DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY
[Order 98-04--Filed April 27, 1998, 11:22 a.m.]
Title of Rule: Chapter 173-400 WAC, General regulations for air pollution sources and chapter 173-460 WAC, Controls for new sources of toxic air pollutants.
Purpose: The purpose of this action is to update the state air quality regulations to incorporate by reference without change federal requirements and to update associated references. The air quality program must keep this regulation current by updating it regularly to incorporate new federal regulations as they are adopted.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 70.94.860, 70.94.510, and 70.94.331.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 70.94 RCW.
Summary: The rule adopts federal requirements by reference for businesses that emit hazardous air pollutants covered by the MACT standards, or maximum achievable control technology requirements and NESHAPs, or national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants; and requirements covering the air emissions of sewage sludge incinerators. To ensure the rule remains useful and comprehensive, references for the associated test methods are updated, and one typographical error is changed.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: This rule is necessary for the state to implement, enforce and receive delegation of several federal programs.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting, Implementation and Enforcement: Elena Guilfoil, Olympia, (360) 407-6855.
Name of Proponent: Department of Ecology, governmental.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: The rule adopts federal requirements that Washington must be able to enforce in order to receive or retain delegation of the federal air toxics and operating permit programs. In addition, the proposal corrects references and associated requirements to ensure the rules remain useful. The overall effect of this proposal is to improve the air quality in Washington state.
Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: The proposal:
(1) Adds requirements for businesses that emit hazardous air pollutants covered by the MACT standards, or maximum achievable control technology requirements. This includes implementing Section 112(g) of the federal Clean Air Act which covers some new source MACT determinations for new and rebuilt major sources. Some of these regulations were incorrectly adopted in 1996 so they must be reproposed;
(2) Updates the adoption date of the requirements for businesses that must follow the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants or NESHAPs;
(3) Adds requirements for air emissions for sewage sludge incinerators. These rules were incorrectly adopted in 1996 so they are being reproposed;
(4) Updates references to the applicable test methods businesses must follow to ensure the state rule remains useful and comprehensive; and
(5) Clarifies that the requirements for perchloroethylene dry cleaners in WAC 173-400-075 meet the control technology requirements in the control for new sources of toxic air pollutants in WAC 173-460-060.
THIS RULE IS BEING PROPOSED TO BE ADOPTED USING AN EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS THAT WILL ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR THE AGENCY TO HOLD PUBLIC HEARINGS, PREPARE A SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT, OR PROVIDE RESPONSES TO THE CRITERIA FOR A SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATIVE RULE. IF YOU OBJECT TO THIS RULE BEING ADOPTED USING THE EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS, YOU MUST EXPRESS YOUR OBJECTIONS IN WRITING AND THEY MUST BE SENT TO Jerry Thielen, Rules Coordinator, Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600, AND RECEIVED BY July 4, 1998.
April 24, 1998
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 90-06, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91)
WAC 173-400-060 Emission standards for general process
units. General process units are required to meet all applicable
provisions of WAC 173-400-040 and, no person shall cause or
permit the emission of particulate material from any general
process operation in excess of 0.23 grams per dry cubic meter at
standard conditions (0.1 grain/dscf) of exhaust gas. EPA test
methods from 40 CFR ((
Appendix A which are adopted by reference))
parts 51, 60, 61, and 63 and any other approved test procedures
which are contained in ecology's "Source Test Manual - Procedures
For Compliance Testing" as of July 12, 1990, will be used to
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), § 173-400-060, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21A and 70.94 RCW. 83-09-036 (Order DE 83-13), § 173-400-060, filed 4/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. 80-11-059 (Order DE 80-14), § 173-400-060, filed 8/20/80; Order DE 76-38, § 173-400-060, filed 12/21/76. Formerly WAC 18-04-060.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-35, filed 9/13/96, effective 10/14/96)
WAC 173-400-070 Emission standards for certain source categories. Ecology finds that the reasonable regulation of sources within certain categories requires separate standards applicable to such categories. The standards set forth in this section shall be the maximum allowable standards for emissions units within the categories listed. Except as specifically provided in this section, such emissions units shall not be required to meet the provisions of WAC 173-400-040, 173-400-050 and 173-400-060.
(1) Wigwam burners.
(a) All wigwam burners shall meet all provisions of WAC 173-400-040 (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7).
(b) All wigwam burners shall use RACT. All emissions units shall be operated and maintained to minimize emissions. These requirements may include a controlled tangential vent overfire air system, an adequate underfire system, elimination of all unnecessary openings, a controlled feed and other modifications determined necessary by ecology or the authority.
(c) It shall be unlawful to install or increase the existing use of any burner that does not meet all requirements for new sources including those requirements specified in WAC 173-400-040 and 173-400-050, except operating hours.
(d) Ecology may establish additional requirements for wigwam burners located in sensitive areas as defined by chapter 173-440 WAC. These requirements may include but shall not be limited to:
(i) A requirement to meet all provisions of WAC 173-400-040 and 173-400-050. Wigwam burners will be considered to be in compliance if they meet the requirements contained in WAC 173-400-040(1). An exception is made for a startup period not to exceed thirty minutes in any eight consecutive hours.
(ii) A requirement to apply BACT.
(iii) A requirement to reduce or eliminate emissions if ecology establishes that such emissions unreasonably interfere with the use and enjoyment of the property of others or are a cause of violation of ambient air standards.
(2) Hog fuel boilers.
(a) Hog fuel boilers shall meet all provisions of WAC 173-400-040 and 173-400-050(1), except that emissions may exceed twenty percent opacity for up to fifteen consecutive minutes once in any eight hours. The intent of this provision is to permit the soot blowing and grate cleaning necessary to the operation of these units. This practice is to be scheduled for the same specific times each day and ecology or the authority shall be notified of the schedule or any changes.
(b) All hog fuel boilers shall utilize RACT and shall be operated and maintained to minimize emissions.
(3) Orchard heating.
(a) Burning of rubber materials, asphaltic products, crankcase oil or petroleum wastes, plastic, or garbage is prohibited.
(b) It is unlawful to burn any material or operate any orchard-heating device that causes a visible emission exceeding twenty percent opacity, except during the first thirty minutes after such device or material is ignited.
(4) Grain elevators.
Any grain elevator which is primarily classified as a materials handling operation shall meet all the provisions of WAC 173-400-040 (2), (3), (4), and (5).
(5) Catalytic cracking units.
(a) All existing catalytic cracking units shall meet all provisions of WAC 173-400-040 (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7) and:
(i) No person shall cause or permit the emission for more than three minutes, in any one hour, of an air contaminant from any catalytic cracking unit which at the emission point, or within a reasonable distance of the emission point, exceeds forty percent opacity.
(ii) No person shall cause or permit the emission of particulate material in excess of 0.46 grams per dry cubic meter at standard conditions (0.20 grains/dscf) of exhaust gas.
(b) All new catalytic cracking units shall meet all provisions of WAC 173-400-115.
(6) Other wood waste burners.
(a) Wood waste burners not specifically provided for in this section shall meet all provisions of WAC 173-400-040.
(b) Such wood waste burners shall utilize RACT and shall be operated and maintained to minimize emissions.
(7) Sulfuric acid plants.
No person shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from a sulfuric acid plant, any gases which contain acid mist, expressed as H2SO4, in excess of 0.15 pounds per ton of acid produced. Sulfuric acid production shall be expressed as one hundred percent H2SO4.
(8) Sewage sludge incinerators. ((
The)) Standards for the
incineration of sewage sludge(( , as listed)) found in 40 CFR part
503 subparts A(( - ))(General Provisions) and (( subpart)) E (( -))
(Incineration) in effect on July 1, 1997, are (( hereby)) adopted
by reference (( as proposed on (add proposal date))).
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 96-19-054 (Order 94-35), § 173-400-070, filed 9/13/96, effective 10/14/96; 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), § 173-400-070, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21A and 70.94 RCW. 83-09-036 (Order DE 83-13), § 173-400-070, filed 4/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. 80-11-059 (Order DE 80-14), § 173-400-070, filed 8/20/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.21A.080 and 70.94.331. 79-06-012 (Order DE 78-21), § 173-400-070, filed 5/8/79; Order DE 76-38, § 173-400-070, filed 12/21/76. Formerly WAC 18-04-070.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-35, filed 9/13/96, effective 10/14/96)
WAC 173-400-075 Emission standards for sources emitting
hazardous air pollutants. (1) ((
The emission standards for
hazardous air pollutants promulgated by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as in effect on date of
adoption, as contained in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations,
Part 61)) National emission standards for hazardous air
pollutants (NESHAPs). NESHAPs and Appendices found in 40 CFR
part 61 in effect on April 1, 1998, are adopted by reference.
The term "administrator" in 40 CFR part 61 (( shall mean both the
administrator of EPA and)) includes the director of ecology.
(2) Ecology or the authority may conduct source tests and require access to records, books, files, and other information specific to the control, recovery, or release of those pollutants regulated under 40 CFR parts 61 and 63 in order to determine the status of compliance of sources of these contaminants and to carry out its enforcement responsibilities.
(3) Source testing, monitoring, and analytical methods for
sources of hazardous air pollutants ((
such as: Asbestos, benzene
from fugitive emission sources, beryllium, mercury, or vinyl
chloride)) shall conform with the requirements of (( Title 40,
Code of Federal Regulations,)) 40 CFR parts 61(( , as promulgated
prior to January 1, 1993)) and 63.
(4) This section shall not apply to any source operating pursuant to a waiver granted by EPA or an exemption granted by the president of the United States during the effective life of such waiver or exemption.
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants (NESHAP) for Source Categories, as proposed on March
1, 1996, hereby set standards of the maximum achievable control
technology (MACT) standards affecting facilities for the
following described subparts of Title 40 CFR, Part 63.)) Maximum
achievable control technology (MACT) standards. MACT standards
are officially known as national emission standards for hazardous
air pollutants for source categories. They are found in 40 CFR
(a) Adopt by reference. This list of federal MACT standards and Appendices in 40 CFR part 63 in effect on April 1, 1998, is adopted by reference. The term "administrator" in 40 CFR part 63 includes the director of ecology.
|Subpart B||Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources According to Section 112(g) and 112(j) of the federal Clean Air Act|
|Subpart D||Regulations Governing Compliance Extensions for Early Reductions of Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|Subpart F||NESHAPs for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (a/k/a HON)|
|Subpart G||NESHAPs for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry: Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater|
|Subpart H||NESHAPs for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry: Equipment Leaks|
|Subpart I||NESHAPs for Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks|
|Subpart L||NESHAPs for ((|
|Subpart N||NESHAPs for Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing|
|Subpart O||NESHAPs for Commercial
|Subpart Q||NESHAPs for Industrial Process Cooling Towers|
|Subpart R||NESHAPs ((|
|Subpart T||NESHAPs for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines|
|Subpart U||NESHAPs for Group I Polymers and Resins|
|Subpart W||NESHAPs for Epoxy Resins Produc-tion and Non-Nylon Polyamides Production|
|Subpart X||NESHAPs for the Secondary Lead Smelters|
|Subpart CC||NESHAPs for the Petroleum Refin-ery Industry|
|Subpart DD||NESHAPs from Off-site Waste and Recovery Treatment Operation|
|Subpart EE||NESHAPs for Magnetic Tape Manu-facturing Operations|
|Subpart GG||NESHAPs for the Aerospace Manu-facturing and Rework Facilities|
|Subpart II||NESHAPs for Shipbuilding and Repair (surface coating)|
|Subpart JJ||NESHAPs for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations|
|Subpart KK||NESHAPs for Printing and Publishing Industry|
|Subpart OO||NESHAPs for Tanks-level 1|
|Subpart PP||NESHAPs for Containers|
|Subpart QQ||NESHAPs for Surface Impoundments|
|Subpart RR||NESHAPs for Individual Drain Systems|
|Subpart VV||NESHAPs for Oil-Water Separators and Organic Water Separators|
|Appendix A||Test Methods|
|Appendix B||Sources Defined for Early Reduction Provisions|
|Appendix C||Determination of the Fraction Biodegraded in a Biological Treatment Unit|
|Appendix D||Alternative Validation procedure for EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods|
(b) Exceptions. The following subparts of 40 CFR part 63
are not adopted by reference:
(6) Emission Standards for Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners. (a) Policy and purpose. It is not the intent of this
section to place any additional burden on the generator beyond
the federal MACT. Instead, the purpose of this section is to
provide the reader with a clearer and more concise regulation. (b) Applicability. This section applies to all dry cleaning
systems using perchloroethylene (PCE). The standards that apply
to this section fall into the following source categories as
presented in Table 1. TABLE 1. Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaner NESHAP Source Categories Sources Facilities with less than: between: more than: PCE/yr PCE/yr Machines PCE/yr PCE/yr Machines PCE/yr PCE/yr
List of Hazardous Air Pollutants,
Petition Process, Lesser Quantity
Designations, source Category List Subpart E
Approval of State Programs and
Delegation of Federal Authorities Subpart M
Emission Standards for Dry
Cleaning Facilities Subpart S
National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants from the
Pulp and Paper Industry Subpart Y
National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants for
Marine Tank Vessel Loading
Operations Subpart LL
National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants for
Primary Aluminum Reduction
(1) Only Dry-to-Dry
(2) Only Transfer
(3) Both Dry-to-Dry
(6) Emission Standards for Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners.
(a) Policy and purpose. It is not the intent of this section to place any additional burden on the generator beyond the federal MACT. Instead, the purpose of this section is to provide the reader with a clearer and more concise regulation.
(b) Applicability. This section applies to all dry cleaning systems using perchloroethylene (PCE). The standards that apply to this section fall into the following source categories as presented in Table 1.
TABLE 1. Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaner NESHAP Source Categories
(c) General requirements. It shall be unlawful for any person to cause or allow the operation of a large area or major source perchloroethylene dry cleaning system unless all the air-perchloroethylene gas-vapor stream is vented through a refrigerated condenser. A major source dry cleaning system installed after September 21, 1993, must utilize a refrigerated condenser followed by a small carbon adsorber. It shall be unlawful for any person to cause or allow the operation of a small area source dry cleaning system installed after September 21, 1993, unless all the air-perchloroethylene dry cleaning system is vented through a refrigerated condenser.
(d) General operation and maintenance requirements. It shall be unlawful for any person to cause or allow the operation of any perchloroethylene dry cleaning system unless all of the following conditions are met:
(i) All perchloroethylene dry cleaners who generate seventy-five thousand dollars per year in revenue must conduct a visual inspection of the dry cleaning system at least once a week for perceptible leaks. Perceptible leaks shall be repaired within twenty-four hours of detection unless repair parts cannot be ordered within that period of time. If parts must be ordered to repair a leak, the parts shall be ordered within two working days of detecting the leak and repair parts shall be installed within five working days after receipt;
(ii) Drain cartridge filters in their housing or other sealed container for at least twenty-four hours before discarding the cartridges;
(iii) Close the door of each dry cleaning machine except when transferring articles to or from the machine;
(iv) Store all perchloroethylene, and wastes containing perchloroethylene, in a closed container; and
(v) Operate and maintain the dry cleaning system according to the manufacturer's specification and recommendations.
(e) Requirements for refrigerated condensers. It shall be unlawful for any person to cause or allow the operation of any perchloroethylene dry cleaning system using a refrigerated condenser unless all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The air temperature at the outlet of the refrigerated condenser installed on a dry-to-dry machine, dryer or reclaimer must be less than or equal to 45F (7C) during the cool-down period. Compliance shall be determined by monitoring the temperature on a continuous basis using a permanently installed temperature sensor that is accurate to within 2F (1C). The temperature shall be logged weekly;
(ii) The difference between the air temperature at the inlet and outlet of a refrigerated condenser installed on a washer must be greater than or equal to 20F (11C). Compliance shall be determined by monitoring the temperature on a continuous basis using a permanently installed temperature sensor that is accurate to within 2F (1C). The temperature shall be logged weekly. If the dry cleaning system was constructed before December 9, 1991, temperature sensors shall be installed by September 23, 1996;
(iii) The refrigerated condenser shall be operated with a diverter valve that prevents air drawn into the dry cleaning machine from passing through the refrigerated condenser when the door of the machines is open; and
(iv) The refrigerated condenser shall not vent the air-perchloroethylene gas-vapor stream while the dry cleaning machine drum is rotating or, if installed on a washer, until the washer door is opened.
(f) Requirements for carbon adsorbers. It shall be unlawful for any person to cause or allow the operation of any perchloroethylene dry cleaning system using a carbon adsorber unless all of the following conditions have been met:
(i) The concentration of perchloroethylene at the exhaust of the carbon adsorber shall not exceed 100 ppm while the dry cleaning machine is venting to the carbon adsorber at the end of the last dry cleaning cycle prior to desorption of the carbon adsorber; and
(ii) Compliance shall be determined by weekly measurements of the concentration of perchloroethylene at the outlet of the carbon adsorber using a colorimetric detector tube that is accurate to within 25 ppm. If the dry cleaning system was constructed before December 9, 1991, monitoring shall commence by September 23, 1996.
(g) Recordkeeping. Each dry cleaning facility shall have on-site the design specifications and operating manuals for all perchloroethylene dry cleaning equipment and process vent control devices, as well as an operations and maintenance plan that includes the following:
(i) A record of dates and results of all monitoring, inspections, and repair of the dry cleaning system; and
(ii) A record of the volume of perchloroethylene purchased each month including receipts of perchloroethylene purchases and a calculation of the amount of perchloroethylene purchased over the previous twelve months.
(h) A record shall be kept of any pollution prevention activities that have been accomplished.
(i) Major source requirements. If the dry cleaning system is located at a facility that emits 10 tons or more of perchloroethylene annually, the facility must meet the additional requirements set forth in 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart M.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 96-19-054 (Order 94-35), § 173-400-075, filed 9/13/96, effective 10/14/96; 93-05-044 (Order 92-34), § 173-400-075, filed 2/17/93, effective 3/20/93; 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), § 173-400-075, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331, 70.94.395 and 70.94.510. 85-06-046 (Order 84-48), § 173-400-075, filed 3/6/85. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 84-10-019 (Order DE 84-8), § 173-400-075, filed 4/26/84. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21A and 70.94 RCW. 83-09-036 (Order DE 83-13), § 173-400-075, filed 4/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. 80-11-059 (Order DE 80-14), § 173-400-075, filed 8/20/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.21A.080 and 70.94.331. 79-06-012 (Order DE 78-21), § 173-400-075, filed 5/8/79; Order DE 76-38, § 173-400-075, filed 12/21/76. Formerly WAC 18-04-075.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-35, filed 9/13/96, effective 10/14/96)
WAC 173-400-105 Records, monitoring, and reporting. The owner or operator of a source shall upon notification by the director of ecology, maintain records on the type and quantity of emissions from the source and other information deemed necessary to determine whether the source is in compliance with applicable emission limitations and control measures.
(1) Emission inventory. The owner(s) or operator(s) of any air contaminant source shall submit an inventory of emissions from the source each year. The inventory may include stack and fugitive emissions of particulate matter, PM10, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS), fluorides, lead, VOCs, and other contaminants, and shall be submitted (when required) no later than one hundred five days after the end of the calendar year. The owner(s) or operator(s) shall maintain records of information necessary to substantiate any reported emissions, consistent with the averaging times for the applicable standards.
(2) Monitoring. Ecology shall conduct a continuous surveillance program to monitor the quality of the ambient atmosphere as to concentrations and movements of air contaminants.
As a part of this program, the director of ecology or an authorized representative may require any source under the jurisdiction of ecology to conduct stack and/or ambient air monitoring and to report the results to ecology.
(3) Investigation of conditions. Upon presentation of appropriate credentials, for the purpose of investigating conditions specific to the control, recovery, or release of air contaminants into the atmosphere, personnel from ecology or an authority shall have the power to enter at reasonable times upon any private or public property, excepting nonmultiple unit private dwellings housing one or two families.
(4) Source testing. To demonstrate compliance, ecology or
the authority may conduct or require that a test be conducted of
the source using approved EPA methods from 40 CFR parts 51, 60
Appendix A which are adopted by reference)), 61 and 63, or
approved procedures contained in "Source Test Manual - Procedures
for Compliance Testing," state of Washington, department of
ecology, as of July 12, 1990, on file at ecology. The operator
of a source may be required to provide the necessary platform and
sampling ports for ecology personnel or others to perform a test
of an emissions unit. Ecology shall be allowed to obtain a
sample from any emissions unit. The operator of the source shall
be given an opportunity to observe the sampling and to obtain a
sample at the same time.
(5) Continuous monitoring and recording. Owners and operators of the following categories of sources shall install, calibrate, maintain and operate equipment for continuously monitoring and recording those emissions specified.
(a) Fossil fuel-fired steam generators.
(i) Opacity, except where:
(A) Steam generator capacity is less than two hundred fifty million BTU per hour heat input; or
(B) Only gaseous fuel is burned.
(ii) Sulfur dioxide, except where steam generator capacity is less than two hundred fifty million BTU per hour heat input or if sulfur dioxide control equipment is not required.
(iii) Percent oxygen or carbon dioxide where such measurements are necessary for the conversion of sulfur dioxide continuous emission monitoring data.
(iv) General exception. These requirements do not apply to a fossil fuel-fired steam generator with an annual average capacity factor of less than thirty percent, as reported to the Federal Power Commission for calendar year 1974, or as otherwise demonstrated to ecology or the authority by the owner(s) or operator(s).
(b) Sulfuric acid plants.
Sulfur dioxide where production capacity is more than three hundred tons per day, expressed as one hundred percent acid, except for those facilities where conversion to sulfuric acid is utilized primarily as a means of preventing emissions to the atmosphere of sulfur dioxide or other sulfur compounds.
(c) Fluid bed catalytic cracking units catalyst regenerators at petroleum refineries.
Opacity where fresh feed capacity is more than twenty thousand barrels per day.
(d) Wood residue fuel-fired steam generators.
(i) Opacity, except where steam generator capacity is less than one hundred million BTU per hour heat input.
(ii) Continuous monitoring equipment. The requirements of (e) of this subsection do not apply to wood residue fuel-fired steam generators, but continuous monitoring equipment required by (d) of this subsection shall be subject to approval by ecology.
(e) Owners and operators of those sources required to install continuous monitoring equipment under this chapter shall demonstrate to ecology or the authority, compliance with the equipment and performance specifications and observe the reporting requirements contained in 40 CFR Part 51, Appendix P, Sections 3, 4 and 5, promulgated October 6, 1975, and amended November 7, 1986, which is adopted by reference.
(f) Special considerations. If for reason of physical plant limitations or extreme economic situations, ecology determines that continuous monitoring is not a reasonable requirement, alternative monitoring and reporting procedures will be established on an individual basis. These will generally take the form of stack tests conducted at a frequency sufficient to establish the emission levels over time and to monitor deviations in these levels.
(g) Exemptions. This subsection (5) does not apply to any source which is:
(i) Subject to a new source performance standard. These sources will be governed by WAC 173-400-115.
(ii) Not subject to an applicable emission standard.
(h) Monitoring system malfunctions. A source may be temporarily exempted from the monitoring and reporting requirements of this chapter during periods of monitoring system malfunctions provided that the source owner(s) or operator(s) shows to the satisfaction of ecology or the authority that the malfunction was unavoidable and is being repaired as expeditiously as practicable.
(6) Change in raw materials or fuels for sources not subject to requirements of the operating permit program. Any change or series of changes in raw material or fuel which will result in a cumulative increase in emissions of sulfur dioxide of forty tons per year or more over that stated in the initial inventory required by subsection (1) of this section shall require the submittal of sufficient information to ecology or the authority to determine the effect of the increase upon ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Ecology or the authority may issue regulatory orders requiring controls to reduce the effect of such increases. Cumulative changes in raw material or fuel of less than 0.5 percent increase in average annual sulfur content over the initial inventory shall not require such notice.
(7) No person shall make any false materials statement, representation or certification in any form, notice or report required under chapter 70.94 or 70.120 RCW, or any ordinance, resolution, regulation, permit or order in force pursuant thereto.
(8) No person shall render inaccurate any monitoring device or method required under chapter 70.94 or 70.120 RCW, or any ordinance, resolution, regulation, permit, or order in force pursuant thereto.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 96-19-054 (Order 94-35), § 173-400-105, filed 9/13/96, effective 10/14/96; 93-18-007 (Order 93-03), § 173-400-105, filed 8/20/93, effective 9/20/93; 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), § 173-400-105, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91; 87-20-019 (Order 87-12), § 173-400-105, filed 9/30/87.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 96-01, filed 12/23/97, effective 1/23/98)
WAC 173-400-110 New source review (NSR). (1) Applicability. This section, WAC 173-400-112 and 173-400-113 apply state-wide except where an authority has adopted and is implementing its own new source review regulation and those regulations are incorporated into the state implementation plan.
(2) Projects subject to NSR. A notice of construction application must be filed by the owner or operator and an order of approval issued by ecology or an authority prior to the establishment of any new source, except for those sources exempt under subsection (4) or (5) of this section.
For purposes of this section "establishment" shall mean to begin actual construction, as that term is defined in WAC 173-400-030(9), and "new source" shall include any modification to an existing stationary source, as defined in WAC 173-400-030(44). Notwithstanding any other subsection of this section, a notice of construction application must be filed and an order of approval issued by ecology or an authority prior to establishment of any of the following new sources:
(a) Any project that qualifies as construction, reconstruction or modification of an affected facility, within the meaning of 40 CFR Part 60 (New Source Performance Standards) (except Part AAA, Wood stoves);
(b) Any project that qualifies as a new or modified source within the meaning of 40 CFR 61.02 (except for asbestos demolition and renovation projects subject to 40 CFR 61.145);
(c) Any project that qualifies as a new source within the meaning of 40 CFR 63.2 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants);
(d) Any project that qualifies as a major stationary source,
as defined in WAC 173-400-030(41), or a major modification, as
defined in WAC ((
(e) Any project that requires an increase in a plant-wide cap or unit specific emission limit.
(3) New source review of a modification shall be limited to the emission unit or units proposed to be added to an existing source or modified and the air contaminants whose emissions would increase as a result of the modification.
(4) Emission unit and activity exemptions.
Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, establishment of a new emission unit that falls within one of the categories listed below is exempt from new source review. Modification of any emission unit listed below is exempt from new source review, provided that the modified unit continues to fall within one of the listed categories. The installation or modification of a unit exempt under this subsection does not require the filing of a Notice of Construction Application.
(i) Cleaning and sweeping of streets and paved surfaces;
(ii) Concrete application, and installation;
(iii) Dredging wet spoils handling and placement;
(iv) Paving application and maintenance, excluding asphalt plants;
(v) Plant maintenance and upkeep activities (grounds keeping, general repairs, routine house keeping, routine plant painting, welding, cutting, brazing, soldering, plumbing, retarring roofs, etc.);
(vi) Plumbing installation, plumbing protective coating application and maintenance activities;
(vii) Roofing application;
(viii) Insulation application and maintenance, excluding products for resale;
(ix) Janitorial services and consumer use of janitorial products.
(b) Storage tanks:
Note: It can be difficult to determine requirements for storage tanks. Ecology strongly recommends that an owner or operator contact ecology or the authority to determine the exemption status of storage tanks prior to their installation.
(i) Lubricating oil storage tanks except those facilities that are wholesale or retail distributors of lubricating oils;
(ii) Polymer tanks and storage devices and associated pumping and handling equipment, used for solids dewatering and flocculation;
(iii) Storage tanks, reservoirs, pumping and handling equipment of any size containing soaps, vegetable oil, grease, animal fat, and nonvolatile aqueous salt solutions;
(iv) Process and white water storage tanks;
(v) Operation, loading and unloading of storage tanks and storage vessels, with lids or other appropriate closure and less than 260 gallon capacity (35 cft);
(vi) Operation, loading and unloading of storage tanks, 1100 gallon capacity, with lids or other appropriate closure, not for use with materials containing toxic air pollutants, as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC, max. VP 550 mm Hg @21C;
(vii) Operation, loading and unloading storage of butane, propane, or liquefied petroleum gas with a vessel capacity less than 40,000 gallons;
(viii) Tanks, vessels and pumping equipment, with lids or other appropriate closure for storage or dispensing of aqueous solutions of inorganic salts, bases and acids.
(c) A project with combined aggregate heat inputs of combustion units, all of the following:
(i) 500,000 Btu/hr using coal with 0.5% sulfur or other fuels with 0.5% sulfur;
(ii) 500,000 Btu/hr used oil, per the requirements of RCW 70.94.610;
(iii) 400,000 Btu/hr wood waste or paper;
(iv) < 1,000,000 Btu/hr using kerosene, #1, or #2 fuel oil and with 0.05% sulfur;
(v) 4,000,000 Btu/hr using natural gas, propane, or LPG.
(d) Material handling:
(i) Continuous digester chip feeders;
(ii) Grain elevators not licensed as warehouses or dealers by either the Washington state department of agriculture or the U.S. Department of Agriculture;
(iii) Storage and handling of water based lubricants for metal working where organic content of the lubricant is 10%;
(iv) Equipment used exclusively to pump, load, unload, or store high boiling point organic material in tanks less than one million gallon, material with initial atmospheric boiling point not less than 150C or vapor pressure not more than 5 mm Hg @21C, with lids or other appropriate closure.
(e) Water treatment:
(i) Septic sewer systems, not including active wastewater treatment facilities;
(ii) NPDES permitted ponds and lagoons used solely for the purpose of settling suspended solids and skimming of oil and grease;
(iii) De-aeration (oxygen scavenging) of water where toxic air pollutants as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC are not emitted;
(iv) Process water filtration system and demineralizer vents;
(v) Sewer manholes, junction boxes, sumps and lift stations associated with wastewater treatment systems;
(vi) Demineralizer tanks;
(vii) Alum tanks;
(viii) Clean water condensate tanks.
(f) Environmental chambers and laboratory equipment:
(i) Environmental chambers and humidity chambers not using toxic air pollutant gases, as regulated under chapter 173-460 WAC;
(ii) Gas cabinets using only gases that are not toxic air pollutants regulated under chapter 173-460 WAC;
(iii) Installation or modification of a single laboratory fume hood;
(iv) Laboratory calibration and maintenance equipment.
(g) Monitoring/quality assurance/testing:
(i) Equipment and instrumentation used for quality control/assurance or inspection purpose;
(ii) Hydraulic and hydrostatic testing equipment;
(iii) Sample gathering, preparation and management;
(iv) Vents from continuous emission monitors and other analyzers.
(i) Single-family residences and duplexes;
(ii) Plastic pipe welding;
(iii) Primary agricultural production activities including soil preparation, planting, fertilizing, weed and pest control, and harvesting;
(iv) Comfort air conditioning;
(v) Flares used to indicate danger to the public;
(vi) Natural and forced air vents and stacks for bathroom/toilet activities;
(vii) Personal care activities;
(viii) Recreational fireplaces including the use of barbecues, campfires, and ceremonial fires;
(ix) Tobacco smoking rooms and areas;
(x) Noncommercial smokehouses;
(xi) Blacksmith forges for single forges;
(xii) Vehicle maintenance activities, not including vehicle surface coating;
(xiii) Vehicle or equipment washing (see (c) of this subsection for threshold for boilers);
(xiv) Wax application;
(xv) Oxygen, nitrogen, or rare gas extraction and liquefaction equipment not including internal and external combustion equipment;
(xvi) Ozone generators and ozonation equipment;
(xvii) Solar simulators;
(xviii) Ultraviolet curing processes, to the extent that toxic air pollutant gases as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC are not emitted;
(xix) Electrical circuit breakers, transformers, or switching equipment installation or operation;
(xx) Pulse capacitors;
(xxi) Pneumatically operated equipment, including tools and hand held applicator equipment for hot melt adhesives;
(xxii) Fire suppression equipment;
(xxiii) Recovery boiler blow-down tank;
(xxiv) Screw press vents;
(xxv) Drop hammers or hydraulic presses for forging or metal working;
(xxvi) Production of foundry sand molds, unheated and using binders less than 0.25% free phenol by sand weight;
(xxvii) Kraft lime mud storage tanks and process vessels;
(xxviii) Lime grits washers, filters and handling;
(xxix) Lime mud filtrate tanks;
(xxx) Lime mud water;
(xxxi) Stock cleaning and pressurized pulp washing down process of the brown stock washer;
(xxxii) Natural gas pressure regulator vents, excluding venting at oil and gas production facilities and transportation marketing facilities;
(xxxiii) Nontoxic air pollutant, as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC, solvent cleaners less than 10 square feet air-vapor interface with solvent vapor pressure not more than 30 mm Hg @21C;
(xxxiv) Surface coating, aqueous solution or suspension containing 1% (by weight) VOCs, and/or toxic air pollutants as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC;
(xxxv) Cleaning and stripping activities and equipment using solutions having 1% VOCs (by weight); on metallic substances, acid solutions are not exempt;
(xxxvi) Dip coating operations, using materials less than 1% VOCs (by weight) and/or toxic air pollutants as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC.
(5) Exemptions based on emissions thresholds.
(a) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section and in this subsection:
(i) A new emissions unit that has a potential to emit below each of the threshold levels listed in the table contained in (d) of this subsection is exempt from new source review provided that the conditions of (b) of this subsection are met.
(ii) A modification to an existing emissions unit that increases the unit's actual emissions by less than each of the threshold levels listed in the table contained in (d) of this subsection is exempt from new source review provided that the conditions of (b) of this subsection are met.
(b) The owner or operator seeking to exempt a project from new source review under this section shall notify, and upon request, file a brief project summary with ecology or the authority prior to beginning actual construction on the project. If ecology or the authority determine that the project will have more than a de Minimus impact on air quality, ecology or the authority may require the filing of a notice of construction application. Ecology or the authority may require the owner or operator to demonstrate that the emissions increase from the new emissions unit is smaller than all of the thresholds listed below.
(c) The owner/operator may begin actual construction on the project thirty-one days after ecology or the authority receive the summary, unless ecology or the authority notifies the owner/operator within thirty days that the proposed new source requires a notice of construction application.
(d) Exemption threshold table:
(a) Total Suspended Particulates
|(c) Sulfur Oxides||2.0|
|(d) Nitrogen Oxides||2.0|
|(e) Volatile Organic Compounds, total||2.0|
|(f) Carbon Monoxide||5.0|
|(h) Ozone Depleting Substances in||1.0|
|Aggregate (the sum of Class I and/or|
|Class II substances as defined in|
|FCAA Title VI and 40 CFR Part 82)|
|(i) Toxic Air Pollutants||As specified in chapter 173-460 WAC.|
(6) Completeness determination. Within thirty days of receipt of a notice of construction application, ecology or the authority shall either notify the applicant in writing that the application is complete or notify the applicant in writing of all additional information necessary, based upon review of information already supplied, to complete the application. For a project subject to PSD review under WAC 173-400-141 a completeness determination includes a determination that the application provides all information required to conduct PSD review.
(7) Final determination.
(a) Within sixty days of receipt of a complete application, ecology or the authority shall either issue a final decision on the application or, for those projects subject to public notice, initiate notice and comment procedures under WAC 173-400-171 on a proposed decision, followed as promptly as possible by a final decision.
(b) A person seeking approval to construct or modify a source that requires an operating permit may elect to integrate review of the operating permit application or amendment required under RCW 70.94.161 and the notice of construction application required by this section. A notice of construction application designated for integrated review shall be processed in accordance with operating permit program procedures and deadlines.
(c) Every final determination on a notice of construction application shall be reviewed and signed prior to issuance by a professional engineer or staff under the direct supervision of a professional engineer in the employ of ecology or the authority.
(d) If the new source is a major stationary source or the change is a major modification, ecology or the authority shall submit any control technology determination included in a final order of approval to the RACT/BACT/LAER clearinghouse maintained by EPA.
(8) Appeals. An order of approval, any conditions contained in an order of approval, or the denial of a notice of construction application may be appealed to the pollution control hearings board as provided in chapter 43.21B RCW. Ecology or the authority shall promptly mail copies of each order approving or denying a notice of construction application to the applicant and to any other party who submitted timely comments on the application, along with a notice advising parties of their rights of appeal to the Pollution Control Hearings Board and, where applicable, to the EPA Environmental Appeals Board.
(9) Portable sources. For portable sources which locate temporarily at particular sites, the owner(s) or operator(s) shall be allowed to operate at the temporary location without filing a notice of construction application, providing that the owner(s) or operator(s) notifies ecology or the authority of intent to operate at the new location at least thirty days prior to starting the operation, and supplies sufficient information to enable ecology or the authority to determine that the operation will comply with the emission standards for a new source, and will not cause a violation of applicable ambient air quality standards and, if in a nonattainment area, will not interfere with scheduled attainment of ambient standards. The permission to operate shall be for a limited period of time (one year or less) and ecology or the authority may set specific conditions for operation during that period. A temporary source shall be required to comply with all applicable emission standards.
(10) Construction time limitations. Approval to construct or modify a stationary source shall become invalid if construction is not commenced within eighteen months after receipt of such approval, if construction is discontinued for a period of eighteen months or more, or if construction is not completed within a reasonable time. Ecology or the authority may extend the eighteen-month period upon a satisfactory showing that an extension is justified. This provision does not apply to the time period between construction of the approved phases of a phased construction project. Each phase must commence construction within eighteen months of the projected and approved commencement date.
(11) Change of conditions.
(a) The owner or operator may request, at any time, a change in conditions of an approval order and ecology or the authority may approve such a request provided ecology or the authority finds that:
(i) The change in conditions will not cause the air contaminant source to exceed an emissions standard;
(ii) No ambient air quality standard or PSD increment will be exceeded as a result of the change;
(iii) The change will not adversely impact the ability of ecology or the authority to determine compliance with an emissions standard; and
(iv) The revised order will continue to require BACT, as defined at the time of the original approval, for each new source approved by the order except where the Federal Clean Air Act requires LAER.
(b) Actions taken under this subsection are subject to the public involvement provisions of WAC 173-400-171.
(c) This rule does not prescribe the exact form such requests must take. However, if the request is filed as a notice of construction application, that application shall be acted upon using the timelines found in subsections (6) and (7) of this section. The fee schedule found in WAC 173-400-116 shall also apply to requests filed as notice of construction applications.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.152. 98-01-183 (Order 96-01), § 173-400-110, filed 12/23/97, effective 1/23/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 93-18-007 (Order 93-03), § 173-400-110, filed 8/20/93, effective 9/20/93; 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), § 173-400-110, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21A and 70.94 RCW. 83-09-036 (Order DE 83-13), § 173-400-110, filed 4/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331, 70.94.510, and 70.94.785. 81-03-002 (Order DE 80-53), § 173-400-110, filed 1/8/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. 80-11-059 (Order DE 80-14), § 173-400-110, filed 8/20/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.21A.080 and 70.94.331. 79-06-012 (Order DE 78-21), § 173-400-110, filed 5/8/79; Order DE 76-38, § 173-400-110, filed 12/21/76. Formerly WAC 18-04-110.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 97-38, filed 2/2/98, effective 3/5/98)
WAC 173-460-060 Control technology requirements. Except as provided for in WAC 173-460-040, a person shall not establish, operate, or cause to be established or operated any new toxic air pollutant source which is likely to increase TAP emissions without installing and operating T-BACT. Satisfaction of the performance requirements listed below fulfill the T-BACT requirement for those particular sources. Local air pollution authorities may develop and require performance requirements in lieu of T-BACT provided that ecology approves the performance requirements as equivalent to T-BACT.
(1) Perchloroethylene dry cleaners. The requirements for perchloroethylene dry cleaners found in WAC 173-400-075 are considered T-BACT.
(2) Petroleum solvent dry cleaning systems. A petroleum solvent dry cleaning system shall include the following:
(a) All cleaned articles are dried in a solvent recovery dryer or the entire dryer exhaust is vented through a properly functioning control device which will reduce emissions to no more than 3.5 kg of VOC per 100 kg dry weight of cleaned articles; and
(b) All cartridge filtration systems are drained in their sealed housing or other enclosed container before discarding the cartridges; and
(c) All leaking components shall be repaired immediately.
(2))) (3) Chromic acid plating and anodizing. The
facility-wide uncontrolled hexavalent chromium emissions from
plating or anodizing tanks shall be reduced by at least ninety-five percent using either of the following control techniques:
(a) An antimist additive or other equally effective control method approved by ecology or authority; or
(b) The tank is equipped with:
(i) A capture system which represents good engineering practice and which shall be in place and in operation at all times electrical current is applied to the tank; and
(ii) An emission control system which limits hexavalent chromium emissions to no more than 0.15 milligrams per ampere-hour of electrical charge applied to the tank or uncontrolled emissions shall be reduced by ninety-five percent.
(3))) (4) Chromic acid plating and anodizing (greater than
1 kilogram). If the facility-wide hexavalent chromium emissions
from chromic acid plating and anodizing are greater than 1
kilogram per year after the application of control techniques
required by subsection (( (2))) (3) of this section, the facility-wide hexavalent chromium emissions shall be reduced by at least
ninety-nine percent using either of the following control
(a) An antimist additive or other equally effective control method approved by ecology or authority; or
(b) The tank is equipped with:
(i) A capture system which represents good engineering practice and which shall be in place and in operation at all times electrical current is applied to the tank; and
(ii) An emissions control system which limits hexavalent chromium emissions to no more than 0.03 milligrams per ampere-hour of electrical charge applied to the tank or uncontrolled emissions shall be reduced by ninety-nine percent.
(4))) (5) Solvent metal cleaners.
(a) Any solvent metal cleaner shall include all of the following equipment:
(i) A cover for the solvent tank which shall be closed at all times except when processing work in the degreaser. However, the cover shall be closed to the maximum extent possible when parts are being degreased;
(ii) A facility for draining cleaned parts such that the drained solvent is returned to the solvent tank;
(iii) For cold solvent cleaners, a freeboard ratio greater than or equal to 0.75;
(iv) Vapor degreasers shall have:
(A) A high vapor cutoff thermostat with manual reset; and
(B) For degreasers with spray devices, a vapor-up thermostat which will allow spray operation only after the vapor zone has risen to the design level; and
(C) Either a freeboard ratio greater than or equal to 1.00 or a refrigerated freeboard chiller; and
(v) Conveyorized vapor degreasers shall have:
(A) A drying tunnel or a rotating basket sufficient to prevent cleaned parts from carrying liquid solvent out of the degreaser; and
(B) A high vapor cutoff thermostat with manual reset; and
(C) A vapor-up thermostat which will allow conveyor movement only after the vapor zone has risen to the design vapor level.
(b) The operation of any solvent metal cleaner shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Solvent shall not leak from any portion of the degreasing equipment;
(ii) Solvent, including waste solvent, shall be stored in closed containers and shall be disposed of in such a manner as to prevent its evaporation into the atmosphere;
(iii) For cold cleaners, cleaned parts shall be drained until dripping ceases; and
(iv) Degreasers shall be constructed to allow liquid solvent from cleaned parts to drain into a trough or equivalent device and return to the solvent tank.
(c) For open-top vapor degreasers, solvent drag-out shall be minimized by the following measures:
(i) Racked parts shall be allowed to drain fully;
(ii) The work load shall be degreased in the vapor zone until condensation ceases;
(iii) Spraying operations shall be done within the vapor layer;
(iv) When using a powered hoist, the vertical speed of parts in and out of the vapor zone shall be less than three meters per minute (ten feet per minute);
(v) When the cover is open, the lip of the degreaser shall not be exposed to steady drafts greater than 15.3 meters per minute (fifty feet per minute); and
(vi) When equipped with a lip exhaust, the fan shall be turned off when the cover is closed.
(d) For conveyorized vapor degreasers, solvent drag-out shall be minimized by the following measures:
(i) Racked parts shall be allowed to drain fully; and
(ii) Vertical conveyor speed shall be maintained at less than three meters per minute (ten feet per minute).
(5))) (6) Abrasive blasting.
(a) Abrasive blasting shall be performed inside a booth or hangar designed to capture the blast grit or overspray.
(b) Outdoor blasting of structures or items too large to be reasonably handled indoors shall employ control measures such as curtailment during windy periods and enclosure of the area being blasted with tarps.
(c) Outdoor blasting shall be performed with either steel shot or an abrasive containing less than one percent (by mass) which would pass through a No. 200 sieve.
(d) All abrasive blasting with sand shall be performed inside a blasting booth or cabinet.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.98 RCW. 98-04-062 (Order 97-38), § 173-460-060, filed 2/2/98, effective 3/5/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 94-03-072 (Order 93-19), § 173-460-060, filed 1/14/94, effective 2/14/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. 91-13-079 (Order 90-62), § 173-460-060, filed 6/18/91, effective 9/18/91.]