LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
[Filed March 6, 1998, 11:50 a.m., effective May 6, 1998]
Date of Adoption: March 6, 1998
Purpose: High voltage electrical, chapter 296-44 WAC, Safety standards--Electrical construction code and chapter 296-45 WAC, Safety standards--Electrical workers.
The Electrical Utility Advisory Committee, along with representatives from the Department of Labor and Industries, reviewed the contents of the high voltage electrical codes. The review generated a restructure and rewrite of the safety codes for the high voltage industry. No new requirements were placed on the industry. The rewrite allowed the WISHA codes to be organized like the federal codes, allowing for consistency and an easier to use sequencing. Often these codes are used by interstate businesses and workers and the different structuring made them cumbersome and awkward to cross reference.
In addition a reference was added in chapter 296-45 WAC to the 1997 NESC ANSI C.2. It relates to the specifications for clearances, dimensions, voltages, and other conditions necessary in the construction and maintenance of high voltage electrical facilities. Adding this reference eliminated the need for chapter 296-44 WAC, Safety standards--Electrical construction code, which merely restated the National Electrical Safety Code. This did not change the applicability of the 1997 NESC ANSI C.2 to the high voltage electrical industry. It eliminated an entire chapter while still keeping the requirements applicable.
These issues were identified in this joint review process, agreed upon by the committee, and taken to the December 3, 1997, hearing. All public comments received on the proposal were positive. As a result, the amendments are adopted as proposed, with the exception of WAC 296-45-67543 Helicopter--General, which is withdrawn for further consideration
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Repealing WAC 296-45-60013 Hand and portable powered tools, 296-45-650 Electrical workers safety rules--Foreword, 296-45-65003 Scope and application, 296-45-65005 Definitions, 296-45-65009 Employer's responsibility, 296-45-65011 Leadworker's responsibility, 296-45-65013 Leadworker-employee responsibility, 296-45-65015 Work required of leadworkers, 296-45-65017 Employee's responsibility, 296-45-65019 First aid, 296-45-65021 Tools and protective equipment, 296-45-65023 Clearances, operating power lines and equipment, 296-45-65026 Personal protective grounding, 296-45-65027 General requirements, 296-45-65029 Overhead lines, 296-45-65031 Poles and pole settings, 296-45-65033 Transmission line construction, 296-45-65035 Substations, 296-45-65037 Underground, 296-45-65038 Underground residential distribution (URD), 296-45-65039 Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing, 296-45-65041 Aerial manlift equipment, 296-45-65043 All motor vehicle and trailer operations, 296-45-65045 Material handling, 296-45-65047 Specification for lineworker's belts and similar equipment, 296-45-660 Tree trimming, 296-45-66001 Electrical hazards, 296-45-66003 Tools and protective equipment, 296-45-66005 Insulated tools used for tree trimming, 296-45-66007 Aerial manlift equipment, 296-45-66009 All motor vehicle and trailer operations, 296-45-66011 Working in proximity to electrical hazards, 296-45-680 Communication facilities, 296-45-690 Power generation, 296-45-695 Hazardous energy control (lockout/tagout) procedures, 296-45-700 Testing and test facilities, 296-44-005 Preface, 296-44-010 Definitions of special terms, 296-44-011 Definitions of special terms applicable to this chapter, 296-44-013 Purpose and scope, 296-44-015 Lines constructed prior to these rules, 296-44-016 Applicability, 296-44-017 References, 296-44-023 Grounding methods for electric supply and communication facilities, 296-44-02301 Purpose, 296-44-02305 Scope, 296-44-02309 Point of connection of grounding conductor, 296-44-02315 Grounding conductor and means of connection, 296-44-02319 Grounding electrodes, 296-44-02323 Method of connection to electrode, 296-44-02329 Ground resistance, 296-44-02335 Separation of grounding conductors, 296-44-02349 Grounding methods for telephone and other communication apparatus on circuits exposed to supply lines or lightning, 296-44-025 Applicability of rules--Lines constructed prior to these rules, 296-44-035 Rules for the installation and maintenance of electric supply stations and equipment, 296-44-03505 Purpose, 296-44-03509 Scope, 296-44-041 Protective arrangements in electric supply stations, 296-44-04105 General requirements, 296-44-04109 Illumination, 296-44-04125 Floor, floor openings, passageways, stairs, 296-44-04129 Exits, 296-44-04135 Fire extinguishing equipment, 296-44-051 Installation and maintenance of equipment, 296-44-05105 General requirements, 296-44-05109 Inspections, 296-44-05115 Guarding shaft ends, pulleys, belts and suddenly moving parts, 296-44-05119 Protective grounding, 296-44-05125 Guarding live parts, 296-44-05129 Working space about electric equipment, 296-44-05131 Equipment for work on energized parts, 296-44-05135 Classified locations, 296-44-05141 Identification, 296-44-065 Rotating equipment, 296-44-06505 Speed control and stopping devices, 296-44-06511 Motor control, 296-44-06517 Mobile hydrogen equipment, 296-44-074 Storage batteries, 296-44-07405 General, 296-44-07411 Location, 296-44-07417 Ventilation, 296-44-07423 Racks, 296-44-07427 Floors in battery areas, 296-44-07433 Illumination for battery areas, 296-44-07439 Service facilities, 296-44-086 Transformers and regulators, 296-44-08605 Current-transformer secondary circuits protection when exceeding 600 volts, 296-44-08611 Grounding secondary circuits of instrument transformers, 296-44-08619 Location and arrangement of power transformers and regulators, 296-44-098 Conductors, 296-44-09805 Electrical protection, 296-44-09811 Mechanical protection, 296-44-09819 Isolation, 296-44-09826 Conductor terminations, 296-44-110 Circuit breakers, reclosers, switches and fuses, 296-44-11005 Arrangement, 296-44-11021 Application, 296-44-11029 Circuit breakers, reclosers and switches containing oil, 296-44-11035 Switches and disconnecting devices, 296-44-11041 Disconnection of fuses, 296-44-125 Switchgear and metal enclosed bus, 296-44-12505 Switchgear assemblies, 296-44-12515 Metal enclosed bus, 296-44-134 Surge arresters, 296-44-13405 General requirements, 296-44-13415 Indoor locations, 296-44-13421 Grounding conductors, 296-44-13431 Installation, 296-44-170 Safety rules for the installation and maintenance of overhead electric supply and communication lines, 296-44-17005 Purpose, 296-44-17017 Scope, 296-44-17029 Application of rules, 296-44-182 General requirements, 296-44-18205 Referenced sections, 296-44-18225 Induced voltages, 296-44-18239 Accessibility, 296-44-18250 Inspection and tests of lines and equipment, 296-44-18261 Grounding of circuits, supporting structures, and equipment, 296-44-18273 Arrangement of switches, 296-44-194 Relations between various classes of lines, 296-44-19405 Relative levels, 296-44-19421 Avoidance of conflict, 296-44-19433 Joint use of structures, 296-44-212 Clearances, 296-44-21209 General, 296-44-21221 Clearances of supporting structures from other objects, 296-44-21230 Vertical clearance of wires, conductors, cables, and live parts of equipment above ground, rails, or water, 296-44-21241 Clearances between wires, conductors, and cables carried on different supporting structures, 296-44-21253 Clearance of wires, conductors, and cables from buildings, bridges, rail cars, swimming pools, and other installations, 296-44-21265 Clearance for wires, conductors, or cables carried on the same supporting structure, 296-44-21273 Climbing space, 296-44-21279 Working space, 296-44-21287 Vertical clearance between certain communication and supply facilities located on the same structure, 296-44-21295 Clearances of vertical and lateral conductors from other wires and surfaces on the same support, 296-44-242 Grades of construction, 296-44-24205 General, 296-44-24213 Application of grades of construction to different situations, 296-44-24221 Grades of construction for conductors, 296-44-24233 Grades of construction for line supports, 296-44-263 Loading for Grades B, C, and D, 296-44-26309 General loading requirements and maps, 296-44-26321 Conductor loading, 296-44-26333 Loads upon line supports, 296-44-278 Strength requirements, 296-44-27809 Preliminary assumptions, 296-44-27821 Grades B and C construction, 296-44-27833 Grade D construction, 296-44-27847 Grade N construction, 296-44-29501 Line insulation, 296-44-29509 Application of rule, 296-44-29515 Material and marking, 296-44-29523 Ratio of flashover to puncture voltage, 296-44-29529 Insulation level, 296-44-29539 Factory tests, 296-44-29541 Special insulator applications, 296-44-29551 Protection against arcing and other damage, 296-44-29563 Mechanical strength of insulators, 296-44-29572 Aerial cable systems, 296-44-317 Miscellaneous requirements, 296-44-31709 Structures for overhead lines, 296-44-31719 Tree trimming, 296-44-31729 Guying and bracing, 296-44-31738 Insulators in guys attached to supporting structures, 296-44-31749 Span-wire insulators, 296-44-31757 Overhead conductors, 296-44-31765 Equipment on supporting structures, 296-44-31772 Communications protective requirements, 296-44-31783 Circuits of one class used exclusively in the operation of circuits of another class, 296-44-31792 Electric railway construction, 296-44-350 Safety rules for the installation and maintenance of underground electric-supply and communication lines, 296-44-35009 Purpose, 296-44-35021 Scope, 296-44-365 General requirements applying to underground lines, 296-44-36518 Installation and maintenance, 296-44-36527 Accessibility, 296-44-36539 Inspection and tests of lines and equipment, 296-44-36551 Grounding of circuits and equipment, 296-44-36563 Communication protective requirements, 296-44-36575 Induced voltage, 296-44-370 Strength requirements--Grade N construction, 296-44-386 Underground conduit systems, 296-44-38609 Location, 296-44-38628 Excavation and backfill, 296-44-38641 Ducts and joints, 296-44-38653 Manholes, handholes and vaults, 296-44-398 Supply cable, 296-44-39809 General, 296-44-39823 Sheaths and jackets, 296-44-39842 Shielding, 296-44-39855 Cable accessories and joints, 296-44-413 Cable in underground structures, 296-44-41309 General, 296-44-41321 Installation, 296-44-41333 Grounding and bonding, 296-44-41341 Fireproofing, 296-44-41359 Communication cables containing special supply circuits, 296-44-425 Direct buried cable, 296-44-42509 General, 296-44-42521 Location and routing, 296-44-42533 Clearances from other underground structures (sewers, water lines, fuel lines, building foundations, steam lines, other supply or communication conductors not in random separation, etc.), 296-44-42541 Installation, 296-44-42559 Random separation--Additional requirements, 296-44-440 Risers, 296-44-44009 General, 296-44-44021 Installation, 296-44-44033 Pole risers--Additional requirements, 296-44-44047 Pad-mounted installations, 296-44-452 Supply cable terminations, 296-44-45209 General, 296-44-45219 Support at terminations, 296-44-45231 Identification, 296-44-45243 Separations and clearances in enclosures or vaults, 296-44-45257 Grounding, 296-44-467 Equipment, 296-44-46709 General, 296-44-46733 Design, 296-44-46739 Location in underground structures, 296-44-46747 Installation, 296-44-46755 Grounding, 296-44-46761 Identification, 296-44-491 Installation in tunnels, 296-44-49109 General, 296-44-49121 Environment, 296-44-850 Pole lines that overbuild or underbuild existing pole lines, 296-44-855 High potential lines overbuilding telephone, telegraph, or signal wires, 296-44-860 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--General requirements, 296-44-865 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Loads, 296-44-870 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Factors of safety, 296-44-875 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Working unit stresses, 296-44-880 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Clearance, 296-44-88001 Figure 1--Ground wire clearance, 296-44-88002 Figure 2--Basic wire crossing clearance, 296-44-88003 Figure 5--Clearances above ground for underground risers and horizontal clearance of poles from hydrants, curbs and railroads, 296-44-88004 Illustration--Working space, 296-44-88005 Figures 6.A - 9.A--Clearances, 296-44-88006 Figure--Climbing space, 296-44-88007 Illustration--Climbing space, 296-44-88008 Illustration--Climbing space, 296-44-88009 Illustration--Footnote 7 of Table 11--Climbing space, 296-44-88010 Figure 11.A--Minimum vertical separation between horizontal crossarms, and 296-44-88011 Illustration--Climbing space--Location and spacing of crossarms
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050, [49.17].060
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 97-21-071 on October 15, 1997, and WSR 97-21-147 on October 22, 1997
Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: The Electrical Utilities Advisory Committee, made up of representatives from labor and management from the high voltage electrical industry, agreed at this time to withdraw the change for WAC 296-45-67543 General. Although the only change proposed was to the section title, the committee chose to withdraw and consider a potential rewrite of all the helicopter sections in the near future
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 14, amended 0, repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 84, amended 0, repealed 205.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 84, amended 0, repealed 205.
Effective Date of Rule: May 6, 1998
March 6, 1998
The following chapter of the Washington Administrative Code is repealed:
WAC 296-44-005 Preface.
WAC 296-44-010 Definitions of special terms.
WAC 296-44-011 Definitions of special terms applicable to this chapter.
WAC 296-44-013 Purpose and scope.
WAC 296-44-015 Lines constructed prior to these rules.
WAC 296-44-016 Applicability.
WAC 296-44-017 References.
WAC 296-44-023 Grounding methods for electric supply and communication facilities.
WAC 296-44-02301 Purpose.
WAC 296-44-02305 Scope.
WAC 296-44-02309 Point of connection of grounding conductor.
WAC 296-44-02315 Grounding conductor and means of connection.
WAC 296-44-02319 Grounding electrodes.
WAC 296-44-02323 Method of connection to electrode.
WAC 296-44-02329 Ground resistance.
WAC 296-44-02335 Separation of grounding conductors.
WAC 296-44-02349 Grounding methods for telephone and other communication apparatus on circuits exposed to supply lines or lightning.
WAC 296-44-025 Applicability of rules--Lines constructed prior to these rules.
WAC 296-44-035 Rules for the installation and maintenance of electric supply stations and equipment.
WAC 296-44-03505 Purpose.
WAC 296-44-03509 Scope.
WAC 296-44-041 Protective arrangements in electric supply stations.
WAC 296-44-04105 General requirements.
WAC 296-44-04109 Illumination.
WAC 296-44-04125 Floor, floor openings, passageways, stairs.
WAC 296-44-04129 Exits.
WAC 296-44-04135 Fire extinguishing equipment.
WAC 296-44-051 Installation and maintenance of equipment.
WAC 296-44-05105 General requirements.
WAC 296-44-05109 Inspections.
WAC 296-44-05115 Guarding shaft ends, pulleys, belts and suddenly moving parts.
WAC 296-44-05119 Protective grounding.
WAC 296-44-05125 Guarding live parts.
WAC 296-44-05129 Working space about electric equipment.
WAC 296-44-05131 Equipment for work on energized parts.
WAC 296-44-05135 Classified locations.
WAC 296-44-05141 Identification.
WAC 296-44-065 Rotating equipment.
WAC 296-44-06505 Speed control and stopping devices.
WAC 296-44-06511 Motor control.
WAC 296-44-06517 Mobile hydrogen equipment.
WAC 296-44-074 Storage batteries.
WAC 296-44-07405 General.
WAC 296-44-07411 Location.
WAC 296-44-07417 Ventilation.
WAC 296-44-07423 Racks.
WAC 296-44-07427 Floors in battery areas.
WAC 296-44-07433 Illumination for battery areas.
WAC 296-44-07439 Service facilities.
WAC 296-44-086 Transformers and regulators.
WAC 296-44-08605 Current-transformer secondary circuits protection when exceeding 600 volts.
WAC 296-44-08611 Grounding secondary circuits of instrument transformers.
WAC 296-44-08619 Location and arrangement of power transformers and regulators.
WAC 296-44-098 Conductors.
WAC 296-44-09805 Electrical protection.
WAC 296-44-09811 Mechanical protection.
WAC 296-44-09819 Isolation.
WAC 296-44-09826 Conductor terminations.
WAC 296-44-110 Circuit breakers, reclosers, switches and fuses.
WAC 296-44-11005 Arrangement.
WAC 296-44-11021 Application.
WAC 296-44-11029 Circuit breakers, reclosers and switches containing oil.
WAC 296-44-11035 Switches and disconnecting devices.
WAC 296-44-11041 Disconnection of fuses.
WAC 296-44-125 Switchgear and metal enclosed bus.
WAC 296-44-12505 Switchgear assemblies.
WAC 296-44-12515 Metal enclosed bus.
WAC 296-44-134 Surge arresters.
WAC 296-44-13405 General requirements.
WAC 296-44-13415 Indoor locations.
WAC 296-44-13421 Grounding conductors.
WAC 296-44-13431 Installation.
WAC 296-44-170 Safety rules for the installation and maintenance of overhead electric supply and communication lines.
WAC 296-44-17005 Purpose.
WAC 296-44-17017 Scope.
WAC 296-44-17029 Application of rules.
WAC 296-44-182 General requirements.
WAC 296-44-18205 Referenced sections.
WAC 296-44-18225 Induced voltages.
WAC 296-44-18239 Accessibility.
WAC 296-44-18250 Inspection and tests of lines and equipment.
WAC 296-44-18261 Grounding of circuits, supporting structures, and equipment.
WAC 296-44-18273 Arrangement of switches.
WAC 296-44-194 Relations between various classes of lines.
WAC 296-44-19405 Relative levels.
WAC 296-44-19421 Avoidance of conflict.
WAC 296-44-19433 Joint use of structures.
WAC 296-44-212 Clearances.
WAC 296-44-21209 General.
WAC 296-44-21221 Clearances of supporting structures from other objects.
WAC 296-44-21230 Vertical clearance of wires, conductors, cables, and live parts of equipment above ground, rails, or water.
WAC 296-44-21241 Clearances between wires, conductors, and cables carried on different supporting structures.
WAC 296-44-21253 Clearance of wires, conductors, and cables from buildings, bridges, rail cars, swimming pools, and other installations.
WAC 296-44-21265 Clearance for wires, conductors, or cables carried on the same supporting structure.
WAC 296-44-21273 Climbing space.
WAC 296-44-21279 Working space.
WAC 296-44-21287 Vertical clearance between certain communication and supply facilities located on the same structure.
WAC 296-44-21295 Clearances of vertical and lateral conductors from other wires and surfaces on the same support.
WAC 296-44-242 Grades of construction.
WAC 296-44-24205 General.
WAC 296-44-24213 Application of grades of construction to different situations.
WAC 296-44-24221 Grades of construction for conductors.
WAC 296-44-24233 Grades of construction for line supports.
WAC 296-44-263 Loading for Grades B, C, and D.
WAC 296-44-26309 General loading requirements and maps.
WAC 296-44-26321 Conductor loading.
WAC 296-44-26333 Loads upon line supports.
WAC 296-44-278 Strength requirements.
WAC 296-44-27809 Preliminary assumptions.
WAC 296-44-27821 Grades B and C construction.
WAC 296-44-27833 Grade D construction.
WAC 296-44-27847 Grade N construction.
WAC 296-44-29501 Line insulation.
WAC 296-44-29509 Application of rule.
WAC 296-44-29515 Material and marking.
WAC 296-44-29523 Ratio of flashover to puncture voltage.
WAC 296-44-29529 Insulation level.
WAC 296-44-29539 Factory tests.
WAC 296-44-29541 Special insulator applications.
WAC 296-44-29551 Protection against arcing and other damage.
WAC 296-44-29563 Mechanical strength of insulators.
WAC 296-44-29572 Aerial cable systems.
WAC 296-44-317 Miscellaneous requirements.
WAC 296-44-31709 Structures for overhead lines.
WAC 296-44-31719 Tree trimming.
WAC 296-44-31729 Guying and bracing.
WAC 296-44-31738 Insulators in guys attached to supporting structures.
WAC 296-44-31749 Span-wire insulators.
WAC 296-44-31757 Overhead conductors.
WAC 296-44-31765 Equipment on supporting structures.
WAC 296-44-31772 Communications protective requirements.
WAC 296-44-31783 Circuits of one class used exclusively in the operation of circuits of another class.
WAC 296-44-31792 Electric railway construction.
WAC 296-44-350 Safety rules for the installation and maintenance of underground electric-supply and communication lines.
WAC 296-44-35009 Purpose.
WAC 296-44-35021 Scope.
WAC 296-44-365 General requirements applying to underground lines.
WAC 296-44-36518 Installation and maintenance.
WAC 296-44-36527 Accessibility.
WAC 296-44-36539 Inspection and tests of lines and equipment.
WAC 296-44-36551 Grounding of circuits and equipment.
WAC 296-44-36563 Communication protective requirements.
WAC 296-44-36575 Induced voltage.
WAC 296-44-370 Strength requirements--Grade N construction.
WAC 296-44-386 Underground conduit systems.
WAC 296-44-38609 Location.
WAC 296-44-38628 Excavation and backfill.
WAC 296-44-38641 Ducts and joints.
WAC 296-44-38653 Manholes, handholes and vaults.
WAC 296-44-398 Supply cable.
WAC 296-44-39809 General.
WAC 296-44-39823 Sheaths and jackets.
WAC 296-44-39842 Shielding.
WAC 296-44-39855 Cable accessories and joints.
WAC 296-44-413 Cable in underground structures.
WAC 296-44-41309 General.
WAC 296-44-41321 Installation.
WAC 296-44-41333 Grounding and bonding.
WAC 296-44-41341 Fireproofing.
WAC 296-44-41359 Communication cables containing special supply circuits.
WAC 296-44-425 Direct buried cable.
WAC 296-44-42509 General.
WAC 296-44-42521 Location and routing.
WAC 296-44-42533 Clearances from other underground structures (sewers, water lines, fuel lines, building foundations, steam lines, other supply or communication conductors not in random separation, etc.).
WAC 296-44-42541 Installation.
WAC 296-44-42559 Random separation--Additional requirements.
WAC 296-44-440 Risers.
WAC 296-44-44009 General.
WAC 296-44-44021 Installation.
WAC 296-44-44033 Pole risers--Additional requirements.
WAC 296-44-44047 Pad-mounted installations.
WAC 296-44-452 Supply cable terminations.
WAC 296-44-45209 General.
WAC 296-44-45219 Support at terminations.
WAC 296-44-45231 Identification.
WAC 296-44-45243 Separations and clearances in enclosures or vaults.
WAC 296-44-45257 Grounding.
WAC 296-44-467 Equipment.
WAC 296-44-46709 General.
WAC 296-44-46733 Design.
WAC 296-44-46739 Location in underground structures.
WAC 296-44-46747 Installation.
WAC 296-44-46755 Grounding.
WAC 296-44-46761 Identification.
WAC 296-44-491 Installation in tunnels.
WAC 296-44-49109 General.
WAC 296-44-49121 Environment.
WAC 296-44-850 Pole lines that overbuild or underbuild existing pole lines.
WAC 296-44-855 High potential lines overbuilding telephone, telegraph, or signal wires.
WAC 296-44-860 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--General requirements.
WAC 296-44-865 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Loads.
WAC 296-44-870 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Factors of safety.
WAC 296-44-875 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Working unit stresses.
WAC 296-44-880 Crossings over railroads, street railroads, telephone, telegraph, signal or other power lines--Clearance.
WAC 296-44-88001 Figure 1--Ground wire clearance.
WAC 296-44-88002 Figure 2--Basic wire crossing clearance.
WAC 296-44-88003 Figure 5--Clearances above ground for underground risers and horizontal clearance of poles from hydrants, curbs and railroads.
WAC 296-44-88004 Illustration--Working space.
WAC 296-44-88005 Figures 6.A - 9.A--Clearances.
WAC 296-44-88006 Figure--Climbing space.
WAC 296-44-88007 Illustration--Climbing space.
WAC 296-44-88008 Illustration--Climbing space.
WAC 296-44-88009 Illustration--Footnote 7 of Table 11--Climbing space.
WAC 296-44-88010 Figure 11.A--Minimum vertical separation between horizontal crossarms.
WAC 296-44-88011 Illustration--Climbing space--Location and spacing of crossarms.
Chapter 296-45 WAC
--)) FOR ELECTRICAL WORKERS
WAC 296-45-005 Electrical workers safety rules--Foreword. The purpose of this chapter is to make the workplace of electrical employees as free from recognized hazards as reasonably possible. Following these rules may sometimes require that employee safety receive a higher priority than speed and work performance. These rules exist to provide employee safety, so employees are expected, in good faith, to follow the provisions of this chapter. This chapter is not intended to be a complete job description nor is it expected that the chapter covers every hazard that an employee may encounter. When a hazard exists that is not covered by this chapter, the leadworker and employees are expected, in good faith, to mutually discuss the hazard and agree how to perform the work with the greatest degree of safety.
The department of labor and industries is the sole and paramount administrative agency responsible for the administration and interpretation of this chapter and the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973. If there exists a question as to the meaning of any provision of this chapter, such question must first be directed to the department of labor and industries and its authorized representatives.
Experience has proven that the majority of injuries and deaths are preventable. Most injuries and deaths are not due to defective equipment but are due to failure on the part of the employees and those in authority to observe safety rules and failure to use safety devices. In the last analysis, this chapter is a compilation of experience and common sense. Electrical safety requires that the work be properly planned, executed by the use of good judgment and under the direction of intelligent supervision.
WAC 296-45-015 Scope and application. (1) This chapter covers the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment. These provisions apply to:
(a) Power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified employees;
Note: The types of installations covered by this chapter include the generation, transmission, and distribution installations of electric utilities, as well as equivalent installations of industrial establishments. Trolley maintenance, jumpering, and bypass is also covered by this chapter. Supplementary electric generating equipment that is used to supply a workplace for emergency, standby, or similar purposes only is covered under Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC.
(b) Other installations at an electric power generating station, as follows:
(i) Fuel and ash handling and processing installations, such as coal conveyors;
(ii) Water and steam installations, such as penstocks, pipelines, and tanks, providing a source of energy for electric generators; and
(iii) Chlorine and hydrogen systems.
(c) Test sites where electrical testing involving temporary measurements associated with electric power generation, transmission, and distribution is performed in laboratories, in the field, in substations, and on lines, as opposed to metering, relaying, and routine line work;
(d) Work on or directly associated with the installations covered in subsections (1)(a) through (c) of this section; and
(e) Line-clearance tree-trimming operations, as follows:
(i) This chapter except WAC 296-45-455, applies to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by qualified employees (those who are knowledgeable in the construction and operation of electric power generation, transmission, or distribution equipment involved, along with the associated hazards).
(ii) WAC 296-45-065, 296-45-125, 296-45-135, 296-45-255, 296-45-315, 296-45-375, and 296-45-455 through 296-45-45530 apply to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by line-clearance tree trimmers who are not qualified employees.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) of this section, this chapter does not apply:
(a) To construction work as defined in chapter 296-155 WAC; or
(b) To electrical installations, electrical safety-related work practices, or electrical maintenance considerations covered by Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC.
Note 1: Work practices conforming to WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985 are considered as complying with the electrical safety-related work practice requirements of this chapter, provided the work is being performed on a generation or distribution installation meeting WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699. This chapter also applies to work by qualified persons directly on or associated with installations of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines or equipment, regardless of compliance with WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985.
Note 2: Work practices performed by qualified persons and conforming to this chapter are considered as complying with WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699.
(3) This section applies in addition to all other applicable safety and health standards administered by the department. Specific references in this section to other standards are provided for emphasis only.
(4) Operation, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities not specifically covered by this chapter are subject to the rules and regulations of chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards; chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards; chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work; and, insofar as applicable to employee safety and health, chapter 19.29 RCW. Additionally, operations, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities may be subject to additional rules and regulations depending upon the nature of the work being performed.
(5) These rules shall not apply to the use of existing electrical installations during their lifetime, provided they are maintained in good condition and in accordance with the applicable safety factor requirements and the rules in effect at the time they were installed, and provided that reconstruction shall conform to the rules as herein provided.
(6) Any rule, regulation or standard contained within this chapter, if subject to interpretation, shall be interpreted so as to achieve employee safety, which is the ultimate purpose of this chapter.
(7) Should a rule or standard contained within this chapter conflict, in any manner, with a standard or rule contained within any other chapter of Title 296 WAC the standard or rule contained herein shall apply so long as the work being done is power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified employees. If there are rules within this chapter that conflict, the rule that provides the greatest employee safety will apply.
(8) Neither the promulgation of these rules, nor anything contained in these rules shall be construed as affecting the relative status or civil rights or liabilities between employers and their employees and/or the employees of others and/or the public generally; nor shall the use herein of the words "duty" and "responsibility" or either, import or imply liability other than provided for in the industrial insurance and safety laws of the state of Washington, to any person for injuries due to negligence predicated upon failure to perform or discharge any such "duty" or "responsibility," but failure on the part of the employees, leadworker, or employer to comply with any compulsory rule may be cause for the department of labor and industries to take action in accordance with the industrial insurance and safety laws.
(9) "Shall" and "must" as used in this chapter make the provisions mandatory. "Should," "may," or "it is recommended" are used to indicate the provisions are not mandatory but are recommended.
(10) If any section, subsection, phrase, or provisions of this chapter or part thereof should be held invalid by any court for any reason, such invalidity shall not in any way affect the validity of the remainder of this chapter, unless such decision renders the remainder of the provision unintelligible, or changes the meaning of such other provision or provisions.
(11) When the language used in this chapter indicates that it is the responsibility, duty, or obligation of the leadworker or other employee, it shall also be the employer's responsibility, obligation, and duty.
Whenever this chapter refers to the provisions of another safety and health standard or statute affecting safety and health, such reference refers to the statute or code in effect at the time the work is being performed.
WAC 296-45-025 Variances. Under certain circumstances, an employer may obtain a variance from the director of the department of labor and industries or an authorized representative. Until such time as a variance is granted, the employer and employees must comply with the mandatory provisions of this chapter. The procedure and requirements for variances are found in chapter 296-350 WAC.
WAC 296-45-035 Definitions. These definitions apply to chapter 296-45 WAC.
"Aerial manlift equipment" - Equipment such as extended towers, boom-mounted cages or baskets, and truck-mounted ladders, that is primarily designed to place personnel and equipment aloft to work on elevated structures and equipment.
"Affected employee" - An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
"Apprentice"- An employee who is being trained to be journey level.
"Approved" - Meets or exceeds the recognized standards of safety within the industry.
"Approved protectors" - Gloves worn over rubber insulating gloves which are of such material or substance and so constructed as to protect the rubber gloves from abrasions, lacerations, or other physical damage which might otherwise occur to rubber gloves. Approved protectors must conform to the standards which are recognized by the industry.
"Attendant" - An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.
"Authorized employee" - An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.
"Automatic circuit recloser" - A self-controlled device for interrupting and reclosing an alternating current circuit with a predetermined sequence of opening and reclosing followed by resetting, hold-closed, or lockout operation.
"Barricade" - A physical obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame type wood or metal structures intended to provide a warning about and to limit access to a hazardous area.
"Barrier" - A physical obstruction which is intended to prevent contact with energized lines or equipment or to prevent unauthorized access to a work area.
"Bond" - The electrical interconnection of conductive parts designed to maintain a common electrical potential.
"Bus" - A conductor or a group of conductors that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits.
"Bushing" - An insulating structure, including a through conductor or providing a passageway for such a conductor, with provision for mounting on a barrier, conducting or otherwise, for the purposes of insulating the conductor from the barrier and conducting current from one side of the barrier to the other.
"Cable" - A conductor with insulation, or a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).
"Cable sheath" - A conductive protective covering applied to cables.
Note: A cable sheath may consist of multiple layers of which one or more is conductive.
"Circuit" - A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow.
"Clearance" (between objects) - The clear distance between two objects measured surface to surface.
"Clearance" (for work) - Authorization to perform specified work or permission to enter a restricted area.
"Communication lines." (See "Lines, communication.")
"Conductor" - A material, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or bus bar, used for carrying an electric current.
"Covered conductor" - A conductor covered with a dielectric having no rated insulating strength or having a rated insulating strength less than the voltage of the circuit in which the conductor is used.
"Current-carrying part" - A conducting part intended to be connected in an electric circuit to a source of voltage. Noncurrent-carrying parts are those not intended to be so connected.
"De-energized" - Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential difference and from electric charge; not having a potential difference from that of the earth.
Note: The term is used only with reference to current-carrying parts, which are sometimes energized (alive).
"Designated employee/person" - An employee/person who is designated by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this section and who is knowledgeable in the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved.
"Electric line truck" - Any vehicle used to transport employees, tools, and material, which serves as a traveling workshop for electric power line construction and maintenance work. It may be equipped with a boom and auxiliary equipment for setting poles, digging holes, and elevating material and/or workers.
"Electric supply equipment" - Equipment that produces, modifies, regulates, controls, or safeguards a supply of electric energy.
"Electric supply lines." (See "Lines, electric supply.")
"Electric utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of an electric supply system.
"Emergency" - An unforeseen occurrence endangering life, limb, or property.
"Enclosed" - Surrounded by a case, cage, fence or otherwise which will protect the contained equipment and prevent accidental contact of a person with live parts.
"Enclosed space" - A working space, such as a manhole, vault, tunnel, or shaft, that has a limited means of egress or entry, that is designed for periodic employee entry under normal operating conditions, and that under normal conditions does not contain a hazardous atmosphere, but that may contain a hazardous atmosphere under abnormal conditions.
Note: Spaces that are enclosed but not designed for employee entry under normal operating conditions are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Similarly, spaces that are enclosed and that are expected to contain a hazardous atmosphere are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Such spaces meet the definition of permit spaces in WAC 296-62-145, and entry into them must be performed in accordance with that standard.
"Energized" (alive, live) - Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity.
"Energy isolating device" - A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including, but not limited to, the following: A manually operated electric circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line valve, blocks, and any similar device with a visible indication of the position of the device. (Push buttons, selector switches, and other control-circuit-type devices are not energy isolating devices.)
"Energy source" - Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy source that could cause injury to personnel.
"Equipment" (electric) - A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like used as part of or in connection with an electrical installation.
"Exposed" - Not isolated or guarded.
"Fault current" - The current that flows in an electrical system because of a defect in the circuit induced accidentally or otherwise.
"Fixed ladder" - A ladder that is permanently secured to a structure.
"Ground" - A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electric circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded" - Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded system" - A system of conductors in which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire, or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded either solidly or through a current-limiting device (not a current-interrupting device).
"Groundperson" - A member of crew working on ground under direction of a leadworker.
"Guarded" - Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to prevent the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or accidental contact by persons or objects.
Note: Wires which are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not considered as guarded.
"Hazardous atmosphere" - An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from an enclosed space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;
Note: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less;
Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part L, or in chapter 296-62 WAC, toxic and hazardous substances, and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;
Note: An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.
Any other atmospheric condition that is "immediately dangerous to life or health" (IDLH).
"IDLH" - Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
Note: Some materials (hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example) may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.
Note: For air contaminants for which WISHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part C, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
"High-power tests" - Tests in which fault currents, load currents, magnetizing currents, and line-dropping currents are used to test equipment, either at the equipment's rated voltage or at lower voltages.
"High-voltage tests" - Tests in which voltages of approximately 1000 volts are used as a practical minimum and in which the voltage source has sufficient energy to cause injury.
"High wind" - A wind of such velocity that the following hazards would be present:
An employee would be exposed to being blown from elevated locations; or
An employee or material handling equipment could lose control of material being handled; or
An employee would be exposed to other hazards not controlled by the standard involved.
Note: Winds exceeding 40 miles per hour (64.4 kilometers per hour), or 30 miles per hour (48.3 kilometers per hour) if material handling is involved, are normally considered as meeting this criteria unless precautions are taken to protect employees from the hazardous effects of the wind.
"Insulated" - Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current.
Note: When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the conditions to which it is normally subjected. Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of this section, uninsulated.
"Insulation" (cable) - That which is relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from ground.
"Insulation shielding" - An envelope which encloses the insulation of a cable and provides an equipotential surface in contact with cable insulation.
"Isolated" - An object that is not readily accessible to persons unless special means of access are used.
"Leadworker" - The person directly in charge of workers doing the work, regardless of title.
"Line-clearance tree trimmer" - An employee who, through related training or on-the-job experience or both, is familiar with the special techniques and hazards involved in line-clearance tree trimming.
Note 1: An employee who is regularly assigned to a line-clearance tree-trimming crew and who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a line-clearance tree trimmer.
Note 2: A line-clearance tree trimmer is not considered to be a "qualified employee" under this section unless he or she has the training required for a qualified employee under WAC 296-45-065. However, under the electrical safety-related work practices standard, a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a "qualified employee." Tree trimming performed by such "qualified employees" is not subject to the electrical safety-related work practice requirements contained in WAC 296-24-970. (See also the note following WAC 296-24-970 for information regarding the training an employee must have to be considered a qualified employee.)
"Line-clearance tree trimming" - The pruning, trimming, repairing, maintaining, removing, or clearing of trees or the cutting of brush that is within 10 feet (305 cm) of electric supply lines and equipment.
"Communication lines" - The conductors and their supporting or containing structures which are used for public or private signal or communication service, and which operate at potentials not exceeding 400 volts to ground or 750 volts between any two points of the circuit, and the transmitted power of which does not exceed 150 watts. If the lines are operating at less than 150 volts, no limit is placed on the transmitted power of the system. Under certain conditions, communication cables may include communication circuits exceeding these limitations where such circuits are also used to supply power solely to communication equipment.
Note: Telephone, telegraph, railroad signal, data, clock, fire, police alarm, cable television, and other systems conforming with this definition are included. Lines used for signaling purposes, but not included under this definition, are considered as electric supply lines of the same voltage.
"Electric supply lines" - Conductors used to transmit electric energy and their necessary supporting or containing structures. Signal lines of more than 400 volts are always supply lines within this section, and those of less than 400 volts are considered as supply lines, if so run and operated throughout.
"Live-line tools and ropes" - Tools and ropes specifically designed for work on energized high voltage lines and equipment.
"Load-break elbow" - A connector designed to close and interrupt current on energized circuits within the design current and voltage rating.
"Manhole" - A subsurface enclosure which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, and maintaining submersible equipment or cable.
"Manhole steps" - A series of steps individually attached to or set into the walls of a manhole structure.
"Minimum approach distance" - The closest distance an employee is permitted to approach an energized or a grounded object.
"Neutral" - A system in which one conductor is used as the neutral for one or more circuits; one conductor may be used as the neutral for both primary and secondary circuits of a distribution system.
"Pole" - Any device used to support a power distribution or transmission line. The pole may be made of any substance including wood, concrete, metal, is usually cylindrical in shape and comparatively slender. It is the upright standard to which is affixed part of the power distribution and transmission line system as defined in this chapter.
"Power dispatcher" (load dispatcher or system operator) - A person who has been designated by the employer as having authority over switching and clearances of high voltage lines and station equipment.
"Protective devices" - Devices such as rubber gloves, rubber blankets, line hose, rubber boots, or other insulating devices, which are specifically designed for the protection of employees.
"Public highway" - Every way, land, road, street, boulevard, and every other way or place in the state open as a matter of right to public vehicular travel, both inside and outside the limits of cities and towns, regardless of ownership.
"Qualified person or qualified employee" - A person who is familiar with the construction of, or operation of such lines and/or equipment that concerns his/her position and who is fully aware of the hazards connected therewith, or, one who has passed a journey status examination for the particular branch of the electrical trades with which he/she may be connected.
Note 1: An employee must have the training required by WAC 296-45-065(1) in order to be considered a qualified employee.
Note 2: (Apprentice) Except under WAC 296-45-25510(12), an employee who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person is considered to be a qualified person for the performance of those duties.
"Rubber" - Any goods, equipment, or tool made out of either natural or synthetic rubber.
"Secured ladder" - A ladder which is not capable of being dislodged from the top by lateral, or jerking motion(s).
"Sheath" - As applied to tools carried in a lineman's tool belt, a sheath that effectively covers the tool and prevents such tool from falling from the belt.
"Step bolt" - A bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member and used for foot placement during climbing or standing.
"Supporting structure" - The main supporting unit (usually a pole or tower).
"Switch" - A device for opening and closing or for changing the connection of a circuit. In these rules, a switch is understood to be manually operable, unless otherwise stated.
"System operator or power dispatcher" - A qualified person who has been designated by the employer and having authority over switching, clearances, and operation of the system and its parts.
"Tag" - A system or method of identifying circuits, systems, or equipment for the purpose of alerting employees and others that the circuit, system, or equipment is being worked on.
"Underground network" - An underground electrical installation fed from multiple primary sources directly associated with area-wide secondary network connected into a common grid.
"Underground residential distribution system" (URD) - An electrical installation normally fed from a single primary source which may feed one or more transformers with secondaries not connected to a common grid.
"Utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of electric supply or communications systems.
"Vault" - An enclosure, above or below ground, which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, or maintaining equipment or cable.
"Vented vault" - A vault that has provision for air changes using exhaust flue stacks and low level air intakes operating on differentials of pressure and temperature providing for airflow which precludes a hazardous atmosphere from developing.
"Voltage"- The effective (rms) potential difference between any two conductors or between a conductor and ground. Voltages are expressed in nominal values unless otherwise indicated. The nominal voltage of a system or circuit is the value assigned to a system or circuit of a given voltage class for the purpose of convenient designation. The operating voltage of the system may vary above or below this value.
Note: Low voltage includes voltages from 50 to 600 volts. High voltage shall mean those voltages of 601 volts to 230,000. Extra high voltage means any voltage over 230,000 volts. Where the words "high voltage" are used in this chapter it shall include extra high voltage, unless otherwise specified.
WAC 296-45-045 NESC applicable. (1) All electric utilities and entities operating transmission and distribution facilities within the state of Washington must design, construct, operate, and maintain their lines and equipment according to the requirements of the 1997 National Electric Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), sections (1), (2), and (3).
Note: The department has copies of the NESC available for review at each service location across the state. To purchase a copy, write to:
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
345 East 47th Street
New York, NY 10017-2394
(2) The employer must ensure that climbing space is provided on all poles and structures. The climbing space must meet the requirements of the 1997 National Electric Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), except that Rule 236H does not apply.
WAC 296-45-055 Employer's responsibility. (1) The employer shall provide and maintain the necessary protective devices specified in these rules and require the employees to use them properly.
(2) The employer shall develop and maintain a hazard communication program as required by Part C, chapter 296-62 WAC, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.
(3) There shall be installed and maintained in every fixed establishment employing eight or more persons a safety bulletin board of a size to display and post safety bulletins, newsletters, posters, accident statistics and other safety educational material. It is recommended that safety bulletin boards be painted green and white.
(4) The employer shall require the leadworker to observe and enforce all safety rules and shall furnish a copy of the electrical workers' safety rules to each employee who is covered by these rules.
(5) The employer shall appoint only competent workers to supervise other employees and those appointed shall be responsible for the safety of the employees under their supervision.
WAC 296-45-065 Training. Employees shall be trained and proficient in the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other safety requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job assignments. Employees shall also be trained in and proficient with any other safety practices, including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole top, aerial, manhole, and tree rescue), that are not specifically addressed by this section but that are related to their work and are necessary for their safety.
(1) Qualified employees shall also be trained and competent in:
(a) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment;
(b) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts;
(c) The minimum approach distances specified in this section corresponding to the voltages to which the qualified employee will be exposed; and
(d) The proper use of the special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools for working on or near exposed energized parts of electric equipment.
Note: For the purposes of this section, a person must have this training in order to be considered a qualified person.
(2) The employer shall determine, through regular supervision and through inspections conducted on at least an annual basis, that each employee is complying with the safety-related work practices required by this section.
(3) An employee shall receive additional training (or retraining) under any of the following conditions:
(a) If the supervision and annual inspections required by subsection (2) of this section indicate that the employee is not complying with the safety-related work practices required by this section; or
(b) If new technology, new types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related work practices that are different from those which the employee would normally use; or
(c) If he or she must employ safety related work practices that are not normally used during his or her regular job duties.
Note: WISHA would consider tasks that are performed less often than once per year to necessitate retraining before the performance of the work practices involved.
(4) The training required by WAC 296-45-065 shall be of the classroom or on-the-job type.
(5) The training shall establish employee proficiency in the work practices required by this section and shall introduce the procedures necessary for compliance with this section.
(6) The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by WAC 296-45-065. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment.
Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.
WAC 296-45-075 Employer's safety program. (1) The employer shall hold safety meetings at least once a month, which meetings shall be held at a reasonable time and place as selected by the employer. The employer shall require all employees subject to provisions of this chapter to attend said meetings: Provided, That employees whose presence is otherwise required by reason of an emergency or whose function is such that they cannot leave their station or cease their work without serious detriment to the service provided, such as dispatcher, may be excused from such meeting under those circumstances. Minutes shall be kept of each safety meeting and retained for a period of one year.
(2) The employer or a representative(s) designated shall investigate all accidents or injuries of a serious nature and, where possible, take the proper remedial steps to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.
(3) The employer shall furnish instructions stating the proper procedure in event of an emergency, which shall include the names of those individuals to be notified and methods of contacting them.
(4) The employer shall provide and make available to all employees accident report and safety suggestion forms or other approved methods. Safety suggestion forms should, where possible, be used for suggesting the elimination of hazardous conditions and such reported suggestions shall be retained (for one year) by the employer or an authorized representative.
(5) The employer must notify the department of employee fatalities or catastrophes according to the requirements of WAC 296-24-020.
(6) Nothing contained within this chapter shall prohibit an employer or an authorized representative from disciplining employees for failure to comply with the provisions of this or any other safety code.
(7) Existing conditions related to the safety of the work to be performed shall be determined before work on or near electric lines or equipment is started. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, the nominal voltages of lines and equipment, the maximum switching transient voltages, the presence of hazardous induced voltages, the presence and condition of protective grounds and equipment grounding conductors, the condition of poles, environmental conditions relative to safety, and the locations of circuits and equipment, including power and communication lines and fire protective signaling circuits.
WAC 296-45-085 Leadworker's responsibility. (1) Every leadworker shall understand these and any other applicable safety rules and comply therewith. Leadworkers shall require all employees under their direction or supervision to read this chapter and the provisions contained therein and require every employee subject to this chapter to be able to apply this chapter and any provision of this chapter on a day-to-day basis.
(2) Leadworkers shall inform employees under their supervision or direction of the type and voltage of circuits on or near which the employees are to work.
(3) Leadworkers shall require all employees under their supervision to properly use safety devices and equipment, including barricades, warning flags or signs, or any other device called for to protect employees.
WAC 296-45-095 Leadworker-employee responsibility. (1) An employee shall protect his/her climbing and working space at all times if the conductors are so spaced that in climbing or working he/she will be, or where it is possible to come within, the minimum required distances specified in these rules.
(2) Leadworkers or supervisors shall in good faith consider verbal or written reports of hazardous conditions and shall, as soon as practicable, investigate and remedy same if warranted.
(3) When hazards are reported by employees, leadworkers and others having authority shall accept the report in a cooperative manner, and in no case shall an employee be reprimanded or penalized for reporting hazards or potential hazards.
(4) Leadworkers shall require all employees under their supervision to keep their belts, spurs, and straps in good working condition. When straps and belts are in poor condition or defective, they shall not be used.
(5) Before leaving a jobsite, leadworkers shall correct or arrange to give warning of any condition which might result in injury to employees.
(6) No employee shall be permitted or allowed to remain on the jobsite when under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or controlled substance or substances: Provided, That if an employee is taking prescription medication under the direction of a practicing physician and such prescription does not interfere with the safe performance of the work assigned, such employee may be permitted to work.
(7) No intoxicating beverages or controlled substances shall be consumed on the jobsite other than prescription medication as set forth above.
WAC 296-45-105 Work required of leadworkers. (1) A leadworker cannot properly supervise the work and look out for the safety of employees under their direction if required to work as a leadworker and a lineworker at the same time.
(2) Leadworkers should be constantly alert and shall not be required to serve in such dual capacity, except in crews of not more than two lineworkers, in which case they may work as one of the lineworkers.
(3) In crews of two lineworkers or less, each lineworker may have a groundworker but, if additional lineworkers or groundworkers are added to the crew, the leadworker shall confine his/her activities to supervising the work, as exhibited below:
|Type of Crew||Minimum Requirements|
|2 lineworkers||One lineworker as person-in-charge.|
|2 lineworkers plus||One lineworker as person-in-|
|1 groundworker||charge or climbing leadworker.|
|2 lineworkers plus||One lineworker as person-in-|
|2 groundworkers||charge or climbing leadworker.|
|2 lineworkers plus||One nonclimbing leadworker.|
|any combination of|
|3 lineworkers or|
WAC 296-45-115 Employee's responsibility. (1) Employees shall not engage in horseplay or scuffling while on the job or jobsite and the employer shall not permit horseplay or scuffling while on the jobsite or otherwise in the course of employment.
(2) During such time as any employee is working on or near any energized line or energized equipment in excess of 600 volts there shall be no talking or communication other than that which is absolutely necessary and essential for the safe and proper performance of the work. Should there be communication or talk from a person other than an employee, the work shall stop until such time as the distraction ceases.
(3) Employees shall report any hazardous or potentially hazardous condition, operation, means, or work in a constructive manner and shall not engage in personality conflicts.
(4) Neither the employer nor the employees shall throw or permit anything to be thrown from elevated position(s) or poles to the ground or lower level, nor shall anything be thrown from the ground or lower level to an elevated position, whether that elevated position is on a pole, aerial manlift or otherwise. Tools and loose materials shall not be left on poles, crossarms, ladders or other elevated structures or positions.
(5) Employees shall report all injuries, regardless of severity, to the employer or designated representative. Report forms furnished by the employer should be used.
WAC 296-45-125 Medical services and first aid. The employer shall provide medical services and first aid as required in chapter 296-24 WAC. In addition to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, the following requirements also apply:
(1) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first-aid training. When employees are performing work on or associated with exposed lines or equipment energized at 50 volts or more, persons trained in first aid including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) shall be available as follows:
(a) For field work involving two or more employees at a work location, at least two trained persons shall be available. However, only one trained person need be available if all new employees are trained in first aid, including CPR, within 3 months of their hiring dates.
(b) For fixed work locations such as generating stations, the number of trained persons available shall be sufficient to ensure that each employee exposed to electric shock can be reached within 4 minutes by a trained person. However, where the existing number of employees is insufficient to meet this requirement (at a remote substation, for example), all employees at the work location shall be trained.
(2) First-aid supplies. First-aid supplies required by chapter 296-24 WAC shall be placed in weatherproof containers if the supplies could be exposed to the weather.
(3) First-aid kits. Each first-aid kit shall be maintained, shall be readily available for use, and shall be inspected frequently enough to ensure that expended items are replaced but at least once per year.
WAC 296-45-135 Job briefing. The employer shall ensure that the leadworker conducts a job briefing with the employees involved before they start each job. The briefing shall cover at least the following subjects: Hazards associated with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy source controls, and personal protective equipment requirements.
(1) Number of briefings. If the work or operations to be performed during the work day or shift are repetitive and similar, at least one job briefing shall be conducted before the start of the first job of each day or shift. Additional job briefings shall be held if significant changes, which might affect the safety of the employees, occur during the course of the work.
(2) Extent of briefing. A brief discussion is satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employee, by virtue of training and experience, can reasonably be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job. A more extensive discussion shall be conducted:
(a) If the work is complicated or particularly hazardous; or
(b) If the employee cannot be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job.
Note: The briefing is always required to touch on all the subjects listed in the introductory text to this section.
(3) Working alone. An employee working alone need not conduct a job briefing. However, the employer shall ensure that the tasks to be performed are planned as if a briefing were required.
WAC 296-45-175 Hazardous energy control (lockout/tagout) procedures. The provisions of this section apply to the use of lockout/tagout procedures for the control of energy sources in installations for the purpose of electric power generation, including related equipment for communication or metering. Locking and tagging procedures for the de-energizing of electric energy sources which are used exclusively for purposes of transmission and distribution are addressed by WAC 296-45-335.
Note 1: Installations in electric power generation facilities that are not an integral part of, or inextricably commingled with, power generation processes or equipment are covered under chapter 296-24 WAC.
Note 2: Lockout and tagging procedures that comply with chapter 296-24 WAC will also be deemed to comply with this section if the procedures address the hazards covered by this section.
WAC 296-45-17505 Lockout/tagout (hazardous control) program. (1) The employer shall establish a program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic inspections to ensure that, before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up, or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
(2) The employer's energy control program under this section shall meet the following requirements:
(a) If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use a tagout system.
(b) If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use lockout, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of a tagout system will provide full employee protection as follows:
(i) When a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device which is capable of being locked out, the tagout device shall be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and the employer shall demonstrate that the tagout program will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lockout program.
(ii) In demonstrating that a level of safety is achieved in the tagout program equivalent to the level of safety obtained by the use of a lockout program, the employer shall demonstrate full compliance with all tagout-related provisions of this standard together with such additional elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the demonstration of full employee protection shall include the implementation of additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energizing.
(3) Whenever replacement or major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machines or equipment shall be designed to accept a lockout device.
(4) Procedures shall be developed, documented, and used for the control of potentially hazardous energy covered by this section.
(5) The procedure shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, responsibility, authorization, rules, and techniques to be applied to the control of hazardous energy, and the measures to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) A specific statement of the intended use of this procedure;
(b) Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy;
(c) Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them; and
(d) Specific requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures.
(6) The employer shall conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the provisions of this section are being followed.
(a) The periodic inspection shall be performed by an authorized employee who is not using the energy control procedure being inspected.
(b) The periodic inspection shall be designed to identify and correct any deviations or inadequacies.
(c) If lockout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
(d) Where tagout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected, and the elements set forth in this section.
(e) The employer shall certify that the inspections required by this section have been accomplished. The certification shall identify the machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being used, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.
Note: If normal work schedule and operation records demonstrate adequate inspection activity and contain the required information, no additional certification is required.
(7) The employer shall provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of energy controls are acquired by employees. The training shall include the following:
(a) Each authorized employee shall receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of energy available in the workplace, and in the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
(b) Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
(c) All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be used shall be instructed about the procedures and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out or tagged out.
(8) When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the following limitations of tags:
(a) Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
(b) When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without authorization of the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
(c) Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized employees, affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are or may be in the area, in order to be effective.
(d) Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials which will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
(e) Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
(f) Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use.
WAC 296-45-17510 Retraining. (1) Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a change in machines, equipment, or processes that present a new hazard or whenever there is a change in the energy control procedures.
(2) Retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or whenever the employer has reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in an employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures.
(3) The retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and shall introduce new or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary.
(4) The employer shall certify that employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date. The certification shall contain each employee's name and dates of training.
WAC 296-45-17515 Protective materials and hardware. (1) Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing, or blocking of machines or equipment from energy sources.
(2) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be singularly identified; shall be the only devices used for controlling energy; may not be used for other purposes; and shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
(b) Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
(c) Tagout devices shall be so constructed as not to deteriorate when used in corrosive environments.
(3) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be standardized within the facility in at least one of the following criteria: Color, shape, size. Additionally, in the case of tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.
(4) Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or metal cutting tools.
(5) Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means shall be of a nonreusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking, and nonreleasable with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than fifty pounds and shall have the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
(6) Each lockout device or tagout device shall include provisions for the identification of the employee applying the device.
(7) Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and shall include a legend such as the following: Do Not Start, Do Not Open, Do Not Close, Do Not Energize, Do Not Operate.
Note: For specific provisions covering accident prevention tags, see chapter 296-24 WAC.
WAC 296-45-17520 Energy isolation. Lockout and tagout device application and removal may only be performed by the authorized employees who are performing the servicing or maintenance.
WAC 296-45-17525 Notification. Affected employees shall be notified by the employer or authorized employee of the application and removal of lockout or tagout devices. Notification shall be given before the controls are applied and after they are removed from the machine or equipment.
Note: This section requires that the second notification take place before the machine or equipment is reenergized.
WAC 296-45-17530 Lockout/tagout application. The established procedures for the application of energy control (the lockout or tagout procedures) shall include the following elements and actions, and these procedures shall be performed in the following sequence:
(1) Before an authorized or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee shall have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.
(2) The machine or equipment shall be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine or equipment. An orderly shutdown shall be used to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of the equipment stoppage.
(3) All energy isolating devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or equipment shall be physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate the machine or equipment from energy sources.
(4) Lockout or tagout devices shall be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized employees.
(a) Lockout devices shall be attached in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe" or "off" position.
(b) Tagout devices shall be affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited.
(5) Where tagout devices are used with energy isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked out, the tag attachment shall be fastened at the same point at which the lock would have been attached.
(6) Where a tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag shall be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.
WAC 296-45-17535 Releasing stored energy. Following the application of lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy shall be relieved, disconnected, restrained, or otherwise rendered safe.
(1) If there is a possibility of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation shall be continued until the servicing or maintenance is completed or until the possibility of such accumulation no longer exists.
(2) Before starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, the authorized employee shall verify that isolation and de-energizing of the machine or equipment have been accomplished. If normally energized parts will be exposed to contact by an employee while the machine or equipment is de-energized, a test shall be performed to ensure that these parts are de-energized.
WAC 296-45-17540 Release from lockout/tagout. Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the machine or equipment, procedures shall be followed and actions taken by the authorized employees to ensure the following:
(1) The work area shall be inspected to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
(2) The work area shall be checked to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
(3) After lockout or tagout devices have been removed and before a machine or equipment is started, affected employees shall be notified that the lockout or tagout devices have been removed.
(4) Each lockout or tagout device shall be removed from each energy isolating device by the authorized employee who applied the lockout or tagout device. However, if that employee is not available to remove it, the device may be removed under the direction of the employer, provided that specific procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented, and incorporated into the employer's energy control program. The employer shall demonstrate that the specific procedure provides a degree of safety equivalent to that provided by the removal of the device by the authorized employee who applied it. The specific procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(a) Verification by the employer that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility;
(b) Making all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform him or her that his or her lockout or tagout device has been removed; and
(c) Ensuring that the authorized employee has this knowledge before he or she resumes work at that facility.
WAC 296-45-17545 Temporary removal of lockout/tagout. If the lockout or tagout devices must be temporarily removed from energy isolating devices and the machine or equipment must be energized to test or position the machine, equipment, or component thereof, the following sequence of actions shall be followed:
(1) Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials in accordance with this section;
(2) Remove employees from the machine or equipment area in accordance with this section;
(3) Remove the lockout or tagout devices as specified in this section;
(4) Energize and proceed with the testing or positioning; and
(5) De-energize all systems and reapply energy control measures in accordance with this section to continue the servicing or maintenance.
WAC 296-45-17550 Servicing contractors. When servicing or maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department, or other group, they shall use a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device. Group lockout or tagout devices shall be used in accordance with the procedures required by the following specific requirements:
(1) Primary responsibility shall be vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);
(2) Provision shall be made for the authorized employee to ascertain the exposure status of all individual group members with regard to the lockout or tagout of the machine or equipment;
(3) When more than one crew, craft, department, or other group is involved, assignment of overall job-associated lockout or tagout control responsibility shall be given to an authorized employee designated to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection; and
(4) Each authorized employee shall affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work and shall remove those devices when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained.
WAC 296-45-17555 Shift changes. Procedures shall be used during shift or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of lockout or tagout protection, including provision for the orderly transfer of lockout or tagout device protection between off-going and on-coming employees, to minimize their exposure to hazards from the unexpected energizing or start-up of the machine or equipment or from the release of stored energy.
WAC 296-45-17560 Outside servicing personnel. Whenever outside servicing personnel are to be engaged in activities covered by this section, the on-site employer and the outside employer shall inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures, and each employer shall ensure that his or her personnel understand and comply with restrictions and prohibitions of the energy control procedures being used.
WAC 296-45-17565 Central system operator. If energy isolating devices are installed in a central location under the exclusive control of a system operator, the following requirements apply:
(1) The employer shall use a procedure that affords employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.
(2) The system operator shall place and remove lockout and tagout devices in place of the authorized employee.
(3) Provisions shall be made to identify the authorized employee who is responsible for (that is, being protected by) the lockout or tagout device, to transfer responsibility for lockout and tagout devices, and to ensure that an authorized employee requesting removal or transfer of a lockout or tagout device is the one responsible for it before the device is removed or transferred.
WAC 296-45-195 Trenching and excavation. (1) During excavation or trenching, in order to prevent exposure of employees to the hazards created by damage to dangerous underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work conducted in a manner designed to avoid damage.
(2) Trenching and excavation operations shall comply with the provisions of Part N, chapter 296-155 WAC.
WAC 296-45-205 Enclosed spaces. This section covers enclosed spaces that may be entered by employees. It does not apply to vented vaults if a determination is made that the ventilation system is operating to protect employees before they enter the space. This paragraph applies to routine entry into enclosed spaces in lieu of the permit-space entry requirements contained in WAC 296-62-145. If, after the precautions given in WAC 296-45-205, 296-45-215, and 296-45-225 are taken, the hazards remaining in the enclosed space endanger the life of an entrant or could interfere with escape from the space, then entry into the enclosed space shall meet the permit-space entry requirements of WAC 296-62-145.
Note: Entries into enclosed spaces conducted in accordance with the permit-space entry requirements of WAC 296-62-145 are considered as complying with this section.
(1) "Safe work practices." The employer shall ensure the use of safe work practices for entry into and work in enclosed spaces and for rescue of employees from such spaces.
(2) "Training." Employees who enter enclosed spaces or who serve as attendants shall be trained in the hazards of enclosed space entry, in enclosed space entry procedures, and in enclosed space rescue procedures.
(3) "Rescue equipment." Employers shall provide equipment to ensure the prompt and safe rescue of employees from the enclosed space.
(4) "Evaluation of potential hazards." Before any entrance cover to an enclosed space is removed, the employer shall determine whether it is safe to do so by checking for the presence of any atmospheric pressure or temperature differences and by evaluating whether there might be a hazardous atmosphere in the space. Any conditions making it unsafe to remove the cover shall be eliminated before the cover is removed.
Note: The evaluation called for in this subsection may take the form of a check of the conditions expected to be in the enclosed space. For example, the cover could be checked to see if it is hot and, if it is fastened in place, could be loosened gradually to release any residual pressure. A determination must also be made of whether conditions at the site could cause a hazardous atmosphere, such as an oxygen deficient or flammable atmosphere, to develop within the space.
(5) "Removal of covers." When covers are removed from enclosed spaces, the opening shall be promptly guarded by a railing, temporary cover, or other barrier intended to prevent an accidental fall through the opening and to protect employees working in the space from objects entering the space.
(6) "Hazardous atmosphere." Employees may not enter any enclosed space while it contains a hazardous atmosphere, unless the entry conforms to the generic permit-required confined spaces standard in WAC 296-62-145 through 296-62-14543.
Note: The term "entry" is defined in WAC 296-62-14501.
(7) "Attendants." While work is being performed in the enclosed space, a person with first-aid training meeting WAC 296-45-125 shall be immediately available outside the enclosed space to render emergency assistance if there is reason to believe that a hazard may exist in the space or if a hazard exists because of traffic patterns in the area of the opening used for entry. That person is not precluded from performing other duties outside the enclosed space if these duties do not distract the attendant from monitoring employees within the space.
Note: See WAC 296-45-215(12) for additional requirements on attendants for work in manholes.
(8) "Calibration of test instruments." Test instruments used to monitor atmospheres in enclosed spaces shall be kept in calibration, with a minimum accuracy of + or - 10 percent.
(9) "Testing for oxygen deficiency." Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested for oxygen deficiency with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument, capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for off-site evaluation. If continuous forced air ventilation is provided, testing is not required provided that the procedures used ensure that employees are not exposed to the hazards posed by oxygen deficiency.
(10) "Testing for flammable gases and vapors." Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested for flammable gases and vapors with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for off-site evaluation. This test shall be performed after the oxygen testing and ventilation required by subsection (9) of this section demonstrate that there is sufficient oxygen to ensure the accuracy of the test for flammability.
(11) "Ventilation and monitoring." If flammable gases or vapors are detected or if an oxygen deficiency is found, forced air ventilation shall be used to maintain oxygen at a safe level and to prevent a hazardous concentration of flammable gases and vapors from accumulating. A continuous monitoring program to ensure that no increase in flammable gas or vapor concentration occurs may be followed in lieu of ventilation, if flammable gases or vapors are detected at safe levels.
Note: See the definition of hazardous atmosphere for guidance in determining whether or not a given concentration of a substance is considered to be hazardous.
(12) "Specific ventilation requirements." If continuous forced air ventilation is used, it shall begin before entry is made and shall be maintained long enough to ensure that a safe atmosphere exists before employees are allowed to enter the work area. The forced air ventilation shall be so directed as to ventilate the immediate area where employees are present within the enclosed space and shall continue until all employees leave the enclosed space.
(13) "Air supply." The air supply for the continuous forced air ventilation shall be from a clean source and may not increase the hazards in the enclosed space.
(14) "Open flames." If open flames are used in enclosed spaces, a test for flammable gases and vapors shall be made immediately before the open flame device is used and at least once per hour while the device is used in the space. Testing shall be conducted more frequently if conditions present in the enclosed space indicate that once per hour is insufficient to detect hazardous accumulations of flammable gases or vapors.
Note: See the definition of hazardous atmosphere for guidance in determining whether or not a given concentration of a substance is considered to be hazardous.
WAC 296-45-215 Underground electrical installations. This section provides additional requirements for work on underground electrical installations.
(1) Protective barriers, or approved guards and warning signs must be erected before removing manhole covers or making excavations in places accessible to vehicular or pedestrian traffic.
(2) Whenever an opening is made in the street, it shall be properly guarded or covered until same is closed and whenever an obstruction is left in the roadway after dark, it shall be marked with approved lights, flares or similar devices.
(3) Access. A ladder or other climbing device shall be used to enter and exit a manhole or subsurface vault exceeding 4 feet (122 cm) in depth. No employee may climb into or out of a manhole or vault by stepping on cables or hangers.
(4) When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault:
(a) No entry shall be permitted unless forced ventilation is provided or the atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for oxygen deficiency and the presence of explosive or potentially hazardous gases or fumes.
(b) When unsafe conditions are detected, by testing or other means, the work area shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry.
(c) Provisions shall be made for a continuous supply of air as provided for in Part L, chapter 296-62 WAC.
(d) When forced ventilation is not used a method of monitoring said manhole or vault so as to prevent the occurrence of oxygen deficiency due to work being performed in said manhole or vault, and to detect the presence of any explosive gases or fumes which may occur while the employees are working in said manhole or vault.
(5) When open flames are used or smoking is permitted in manholes, adequate mechanical forced air ventilation shall be used.
(6) Before using open flames in a manhole or excavation in an area where combustible gases or liquids may be present, such as near a gasoline service station, the atmosphere of the manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the combustible gases or liquids prior to the entry.
(7) When work is to be performed in manholes containing any wires or appliances carrying electrical current, they shall be in a sanitary condition.
(8) Care shall be taken to prevent the possibility of vehicles or pedestrians coming in contact with the wires and equipment.
(9) Lowering equipment into manholes. Equipment used to lower materials and tools into manholes or vaults shall be capable of supporting the weight to be lowered and shall be checked for defects before use. Before tools or materials are lowered into the opening for a manhole or vault, each employee working in the manhole or vault shall be clear of the area directly under the opening.
(10) Materials shall not be thrown into or out of manholes but shall be placed in the proper receptacle and hoisted in and out by means of a rope.
(11) Tools and materials shall not be left on the ground around or near the manhole opening where they might be pushed or otherwise fall into the hole.
(12) Attendants for manholes.
(a) An attendant shall be kept at the surface when there is any hazard to the employees in the manhole and the attendant should not leave the manhole unwatched until such time as all employees are out and the cover has been replaced.
(b) While work is being performed in a manhole containing energized electric equipment, an employee with first aid and CPR training meeting WAC 296-45-125(1) shall be available on the surface in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance.
Note 1: An attendant may also be required under WAC 296-45-205(7). One person may serve to fulfill both requirements. However, attendants required under WAC 296-45-205(7) are not permitted to enter the manhole.
Note 2: Employees entering manholes containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more are required to be qualified under WAC 296-45-325(1) through (4).
(c) No work shall be permitted to be done in any manhole or subway on any energized wire, cable or appliance carrying more than 300 volts of electricity by less than two qualified persons who shall at all times, while performing such work, be in the same manhole or subway in which work is being done. This rule shall not apply to work on telephone, telegraph or signal wires or cables.
(d) For the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work, an employee working alone may enter, for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, if the employer can demonstrate that the employee will be protected from all electrical hazards.
(e) Reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, shall be maintained among all employees involved in the job.
(13) Cable in manholes or underground vaults shall be accessible to employees and a clear working space shall be maintained at all times; and/or approved protective guards, barriers, etc., when installed shall be considered as providing adequate working clearance for cables over 5 k.v. If a manhole and/or underground vault is determined to have an electrical or structural hazard, no work shall be done in the manhole and/or vault until the unsafe condition is corrected or de-energized.
(14) No work shall be performed on cables or equipment unless they have been properly identified by an approved method.
(15) Duct rods. If duct rods are used, they shall be installed in the direction presenting the least hazard to employees. An employee shall be stationed at the far end of the duct line being rodded to ensure that the required minimum approach distances are maintained.
(16) Multiple cables. When multiple cables are present in a work area, the cable to be worked shall be identified by electrical means, unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance or location or by other readily apparent means of identification. Cables other than the one being worked shall be protected from damage.
(17) Before cutting into a high voltage cable or opening a high voltage splice, the cable shall be de-energized then clearance obtained, tested and then grounded in an approved manner. The cable to be worked on shall be identified by tags or equivalent means.
(18) Moving cables. Energized cables that are to be moved shall be inspected for defects.
(19) Insulated platforms or other protective devices shall be provided when work is to be done on energized wires or equipment in manholes.
(20) Furnaces shall always be placed in a secure, level position on the downhill side of the manhole to avoid spillage of hot metals or compounds into the manhole.
(21) Pulling underground cable. When pulling cable(s) all employees shall be made aware of the hazard of being caught in the sheaves, lashings or winch gears. All employees shall stand clear of the pulling line when the pull is begun or when the line is under tension. This rule applies to all work performed by means of a winch.
(22) Fishing conduit or ducts. When fishing conduit or ducts, it shall first be determined that the fish tape or wires will not contact any energized line or equipment.
(23) WAC 296-45-65023 on clearances and WAC 296-45-65026 on grounding shall be complied with.
(24) Defective cables. Where a cable in a manhole has one or more abnormalities that could lead to or be an indication of an impending fault, the defective cable shall be de-energized before any employee may work in the manhole, except when service load conditions and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the cable remain energized. In that case, employees may enter the manhole provided they are protected from the possible effects of a failure by shields or other devices that are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault in the joint.
Note: Abnormalities such as oil or compound leaking from cables or joints, broken cable sheaths or joint sleeves, hot localized surface temperatures of cables or joints, or joints that are swollen beyond normal tolerance are presumed to lead to or be an indication of an impending fault.
(25) Sheath continuity. When work is performed on buried cable or on cable in manholes, metallic sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening (or by equivalent means), or the cable sheath shall be treated as energized.
WAC 296-45-225 Underground residential distribution (URD). (1) General.
(a) Each employee shall be knowledgeable of the equipment provided for their use and shall at all times use this equipment only for the purpose intended.
(b) U.R.D. cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized shall be considered as an effective barrier to protect the employees and table one need not apply.
(i) Workers will take adequate precautions to avoid physical contact with energized U.R.D. cable by using approved procedures and/or protective devices.
(ii) When handling energized U.R.D. primary cables, the work shall be done with approved tools and/or procedures by two qualified employees. Switching is exempt from this rule.
(iii) When energized terminators or load-break elbows are handled by a hot stick, there shall be two qualified employees at the scene.
(c) When energized pad-mounted transformers or similar equipment are to be left unlocked and open, they shall be attended by a qualified employee.
(d) Approved tools and procedures shall be used to remove any debris, vines, weeds, etc., from an underground system.
(e) A primary and secondary system neutral on any energized circuit shall not be opened under any circumstances except for testing.
(f) Primary and secondary neutrals shall be firmly connected and grounded before the circuit or equipment is energized.
(g) Where different phases are in the same vault, enclosures, or parked in some manner that they could be looped, these phases shall be marked or identified.
(h) Bayonet fuses:
(i) Bayonet fuses shall not be closed into suspected faults or overloads.
(ii) Submersible U.G. transformer installations will require other methods of energizing or de-energizing and bayonet fuses shall not be used for this purpose.
(iii) Bayonet fuses shall only be operated after pad-mount transformers have been properly vented.
(iv) Bayonet fuses shall only be operated in accordance with manufacturing design and rating capabilities.
(2) Working on cables.
(a) Before any work is to be performed on underground cables and apparatus carrying high voltage, they shall be de-energized with the following exceptions:
(i) Replacing fuses, operating switches, closing or opening load-break elbows, when approved protective devices are used.
(ii) Work in the high-voltage compartment of pad-mounted transformers and similar equipment installed above ground, provided the work is done by approved methods.
(b) Only one energized conductor shall be worked on at any one time, and protective means shall be used to insulate or isolate it from all others.
(c) When work is to be performed in manholes containing any wires or appliances carrying electrical current, they shall be in a sanitary condition.
WAC 296-45-255 Protective equipment. (1) Rubber protective equipment shall be in accordance and tested as follows:
|Rubber Insulating Gloves||(ASTM) D 120-87|
|Rubber Matting for Use||(ASTM) D 178-88|
|Around Electrical Apparatus|
|Rubber Insulating Blankets||(ASTM) D 1046-88a|
|Rubber Insulating Hoods||(ASTM) D 1049-88|
|Rubber Insulating Line Hose||(ASTM) D 1050-90|
|Rubber Insulating Sleeves||(ASTM) D 1051-87|
(2) No protective equipment or material other than rubber shall be used: Provided, That such other nonconductive equipment may be used if it provides equal or better (dielectric) electrical and mechanical protection than rubber protective equipment: Provided, That the employer obtain before placing in service, manufacturer's data or other data to demonstrate that such nonrubber protective equipment provided equal or better electrical and mechanical protection than approved rubber equipment.
(3) Protective equipment shall not be used at voltages in excess of that for which the manufacturer has supplied data to the employer demonstrating that it is fit for such voltages.
(4) No protective equipment shall be modified, altered, or used for purposes other than those for which it is designed unless and until the manufacturer has, in writing, agreed or suggested that there be such modification, alteration, or use.
(5) Each rubber glove before it is used shall be inspected for defects and an approved air test performed. If, upon inspection, rubber gloves are either defective or appear to be defective, they shall not be used.
(6) Before being placed in service, all rubber protective equipment shall be numbered and records kept for test purposes and assignment.
(7) Rubber protective equipment shall not be used unless it has been dielectrically tested within six months and bears marking or identification of the date of the test or the expiration date.
(8) Protector gloves must be worn over insulating gloves.
Exception: Protector gloves need not be used with Class 0 gloves, under limited-use conditions, where small equipment and parts manipulation necessitate unusually high finger dexterity.
Note: Extra care is needed in the visual examination of the glove and in the avoidance of handling sharp objects.
(9) Rubber gloves when not in use shall be carried in an approved bag provided and designed for that purpose. It shall be provided by the employer and made available to the employees.
(10) Approved rubber gloves and carrying bag shall be assigned to each employee who works with, or is exposed to energized parts.
(11) Rubber protective equipment shall not be vulcanized or patched.
(12) A compartment or box shall be provided on each electric line truck, which box or compartment shall be used for storing rubber protective equipment. No equipment shall be stored in said compartment or box which can or could cause damage to the rubber equipment or goods placed in the compartment or box. Additionally, a separate container or compartment shall be provided for rubber blankets.
(13) Line hose shall not be doubled on themselves at any time. All blankets before storage must be wiped clean and rolled, not folded, before being placed in the container or box.
(14) Protective line equipment of material other than rubber shall be kept clean and visually inspected before each use.
(15) If protective line equipment of material other than rubber is found to be substantially defective or unsuitable for the purpose for which it is designed and intended, said protective line equipment shall not be used for personal protection of employees as may be required in Table 1 of this chapter. Said protective line equipment shall be marked defective but may be otherwise used unless the defect or damage to said protective line equipment creates additional safety hazards.
WAC 296-45-25505 Personal protective equipment. (1) General. Personal protective equipment shall meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2.
(2) All protective hats shall be in accordance with the specifications of ANSI Z89.2-1971 Edition Industrial Protective Helmets for Electrical Workers, Class B, and shall be worn at the jobsite by employees who are exposed to overhead or electrical hazards.
(3) Wearing apparel. Goggles, hearing protection, respirators, rubber gloves, and other such personal protective devices shall not be interchanged among employees unless they have been sanitized.
WAC 296-45-25510 Fall protection. (1) Personal fall arrest equipment shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-155-245.
(2) Body belts and safety straps for work positioning shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-155-245.
(3) Body belts, safety straps, lanyards, lifelines, and body harnesses shall be inspected before use each day to determine that the equipment is in safe working condition. Defective equipment may not be used.
(4) Employees shall not wear climbers while doing work where they are not required. Employees shall not continue to wear their climbers while working on the ground; except for momentary or short periods of time on the ground.
(5) Employees, when working from a hook ladder, must either belt themselves securely to the ladder, attach themselves to the structures by means of a safety line, or belt themselves to ladder safety equipment, which shall consist of a safety rope or belting threaded through the rungs or secured to the ladder at intervals of not more than three feet.
(6) Before an employee throws his/her weight on a belt, the employee shall determine that the snap or fasteners are properly engaged.
(7) Safety straps shall not be placed around poles above the cross-arm except where it is not possible for the strap to slide or be slipped over the top of the pole by inadvertence of the employee. Neither end of the strap shall be allowed to hang loose or dangle while the employee is ascending or descending poles or other structures.
(8) Body belts and safety straps shall not be stored with sharp-edged tools or near sharp objects. When a body belt, safety strap and climbers are kept in the same container, they shall be stored in such a manner as to avoid cutting or puncturing the material of the body belt or safety strap with the gaffs or climbers.
(9) Employees shall not attach metal hooks or other metal devices to body belts. Leather straps or rawhide thongs shall have hardwood or fibre crossbars. Leather straps and rawhide thongs shall not have metal or other conductive crossbars on them.
(10) Climbing gaffs shall be kept properly sharpened and shall be at least 1-1/8 inches in length.
(11) Lifelines shall be protected against being cut or abraded.
(12) Fall arrest equipment, work positioning equipment, or travel restricting equipment shall be used by employees working at elevated locations more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground on poles, towers, or similar structures if other fall protection has not been provided. Fall protection equipment is not required to be used by a qualified employee climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures, unless conditions, such as, but not limited to, ice, high winds, the design of the structure (for example, no provision for holding on with hands), or the presence of contaminants on the structure, could cause the employee to lose his or her grip or footing.
Note 1: This subsection applies to structures that support overhead electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment. It does not apply to portions of buildings, such as loading docks, to electric equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, nor to aerial lifts. Requirements for fall protection associated with walking and working surfaces are contained in WAC 296-155-245; requirements for fall protection associated with aerial lifts are contained in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J-1.
Note 2: Employees undergoing training are not considered "qualified employees" for the purposes of this provision. Unqualified employees (including trainees) are required to use fall protection any time they are more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground.
(13) The following requirements apply to personal fall arrest systems:
(a) When stopping or arresting a fall, personal fall arrest systems shall limit the maximum arresting force on an employee to 1800 pounds (8 kN) if used with a body harness.
(b) Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor contact any lower level.
(14) If vertical lifelines or droplines are used, not more than one employee may be attached to any one lifeline.
(15) Snaphooks may not be connected to loops made in webbing-type lanyards.
(16) Snaphooks may not be connected to each other.
WAC 296-45-275 Ladders, platforms, and manhole steps. (1) General. Requirements for ladders contained in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1, apply, except as specifically noted in subsection (2) of this section.
(2) Special ladders and platforms. Portable ladders and platforms used on structures or conductors in conjunction with overhead line work need not meet chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1 or chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J. However, these ladders and platforms shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Ladders and platforms shall be secured to prevent their becoming accidentally dislodged.
(b) Ladders and platforms may not be loaded in excess of the working loads for which they are designed.
(c) Ladders and platforms may be used only in applications for which they were designed.
(d) In the configurations in which they are used, ladders and platforms shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 2.5 times the maximum intended load.
(e) All ladders shall be handled and stored in such a manner as to prevent damage to the ladder.
(f) When ascending or descending a ladder, the employee shall face the ladder and have free use of both hands.
(g) All defective ladders shall be taken out of service and labeled as defective.
(h) When a ladder is being used which is not fixed or otherwise secured, there shall be an attendant to hold the ladder and watch traffic when the work is being done on streets, alleys, sidewalks, or in industrial plants or other places where there exists the possibility of accidental contact with the ladder by third persons or vehicles.
(i) When working on the ladder, employees shall, where possible, tie the top of the ladder to a substantial object to prevent falling unless the ladder is equipped with approved hooks which may be used for the same purpose.
(j) Portable ladders shall not be moved with employees on the ladder.
(k) No employee shall ascend or descend a rolling ladder while it is moving.
(l) No employee shall stand on the top two steps of a step ladder.
(m) No employee shall use a step ladder as a straight ladder.
(n) Ladders shall always be placed on a secure footing with both legs resting firmly on the lower surface.
(o) Ladders made by fastening cleats or similar devices across a single rail shall not be used.
(3) Conductive ladders. Portable metal ladders and other portable conductive ladders may not be used near exposed energized lines or equipment. However, in specialized high-voltage work, conductive ladders shall be used where the employer can demonstrate that nonconductive ladders would present a greater hazard than conductive ladders.
Note: A greater electrical hazard would be static electricity such as might be found in extra high voltage substations.
(4) All conductive or metal ladders shall be prominently marked and identified as being conductive and shall be grounded when used near energized lines or equipment.
Note: See chapter 296-24 WAC for additional ladder requirements.
WAC 296-45-285 Hand, and portable powered tools. (1) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall assure that each hand and portable powered tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable condition.
(b) The employer shall assure that each tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift. At a minimum, the inspection shall include the following:
(i) Handles and guards, to assure that they are sound, tight-fitting, properly shaped, free of splinters and sharp edges, and in place;
(ii) Controls, to assure proper function;
(iii) Heads of shock, impact-driven and driving tools, to assure that there is no mushrooming;
(iv) Cutting edges, to assure that they are sharp and properly shaped; and
(v) All other safety devices, to assure that they are in place and function properly.
(c) The employer shall assure that each tool is used only for purposes for which it has been designed.
(d) When the head of any shock, impact-driven or driving tool begins to chip, it shall be repaired or removed from service.
(e) The cutting edge of each tool shall be sharpened in accordance with manufacturer's specifications whenever it becomes dull during the workshift.
(f) Each tool shall be stored in the provided location when not being used at a work site.
(g) Racks, boxes, holsters or other means shall be provided, arranged and used for the transportation of tools so that a hazard is not created for any vehicle operator or passenger.
(2) Electric equipment connected by cord and plug must meet the following requirements:
(a) Cord- and plug-connected equipment supplied by premises wiring is covered by chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.
(b) Any cord- and plug-connected equipment supplied by other than premises wiring shall comply with one of the following instead of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L:
(i) It shall be equipped with a cord containing an equipment grounding conductor connected to the tool frame and to a means for grounding the other end (however, this option may not be used where the introduction of the ground into the work environment increases the hazard to an employee); or
(ii) It shall be of the double-insulated type conforming to 296-24 WAC, Part L; or
(iii) It shall be connected to the power supply through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary.
(3) Portable and vehicle-mounted generators. Portable and vehicle-mounted generators used to supply cord- and plug-connected equipment shall meet the following requirements:
(a) The generator may only supply equipment located on the generator or the vehicle and cord- and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the generator or the vehicle.
(b) The non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles shall be bonded to the generator frame.
(c) In the case of vehicle-mounted generators, the frame of the generator shall be bonded to the vehicle frame.
(d) Any neutral conductor shall be bonded to the generator frame.
(4) Hydraulic and pneumatic tools must meet the following requirements:
(a) Safe operating pressures for hydraulic and pneumatic tools, hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and fittings may not be exceeded.
Note: If any hazardous defects are present, no operating pressure would be safe, and the hydraulic or pneumatic equipment involved may not be used. In the absence of defects, the maximum rated operating pressure is the maximum safe pressure.
(b) A hydraulic or pneumatic tool used where it may contact exposed live parts shall (use non-conductive hoses and) be designed and maintained for such use.
(c) The hydraulic system supplying a hydraulic tool used where it may contact exposed live parts shall provide protection against loss of insulating value for the voltage involved due to the formation of a partial vacuum in the hydraulic line.
Note: Hydraulic lines without check valves having a separation of more than 35 feet (10.7 m) between the oil reservoir and the upper end of the hydraulic system promote the formation of a partial vacuum.
(d) A pneumatic tool used on energized electric lines or equipment or used where it may contact exposed live parts shall provide protection against the accumulation of moisture in the air supply.
(e) Pressure shall be released before connections are broken, unless quick acting, self-closing connectors are used. Hoses may not be kinked.
(f) Employees may not use any part of their bodies to locate or attempt to stop a hydraulic leak.
WAC 296-45-295 Gasoline engine power chain saws. (1) Each chain saw placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a chain brake and shall otherwise meet the requirements of the ANSI B175.1-1991 "Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws." Each chain saw placed into service before February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a protective device that minimizes chain saw kickback, i.e., reduced kickback bar, chains, bar tip guard or chain brake. No chain-saw kickback device shall be removed or otherwise disabled.
(2) Gasoline-engine power saw operations shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-54-515(10).
(3) The chain saw shall be operated and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
(4) The employer must ensure that each chain saw, including any chain saw provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift. At a minimum, the inspection shall include the following:
(a) Chain-saw chains, to assure proper adjustment;
(b) Chain-saw mufflers, to assure that they are operational and in place;
(c) Chain brakes and nose shielding devices, to assure that they are in place and function properly;
(5) The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (3 m) from any open flame or other source of ignition.
(6) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.
(7) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported. Drop-starting a chain saw is prohibited.
(8) The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake engaged.
(9) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation.
(10) The chain-saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.
(11) Prior to felling any tree, the chain saw operator shall clear away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path.
(12) The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead.
(13) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.
(14) The chain saw shall be shut off or at idle before the feller starts their retreat.
(15) The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged whenever a saw is carried further than 50 feet (15.2 m). The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged when a saw is carried less than 50 feet if conditions such as, but not limited to, the terrain, underbrush and slippery surfaces, may create a hazard for an employee.
(16) Each power saw weighing more than 15 pounds (6.8 kilograms, service weight) that is used in trees shall be supported by a separate line, except when work is performed from an aerial lift and except during topping or removing operations where no supporting limb will be available, and the following:
(a) Each power saw shall be equipped with a control that will return the saw to idling speed when released;
(b) Each power saw shall be equipped with a clutch and shall be so adjusted that the clutch will not engage the chain drive at idling speed;
(c) Drop starting of saws over 15 pounds (6.8 kg) is permitted outside of the bucket of an aerial lift only if the area below the lift is clear of personnel;
(d) A power saw engine may be started and operated only when all employees other than the operator are clear of the saw;
(e) A power saw may not be running when the saw is being carried up into a tree by an employee; and
(f) Power saw engines shall be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
WAC 296-45-305 Live-line tools. (1) Design of tools. Live-line tool rods, tubes, and poles shall be designed and constructed to withstand the following minimum tests:
(a) 100,000 volts per foot (3281 volts per centimeter) of length for 5 minutes if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP); or
(b) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per centimeter) of length for 3 minutes if the tool is made of wood; or
(c) Other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
Note: Live-line tools using rod and tube that meet ASTM F711-89, Standard Specification for Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube Used in Live-Line Tools, conform to subsection (1)(a) of this section.
(2) Condition of tools.
(a) Each live-line tool shall be wiped clean and visually inspected for defects before use each day.
(b) If any defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is present after wiping, the tool shall be removed from service and examined and tested according to this section before being returned to service.
(c) Live-line tools used for primary employee protection shall be removed from service every two years and whenever required under this subsection for examination, cleaning, repair, and testing as follows:
(i) Each tool shall be thoroughly examined for defects.
(ii) If a defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is found, the tool shall be repaired and refinished or shall be permanently removed from service. If no such defect or contamination is found, the tool shall be cleaned and waxed.
(iii) The tool shall be tested in accordance with this section under the following conditions:
(A) After the tool has been repaired or refinished; and
(B) After the examination if repair or refinishing is not performed, unless the tool is made of FRP rod or foam-filled FRP tube and the employer can demonstrate that the tool has no defects that could cause it to fail in use.
(iv) The test method used shall be designed to verify the tool's integrity along its entire working length and, if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic, its integrity under wet conditions.
(v) The voltage applied during the tests shall be as follows:
(A) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per centimeter) of length for one minute if the tool is made of fiberglass; or
(B) 50,000 volts per foot (1640 volts per centimeter) of length for one minute if the tool is made of wood; or
(C) Other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
Note: Guidelines for the examination, cleaning, repairing, and in-service testing of live-line tools are contained in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Guide for In-Service Maintenance and Electrical Testing of Live-Line Tools, IEEE Std. 978-1984.
(d) Live-line tools and rope shall be stored and maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent damage. Live-line tools and ropes shall not be used for purposes other than line work.
WAC 296-45-315 Materials handling and storage. (1) General. Material handling and storage shall conform to the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D.
(2) Materials storage near energized lines or equipment. In areas not restricted to qualified persons only, materials or equipment may not be stored closer to energized lines or exposed energized parts of equipment than the following distances plus an amount providing for the maximum sag and side swing of all conductors and providing for the height and movement of material handling equipment:
(a) For lines and equipment energized at 50 kV or less, the distance is 10 feet (305 cm).
(b) For lines and equipment energized at more than 50 kV, the distance is 10 feet (305 cm) plus 4 inches (10 cm) for every 10 kV over 50 kV.
(c) In areas restricted to qualified employees, material may not be stored within the working space about energized lines or equipment.
Note: Requirements for the size of the working space are contained in WAC 296-45-475(1) and 296-45-48515.
(3) Prior to unloading steel, poles, crossarms and similar materials, the load shall be thoroughly examined to determine if the load has shifted, binders or stakes have broken or the load is otherwise hazardous to employees. The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load. This provision shall not apply to electric construction crews when setting or removing poles.
(4) Pole handling.
(a) During pole hauling operations, all loads shall be secured to prevent displacement, and a red flag shall be displayed at the trailing end of the longest pole.
(b) While loading and unloading materials, roadways shall not be blocked unless approved traffic control is used.
(c) When hauling poles during darkness, illuminated warning devices shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole in accordance with the state of Washington motor vehicle code.
(5) Tag lines. When necessary to control loads, tag lines or other approved devices shall be used.
(6) Oil filled equipment. During construction or repair of oil filled equipment, the oil may be stored in temporary containers other than those required by WAC 296-155-270, such as pillow tanks.
(7) Storage of tools and materials. All tools and materials shall be stored in a safe and orderly manner in yards for equipment and other areas.
WAC 296-45-325 Working on or near exposed energized parts. This section applies to work on exposed live parts, or near enough to them, to expose the employee to any hazard they present.
(1) General. Only qualified employees may work on or with exposed energized lines or parts of equipment. Only qualified employees may work in areas containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of equipment operating at 50 volts or more. Electric lines and equipment shall be considered and treated as energized unless the provisions of WAC 296-45-175 through 296-45-17565 or 296-45-335 have been followed.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, at least two qualified employees shall be present while the following types of work are being performed:
(a) Installation, removal, or repair of lines that are energized at more than 600 volts;
(b) Installation, removal, or repair of de-energized lines if an employee is exposed to contact with other parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(c) Installation, removal, or repair of equipment, such as transformers, capacitors, and regulators, if an employee is exposed to contact with parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(d) Work involving the use of mechanical equipment, other than insulated aerial lifts, near parts energized at more than 600 volts; and
(e) Other work that exposes an employee to electrical hazards greater than or equal to those posed by operations that are specifically listed in subsection (2)(a) through (e) of this section.
Note 1: One employee shall serve principally as a standby person who shall be so located that they may physically reach the other employee in the event of an accident either with their hand or with a hot stick. The stand-by shall be so positioned as to be able to observe the other employee, their bodily movements, and verbally warn of any impending dangers. In no case when working in pairs shall employees work simultaneously on energized wires or parts of different phases or polarity;
Note 2: In cases of necessity the stand-by person may temporarily assist the other employee provided that they both work on wires or parts of the same phase or polarity. Both employees shall so position themselves so that the presence of the second person does not increase the hazard.
(3) The provisions of WAC 296-45-325(2) do not apply in the following circumstances:
(a) When re-fusing circuits or equipment with a hot stick.
(b) When operating switches by means of operating handle or switch sticks.
(c) When installing or removing a hot line clamp connection with an approved hot stick on single phase line or apparatus, providing that the connection or disconnection does not interrupt or pick up a load.
(d) When installing or removing by hotstick simple load metering devices provided the connection does not interrupt or pickup load.
(e) Emergency repairs to the extent necessary to safeguard the general public.
(4) "Minimum approach distances." The employer shall ensure that no employee approaches or takes any conductive object closer to exposed energized parts than set forth in Table 1 through Table 4, unless:
The employee is insulated from the energized part (insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves worn in accordance with subsection (7) of this section are considered insulation of the employee only with regard to the energized part upon which work is being performed); or
The energized part is insulated from the employee and from any other conductive object at a different potential.
Note 1: WAC 296-45-475 (5)(a) and 296-45-48525(1) contain requirements for the guarding and isolation of live parts. Parts of electric circuits that meet these two provisions are not considered as "exposed" unless a guard is removed or an employee enters the space intended to provide isolation from the live parts.
Note 2: When an employee is required to work on or within reach of any unprotected conductors that are or may become energized at more than 50 volts and less than 600 volts between phases, they shall take the following precautions:
1: They shall wear approved rubber gloves during the time they are working on such conductor, or
2: They shall cover, with approved devices, any adjacent unprotected conductor that could be touched by any part of their body, and use insulated tools.
3: Cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized, shall be considered as an effective barrier to protect the employees and Table 1 need not apply.
(5) Initial determination.
(a) Before any work is performed, the location of energized lines and their condition, the location and condition of energized equipment, the condition of the poles, the location of circuits and equipment including power communication lines, CATV and fire alarm circuits, shall be determined as shall any other particular hazard of a particular work site.
(b) No work shall be performed on energized lines or parts until the voltage of such equipment and lines is determined.
(6) Type of insulation. If the employee is to be insulated from energized parts by the use of insulating gloves (under subsection (4)(a) of this section), insulating sleeves shall also be used. However, insulating sleeves need not be used under the following conditions:
(a) If exposed energized parts on which work is not being performed are insulated from the employee; and
(b) If such insulation is placed from a position not exposing the employee's upper arm to contact with other energized parts.
(7) Working position. The employer shall ensure that each employee, to the extent that other safety-related conditions at the worksite permit, works in a position from which a slip or shock will not bring the employee's body into contact with exposed, uninsulated parts energized at a potential different from the employee.
(8) Making connections. The employer shall ensure that connections are made as follows:
(a) In connecting de-energized equipment or lines to an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall first attach the wire to the de-energized part;
(b) When disconnecting equipment or lines from an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall remove the source end first; and
(c) When lines or equipment are connected to or disconnected from energized circuits, loose conductors shall be kept away from exposed energized parts.
(9) Rubber gloves can only be used on 5,000 volts or less between phases.
(10) It shall not be permissible to consider one part of a high voltage switch or disconnect as de-energized for the purpose of doing work on it if the remainder of the switch or disconnect remains energized unless approved barriers are erected which will prevent employees who are doing the work on such equipment from coming in direct contact with the energized parts.
(11) Conductor support tools such as link sticks, strain carriers, and insulator cradles may be used: Provided, That the clear insulation is at least as long as the insulator string or the minimum distance specified in Table 1 for the operating voltage.
(a) When work is performed within reaching distance of exposed energized parts of equipment, the employer shall ensure that each employee removes or renders nonconductive all exposed conductive articles, such as key or watch chains, rings, or wrist watches or bands, unless such articles do not increase the hazards associated with contact with the energized parts.
(b) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs in the hazards involved.
(c) The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of injury that would be sustained by the employee.
Note: Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibited by this subsection, unless the employer can demonstrate that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered or that the clothing is worn in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved: Acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon.
(d) Workers shall wear clothing appropriate to the season and the kind of work being performed. Shirts or jumpers must have full length sleeves that are rolled down. Protective hard hats and eye protection shall be worn when working on or near live parts or while climbing poles.
(13) Fuse handling. When fuses must be installed or removed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts or with exposed parts energized at more than 50 volts, the employer shall ensure that tools or gloves rated for the voltage are used. When expulsion-type fuses are installed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears eye protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-45-25505(1), uses a tool rated for the voltage, and is clear of the exhaust path of the fuse barrel.
(14) Covered (noninsulated) conductors. The requirements of this section which pertain to the hazards of exposed live parts also apply when work is performed in the proximity of covered (noninsulated) wires.
(15) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts. Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment or devices, such as transformer cases and circuit breaker housings, shall be treated as energized at the highest voltage to which they are exposed, unless the employer inspects the installation and determines that these parts are grounded before work is performed.
(16) Opening circuits under load. Devices used to open circuits under load conditions shall be designed to interrupt the current involved.
|Table 1: AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance|
|Distance to employee|
|Voltage in kilovolts phase to phase*||Phase to ground||Phase to Phase|
|0 to 0.050||not specified||not specified|
|0.051 to 0.300||avoid contact||avoid contact|
|0.301 to 0.750||0.31||1-0||0.31||1-0|
|0.0751 to 15||0.65||2-2||0.67||2-3|
|15.1 to 36.0||0.77||2-7||0.86||2-10|
|36.1 to 46.0||0.84||2-9||0.96||3-2|
|46.1 to 72.5||1.00**||3-3**||1.20||3-11|
|72.6 to 121||0.95**||3-2**||1.29||4-3|
|138 to 145||1.09||3-7||1.50||4-11|
|161 to 169||1.22||4-0||1.71||5-8|
|230 to 242||1.59||5-3||2.27||7-6|
|345 to 362||2.59||8-6||3.80||12-6|
|500 to 550||3.42||11-3||5.50||18-1|
|765 to 800||4.53||14-11||7.91||26-0|
|*For single-phase systems, use the highest voltage available.|
|For single-phase lines off three phase systems, use the phase-to-phase voltage of the system.|
|**The 46.1 to 72.5 kV phase-to-ground 3-3 distance contains a 1-3 electrical component and a 2-0 inadvertent movement|
|component while the 72.6 to 121 kV phase-to-ground 3-2 distance contains a 2-2 electrical component and a 1-0 inadvertent|
Note 1: These distances take into consideration the highest switching surge an employee will be exposed to on any system with air as the insulating medium and the maximum voltages shown.
Note 2: The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
Note 3: See Appendix B to this section for information on how the minimum approach distances listed in the tables were derived.
WAC 296-45-335 De-energizing lines and equipment for employee protection. (1) Application. This section applies to the de-energizing of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Control of hazardous energy sources used in the generation of electric energy is covered in WAC 296-45-175. Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been de-energized under procedures other than those required by WAC 296-45-175 or 296-45-335, as applicable, shall be treated as energized.
(a) If a system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, all of the requirements of subsection (3) of this section shall be observed, in the order given.
(b) If no system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, one employee in the crew shall be designated as being in charge of the clearance. All of the requirements of subsection (3) of this section apply, in the order given, except as provided in subsection (2)(c) of this section. The employee in charge of the clearance shall take the place of the system operator, as necessary.
(c) If only one crew will be working on the lines or equipment and if the means of disconnection is accessible and visible to and under the sole control of the employee in charge of the clearance, subsection (3)(a), (c), and (d) of this section do not apply. Additionally, tags required by the remaining provisions of subsection (3) of this section need not be used.
(d) Any disconnecting means that are accessible to persons outside the employer's control (for example, the general public) shall be rendered inoperable while they are open for the purpose of protecting employees.
(3) De-energizing lines and equipment.
(a) In all cases, switching orders must be given directly to the employees in charge of operating the switches by the system operator who has jurisdiction and such communications must be repeated back word for word to the speaker. When requesting clearance on lines under the control of the system operator, a person requesting the clearance shall obtain the name of the system operator to whom the request was made and the system operator shall obtain the name of the person requesting the clearance; and assure that the person is qualified to receive such a clearance. A designated employee shall make a request of the system operator to have the particular section of line or equipment de-energized. The designated employee becomes the employee in charge (as this term is used in subsection (2)(b) of this section) and is responsible for the clearance. In giving a clearance, the system operator shall make certain that the person to whom the clearance is given is fully aware of the extent or the limits of the clearance.
(b) All switches, disconnectors, jumpers, taps, and other means through which known sources of electric energy may be supplied to the particular lines and equipment to be de-energized shall be opened. Such means shall be rendered inoperable, unless its design does not so permit, and tagged to indicate that employees are at work.
(c) Automatically and remotely controlled switches that could cause the opened disconnecting means to close shall also be tagged at the point of control. The automatic or remote control feature shall be rendered inoperable, unless its design does not so permit.
(d) Tags shall prohibit operation of the disconnecting means and shall indicate that employees are at work.
(e) After the applicable requirements in subsection (3)(a) through (d) of this section have been followed and the employee in charge of the work has been given a clearance by the system operator, the lines and equipment to be worked shall be tested to ensure that they are de-energized.
(4) The system operator shall order clearance tags printed on red cardboard, or equivalent, not less than 2-1/4 inches by 4-1/2 inches, attached to all switches opened or checked open to provide clearance on any line or equipment for employees to work thereon.
(5) Clearance tags attached to substation control devices and to line switches beyond the switchyard of any substation; indicating the limits of the clearance involved; shall state the designation of the switch opened or checked open and tagged; the name of the person to whom the clearance is to be issued; the date and time the switch was opened or checked open; the name of the dispatcher ordering the switching and tagging; and the name of the person doing the switching and tagging.
(6) Protective grounds shall be installed as required by WAC 296-45-345.
(7) After the applicable requirements of subsection (3)(a) through (d) of this section have been followed, the lines and equipment involved may be worked as de-energized.
(8) If two or more independent crews will be working on the same lines or equipment, each crew shall independently comply with the requirements in subsection (3) of this section.
(9) To transfer the clearance, the employee in charge (or, if the employee in charge is forced to leave the worksite due to illness or other emergency, the employee's supervisor) shall inform the system operator; employees in the crew shall be informed of the transfer; and the new employee in charge shall be responsible for the clearance.
(10) To release a clearance, the employee in charge shall:
(a) Notify employees under his or her direction that the clearance is to be released;
(b) Determine that all employees in the crew are clear of the lines and equipment;
(c) Determine that all protective grounds installed by the crew have been removed; and
(d) Report this information to the system operator and release the clearance.
(11) The person releasing a clearance shall be the same person that requested the clearance, unless responsibility has been transferred under subsection (9) of this section.
(12) Tags may not be removed unless the associated clearance has been released under subsection (10) of this section.
(13) Only after all protective grounds have been removed, after all crews working on the lines or equipment have released their clearances, after all employees are clear of the lines and equipment, and after all protective tags have been removed from a given point of disconnection, may action be initiated to reenergize the lines or equipment at that point of disconnection.
(14) To meet unforeseen conditions, it will be permissible to tag isolated switches for the system operator and issue clearances against this tag. In tagging out inter-utility tie lines, the open switches on the foreign end of the line shall be tagged for the foreign system operator requesting the outage who will issue clearances to individuals of the organization against this tag.
(15) Metal-clad, draw-out switchgear of over 600 volts in which the physical separation of the disconnecting parts is not visible may be used to clear a line or equipment, provided the switchgear is equipped with:
(a) A positive positioning means to insure that the disconnecting contacts are separated;
(b) An isolating shutter which moves into place between the separated contact for circuit isolation; and
(c) A mechanically-connected indicating means to show that the shutter is in place.
(16) In all other cases, only a visible break of all phases shall be regarded as clearing a line or equipment.
(17) No person shall make contact with a circuit or equipment that has not been taken out of service to be worked on until he/she has the circuit or equipment cleared and tagged for themselves or is working directly under the supervision of one who has the circuit or equipment cleared and tagged for themselves.
WAC 296-45-345 Grounding for the protection of employees. (1) Application. This section applies to the grounding of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Subsection (4) of this section also applies to the protective grounding of other equipment as required elsewhere in this section.
(2) General. For the employee to work lines or equipment as de-energized, the lines or equipment shall be de-energized under the provisions of WAC 296-45-335 and shall be grounded as specified in subsections (3) through (9) of this section. However, if the employer can demonstrate that installation of a ground is impracticable or that the conditions resulting from the installation of a ground would present greater hazards than working without grounds, the lines and equipment may be treated as de-energized provided all of the following conditions are met:
(a) The lines and equipment have been de-energized under the provisions of WAC 296-45-335.
(b) There is no possibility of contact with another energized source.
(c) The hazard of induced voltage is not present.
(3) Equipotential zone. Temporary protective grounds shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner as to prevent each employee from being exposed to hazardous differences in electrical potential.
(4) Protective grounding equipment.
(a) Protective grounding equipment shall be capable of conducting the maximum fault current that could flow at the point of grounding for the time necessary to clear the fault. This equipment shall have an ampacity greater than or equal to that of No. 2 AWG copper.
(b) Grounding jumpers shall have approved ferrules and grounding clamps that provide mechanical support for jumper cables independent of the electrical connection.
Note: Guidelines for protective grounding equipment are contained in American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Temporary Grounding Systems to be Used on De-Energized Electric Power Lines and Equipment, ASTM F855-1990.
(c) Protective grounds shall have an impedance low enough to cause immediate operation of protective devices in case of accidental energizing of the lines or equipment.
(5) Testing. Before any ground is installed, lines and equipment shall be tested and found absent of nominal voltage, unless a previously installed ground is present.
(a) Inspection before use: Grounding equipment shall be given a visual inspection and all mechanical connections shall be checked for tightness before each use.
(b) Ground surface cleaning: The surface to which the ground is to be attached shall be clean before the grounding clamp is installed; otherwise, a self-cleaning clamp shall be used.
(6) Order of connection. When a ground is to be attached to a line or to equipment, the ground-end connection shall be attached first, and then the other end shall be attached by means of a live-line tool.
(7) "Order of removal." When a ground is to be removed, the grounding device shall be removed from the line or equipment using a live-line tool before the ground-end connection is removed.
(8) "Additional precautions." When work is performed on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable may not be grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
(9) Removal of grounds for test. Grounds may be removed temporarily during tests. During the test procedure, the employer shall ensure that each employee uses insulating equipment and is isolated from any hazards involved, and the employer shall institute any additional measures as may be necessary to protect each exposed employee in case the previously grounded lines and equipment become energized.
(10) Conductor separation: In cases where the conductor separation at any pole or structure is so great as to make it impractical to apply shorts on all conductors, and where only one conductor is to be worked on, only that conductor which is to be worked on needs to be grounded.
(11) Ground personnel: In cases where ground rods or pole grounds are utilized for personal protective grounding, personnel working on the ground should maintain sufficient distance from such equipment or utilize other approved procedures designed to prevent "touch-and step potential" hazards.
Note: See the Appendix for tables.
WAC 296-45-355 Underground grounding. (1) Grounding. A capacitance charge can remain in the high voltage cables after it has been disconnected from the circuit and a static-type arc can occur when grounds are applied to such cables.
(2) When work is to be done on cables or equipment of a high-voltage underground system, precautions to prevent back-feed shall be taken. This shall include either isolating or grounding of the secondary conductors.
(3) After grounding the cable, if the worker is to work on cable between terminations, he/she must first spike the cable or use other approved methods of testing. If the cable is to be cut, it shall be cut only with approved hot cutters.
(4) Additional precautions. When work is performed on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable may not be grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
WAC 296-45-365 Testing and test facilities. (1) Application. This section provides for safe work practices for high-voltage and high-power testing performed in laboratories, shops, and substations, and in the field and on electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment. It applies only to testing involving interim measurements utilizing high voltage, high power, or combinations of both, and not to testing involving continuous measurements as in routine metering, relaying, and normal line work.
Note: Routine inspection and maintenance measurements made by qualified employees are considered to be routine line work and are not included in the scope of this section, as long as the hazards related to the use of intrinsic high-voltage or high-power sources require only the normal precautions associated with routine operation and maintenance work required in the other subsections of this section. Two typical examples of such excluded test work procedures are "phasing-out" testing and testing for a "no-voltage" condition.
(2) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall establish and enforce work practices for the protection of each worker from the hazards of high-voltage or high-power testing at all test areas, temporary and permanent. Such work practices shall include, as a minimum, test area guarding, grounding, and the safe use of measuring and control circuits. A means providing for periodic safety checks of field test areas shall also be included.
(b) Employees shall be trained in safe work practices upon their initial assignment to the test area, with periodic reviews and updates provided as required by subsections of this section.
(3) Guarding of test areas.
(a) Permanent test areas shall be guarded by walls, fences, or barriers designed to keep employees out of the test areas.
(b) In field testing, or at a temporary test site where permanent fences and gates are not provided, one of the following means shall be used to prevent unauthorized employees from entering:
(i) The test area shall be guarded by the use of distinctively colored safety tape that is supported approximately waist high and to which safety signs are attached;
(ii) The test area shall be guarded by a barrier or barricade that limits access to the test area to a degree equivalent, physically and visually, to the barricade specified in this section; or
(iii) The test area shall be guarded by one or more test observers stationed so that the entire area can be monitored.
(c) The barriers required by this section shall be removed when the protection they provide is no longer needed.
(d) Guarding shall be provided within test areas to control access to test equipment or to apparatus under test that may become energized as part of the testing by either direct or inductive coupling, in order to prevent accidental employee contact with energized parts.
(4) Grounding practices.
(a) The employer shall establish and implement safe grounding practices for the test facility.
(i) All conductive parts accessible to the test operator during the time the equipment is operating at high voltage shall be maintained at ground potential except for portions of the equipment that are isolated from the test operator by guarding.
(ii) Wherever ungrounded terminals of test equipment or apparatus under test may be present, they shall be treated as energized until determined by tests to be de-energized.
(b) Visible grounds shall be applied, either automatically or manually with properly insulated tools, to the high-voltage circuits after they are de-energized and before work is performed on the circuit or item or apparatus under test. Common ground connections shall be solidly connected to the test equipment and the apparatus under test.
(c) In high-power testing, an isolated ground-return conductor system shall be provided so that no intentional passage of current, with its attendant voltage rise, can occur in the ground grid or in the earth. However, an isolated ground-return conductor need not be provided if the employer can demonstrate that both the following conditions are met:
(i) An isolated ground-return conductor cannot be provided due to the distance of the test site from the electric energy source; and
(ii) Employees are protected from any hazardous step and touch potentials that may develop during the test.
Note: See Appendix B for information on measures that can be taken to protect employees from hazardous step and touch potentials.
(d) In tests in which grounding of test equipment by means of the equipment grounding conductor located in the equipment power cord cannot be used due to increased hazards to test personnel or the prevention of satisfactory measurements, a ground that the employer can demonstrate affords equivalent safety shall be provided, and the safety ground shall be clearly indicated in the test set up.
(e) When the test area is entered after equipment is de-energized, a ground shall be placed on the high-voltage terminal and any other exposed terminals.
(i) High capacitance equipment or apparatus shall be discharged through a resistor rated for the available energy.
(ii) A direct ground shall be applied to the exposed terminals when the stored energy drops to a level at which it is safe to do so.
(f) If a test trailer or test vehicle is used in field testing, its chassis shall be grounded. Protection against hazardous touch potentials with respect to the vehicle, instrument panels, and other conductive parts accessible to employees shall be provided by bonding, insulation, or isolation.
(5) Control and measuring circuits.
(a) Control wiring, meter connections, test leads and cables may not be run from a test area unless they are contained in a grounded metallic sheath and terminated in a grounded metallic enclosure or unless other precautions are taken that the employer can demonstrate as ensuring equivalent safety.
(b) Meters and other instruments with accessible terminals or parts shall be isolated from test personnel to protect against hazards arising from such terminals and parts becoming energized during testing. If this isolation is provided by locating test equipment in metal compartments with viewing windows, interlocks shall be provided to interrupt the power supply if the compartment cover is opened.
(c) The routing and connections of temporary wiring shall be made secure against damage, accidental interruptions and other hazards. To the maximum extent possible, signal, control, ground, and power cables shall be kept separate.
(d) If employees will be present in the test area during testing, a test observer shall be present. The test observer shall be capable of implementing the immediate de-energizing of test circuits for safety purposes.
(6) Safety check.
(a) Safety practices governing employee work at temporary or field test areas shall provide for a routine check of such test areas for safety at the beginning of each series of tests.
(b) The test operator in charge shall conduct these routine safety checks before each series of tests and shall verify at least the following conditions:
(i) That barriers and guards are in workable condition and are properly placed to isolate hazardous areas;
(ii) That system test status signals, if used, are in operable condition;
(iii) That test power disconnects are clearly marked and readily available in an emergency;
(iv) That ground connections are clearly identifiable;
(v) That personal protective equipment is provided and used;
(vi) That signal, ground, and power cables are properly separated.
WAC 296-45-375 Mechanical equipment, including aerial manlift equipment. (1) General requirements.
(a) The critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment shall receive a thorough visual inspection and operational test before use on each shift.
Note: Critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment are components whose failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom.
(b) No vehicular equipment having an obstructed view to the rear may be operated on off-highway jobsites where any employee is exposed to the hazards created by the moving vehicle, unless:
(i) The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level; or
(ii) The vehicle is backed up only when a designated employee signals that it is safe to do so.
(c) The operator of an electric line truck may not leave his or her position at the controls while a load is suspended, unless the employer can demonstrate that no employee (including the operator) might be endangered.
(d) Rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end loaders, rubber-tired dozers, wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, crawler-type tractors, crawler-type loaders, and motor graders, with or without attachments, shall have rollover protective structures that meet the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part V.
(a) Vehicular equipment, if provided with outriggers, shall be operated with the outriggers extended and firmly set as necessary for the stability of the specific configuration of the equipment. Outriggers may not be extended or retracted outside of clear view of the operator unless all employees are outside the range of possible equipment motion.
(b) If the work area or the terrain precludes the use of outriggers, the equipment may be operated only within its maximum load ratings for the particular configuration of the equipment without outriggers.
(3) Applied loads. Mechanical equipment used to lift or move lines or other material shall be used within its maximum load rating and other design limitations for the conditions under which the work is being performed.
(4) Hydraulic fluids. All hydraulic fluids used for the insulated section of derrick trucks, aerial lifts, and hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines or equipment shall be of the insulating type.
(5) Mechanical adjustment or repairs shall not be attempted or performed in the field except by a person qualified to perform such work.
(6) Malfunction or needed repairs of manlift equipment shall be reported to the employee responsible for such repairs as soon as is reasonably possible. Use of equipment which is known to be in need of repairs or is malfunctioning is prohibited when such deficiency creates an unsafe operating condition.
(7) When any aerial manlift equipment is parked for operation at the jobsite, the brakes shall be set. Wheel chocks shall be used to prevent accidental movement while parked on an incline.
(8) Employees shall not sit or stand on the basket edge, stand on materials placed in or across the basket, or work from a ladder set inside the basket.
(9) The basket shall not be rested on a fixed object(s) so that the weight of the boom is either totally or partially supported by the basket.
(10) Operations near energized lines or equipment.
(a) Mechanical equipment shall be operated so that the minimum approach distances of Table 1 through Table 4 are maintained from exposed energized lines and equipment. However, the insulated upper portion excluding the basket/bucket of an aerial lift operated by a qualified employee in the lift is exempt from this requirement.
(b) A designated employee other than the equipment operator shall observe the approach distance to exposed lines and equipment and give timely warnings before the minimum approach distance required by subsection (10)(a) of this section is reached, unless the employer can demonstrate that the operator can accurately determine that the minimum approach distance is being maintained.
(c) If, during operation of the mechanical equipment, the equipment could become energized, the operation shall also comply with at least one of the following:
(i) The energized lines exposed to contact shall be covered with insulating protective material that will withstand the type of contact that might be made during the operation.
(ii) The equipment shall be insulated for the voltage involved. The equipment shall be positioned so that its uninsulated portions cannot approach the lines or equipment any closer than the minimum approach distances specified in Table 1 through 4.
(iii) Each employee shall be protected from hazards that might arise from equipment contact with the energized lines. The measures used shall ensure that employees will not be exposed to hazardous differences in potential. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the methods in use protect each employee from the hazards that might arise if the equipment contacts the energized line, the measures used shall include all of the following techniques:
(A) Using the best available ground to minimize the time the lines remain energized;
(B) Bonding equipment together to minimize potential differences;
(C) Providing ground mats to extend areas of equipotential; and
(D) Employing insulating protective equipment or barricades to guard against any remaining hazardous potential differences.
Note: Appendix B contains information on hazardous step and touch potentials and on methods of protecting employees from hazards resulting from such potentials.
(11) While working in aerial equipment, employees shall wear a full body harness and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket, in a secure manner.
(12) No component of aerial devices shall be operated from the ground without permission from the employee in the basket except in case of emergency.
(13) Operating levers or controls shall be kept clear of tools, materials or obstructions.
(14) Employees shall not climb into or out of the basket or platform while it is elevated or change from one basket to another on dual basket equipment, except in case of emergency or when the employees involved agree that this is the safest way to perform the work. This exception shall not be used to circumvent safety rules.
(15) Existing safety rules governing the use of hot line tools, rubber and other protective equipment and safe work practices while performing work from poles or structures shall also apply to work done from aerial manlift equipment.
(16) The basket shall be kept clean and all tools not in use shall be secured or removed.
(17) Approved warning light shall be operating when the boom leaves the cradle. This light shall be visible to approaching traffic when the boom is in position over any traveled area.
(18) All aerial manlift equipment shall have both upper and lower controls (except ladder trucks need not have upper controls). The upper controls shall not be capable of rendering the lower controls inoperative. The lower controls should be located at or near the base of the aerial structure. If the lower controls are used, the operator shall have a view of the elevated employee(s) or there shall be communication between the operator and the employee in the elevated aerial structure: Provided, That no employee shall be raised, lowered, or moved into or from the elevated position in any aerial manlift equipment unless there is another employee, not in the elevated aerial structure, available at the site to operate the lower controls, except as follows:
(a) Where there is a fixed method permanently attached to or part of the equipment which will permit an employee to descend from the elevated position without lowering the elevated structure; or
(b) Where there is a system which will provide operation from the elevated position in the event of failure or malfunction of the primary system.
Note: This section shall not be interpreted as an exception to any other rule in this chapter.
(19) Controls in aerial manlift equipment shall be protected from accidental operation. Controls of the outriggers shall also be protected from accidental operation. Such protection may be by guarding or equivalent means.
(20) The manufacturer's recommended maximum load limit shall be posted at a conspicuous place near each set of controls and shall be kept in a legible condition.
(21) The manufacturer's operator's instructional manual shall be kept on the vehicle.
(22) Operating instructions, proper sequence and maintenance procedures prescribed by the manufacturer for operation of the equipment shall be followed.
WAC 296-45-385 Overhead lines. This section provides additional requirements for work performed on or near overhead lines and equipment.
(a) Before elevated structures and adjacent structures, such as poles or towers of the adjacent supporting poles, structures, and conductor supporting hardware, are subjected to such stresses as climbing or the installation or removal of equipment may impose, the employer shall ascertain that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses. If the pole or other structure cannot withstand the loads which will be imposed, it shall be braced or otherwise supported so as to prevent failure.
Note: Appendix C contains test methods that can be used in ascertaining whether a wood pole is capable of sustaining the forces that would be imposed by an employee climbing the pole. This paragraph also requires the employer to ascertain that the pole can sustain all other forces that will be imposed by the work to be performed.
(b) When poles are set, moved, or removed near exposed energized overhead conductors, the pole may not contact the conductors.
(c) When a pole is set, moved, or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears electrical protective equipment or uses insulated devices when handling the pole and that no employee contacts the pole with uninsulated parts of his or her body.
(d) To protect employees from falling into holes into which poles are to be placed, the holes shall be attended by employees or physically guarded whenever anyone is working nearby.
(2) Installing and removing overhead lines. The following provisions apply to the installation and removal of overhead conductors or cable.
(a) The employer shall use the tension stringing method, barriers, or other equivalent measures to minimize the possibility that conductors and cables being installed or removed will contact energized power lines or equipment.
(b) When conductors are being strung in or removed, they shall be kept under positive control to prevent accidental contact with energized circuit.
(c) The protective measures required by WAC 296-45-375(10)(c) for mechanical equipment shall also be provided for conductors, cables, and pulling and tensioning equipment when the conductor or cable is being installed or removed close enough to energized conductors that any of the following failures could energize the pulling or tensioning equipment or the wire or cable being installed or removed:
(i) Failure of the pulling or tensioning equipment;
(ii) Failure of the wire or cable being pulled; or
(iii) Failure of the previously installed lines or equipment.
(d) If the conductors being installed or removed cross over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts and if the design of the circuit-interrupting devices protecting the lines so permits, the automatic-reclosing feature of these devices shall be made inoperative.
(e) Before lines are installed parallel to existing energized lines, the employer shall make a determination of the approximate voltage to be induced in the new lines, or work shall proceed on the assumption that the induced voltage is hazardous. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the lines being installed are not subject to the induction of a hazardous voltage or unless the lines are treated as energized, the following requirements also apply:
(i) Each bare conductor shall be grounded in increments so that no point along the conductor is more than 2 miles (3.22 km) from a ground.
(ii) The grounds required in subsection (2)(e)(i) of this section shall be left in place until the conductor installation is completed between dead ends.
(iii) The grounds required in subsection (2)(e)(i) of this section shall be removed as the last phase of aerial cleanup.
(iv) If employees are working on bare conductors, grounds shall also be installed at each location where these employees are working, and grounds shall be installed at all open dead-end or catch-off points or the next adjacent structure.
(v) If two bare conductors are to be spliced, the conductors shall be bonded and grounded before being spliced.
(f) Reel handling equipment, including pulling and tensioning devices, shall be in safe operating condition and shall be leveled and aligned.
(g) Load ratings of stringing lines, pulling lines, conductor grips, load-bearing hardware and accessories, rigging, and hoists may not be exceeded.
(3) Pulling lines and accessories shall be inspected prior to each use and replaced or repaired when damaged or when there is a reasonable basis to doubt the dependability of such lines or accessories.
(4) Conductor grips may not be used on wire rope, unless the grip is specifically designed for this application.
(5) Reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, shall be maintained between the reel tender and the pulling rig operator.
(6) The pulling rig may only be operated when it is safe to do so.
Note: Examples of unsafe conditions include employees in locations prohibited by subsection (7) of this section, conductor and pulling line hang-ups, and slipping of the conductor grip.
(7) While the conductor or pulling line is being pulled (in motion) with a power-driven device, employees are not permitted directly under overhead operations or on the cross arm, except as necessary to guide the stringing sock or board over or through the stringing sheave.
(8) Live-line bare-hand work is prohibited.
(9) When winches, trucks, or tractors are being used to raise poles, materials, to pull in wires, to pull slack or in any other operation, there shall be an operator at the controls unless the machinery or process is stopped.
(10) Leadworkers shall designate an employee to give signals when required.
(11) Raising poles, towers or fixtures in the close proximity of high voltage conductors shall be done under the supervision of a qualified employee.
(12) Employees shall not crawl over insulator strings but shall use a platform or other approved device to work from when making dead ends or doing other work beyond strings of insulators, at such distance that they cannot reach the work from the pole or fixture. While working on the platform or other device, they shall be secured with safety straps or a rope to prevent falling. The provision of this subsection does not apply to extra high voltage bundle conductors when the use of such equipment may produce additional hazard. Climbing over dead end assemblies is permissible only after they have been completed and pinned in the final position.
(13) Towers and structures. The following requirements apply to work performed on towers or other structures which support overhead lines.
(a) The employer shall ensure that no employee is under a tower or structure while work is in progress, except where the employer can demonstrate that such a working position is necessary to assist employees working above.
(b) Tag lines or other similar devices shall be used to maintain control of tower sections being raised or positioned, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of such devices would create a greater hazard.
(c) The loadline may not be detached from a member or section until the load is safely secured.
(14) A transmission clipping crew shall have a minimum of two structures clipped in between the crew and the conductor being sagged.
(15) While on patrol at night and operating a motor vehicle on public highways, there shall be two employees, at least one of whom shall be a journey level lineworker or otherwise qualified employee. If repair to line or equipment is found to be of such nature as to require two lineworkers, work shall not proceed until additional help has been obtained provided that in cases of emergency where delay would increase the danger to life, limb, or substantial property, one employee may clear the hazard without assistance.
(16) Except during emergency restoration procedures, work shall be discontinued when adverse weather conditions would make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section.
Note: Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make this work too hazardous to perform, except under emergency conditions.
WAC 296-45-455 Line-clearance tree-trimming operations. This section provides additional requirements for line-clearance tree-trimming operations and for equipment used in these operations.
This section does not apply to qualified employees.
(1) Before an employee climbs, enters, or works around any tree, a determination shall be made of the nominal voltage of electric power lines posing a hazard to employees. However, a determination of the maximum nominal voltage to which an employee will be exposed may be made instead, if all lines are considered as energized at this maximum voltage.
(2) There shall be a second line-clearance tree trimmer within normal (that is, unassisted) voice communication under any of the following conditions:
(a) If a line-clearance tree trimmer is to approach more closely than 10 feet (305 cm) any conductor or electrical apparatus energized at more than 600 volts; or
(b) If branches or limbs being removed are closer to lines energized at more than 600 volts than the distances listed in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5; or
(c) If roping is necessary to remove branches or limbs from such conductors or apparatus.
(3) Line-clearance tree trimmers shall maintain the minimum approach distances from energized conductors given in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5.
(4) Branches that are contacting exposed energized conductors or equipment or that are within the distances specified in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5 may be removed only through the use of insulating equipment.
Note: A tool constructed of a material that the employer can demonstrate has insulating qualities meeting WAC 296-45-305(1) are considered as insulated under this section if the tool is clean and dry.
(5) Ladders, platforms, and aerial devices may not be brought closer to an energized part than the distances listed in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5.
(6) Line-clearance tree-trimming work may not be performed when adverse weather conditions make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section. Each employee performing line-clearance tree-trimming work in the aftermath of a storm or under similar emergency conditions shall be trained in the special hazards related to this type of work.
Note: Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make line-clearance tree-trimming work too hazardous to perform safely.
(7) A tree trimmer may climb out of a basket into a tree or from a tree back into the basket so long as he is properly tied into the tree during the entire maneuver.
WAC 296-45-45505 Brush chippers. (1) Brush chippers shall be equipped with a locking device in the ignition system.
(2) Access panels for maintenance and adjustment of the chipper blades and associated drive train shall be in place and secure during operation of the equipment.
(3) Brush chippers not equipped with a mechanical infeed system shall be equipped with an infeed hopper of length sufficient to prevent employees from contacting the blades or knives of the machine during operation.
(4) Trailer chippers detached from trucks shall be chocked or otherwise secured.
(5) Each employee in the immediate area of an operating chipper feed table shall wear personal protective equipment as required by Subpart I of this Part.
WAC 296-45-45510 Sprayers and related equipment. (1) Walking and working surfaces of sprayers and related equipment shall be covered with slip-resistant material. If slipping hazards cannot be eliminated, slip-resistant footwear or handrails and stair rails meeting the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1, may be used instead of slip-resistant material.
(2) Equipment on which employees stand to spray while the vehicle is in motion shall be equipped with guardrails around the working area. The guardrail shall be constructed in accordance with chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1.
WAC 296-45-45515 Stump cutters. (1) Stump cutters shall be equipped with enclosures or guards to protect employees.
(2) Each employee in the immediate area of stump grinding operations (including the stump cutter operator) shall wear personal protective equipment as required by WAC 296-45-25505.
WAC 296-45-45520 Backpack power units for use in pruning and clearing. (1) While a backpack power unit is running, no one other than the operator may be within 10 feet (305 cm) of the cutting head of a brush saw.
(2) A backpack power unit shall be equipped with a quick shutoff switch readily accessible to the operator.
(3) Backpack power unit engines shall be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
WAC 296-45-45525 Rope. (1) Climbing ropes shall be used by employees working aloft in trees. These ropes shall have a minimum diameter of 0.5 inch (1.2 cm) with a minimum breaking strength of 2300 pounds (10.2 kN). Synthetic rope shall have elasticity of not more than 7 percent.
(2) Rope shall be inspected before each use and, if unsafe (for example, because of damage or defect), may not be used.
(3) Rope shall be stored away from cutting edges and sharp tools. Rope contact with corrosive chemicals, gas, and oil shall be avoided.
(4) When stored, rope shall be coiled and piled, or shall be suspended, so that air can circulate through the coils.
(5) Rope ends shall be secured to prevent their unraveling.
(6) Climbing rope may not be spliced to effect repair.
(7) A rope that is wet, that is contaminated to the extent that its insulating capacity is impaired, or that is otherwise not considered to be insulated for the voltage involved may not be used near exposed energized lines.
WAC 296-45-45530 Fall protection. Each employee shall be tied in with a climbing rope and safety saddle when the employee is working above the ground in a tree, unless he or she is ascending into the tree.
WAC 296-45-465 Communication facilities. (1) Microwave transmission. The employer shall ensure that no employee looks into an open waveguide or antenna that is connected to an energized microwave source.
(2) If the electromagnetic radiation level within an accessible area associated with microwave communications systems exceeds the radiation protection guide given in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part J-1. The area shall be posted with the warning symbol described in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part J-1. The lower half of the warning symbol shall include the following statements or ones that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent:
Radiation in this area may exceed hazard limitations and special precautions are required. Obtain specific instruction before entering.
(3) When an employee works in an area where the electromagnetic radiation could exceed the radiation protection guide, the employer shall institute measures that ensure that the employee's exposure is not greater than that permitted by that guide. Such measures may include administrative and engineering controls and personal protective equipment.
(4) Power line carrier. Power line carrier work, including work on equipment used for coupling carrier current to power line conductors, shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of this section pertaining to work on energized lines.
WAC 296-45-475 Substations. This section provides additional requirements for substations and for work performed in them.
(1) Access and working space. Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.
Note: Guidelines for the dimensions of access and working space about electric equipment in substations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with WAC 296-45-475(1). An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with WAC 296-45-475(1) if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides ready and safe access based on the following evidence:
(a) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(b) That the configuration of the installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances required by WAC 296-45-325(5) while they are working on exposed, energized parts; and
(c) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by access and working space meeting ANSI C2-1997.
(2) Draw-out-type circuit breakers. When draw-out-type circuit breakers are removed or inserted, the breaker shall be in the open position. The control circuit shall also be rendered inoperative, if the design of the equipment permits.
(3) Substation fences. Conductive fences around substations shall be grounded. When a substation fence is expanded or a section is removed, fence grounding continuity shall be maintained, and bonding shall be used to prevent electrical discontinuity.
(4) Guarding of rooms containing electric supply equipment.
(a) Rooms and spaces in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed shall meet the requirements of subsection (4)(b) through (e) of this section under the following conditions:
(i) If exposed live parts operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are located within 8 feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space;
(ii) If live parts operating at 151 to 600 volts and located within 8 feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space are guarded only by location, as permitted under subsection (5)(a) of this section; or
(iii) If live parts operating at more than 600 volts are located within the room or space, unless:
(A) The live parts are enclosed within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts; or
(B) The live parts are installed at a height above ground and any other working surface that provides protection at the voltage to which they are energized corresponding to the protection provided by an 8-foot height at 50 volts.
(b) The rooms and spaces shall be so enclosed within fences, screens, partitions, or walls as to minimize the possibility that unqualified persons will enter.
(c) Signs warning unqualified persons to keep out shall be displayed at entrances to the rooms and spaces.
(d) Entrances to rooms and spaces that are not under the observation of an attendant shall be kept locked.
(e) Unqualified persons may not enter the rooms or spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment are energized.
(5) Guarding of energized parts.
(a) Guards shall be provided around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering, unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient horizontal or vertical or a combination of these clearances to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.
Note: Guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in substations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with subsection (5)(a) of this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with subsection (5)(a) of this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides sufficient clearance based on the following evidence:
(i) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(ii) That each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
(iii) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI C2-1997.
(b) Except for fuse replacement and other necessary access by qualified persons, the guarding of energized parts within a compartment shall be maintained during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent tools or other equipment from being dropped on energized parts.
(c) When guards are removed from energized equipment, barriers shall be installed around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
(6) Substation entry.
(a) Upon entering an attended substation, each employee other than those regularly working in the station shall report his or her presence to the employee in charge in order to receive information on special system conditions affecting employee safety.
(b) The job briefing required by WAC 296-45-135 shall cover such additional subjects as the location of energized equipment in or adjacent to the work area and the limits of any de-energized work area.
WAC 296-45-485 Power generation. This section provides additional requirements and related work practices for power generating plants.
WAC 296-45-48505 Interlocks and other safety devices. (1) Interlocks and other safety devices shall be maintained in a safe, operable condition.
(2) No interlock or other safety device may be modified to defeat its function, except for test, repair, or adjustment of the device.
WAC 296-45-48510 Changing brushes. Before exciter or generator brushes are changed while the generator is in service, the exciter or generator field shall be checked to determine whether a ground condition exists. The brushes may not be changed while the generator is energized if a ground condition exists.
WAC 296-45-48515 Access and working space. Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.
Note: Guidelines for the dimensions of access and workspace about electric equipment in generating stations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides ready and safe access based on the following evidence:
(1) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(2) That the configuration of the installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances required by this section while they work on exposed, energized parts; and
(3) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by access and working space meeting ANSI C2-1997.
WAC 296-45-48520 Guarding of rooms containing electric supply equipment. (1) Rooms and spaces in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed shall meet the requirements of this section under the following conditions:
(a) If exposed live parts operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are located within eight feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space;
(b) If live parts operating at 151 to 600 volts and located within eight feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space are guarded only by location, as permitted under this section; or
(c) If live parts operating at more than 600 volts are located within the room or space; unless:
(i) The live parts are enclosed within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts; or
(ii) The live parts are installed at a height above ground and any other working surface that provides protection at the voltage to which they are energized corresponding to the protection provided by an eight-foot height at 50 volts.
(2) The rooms and spaces shall be so enclosed within fences, screens, partitions, or walls as to minimize the possibility that unqualified persons will enter.
(3) Signs warning unqualified persons to keep out shall be displayed at entrances to the rooms and spaces.
(4) Entrances to rooms and spaces that are not under the observation of an attendant shall be kept locked.
(5) Unqualified persons may not enter the rooms or spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment are energized.
WAC 296-45-48525 Guarding of energized parts. (1) Guards shall be provided around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering, unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient horizontal or vertical or a combination of these clearances to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.
Note: Guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in generating stations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides sufficient clearance based on the following evidence:
(a) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(b) That each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
(c) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI C2-1997.
(2) Except for fuse replacement or other necessary access by qualified persons, the guarding of energized parts within a compartment shall be maintained during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent tools or other equipment from being dropped on energized parts.
(3) When guards are removed from energized equipment, barriers shall be installed around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
WAC 296-45-48530 Water or steam spaces. The following requirements apply to work in water and steam spaces associated with boilers:
(1) A designated employee shall inspect conditions before work is permitted and after its completion. Eye protection, or full face protection if necessary, shall be worn at all times when condenser, heater, or boiler tubes are being cleaned.
(2) Where it is necessary for employees to work near tube ends during cleaning, shielding shall be installed at the tube ends.
WAC 296-45-48535 Chemical cleaning of boilers and pressure vessels. The following requirements apply to chemical cleaning of boilers and pressure vessels:
(1) Areas where chemical cleaning is in progress shall be cordoned off to restrict access during cleaning. If flammable liquids, gases, or vapors or combustible materials will be used or might be produced during the cleaning process, the following requirements also apply:
(a) The area shall be posted with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazards of fire and explosion; and
(b) Smoking, welding, and other possible ignition sources are prohibited in these restricted areas.
(2) The number of personnel in the restricted area shall be limited to those necessary to accomplish the task safely.
(3) There shall be ready access to water or showers for emergency use.
Note: See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part B for requirements that apply to the water supply and to washing facilities.
(4) Employees in restricted areas shall wear protective equipment meeting the requirements of this chapter and including, but not limited to, protective clothing, boots, goggles, and gloves.
WAC 296-45-48540 Chlorine systems. (1) Chlorine system enclosures shall be posted with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazard to health and the hazards of fire and explosion.
Note: See chapter 296-62 WAC for requirements necessary to protect the health of employees from the effects of chlorine.
(2) Only designated employees may enter the restricted area. Additionally, the number of personnel shall be limited to those necessary to accomplish the task safely.
(3) Emergency repair kits shall be available near the shelter or enclosure to allow for the prompt repair of leaks in chlorine lines, equipment, or containers.
(4) Before repair procedures are started, chlorine tanks, pipes, and equipment shall be purged with dry air and isolated from other sources of chlorine.
(5) The employer shall ensure that chlorine is not mixed with materials that would react with the chlorine in a dangerously exothermic or other hazardous manner.
WAC 296-45-48545 Boilers. (1) Before internal furnace or ash hopper repair work is started, overhead areas shall be inspected for possible falling objects. If the hazard of falling objects exists, overhead protection such as planking or nets shall be provided.
(2) When opening an operating boiler door, employees shall stand clear of the opening of the door to avoid the heat blast and gases which may escape from the boiler.
WAC 296-45-48550 Turbine generators. (1) Smoking and other ignition sources are prohibited near hydrogen or hydrogen sealing systems, and signs warning of the danger of explosion and fire shall be posted.
(2) Excessive hydrogen makeup or abnormal loss of pressure shall be considered as an emergency and shall be corrected immediately.
(3) A sufficient quantity of inert gas shall be available to purge the hydrogen from the largest generator.
WAC 296-45-48555 Coal and ash handling. (1) Only designated persons may operate railroad equipment.
(2) Before a locomotive or locomotive crane is moved, a warning shall be given to employees in the area.
(3) Employees engaged in switching or dumping cars may not use their feet to line up drawheads.
(4) Drawheads and knuckles may not be shifted while locomotives or cars are in motion.
(5) When a railroad car is stopped for unloading, the car shall be secured from displacement that could endanger employees.
(6) An emergency means of stopping dump operations shall be provided at railcar dumps.
(7) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in coal-or ash-handling conveyor areas are trained and knowledgeable in conveyor operation and in the requirements of this section.
(8) Employees may not ride a coal- or ash-handling conveyor belt at any time. Employees may not cross over the conveyor belt, except at walkways, unless the conveyor's energy source has been de-energized and has been locked out or tagged in accordance with WAC 296-45-175.
(9) A conveyor that could cause injury when started may not be started until personnel in the area are alerted by a signal or by a designated person that the conveyor is about to start.
(10) If a conveyor that could cause injury when started is automatically controlled or is controlled from a remote location, an audible device shall be provided that sounds an alarm that will be recognized by each employee as a warning that the conveyor will start and that can be clearly heard at all points along the conveyor where personnel may be present. The warning device shall be actuated by the device starting the conveyor and shall continue for a period of time before the conveyor starts that is long enough to allow employees to move clear of the conveyor system. A visual warning may be used in place of the audible device if the employer can demonstrate that it will provide an equally effective warning in the particular circumstances involved.
Note: Exception: If the employer can demonstrate that the system's function would be seriously hindered by the required time delay, warning signs may be provided in place of the audible warning device. If the system was installed before November 20, 1995, warning signs may be provided in place of the audible warning device until such time as the conveyor or its control system is rebuilt or rewired. These warning signs shall be clear, concise, and legible and shall indicate that conveyors and allied equipment may be started at any time, that danger exists, and that personnel must keep clear. These warning signs shall be provided along the conveyor at areas not guarded by position or location.
(11) Remotely and automatically controlled conveyors, and conveyors that have operating stations which are not manned or which are beyond voice and visual contact from drive areas, loading areas, transfer points, and other locations on the conveyor path not guarded by location, position, or guards shall be furnished with emergency stop buttons, pull cords, limit switches, or similar emergency stop devices. However, if the employer can demonstrate that the design, function, and operation of the conveyor do not expose an employee to hazards, an emergency stop device is not required.
(a) Emergency stop devices shall be easily identifiable in the immediate vicinity of such locations.
(b) An emergency stop device shall act directly on the control of the conveyor involved and may not depend on the stopping of any other equipment.
(c) Emergency stop devices shall be installed so that they cannot be overridden from other locations.
(12) Where coal-handling operations may produce a combustible atmosphere from fuel sources or from flammable gases or dust, sources of ignition shall be eliminated or safely controlled to prevent ignition of the combustible atmosphere.
Note: Locations that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust are classified as Class II hazardous locations. See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.
(13) An employee may not work on or beneath overhanging coal in coal bunkers, coal silos, or coal storage areas, unless the employee is protected from all hazards posed by shifting coal.
(14) An employee entering a bunker or silo to dislodge the contents shall wear a body harness with lifeline attached. The lifeline shall be secured to a fixed support outside the bunker and shall be attended at all times by an employee located outside the bunker or facility.
WAC 296-45-48560 Hydroplants and equipment. Employees working on or close to water gates, valves, intakes, forebays, flumes, or other locations where increased or decreased water flow or levels may pose a significant hazard shall be warned and shall vacate such dangerous areas before water flow changes are made.
WAC 296-45-525 Special conditions.
WAC 296-45-52505 Capacitors. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors.
Note: See WAC 296-45-335 through 296-45-345 for requirements pertaining to the de-energizing and grounding of capacitor installations.
(1) Before employees work on capacitors, the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and, after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection, short-circuited.
(2) Before the units are handled, each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks shall be short-circuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks, the racks shall be bonded to ground.
(3) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be short-circuited before it is considered de-energized.
(4) After removal from service, short circuits shall remain on capacitors in storage until returned to service.
WAC 296-45-52510 Current transformer secondaries. The secondary of a current transformer may not be opened while the transformer is energized. If the primary of the current transformer cannot be de-energized before work is performed on an instrument, a relay, or other section of a current transformer secondary circuit, the circuit shall be bridged so that the current transformer secondary will not be opened.
WAC 296-45-52515 Series streetlighting. (1) If the open-circuit voltage exceeds 600 volts, the series streetlighting circuit shall be worked in accordance with WAC 296-45-215 or 296-45-385, as appropriate.
(2) A series loop may only be opened after the streetlighting transformer has been de-energized and isolated from the source of supply or after the loop is bridged to avoid an open-circuit condition.
WAC 296-45-52520 Illumination. Sufficient illumination shall be provided to enable the employee to perform the work safely.
WAC 296-45-52525 Protection against drowning. (1) Whenever an employee may be pulled or pushed or may fall into water where the danger of drowning exists, the employee shall be provided with and shall use U.S. Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices.
(2) Each personal flotation device shall be maintained in safe condition and shall be inspected frequently enough to ensure that it does not have rot, mildew, water saturation, or any other condition that could render the device unsuitable for use.
(3) An employee may cross streams or other bodies of water only if a safe means of passage, such as a bridge, is provided.
WAC 296-45-52530 Employee protection in public work areas. (1) Traffic control signs and traffic control devices used for the protection of employees shall meet the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part E.
(2) Before work is begun in the vicinity of vehicular or pedestrian traffic that may endanger employees, warning signs or flags and other traffic control devices shall be placed in conspicuous locations to alert and channel approaching traffic.
(3) Where additional employee protection is necessary, barricades shall be used.
(4) Excavated areas shall be protected with barricades.
(5) At night, warning lights shall be prominently displayed.
WAC 296-45-52535 Backfeed. If there is a possibility of voltage backfeed from sources of cogeneration or from the secondary system (for example, backfeed from more than one energized phase feeding a common load), the requirements of WAC 296-45-325 apply if the lines or equipment are to be worked as energized, and the requirements of WAC 296-45-335 and 296-45-345 apply if the lines or equipment are to be worked as de-energized.
WAC 296-45-52540 Lasers. Laser equipment shall be installed, adjusted, and operated in accordance with WAC 296-155-155.
WAC 296-45-52545 Hydraulic fluids. Hydraulic fluids used for the insulated sections of equipment shall provide insulation for the voltage involved.
WAC 296-45-52550 Foreign attachments and placards. Nails and unauthorized attachments should be removed before climbing above such attachments. When through bolts present a hazard to climbing, they shall be trimmed to a safe length.
WAC 296-45-545 Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing. (1) Energized trolley wire shall be jumpered when it is to be opened or cut.
(2) Reaching over trolley wire(s) or system(s). Lineworkers shall not reach over trolley wire(s) unless properly protected by line hose or rubber blanket.
(3) Reaching across sectional insulators. Lineworkers shall not reach across section insulator(s), insulated spacer(s) or insulated approach.
(4) Polarity on either side of sectionalizing breakers. Since the polarity on both sides of a sectionalizing insulator may be different, it is required that prior to performance of work, tests be performed with approved testing equipment to determine whether or not the polarity is the same or different on one side of the sectional insulator as compared with the other.
(5) Working on hangers. More than one truck crew shall not work on hangers attached to the same span at the same time, without rubber protection.
(6) Workers on hangers of opposite polarity. Trolley hangers and ears of opposite polarity shall not be worked on at the same time when trolley wire is energized.
(7) Checking electric switches. When electric switches are checked for operation, making it necessary to short circuit the contactor to each trolley wire, tools with insulated handles shall be used.
(8) Short circuit due to use of noninsulated or conductive long handled tools. When a hazard of short circuit exists, due to use of noninsulated or conductive long handled tools, approved protective rubber equipment shall be used as provided in this chapter.
(9) Trolley feeders. When work is to be performed on street railway trolley feeders where it is necessary for workers to work from metal or other grounded poles or fixtures or on poles or fixtures on which grounds are maintained, the feeders shall be de-energized unless the poles or fixtures are insulated before the work is started with approved protective devices in such manner that employees cannot become grounded while working on the feeders, and employees shall wear approved rubber gloves.
(10) Truck driver shall remain at tower controls while workers are working on towers except when the aerial manlift equipment has been properly chocked to prevent uncontrolled movement. Tower trucks shall be equipped with a reliable signaling device between the employees working on the tower and the truck driver.
(11) Working on truck towers. Employees shall not stand on tower gates or railings. Work shall not be done from plank(s) placed on tower railings.
(12) Tower truck railings. Towers shall have standard railings and toeboards around the tower and all railings shall be constructed of wood, fiberglass or other nonmetallic material. All railings shall be a vertical height of not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches from the floor of the platform to the upper surface of the top rail. Intermediate railings shall be midway between the floor and the underside of the top rail. Tower gates shall be so constructed as to prevent accidental opening.
(13) Tower truck decks shall be kept clear of tools, wire and other materials and tools shall be kept in proper storage area when not in use.
(14) Lineworkers shall not wear climbers or spurs while working on a tower truck.
WAC 296-45-900 Appendices. Nonmandatory.
WAC 296-45-901 Appendix A--Nonmandatory.
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WAC 296-45-903 Appendix B - Protection from Step and Touch Potentials--Nonmandatory.
When a ground fault occurs on a power line, voltage is impressed on the "grounded" object faulting the line. The voltage to which this object rises depends largely on the voltage on the line, on the impedance of the faulted conductor, and on the impedance to "true," or "absolute," ground represented by the object. If the object causing the fault represents a relatively large impedance, the voltage impressed on it is essentially the phase-to-ground system voltage. However, even faults to well grounded transmission towers or substation structures can result in hazardous voltages.(1) The degree of the hazard depends upon the magnitude of the fault current and the time of exposure.
Footnote(1) This appendix provides information primarily with respect to employee protection from contact between equipment being used and an energized power line. The information presented is also relevant to ground faults to transmission towers and substation structures; however, grounding systems for these structures should be designed to minimize the step and touch potentials involved.
II. "Voltage-Gradient Distribution"
A. Voltage-Gradient Distribution Curve
The dissipation of voltage from a grounding electrode (or from the grounded end of an energized grounded object) is called the ground potential gradient. Voltage drops associated with this dissipation of voltage are called ground potentials. Figure A is a typical voltage-gradient distribution curve (assuming a uniform soil texture). This graph shows that voltage decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the grounding electrode.
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WAC 296-45-905 Appendix C - Methods of Inspecting and Testing Wood Poles--Nonmandatory.
When work is to be performed on a wood pole, it is important to determine the condition of the pole before it is climbed. The weight of the employee, the weight of equipment being installed, and other working stresses (such as the removal or retensioning of conductors) can lead to the failure of a defective pole or one that is not designed to handle the additional stresses.(1) For these reasons, it is essential that an inspection and test of the condition of a wood pole be performed before it is climbed.
Footnote(1) A properly guyed pole in good condition should, at a minimum, be able to handle the weight of an employee climbing it. If the pole is found to be unsafe to climb or to work from, it must be secured so that it does not fail while an employee is on it.
The pole can be secured by a line truck boom, by ropes or guys, or by lashing a new pole alongside it. If a new one is lashed alongside the defective pole, work should be performed from the new one.
II. "Inspection of Wood Poles"
Wood poles should be inspected by a qualified employee for the following conditions:(2)
Footnote(2) The presence of any of these conditions is an indication that the pole may not be safe to climb or to work from. The employee performing the inspection must be qualified to make a determination as to whether or not it is safe to perform the work without taking additional precautions.
A. General Condition
The pole should be inspected for buckling at the ground line and for an unusual angle with respect to the ground. Buckling and odd angles may indicate that the pole has rotted or is broken.
The pole should be inspected for cracks. Horizontal cracks perpendicular to the grain of the wood may weaken the pole. Vertical ones, although not considered to be a sign of a defective pole, can pose a hazard to the climber, and the employee should keep his or her gaffs away from them while climbing.
Hollow spots and woodpecker holes can reduce the strength of a wood pole.
D. Shell Rot and Decay
Rotting and decay are cutout hazards and are possible indications of the age and internal condition of the pole.
One large knot or several smaller ones at the same height on the pole may be evidence of a weak point on the pole.
F. Depth of Setting
Evidence of the existence of a former ground line substantially above the existing ground level may be an indication that the pole is no longer buried to a sufficient extent.
G. Soil Conditions
Soft, wet, or loose soil may not support any changes of stress on the pole.
H. Burn Marks
Burning from transformer failures or conductor faults could damage the pole so that it cannot withstand mechanical stress changes.
III. "Testing of Wood Poles"
The following tests are recognized as acceptable methods of testing wood poles:
A. Hammer Test
Rap the pole sharply with a hammer weighing about 3 pounds, starting near the ground line and continuing upwards circumferentially around the pole to a height of approximately 6 feet. The hammer will produce a clear sound and rebound sharply when striking sound wood. Decay pockets will be indicated by a dull sound or a less pronounced hammer rebound. Also, prod the pole as near the ground line as possible using a pole prod or a screwdriver with a blade at least 5 inches long. If substantial decay is encountered, the pole is considered unsafe.
B. Rocking Test
Apply a horizontal force to the pole and attempt to rock it back and forth in a direction perpendicular to the line. Caution must be exercised to avoid causing power lines to swing together. The force may be applied either by pushing with a pike pole or pulling with a rope. If the pole cracks during the test, it shall be considered unsafe.
The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:
WAC 296-45-60013 Hand and portable powered tools.
WAC 296-45-650 Electrical workers safety rules--Foreword.
WAC 296-45-65003 Scope and application.
WAC 296-45-65005 Definitions.
WAC 296-45-65009 Employer's responsibility.
WAC 296-45-65011 Leadworker's responsibility.
WAC 296-45-65013 Leadworker-employee responsibility.
WAC 296-45-65015 Work required of leadworkers.
WAC 296-45-65017 Employee's responsibility.
WAC 296-45-65019 First aid.
WAC 296-45-65021 Tools and protective equipment.
WAC 296-45-65023 Clearances, operating power lines and equipment.
WAC 296-45-65026 Personal protective grounding.
WAC 296-45-65027 General requirements.
WAC 296-45-65029 Overhead lines.
WAC 296-45-65031 Poles and pole settings.
WAC 296-45-65033 Transmission line construction.
WAC 296-45-65035 Substations.
WAC 296-45-65037 Underground.
WAC 296-45-65038 Underground residential distribution (URD).
WAC 296-45-65039 Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing.
WAC 296-45-65041 Aerial manlift equipment.
WAC 296-45-65043 All motor vehicle and trailer operations.
WAC 296-45-65045 Material handling.
WAC 296-45-65047 Specification for lineworker's belts and similar equipment.
WAC 296-45-660 Tree trimming.
WAC 296-45-66001 Electrical hazards.
WAC 296-45-66003 Tools and protective equipment.
WAC 296-45-66005 Insulated tools used for tree trimming.
WAC 296-45-66007 Aerial manlift equipment.
WAC 296-45-66009 All motor vehicle and trailer operations.
WAC 296-45-66011 Working in proximity to electrical hazards.
WAC 296-45-680 Communication facilities.
WAC 296-45-690 Power generation.
WAC 296-45-695 Hazardous energy control (lockout/tagout) procedures.
WAC 296-45-700 Testing and test facilities.