strata that indicates the presence of such gases; or

(iii) The underground construction operation is both connected to an underground work area which is currently classified as gassy and is also subject to a continuous course of air containing the flammable gas concentration.

(c) Declassification to potentially gassy operations. Underground construction gassy operations may be declassified to potentially gassy when air monitoring results remain under 10 percent of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases for three consecutive days.

(12) Gassy operations--Additional requirements. Only acceptable equipment, maintained in suitable condition, shall be used in gassy operations.

(a) Mobile diesel-powered equipment used in gassy operations shall be either approved in accordance with the requirements of 30 CFR Part 36 (formerly Schedule 31) by MSHA, or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be fully equivalent to such MSHA-approved equipment, and shall be operated in accordance with that part.

(b) Each entrance to a gassy operation shall be prominently posted with signs notifying all entrants of the gassy classification.

(c) Smoking shall be prohibited in all gassy operations and the employer shall be responsible for collecting all personal sources of ignition, such as matches and lighters, from all persons entering a gassy operation.

(d) A fire watch as described in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part H, shall be maintained when hot work is performed.

(e) Once an operation has met the criteria in subsection (11)(a)(i) of this section, warranting classification as gassy, all operations in the affected area, except the following, shall be discontinued until the operation either is in compliance with all of the gassy operation requirements or has been declassified in accordance with (c) of this subsection:

(i) Operations related to the control of the gas concentration;

(ii) Installation of new equipment, or conversion of existing equipment, to comply with this subsection; and

(iii) Installation of above-ground controls for reversing the air flow.

(13) Air quality and monitoring.

(a) General. Air quality limits and control requirements specified in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part H, shall apply except as modified by this subsection.

(b) The employer shall assign a competent person who shall perform all air monitoring required by this section.

(c) Where this section requires monitoring of airborne contaminants "as often as necessary," the competent person shall make a reasonable determination as to which substances to monitor and how frequently to monitor, considering at least the following factors:

(i) Location of jobsite: Proximity to fuel tanks, sewers, gas lines, old landfills, coal deposits, and swamps;

(ii) Geology: Geological studies of the jobsite, particularly involving the soil type and its permeability;

(iii) History: Presence of air contaminants in nearby jobsites, changes in levels of substances monitored on the prior shift; and

(iv) Work practices and jobsite conditions: The use of diesel engines, use of explosives, use of fuel gas, volume and flow of ventilation, visible atmospheric conditions, decompression of the atmosphere, welding, cutting and hot work, and employees' physical reactions to working underground.

(d) The employer shall provide testing and monitoring instruments which are capable of achieving compliance with the provisions of this subsection, and:

(i) Shall maintain the testing and monitoring instruments in good condition;

(ii) Shall calibrate the instruments on a frequency not to exceed 6 months.

(e) Exposure to airborne contaminants shall not exceed the levels established by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part H.

(f) Respirators shall not be substituted for environmental control measures. However, where environmental controls have not yet been developed, or when necessary by the nature of the work involved (for example, welding, sand blasting, lead burning), an employee may work for short periods of time in concentrations of airborne contaminants which exceed the limit of permissible exposure referred to in (d) of this subsection, if the employee wears a respiratory protective device approved by MSHA-NIOSH as protection against the particular hazards involved, and the selection and use of respirators complies with the provisions of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(g) Employees shall be withdrawn from areas in which there is a concentration of an airborne contaminant which exceeds the permissible exposure limit listed for that contaminant, except as modified in (t)(i) and (ii) of this subsection.

(h) The atmosphere in all underground work areas shall be tested as often as necessary to assure that the atmosphere at normal atmospheric pressure contains at least 19.5 percent oxygen and no more than 22 percent oxygen.

(i) Tests for oxygen content shall be made before tests for air contaminants.

(j) Field-type oxygen analyzers, or other suitable devices, shall be used to test for oxygen deficiency.

(k) The atmosphere in all underground work areas shall be tested quantitatively for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and other toxic gases, dust, vapors, mists, and fumes as often as necessary to ensure that the permissible exposure limits prescribed in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part H, are not exceeded.

(l) The atmosphere in all underground work areas shall be tested quantitatively for methane and other flammable gases as often as necessary to determine:

(i) Whether action is to be taken under (q), (r), and (s) of this subsection; and

(ii) Whether an operation is to be classified potentially gassy or gassy under subsection (11) of this section.

(m) If diesel-engine or gasoline-engine driven ventilating fans or compressors are used, an initial test shall be made of the inlet air of the fan or compressor, with the engines operating, to ensure that the air supply is not contaminated by engine exhaust.

(n) Testing shall be performed as often as necessary to ensure that the ventilation requirements of subsection (15) of this section are met.

(o) When rapid excavation machines are used, a continuous flammable gas monitor shall be operated at the face with the sensor(s) placed as high and close to the front of the machine's cutter head as practicable.

(p) Whenever air monitoring indicates the presence of 5 ppm or more of hydrogen sulfide, a test shall be conducted in the affected underground work area(s), at least at the beginning and midpoint of each shift, until the concentration of hydrogen sulfide has been less than 5 ppm for 3 consecutive days.

(i) Whenever hydrogen sulfide is detected in an amount exceeding 10 ppm, a continuous sampling and indicating hydrogen sulfide monitor shall be used to monitor the affected work area.

(ii) Employees shall be informed when a concentration of 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide is exceeded.

(iii) The continuous sampling and indicating hydrogen sulfide monitor shall be designed, installed, and maintained to provide a visual and aural alarm when the hydrogen sulfide concentration reaches 15 ppm to signal that additional measures, such as respirator use, increased ventilation, or evacuation, might be necessary to maintain hydrogen sulfide exposure below the permissible exposure limit.

(q) When the competent person determines, on the basis of air monitoring results or other information, that air contaminants may be present in sufficient quantity to be dangerous to life, the employer shall:

(i) Prominently post a notice at all entrances to the underground jobsite to inform all entrants of the hazardous condition; and

(ii) Immediately increase sampling frequency levels to insure workers are not exposed to identified contaminants in excess of the permissible exposure limit(s); and

(iii) Ensure that all necessary precautions are taken to comply with pertinent requirements of this section, and chapter 296-62 WAC.

(r) Whenever five percent or more of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases is detected in any underground work area(s) or in the air return, steps shall be taken to increase ventilation air volume or otherwise control the gas concentration, unless the employer is operating in accordance with the potentially gassy or gassy operation requirements. Such additional ventilation controls may be discontinued when gas concentrations are reduced below five percent of the lower explosive limit, but shall be reinstituted whenever the five percent level is exceeded.

(s) Whenever 10 percent or more of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases is detected in the vicinity of welding, cutting, or other hot work, such work shall be suspended until the concentration of such flammable gas is reduced to less than 10 percent of the lower explosive limit.

(t) Whenever 20 percent or more of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases is detected in any underground work area(s) or in the air return:

(i) All employees, except those necessary to eliminate the hazard, shall be immediately withdrawn to a safe location above ground; and

(ii) Employees who remain underground to correct or eliminate the hazard described in (t) above shall be equipped with approved, pressure demand mode, self-contained breathing apparatus, and shall have received adequate training in the proper use of that equipment.

(iii) Electrical power, except for acceptable pumping and ventilation equipment, shall be cut off to the area endangered by the flammable gas until the concentration of such gas is reduced to less than 20 percent of the lower explosive limit.

(14) Additional monitoring for potentially gassy and gassy operations. Operations which meet the criteria for potentially gassy and gassy operations set forth in subsection (13) of this section shall be subject to the additional monitoring requirements of this subsection.

(a) A test for oxygen content shall be conducted in the affected underground work areas and work areas immediately adjacent to such areas at least at the beginning and midpoint of each shift.

(b) When using rapid excavation machines, continuous automatic flammable gas monitoring equipment shall be used to monitor the air at the heading, on the rib, and in the return air duct. The continuous monitor shall signal the heading, and shut down electric power in the affected underground work area, except for acceptable pumping and ventilation equipment, when 20 percent or more of the lower explosive limit for methane or other flammable gases is encountered.

(i) A manual flammable gas monitor shall be used as needed, but at least at the beginning and midpoint of each shift, to ensure that the limits prescribed in subsections (11) and (13) of this section are not exceeded. In addition, a manual electrical shut down control shall be provided near the heading.

(ii) Local gas tests shall be made prior to and continuously during any welding, cutting, or other hot work.

(iii) In underground operations driven by drill-and-blast methods, the air in the affected area shall be tested for flammable gas prior to re-entry after blasting, and continuously when employees are working underground.

(c) Recordkeeping. A record of all air quality tests shall be maintained above ground at the worksite and be made available to the director or his/her representatives upon request. The record shall include the location, date, time, substance and amount monitored. Records of exposures to toxic substances shall be retained in accordance with Part B, chapter 296-62 WAC. All other air quality test records shall be retained until completion of the project.

(15) Ventilation.

(a)(i) Fresh air shall be supplied to all underground work areas in sufficient quantities to prevent dangerous or harmful accumulation of dust, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases.

(ii) Mechanical ventilation shall be provided in all underground work areas except when the employer can demonstrate that natural ventilation provides the necessary air quality through sufficient air volume and air flow.

(b) A minimum of 200 cubic feet (5.7 m3) of fresh air per minute shall be supplied for each employee underground.

(c) The linear velocity of air flow in the tunnel bore, in shafts, and in all other underground work areas shall be at least 30 feet (9.15 m) per minute where blasting or rock drilling is conducted, or where other conditions likely to produce dust, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases in harmful or explosive quantities are present.

(d) The direction of mechanical air flow shall be reversible.

(e) Air that has passed through underground oil or fuel-storage areas shall not be used to ventilate working areas.

(f) Following blasting, ventilation systems shall exhaust smoke and fumes to the outside atmosphere before work is resumed in affected areas.

(g) Ventilation doors shall be designed and installed so that they remain closed when in use, regardless of the direction of the air flow.

(h) When ventilation has been reduced to the extent that hazardous levels of methane or flammable gas may have accumulated, a competent person shall test all affected areas after ventilation has been restored and shall determine whether the atmosphere is within flammable limits before any power, other than for acceptable equipment, is restored or work is resumed.

(i) Whenever the ventilation system has been shut down with all employees out of the underground area, only competent persons authorized to test for air contaminants shall be allowed underground until the ventilation has been restored and all affected areas have been tested for air contaminants and declared safe.

(j) When drilling rock or concrete, appropriate dust control measures shall be taken to maintain dust levels within limits set in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part B-1. Such measures may include, but are not limited to, wet drilling, the use of vacuum collectors, and water mix spray systems.

(k)(i) Internal combustion engines, except diesel-powered engines on mobile equipment, are prohibited underground.

(ii) Mobile diesel-powered equipment used underground in atmospheres other than gassy operations shall be either approved by MSHA in accordance with the provisions of 30 CFR Part 32 (formerly Schedule 24), or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be fully equivalent to such MSHA-approved equipment, and shall be operated in accordance with that Part. (Each brake horsepower of a diesel engine requires at least 100 cubic feet (28.32 m3) of air per minute for suitable operation in addition to the air requirements for personnel. Some engines may require a greater amount of air to ensure that the allowable levels of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide are not exceeded.)

(iii) Application shall be made to the mining/explosives section, department of labor and industries, for permission to use specified diesel equipment in a specified underground area and shall include the following:

(A) The type of construction and complete identification data and specifications including analysis of the undiluted exhaust gases of the diesel equipment.

(B) The location where the diesel equipment is to be used.

(C) Before the diesel equipment is taken underground, written permission shall be obtained from the department of labor and industries or its duly authorized representative. A satisfactory test on surface, to show that the exhaust gases do not exceed the maximum percentage of carbon monoxide permitted, shall be required.

(D) Diesel equipment shall only be used underground where the ventilation is controlled by mechanical means and shall not be operated if the ventilating current is less than 100 CFM per horsepower based on the maximum brake horsepower of the engines.

(E) Air measurements shall be made at least once daily in the diesel engine working area and the measurements entered in the Underground Diesel Engine Record Book. Permissible maximum amounts of noxious gases are as follows:

At engine exhaust

ports Carbon Monoxide .10% 1,000 ppm3

Next to equipment Carbon Monoxide .0035% 35 ppm

General atmosphere Carbon Monoxide .0035% 35 ppm

General atmosphere Nitrogen Dioxide .0001% 1 ppm

General atmosphere Aldehydes .0002% 2 ppm

3 Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25C and 760 mm Hg. pressure.

(l) Potentially gassy or gassy operations shall have ventilation systems installed which shall:

(i) Be constructed of fire-resistant materials; and

(ii) Have acceptable electrical systems, including fan motors.

(m) Gassy operations shall be provided with controls located aboveground for reversing the air flow of ventilation systems.

(n) In potentially gassy or gassy operations, wherever mine-type ventilation systems using an offset main fan installed on the surface are used, they shall be equipped with explosion-doors or a weak-wall having an area at least equivalent to the cross-sectional area of the airway.

(16) Illumination.

(a) Sufficient lighting shall be provided, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part B-1, to permit safe operations at the face as well as in the general tunnel or shaft area and at the employees' workplace.

(b) Only acceptable portable lighting shall be used within 50 feet (15.24 m) of any underground heading during explosive handling.

(17) Fire prevention and control. Fire prevention and protection requirements applicable to underground construction operations are found in Part D of this chapter except as modified by the following additional standards.

(a) Open flames and fires are prohibited in all underground construction operations except as permitted for welding, cutting, and other hot work operations.

(i) Smoking may be allowed only in areas free of fire and explosion hazards.

(ii) Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and open flames shall be posted in areas having fire or explosion hazards.

(iii) The carrying of matches, lighters, or other flame-producing smoking materials shall be prohibited in all underground operations where fire or explosion hazards exist.

(b) The employer may store underground no more than a 24-hour supply of diesel fuel for the underground equipment used at the worksite.

(c) The piping of diesel fuel from the surface to an underground location is permitted only if:

(i) Diesel fuel is contained at the surface in a tank whose maximum capacity is no more than the amount of fuel required to supply for a 24-hour period the equipment serviced by the underground fueling station; and

(ii) The surface tank is connected to the underground fueling station by an acceptable pipe or hose system that is controlled at the surface by a valve, and at the shaft bottom by a hose nozzle; and

(iii) The pipe is empty at all times except when transferring diesel fuel from the surface tank to a piece of equipment in use underground; and

(iv) Hoisting operations in the shaft are suspended during refueling operations if the supply piping in the shaft is not protected from damage.

(d)(i) Gasoline shall not be carried, stored, or used underground.

(ii) Acetylene, liquefied petroleum gas, and methylacetylene propadiene stabilized gas may be used underground only for welding, cutting and other hot work, and only in accordance with Part H of this chapter and subsections (13), (15), (17), and (18) of this section.

(e) Oil, grease, and diesel fuel stored underground shall be kept in tightly sealed containers in fire-resistant areas at least 300 feet (91.44 m) from underground explosive magazines, and at least 100 feet (30.48 m) from shaft stations and steeply inclined passageways. Storage areas shall be positioned or diked so that the contents of ruptured or overturned containers will not flow from the storage area.

(f) Flammable or combustible materials shall not be stored above ground within 100 feet (30.48 m) of any access opening to any underground operation. Where this is not feasible because of space limitations at the jobsite, such materials may be located within the 100-foot limit, provided that:

(i) They are located as far as practicable from the opening; and

(ii) Either a fire-resistant barrier of not less than one-hour rating is placed between the stored material and the opening, or additional precautions are taken which will protect the materials from ignition sources.

(g) Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids shall be used in hydraulically-actuated underground machinery and equipment unless such equipment is protected by a fire suppression system or by multipurpose fire extinguisher(s) rated at a sufficient capacity for the type and size of hydraulic equipment involved, but rated at least 4A:4OB:C.

(h)(i) Electrical installations in underground areas where oil, grease, or diesel fuel are stored shall be used only for lighting fixtures.

(ii) Lighting fixtures in storage areas, or within 25 feet (7.62 m) of underground areas where oil, grease, or diesel fuel are stored, shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 locations, in accordance with Part I of this chapter.

(i) Leaks and spills of flammable or combustible fluids shall be cleaned up immediately.

(j) A fire extinguisher of at least 4A:4OB:C rating or other equivalent extinguishing means shall be provided at the head pulley and at the tail pulley of underground belt conveyors, and at 300-foot intervals along the belt.

(k) Any structure located underground or within 100 feet (30.48 m) of an opening to the underground shall be constructed of material having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.

(18) Welding, cutting, and other hot work. In addition to the requirements of Part H of this chapter, the following requirements shall apply to underground welding, cutting, and other hot work.

(a) No more than the amount of fuel gas and oxygen cylinders necessary to perform welding, cutting, or other hot work during the next 24-hour period shall be permitted underground.

(b) Noncombustible barriers shall be installed below welding, cutting, or other hot work being done in or over a shaft or raise.

(19) Ground support.

(a) In tunnels (other than hard rock) timber sets, steel rings, steel frames, concrete liners, or other engineered tunnel support systems shall be used. Every tunnel support system shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer. Design specifications shall be available at the worksite.

(b) Portal areas. Portal openings and access areas shall be guarded by shoring, fencing, head walls, shotcreting, or other equivalent protection to ensure safe access of employees and equipment. Adjacent areas shall be scaled or otherwise secured to prevent loose soil, rock, or fractured materials from endangering the portal and access area.

(c) Subsidence areas. The employer shall ensure ground stability in hazardous subsidence areas by shoring, by filling in, or by erecting barricades and posting warning signs to prevent entry.

(d) Underground areas.

(i)(A) A competent person shall inspect the roof, face, and walls of the work area at the start of each shift and as often as necessary to determine ground stability.

(B) Competent persons conducting such inspections shall be protected from loose ground by location, ground support, or equivalent means.

(ii) Ground conditions along haulageways and travelways shall be inspected as frequently as necessary to ensure safe passage.

(iii) Loose ground that might be hazardous to employees shall be taken down, scaled, or supported.

(iv) Torque wrenches shall be used wherever bolts that depend on torsionally applied force are used for ground support.

(v) A competent person shall determine whether rock bolts meet the necessary torque, and shall determine the testing frequency in light of the bolt system, ground conditions, and the distance from vibration sources.

(vi) Suitable protection shall be provided for employees exposed to the hazard of loose ground while installing ground support systems.

(vii) Support sets shall be installed so that the bottoms have sufficient anchorage to prevent ground pressures from dislodging the support base of the sets. Lateral bracing (collar bracing, tie rods, or spreaders) shall be provided between immediately adjacent sets to ensure added stability.

(viii) Damaged or dislodged ground supports that create a hazardous condition shall be promptly repaired or replaced. When replacing supports, the new supports shall be installed before the damaged supports are removed.

(ix) A shield or other type of support shall be used to maintain a safe travelway for employees working in dead-end areas ahead of any support replacement operation.

(e) Shafts.

(i) Shafts and wells over 4 feet (1.219 m) in depth that employees must enter shall be supported by a steel casing, concrete pipe, timber, solid rock, or other suitable material.

(ii)(A) The full depth of the shaft shall be supported by casing or bracing except where the shaft penetrates into solid rock having characteristics that will not change as a result of exposure. Where the shaft passes through earth into solid rock, or through solid rock into earth, and where there is potential for shear, the casing or bracing shall extend at least 5 feet (1.53 m) into the solid rock. When the shaft terminates in solid rock, the casing or bracing shall extend to the end of the shaft or 5 feet (1.53 m) into the solid rock, whichever is less.

(B) The casing or bracing shall extend 42 inches (1.07 m) plus or minus 3 inches (8 cm) above ground level, except that the minimum casing height may be reduced to 12 inches (0.3 m), provided that a standard railing is installed; that the ground adjacent to the top of the shaft is sloped away from the shaft collar to prevent entry of liquids; and that effective barriers are used to prevent mobile equipment operating near the shaft from jumping over the 12-inch (0.3 m) barrier.

(iii) After blasting operations in shafts, a competent person shall determine if the walls, ladders, timbers, blocking, or wedges have loosened. If so, necessary repairs shall be made before employees other than those assigned to make the repairs are allowed in or below the affected areas.

(f) Blasting. This subsection applies in addition to the requirements for blasting and explosives operations, including handling of misfires, which are found in chapter 296-52 WAC.

(i) Blasting wires shall be kept clear of electrical lines, pipes, rails, and other conductive material, excluding earth, to prevent explosives initiation or employee exposure to electric current.

(ii) Following blasting, an employee shall not enter a work area until the air quality meets the requirements of subsection (13) of this section.

(g) Drilling.

(i) A competent person shall inspect all drilling and associated equipment prior to each use. Equipment defects affecting safety shall be corrected before the equipment is used.

(ii) The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards before the drilling operation is started.

(iii) Employees shall not be allowed on a drill mast while the drill bit is in operation or the drill machine is being moved.

(iv) When a drill machine is being moved from one drilling area to another, drill steel, tools, and other equipment shall be secured and the mast shall be placed in a safe position.

(v) Receptacles or racks shall be provided for storing drill steel located on jumbos.

(vi) Employees working below jumbo decks shall be warned whenever drilling is about to begin.

(vii) Drills on columns shall be anchored firmly before starting drilling, and shall be retightened as necessary thereafter.

(viii) The employer shall provide mechanical means on the top deck of a jumbo for lifting unwieldy or heavy material.

(ix) When jumbo decks are over 10 feet (3.05 m) in height, the employer shall install stairs wide enough for two persons.

(x) Jumbo decks more than 10 feet (3.05 m) in height shall be equipped with guardrails on all open sides, excluding access openings of platforms, unless an adjacent surface provides equivalent fall protection.

(xi) Only employees assisting the operator shall be allowed to ride on jumbos, unless the jumbo meets the requirements of subsection (20)(e) of this section.

(xii) Jumbos shall be chocked to prevent movement while employees are working on them.

(xiii) Walking and working surfaces of jumbos shall be maintained to prevent the hazards of slipping, tripping, and falling.

(xiv) Jumbo decks and stair treads shall be designed to be slip-resistant and secured to prevent accidental displacement.

(xv) Scaling bars shall be available at scaling operations and shall be maintained in good condition at all times. Blunted or severely worn bars shall not be used.

(xvi) Before commencing the drill cycle, the face and lifters shall be examined for misfires (residual explosives) and, if found, they shall be removed before drilling commences at the face. Blasting holes shall not be drilled through blasted rock (muck) or water.

(xvii) Employees in a shaft shall be protected either by location or by suitable barrier(s) if powered mechanical loading equipment is used to remove muck containing unfired explosives.

(xviii) A caution sign reading "buried line," or similar wording shall be posted where air lines are buried or otherwise hidden by water or debris.

(20) Haulage.

(a) A competent person shall inspect haulage equipment before each shift.

(i) Equipment defects affecting safety and health shall be corrected before the equipment is used.

(ii) Powered mobile haulage equipment shall be provided with adequate brakes.

(iii) Power mobile haulage equipment, including trains, shall have audible warning devices to warn employees to stay clear. The operator shall sound the warning device before moving the equipment and whenever necessary during travel.

(iv) The operator shall assure that lights which are visible to employees at both ends of any mobile equipment, including a train, are turned on whenever the equipment is operating.

(v) In those cabs where glazing is used, the glass shall be safety glass, or its equivalent, and shall be maintained and cleaned so that vision is not obstructed.

(b) Antirollback devices or brakes shall be installed on inclined conveyor drive units to prevent conveyors from inadvertently running in reverse. Employees shall not be permitted to ride a power-driven chain, belt, or bucket conveyor unless the conveyor is specifically designed for the transportation of persons.

(c) Endless belt-type manlifts are prohibited in underground construction.

(d) General requirements also applicable to underground construction for use of conveyors in construction are found in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L.

(e) No employee shall ride haulage equipment unless it is equipped with seating for each passenger and protects passengers from being struck, crushed, or caught between other equipment or surfaces. Members of train crews may ride on a locomotive if it is equipped with handholds and nonslip steps or footboards. Requirements applicable to underground construction for motor vehicle transportation of employees are found in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part M.

(f) Conveyor lockout.

(i) Conveyors shall be de-energized and locked out with a padlock, and tagged out with a "Do Not Operate" tag at any time repair, maintenance, or clean-up work is being performed on the conveyor.

(ii) Tags or push button stops are not acceptable.

(iii) Persons shall not be allowed to walk on conveyors except for emergency purposes and then only after the conveyor has been deenergized and locked out in accordance with (f) above, and persons can do so safely.

(g) Powered mobile haulage equipment, including trains, shall not be left unattended unless the master switch or motor is turned off; operating controls are in neutral or park position; and the brakes are set, or equivalent precautions are taken to prevent rolling.

(h) Whenever rails serve as a return for a trolley circuit, both rails shall be bonded at every joint and crossbonded every 200 feet (60.96 m).

(i) When dumping cars by hand, the car dumps shall have tiedown chains, bumper blocks, or other locking or holding devices to prevent the cars from overturning.

(j) Rocker-bottom or bottom-dump cars shall be equipped with positive locking devices to prevent unintended dumping.

(k) Equipment to be hauled shall be loaded and secured to prevent sliding or dislodgement.

(l)(i) Mobile equipment, including rail-mounted equipment, shall be stopped for manual connecting or service work, and;

(ii) Employees shall not reach between moving cars during coupling operations.

(iii) Couplings shall not be aligned, shifted, or cleaned on moving cars or locomotives.

(iv) Safety chains or other connections shall be used in addition to couplers to connect person cars or powder cars whenever the locomotive is uphill of the cars.

(v) When the grade exceeds one percent and there is a potential for runaway cars, safety chains or other connections shall be used in addition to couplers to connect haulage cars or, as an alternative, the locomotive must be downhill of the train.

(vi) Such safety chains or other connections shall be capable of maintaining connection between cars in the event of either coupler disconnect, failure or breakage.

(m) Parked rail equipment shall be chocked, blocked, or have brakes set to prevent inadvertent movement.

(n) Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or equivalent means shall be provided to prevent overtravel and overturning of haulage equipment at dumping locations.

(o) Bumper blocks or equivalent stopping devices shall be provided at all track dead ends.

(p)(i) Only small handtools, lunch pails, or similar small items may be transported with employees in person cars, or on top of a locomotive.

(ii) When small hand tools or other small items are carried on top of a locomotive, the top shall be designed or modified to retain them while traveling.

(q)(i) Where switching facilities are available, occupied personnel cars shall be pulled, not pushed. If personnel cars must be pushed and visibility of the track ahead is hampered, then a qualified person shall be stationed in the lead car to give signals to the locomotive operator.

(ii) Crew trips shall consist of personnel loads only.

(21) Electrical safety. This subsection applies in addition to the general requirements for electrical safety which are found in Part I of this chapter.

(a) Electric power lines shall be insulated or located away from water lines, telephone lines, air lines, or other conductive materials so that a damaged circuit will not energize the other systems.

(b) Lighting circuits shall be located so that movement of personnel or equipment will not damage the circuits or disrupt service.

(c) Oil-filled transformers shall not be used underground unless they are located in a fire-resistant enclosure suitably vented to the outside and surrounded by a dike to retain the contents of the transformers in the event of rupture.

(22) Hoisting unique to underground construction except as modified by this section, the following provisions of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L apply: Requirements for cranes are found in WAC 296-155-525. WAC ((296-155-48533)) 296-155-528 contains rules applicable to crane hoisting of personnel, except, that the limitations imposed by WAC ((296-155-48533)) 296-155-528(2) do not apply to the routine access of employees to the underground via a shaft. Requirements for personnel hoists, material hoists, and elevators are found in WAC 296-155-530 and in this subsection.

(a) General requirements for cranes and hoists.

(i) Materials, tools, and supplies being raised or lowered, whether within a cage or otherwise, shall be secured or stacked in a manner to prevent the load from shifting, snagging, or falling into the shaft.

(ii) A warning light suitably located to warn employees at the shaft bottom and subsurface shaft entrances shall flash whenever a load is above the shaft bottom or subsurface entrances, or the load is being moved in the shaft. This subsection does not apply to fully enclosed hoistways.

(iii) Whenever a hoistway is not fully enclosed and employees are at the shaft bottom, conveyances or equipment shall be stopped at least 15 feet (4.57 m) above the bottom of the shaft and held there until the signalperson at the bottom of the shaft directs the operator to continue lowering the load, except that the load may be lowered without stopping if the load or conveyance is within full view of a bottom signalperson who is in constant voice communication with the operator.

(iv)(A) Before maintenance, repairs, or other work is commenced in the shaft served by a cage, skip, or bucket, the operator and other employees in the area shall be informed and given suitable instructions.

(B) A sign warning that work is being done in the shaft shall be installed at the shaft collar, at the operator's station, and at each underground landing.

(v) Any connection between the hoisting rope and the cage or skip shall be compatible with the type of wire rope used for hoisting.

(vi) Spin-type connections, where used, shall be maintained in a clean condition and protected from foreign matter that could affect their operation.

(vii) Cage, skip, and load connections to the hoist rope shall be made so that the force of the hoist pull, vibration, misalignment, release of lift force, or impact will not disengage the connection. Only closed shackles shall be used for cage and skip rigging.

(viii) When using wire rope wedge sockets, means shall be provided to prevent wedge escapement and to ensure that the wedge is properly seated.

(b) Additional requirements for cranes. Cranes shall be equipped with a limit switch to prevent overtravel at the boom tip. Limit switches are to be used only to limit travel of loads when operational controls malfunction and shall not be used as a substitute for other operational controls.

(c) Additional requirements for hoists.

(i) Hoists shall be designed so that the load hoist drum is powered in both directions of rotation, and so that brakes are automatically applied upon power release or failure.

(ii) Control levers shall be of the "deadman type" which return automatically to their center (neutral) position upon release.

(iii) When a hoist is used for both personnel hoisting and material hoisting, load and speed ratings for personnel and for materials shall be assigned to the equipment.

(iv) Hoist machines with cast metal parts shall not be used.

(v) Material hoisting may be performed at speeds higher than the rated speed for personnel hoisting if the hoist and components have been designed for such higher speeds and if shaft conditions permit.

(vi) Employees shall not ride on top of any cage, skip, or bucket except when necessary to perform inspection or maintenance of the hoisting system, in which case they shall be protected by a body belt/harness system to prevent falling.

(vii) Personnel and materials (other than small tools and supplies secured in a manner that will not create a hazard to employees) shall not be hoisted together in the same conveyance. However, if the operator is protected from the shifting of materials, then the operator may ride with materials in cages or skips which are designed to be controlled by an operator within the cage or skip.

(viii) Line speed shall not exceed the design limitations of the systems.

(ix) Hoists shall be equipped with landing level indicators at the operator's station. Marking of the hoist rope does not satisfy this requirement.

(x) Whenever glazing is used in the hoist house, it shall be safety glass, or its equivalent, and be free of distortions and obstructions.

(xi) A fire extinguisher that is rated at least 2A:10B:C (multipurpose, dry chemical) shall be mounted in each hoist house.

(xii) Hoist controls shall be arranged so that the operator can perform all operating cycle functions and reach the emergency power cutoff without having to reach beyond the operator's normal operating position.

(xiii) Hoists shall be equipped with limit switches to prevent overtravel at the top and bottom of the hoistway.

(xiv) Limit switches are to be used only to limit travel of loads when operational controls malfunction and shall not be used as a substitute for other operational controls.

(xv) Hoist operators shall be provided with a closed-circuit voice communication system to each landing station, with speaker-microphones so located that the operator can communicate with individual landing stations during hoist use.

(xvi) When sinking shafts 75 feet (22.86 m) or less in depth, cages, skips, and buckets that may swing, bump, or snag against shaft sides or other structural protrusions shall be guided by fenders, rails, ropes, or a combination of those means.

(xvii) When sinking shafts more than 75 feet (22.86 m) in depth, all cages, skips, and buckets shall be rope or rail-guided to within a rail length from the sinking operation.

(xviii) Cages, skips, and buckets in all completed shafts, or in all shafts being used as completed shafts, shall be rope or rail-guided for the full length of their travel.

(xix) Wire rope used in load lines of material hoists shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least five times the maximum intended load or the factor recommended by the rope manufacturer, whichever is greater. Refer to chapter 296-155 WAC, Part L, for design factors for wire rope used in personnel hoists. The design factors shall be calculated by dividing the breaking strength of wire rope, as reported in the manufacturer's rating tables, by the total static load, including the weight of the wire rope in the shaft when fully extended.

(xx) A competent person shall visually check all hoisting machinery, equipment, anchorages, and hoisting rope at the beginning of each shift and during hoist use, as necessary.

(xxi) Each safety device shall be checked by a competent person at least weekly during hoist use to ensure suitable operation and safe condition.

(xxii) In order to ensure suitable operation and safe condition of all functions and safety devices, each hoist assembly shall be inspected and load-tested to 100 percent of its rated capacity: At the time of installation; after any repairs or alterations affecting its structural integrity; after the operation of any safety device; and annually when in use. The employer shall prepare a certification record which includes the date each inspection and load-test was performed; the signature of the person who performed the inspection and test; and a serial number or other identifier for the hoist that was inspected and tested. The most recent certification record shall be maintained on file until completion of the project.

(xxiii) Before hoisting personnel or material, the operator shall perform a test run of any cage or skip whenever it has been out of service for one complete shift, and whenever the assembly or components have been repaired or adjusted.

(xiv) Unsafe conditions shall be corrected before using the equipment.

(d) Additional requirements for personnel hoists.

(i) Hoist drum systems shall be equipped with at least two means of stopping the load, each of which shall be capable of stopping and holding 150 percent of the hoist's rated line pull. A broken-rope safety, safety catch, or arrestment device is not a permissible means of stopping under this subsection.

(ii) The operator shall remain within sight and sound of the signals at the operator's station.

(iii) All sides of personnel cages shall be enclosed by one-half inch (12.70 mm) wire mesh (not less than No. 14 gauge or equivalent) to a height of not less than 6 feet (1.83 m). However, when the cage or skip is being used as a work platform, its sides may be reduced in height to 42 inches (1.07 m) when the conveyance is not in motion.

(iv) All personnel cages shall be provided with a positive locking door that does not open outward.

(v) All personnel cages shall be provided with a protective canopy. The canopy shall be made of steel plate, at least 3/16 -inch (4.763 mm) in thickness, or material of equivalent strength and impact resistance. The canopy shall be sloped to the outside, and so designed that a section may be readily pushed upward to afford emergency egress. The canopy shall cover the top in such a manner as to protect those inside from objects falling in the shaft.

(vi) Personnel platforms operating on guide rails or guide ropes shall be equipped with broken-rope safety devices, safety catches, or arrestment devices that will stop and hold 150 percent of the weight of the personnel platform and its maximum rated load.

(vii) During sinking operations in shafts where guides and safeties are not yet used, the travel speed of the personnel platform shall not exceed 200 feet (60.96 m) per minute. Governor controls set for 200 feet (60.96 m) per minute shall be installed in the control system and shall be used during personnel hoisting.

(viii) The personnel platform may travel over the controlled length of the hoistway at rated speeds up to 600 feet (182.88 m) per minute during sinking operations in shafts where guides and safeties are used.

(ix) The personnel platform may travel at rated speeds greater than 600 feet (182.88 m) per minute in complete shafts.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-155-730, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-155-730, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), 296-155-730, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-155-730, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), 296-155-730, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, 296-155-730, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, 296-155-730, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]

REPEALER

The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:

WAC 296-155-48503 Table J-1.

WAC 296-155-48504 Table J-2.

WAC 296-155-48505 Table J-3.

WAC 296-155-48506 Table J-4.

WAC 296-155-48507 Table J-5.

WAC 296-155-48508 Table J-6.

WAC 296-155-48509 Table J-7.

WAC 296-155-48510 Table J-8.

WAC 296-155-48511 Table J-9.

WAC 296-155-48512 Table J-10.

WAC 296-155-48513 Table J-11.

WAC 296-155-48514 Table J-12.

WAC 296-155-48515 Table J-13.

WAC 296-155-48516 Table J-14.

WAC 296-155-48517 Table J-15.

WAC 296-155-48518 Table J-16.

WAC 296-155-48519 Table J-17.

WAC 296-155-48523 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

WAC 296-155-48525 Manually propelled elevating work platforms.

WAC 296-155-48527 Self propelled elevating work platforms.

WAC 296-155-48529 Boom supported elevating work platforms.

WAC 296-155-48531 Vehicle mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices.

WAC 296-155-48533 Crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms.

WAC 296-155-48536 Forklift elevated work platforms.

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