WSR 99-09-080

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed April 20, 1999, 10:37 a.m. , effective August 1, 1999 ]

Date of Adoption: April 20, 1999.

Purpose: Chapter 296-45 WAC, Safety standards for electrical workers.

The Department of Labor and Industries has adopted amendments relating to electrical workers, which incorporate federal provisions in 29 C.F.R. 1910.269. These changes are a result of correspondence from OSHA indicating that some of the current WISHA requirements are "not at least as effective" as the federal rules. In addition, based upon stakeholder input, WISHA adopted several housekeeping changes and clarifications. No additional compliance requirements are added. The following are changes being adopted and a brief summary of those changes:

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-015 Scope and application. The adopted rule makes a WISHA change deleting (2)(a) for clarification purposes.

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-045 NESC applicable. The adopted rule makes a WISHA change correcting two typographical errors in subsections (1) and (2).

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-17550 Servicing contractors. The adopted rule changes the previous title of "Servicing contractors" to "Group lockout/tagout" for clarification purposes and to be like the federal rule in 29 C.F.R. 1910.269 (d)(8)(ii)(A).

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-215 Underground electrical installations. The adopted rule adds a notation to require testing for flammable gases and vapors, in addition to testing for oxygen or providing forced ventilation prior to entry into underground electrical installations. These changes are made to be like 29 C.F.R. 1910.269 (e)(9), 29 C.F.R. 1910.269 (e)(10) also to mirror current WISHA requirements for testing identified in WAC 296-45-205(10).

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-215 Underground electrical installations. Adopted rule makes a WISHA change to subsection (23) to correct obsolete WAC references. The reference was changed from WAC 296-45-65023 to 296-45-335 on clearances and the reference to WAC 296-45-65026 was changed to 296-45-345 and/or 296-45-355 on grounding.

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-325 Working on or near exposed energized parts. Adopted rule changes subsection (4)(c) Note 2(1) to be as effective as the federal rule in 29 C.F.R. 1910.269 (1)(2)(I) which includes the use of insulating sleeves when appropriate. Also (16) Table 1: AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance, Row 4 under Voltage in kilovolts phase to phase, information has been corrected from 0.0751 to the correct voltage of 0.751.

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-455 Line-clearance tree-trimming operations. Adopted rule changes subsection (7) to be like federal rule in 29 C.F.R. 1910.67 (c)(2)(iii), which clarifies tying off when getting in and out of a basket.

Amended Section: WAC 296-45-901 Appendix A--Nonmandatory. Adopted rule makes a WISHA change to Appendix A--Table 4, DC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance with Transient Overvoltage Factor, row 1, under the 750 kilovolts, to correct distance to employee in feet, conductor to ground from 10' feet 11" inches to 11' feet 10" inches due to a typographical error.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: See Purpose above.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.040.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 99-04-078 on February 3 [2], 1999.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: No changes were made. No public comments were received regarding this proposed rule filing proposal. Therefore, the amendments are adopted as proposed.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 4, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 4, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 7, Repealed 0. Effective Date of Rule: August 1, 1999.

April 20, 1999

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-2726.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)

WAC 296-45-015
Scope and application.

(1) This chapter covers the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment.  These provisions apply to:

(a) Power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified employees;

Note:The types of installations covered by this chapter include the generation, transmission, and distribution installations of electric utilities, as well as equivalent installations of industrial establishments. Trolley maintenance, jumpering, and bypass is also covered by this chapter. Supplementary electric generating equipment that is used to supply a workplace for emergency, standby, or similar purposes only is covered under Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC.


(b) Other installations at an electric power generating station, as follows:

(i) Fuel and ash handling and processing installations, such as coal conveyors;

(ii) Water and steam installations, such as penstocks, pipelines, and tanks, providing a source of energy for electric generators; and

(iii) Chlorine and hydrogen systems.

(c) Test sites where electrical testing involving temporary measurements associated with electric power generation, transmission, and distribution is performed in laboratories, in the field, in substations, and on lines, as opposed to metering, relaying, and routine line work;

(d) Work on or directly associated with the installations covered in subsections (1)(a) through (c) of this section; and

(e) Line-clearance tree-trimming operations, as follows:

(i) This chapter except WAC 296-45-455, applies to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by qualified employees (those who are knowledgeable in the construction and operation of electric power generation, transmission, or distribution equipment involved, along with the associated hazards).

(ii) WAC 296-45-065, 296-45-125, 296-45-135, 296-45-255, 296-45-315, 296-45-375, and 296-45-455 through 296-45-45530 apply to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by line-clearance tree trimmers who are not qualified employees.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) of this section, this chapter does not apply((:

(a) To construction work as defined in chapter 296-155 WAC; or

(b))) to electrical installations, electrical safety-related work practices, or electrical maintenance considerations covered by Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC.

Note 1:Work practices conforming to WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985 are considered as complying with the electrical safety-related work practice requirements of this chapter, provided the work is being performed on a generation or distribution installation meeting WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699.  This chapter also applies to work by qualified persons directly on or associated with installations of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines or equipment, regardless of compliance with WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985.
Note 2:Work practices performed by qualified persons and conforming to this chapter are considered as complying with WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699.

(3) This section applies in addition to all other applicable safety and health standards administered by the department.  Specific references in this section to other standards are provided for emphasis only.

(4) Operation, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities not specifically covered by this chapter are subject to the rules and regulations of chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards; chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards; chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work; and, insofar as applicable to employee safety and health, chapter 19.29 RCW.  Additionally, operations, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities may be subject to additional rules and regulations depending upon the nature of the work being performed.

(5) These rules shall not apply to the use of existing electrical installations during their lifetime, provided they are maintained in good condition and in accordance with the applicable safety factor requirements and the rules in effect at the time they were installed, and provided that reconstruction shall conform to the rules as herein provided.

(6) Any rule, regulation or standard contained within this chapter, if subject to interpretation, shall be interpreted so as to achieve employee safety, which is the ultimate purpose of this chapter.

(7) Should a rule or standard contained within this chapter conflict, in any manner, with a standard or rule contained within any other chapter of Title 296 WAC the standard or rule contained herein shall apply so long as the work being done is power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified employees.  If there are rules within this chapter that conflict, the rule that provides the greatest employee safety will apply.

(8) Neither the promulgation of these rules, nor anything contained in these rules shall be construed as affecting the relative status or civil rights or liabilities between employers and their employees and/or the employees of others and/or the public generally; nor shall the use herein of the words "duty" and "responsibility" or either, import or imply liability other than provided for in the industrial insurance and safety laws of the state of Washington, to any person for injuries due to negligence predicated upon failure to perform or discharge any such "duty" or "responsibility," but failure on the part of the employees, leadworker, or employer to comply with any compulsory rule may be cause for the department of labor and industries to take action in accordance with the industrial insurance and safety laws.

(9) "Shall" and "must" as used in this chapter make the provisions mandatory.  "Should," "may," or "it is recommended" are used to indicate the provisions are not mandatory but are recommended.

(10) If any section, subsection, phrase, or provisions of this chapter or part thereof should be held invalid by any court for any reason, such invalidity shall not in any way affect the validity of the remainder of this chapter, unless such decision renders the remainder of the provision unintelligible, or changes the meaning of such other provision or provisions.

(11) When the language used in this chapter indicates that it is the responsibility, duty, or obligation of the leadworker or other employee, it shall also be the employer's responsibility, obligation, and duty.

Whenever this chapter refers to the provisions of another safety and health standard or statute affecting safety and health, such reference refers to the statute or code in effect at the time the work is being performed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-07-009, 296-45-015, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)

WAC 296-45-045
NESC applicable.

(1) All electric utilities and entities operating transmission and distribution facilities within the state of Washington must design, construct, operate, and maintain their lines and equipment according to the requirements of the 1997 National ((Electric)) Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), ((sections)) parts (1), (2), and (3).


Note:The department has copies of the NESC available for review at each service location across the state. To purchase a copy, write to:
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
345 East 47th Street
New York, NY 10017-2394

(2) The employer must ensure that climbing space is provided on all poles and structures.  The climbing space must meet the requirements of the 1997 National ((Electric)) Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), except that Rule 236H does not apply.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-07-009, 296-45-045, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)

WAC 296-45-17550
((Servicing contractors.)) Group lockout/tagout.

When servicing or maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department, or other group, they shall use a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.  Group lockout or tagout devices shall be used in accordance with the procedures required by the following specific requirements:

(1) Primary responsibility shall be vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);

(2) Provision shall be made for the authorized employee to ascertain the exposure status of all individual group members with regard to the lockout or tagout of the machine or equipment;

(3) When more than one crew, craft, department, or other group is involved, assignment of overall job-associated lockout or tagout control responsibility shall be given to an authorized employee designated to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection; and

(4) Each authorized employee shall affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work and shall remove those devices when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-07-009, 296-45-17550, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)

WAC 296-45-215
Underground electrical installations.

This section provides additional requirements for work on underground electrical installations.

(1) Protective barriers, or approved guards and warning signs must be erected before removing manhole covers or making excavations in places accessible to vehicular or pedestrian traffic.

(2) Whenever an opening is made in the street, it shall be properly guarded or covered until same is closed and whenever an obstruction is left in the roadway after dark, it shall be marked with approved lights, flares or similar devices.

(3) Access.  A ladder or other climbing device shall be used to enter and exit a manhole or subsurface vault exceeding 4 feet (122 cm) in depth.  No employee may climb into or out of a manhole or vault by stepping on cables or hangers.

(4) When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault:

(a) No entry shall be permitted unless ((forced ventilation is provided or)) the atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for ((oxygen deficiency and)) the presence of explosive or potentially hazardous gases or fumes.

(b) No entry shall be permitted unless the atmosphere has been found safe by testing for oxygen deficiency or forced ventilation is provided.

(c) When unsafe conditions are detected, by testing or other means, the work area shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry.

(((c))) (d) Provisions shall be made for a continuous supply of air as provided for in Part L, chapter 296-62 WAC.

(((d))) (e) When forced ventilation is not used a method of monitoring said manhole or vault so as to prevent the occurrence of oxygen deficiency due to work being performed in said manhole or vault, and to detect the presence of any explosive gases or fumes which may occur while the employees are working in said manhole or vault.

(5) When open flames are used or smoking is permitted in manholes, adequate mechanical forced air ventilation shall be used.

(6) Before using open flames in a manhole or excavation in an area where combustible gases or liquids may be present, such as near a gasoline service station, the atmosphere of the manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the combustible gases or liquids prior to the entry.

(7) When work is to be performed in manholes containing any wires or appliances carrying electrical current, they shall be in a sanitary condition.

(8) Care shall be taken to prevent the possibility of vehicles or pedestrians coming in contact with the wires and equipment.

(9) Lowering equipment into manholes.  Equipment used to lower materials and tools into manholes or vaults shall be capable of supporting the weight to be lowered and shall be checked for defects before use.  Before tools or materials are lowered into the opening for a manhole or vault, each employee working in the manhole or vault shall be clear of the area directly under the opening.

(10) Materials shall not be thrown into or out of manholes but shall be placed in the proper receptacle and hoisted in and out by means of a rope.

(11) Tools and materials shall not be left on the ground around or near the manhole opening where they might be pushed or otherwise fall into the hole.

(12) Attendants for manholes.

(a) An attendant shall be kept at the surface when there is any hazard to the employees in the manhole and the attendant should not leave the manhole unwatched until such time as all employees are out and the cover has been replaced.

(b) While work is being performed in a manhole containing energized electric equipment, an employee with first aid and CPR training meeting WAC 296-45-125(1) shall be available on the surface in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance.

Note 1:An attendant may also be required under WAC 296-45-205(7). One person may serve to fulfill both requirements. However, attendants required under WAC 296-45-205(7) are not permitted to enter the manhole.
Note 2:Employees entering manholes containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more are required to be qualified under WAC 296-45-325(1) through (4).

(c) No work shall be permitted to be done in any manhole or subway on any energized wire, cable or appliance carrying more than 300 volts of electricity by less than two qualified persons who shall at all times, while performing such work, be in the same manhole or subway in which work is being done.  This rule shall not apply to work on telephone, telegraph or signal wires or cables.

(d) For the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work, an employee working alone may enter, for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, if the employer can demonstrate that the employee will be protected from all electrical hazards.

(e) Reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, shall be maintained among all employees involved in the job.

(13) Cable in manholes or underground vaults shall be accessible to employees and a clear working space shall be maintained at all times; and/or approved protective guards, barriers, etc., when installed shall be considered as providing adequate working clearance for cables over 5 k.v.  If a manhole and/or underground vault is determined to have an electrical or structural hazard, no work shall be done in the manhole and/or vault until the unsafe condition is corrected or de-energized.

(14) No work shall be performed on cables or equipment unless they have been properly identified by an approved method.

(15) Duct rods.  If duct rods are used, they shall be installed in the direction presenting the least hazard to employees.  An employee shall be stationed at the far end of the duct line being rodded to ensure that the required minimum approach distances are maintained.

(16) Multiple cables.  When multiple cables are present in a work area, the cable to be worked shall be identified by electrical means, unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance or location or by other readily apparent means of identification.  Cables other than the one being worked shall be protected from damage.

(17) Before cutting into a high voltage cable or opening a high voltage splice, the cable shall be de-energized then clearance obtained, tested and then grounded in an approved manner.  The cable to be worked on shall be identified by tags or equivalent means.

(18) Moving cables.  Energized cables that are to be moved shall be inspected for defects.

(19) Insulated platforms or other protective devices shall be provided when work is to be done on energized wires or equipment in manholes.

(20) Furnaces shall always be placed in a secure, level position on the downhill side of the manhole to avoid spillage of hot metals or compounds into the manhole.

(21) Pulling underground cable.  When pulling cable(s) all employees shall be made aware of the hazard of being caught in the sheaves, lashings or winch gears.  All employees shall stand clear of the pulling line when the pull is begun or when the line is under tension.  This rule applies to all work performed by means of a winch.

(22) Fishing conduit or ducts.  When fishing conduit or ducts, it shall first be determined that the fish tape or wires will not contact any energized line or equipment.

(23) WAC ((296-45-65023)) 296-45-335 on clearances ((and WAC 296-45-65026 on grounding)) shall be complied with. Also WAC 296-45-345 and/or WAC 296-45-355 on grounding shall be complied with.

(24) Defective cables.  Where a cable in a manhole has one or more abnormalities that could lead to or be an indication of an impending fault, the defective cable shall be de-energized before any employee may work in the manhole, except when service load conditions and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the cable remain energized.  In that case, employees may enter the manhole provided they are protected from the possible effects of a failure by shields or other devices that are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault in the joint.

Note:Abnormalities such as oil or compound leaking from cables or joints, broken cable sheaths or joint sleeves, hot localized surface temperatures of cables or joints, or joints that are swollen beyond normal tolerance are presumed to lead to or be an indication of an impending fault.


(25) Sheath continuity.  When work is performed on buried cable or on cable in manholes, metallic sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening (or by equivalent means), or the cable sheath shall be treated as energized.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-07-009, 296-45-215, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)

WAC 296-45-325
Working on or near exposed energized parts.

This section applies to work on exposed live parts, or near enough to them, to expose the employee to any hazard they present.

(1) General.  Only qualified employees may work on or with exposed energized lines or parts of equipment.  Only qualified employees may work in areas containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of equipment operating at 50 volts or more.  Electric lines and equipment shall be considered and treated as energized unless the provisions of WAC 296-45-175 through 296-45-17565 or 296-45-335 have been followed.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, at least two qualified employees shall be present while the following types of work are being performed:

(a) Installation, removal, or repair of lines that are energized at more than 600 volts;

(b) Installation, removal, or repair of de-energized lines if an employee is exposed to contact with other parts energized at more than 600 volts;

(c) Installation, removal, or repair of equipment, such as transformers, capacitors, and regulators, if an employee is exposed to contact with parts energized at more than 600 volts;

(d) Work involving the use of mechanical equipment, other than insulated aerial lifts, near parts energized at more than 600 volts; and

(e) Other work that exposes an employee to electrical hazards greater than or equal to those posed by operations that are specifically listed in subsection (2)(a) through (e) of this section.


Note 1:One employee shall serve principally as a standby person who shall be so located that they may physically reach the other employee in the event of an accident either with their hand or with a hot stick. The stand-by shall be so positioned as to be able to observe the other employee, their bodily movements, and verbally warn of any impending dangers. In no case when working in pairs shall employees work simultaneously on energized wires or parts of different phases or polarity;
Note 2:In cases of necessity the stand-by person may temporarily assist the other employee provided that they both work on wires or parts of the same phase or polarity. Both employees shall so position themselves so that the presence of the second person does not increase the hazard.

(3) The provisions of WAC 296-45-325(2) do not apply in the following circumstances:

(a) When re-fusing circuits or equipment with a hot stick.

(b) When operating switches by means of operating handle or switch sticks.

(c) When installing or removing a hot line clamp connection with an approved hot stick on single phase line or apparatus, providing that the connection or disconnection does not interrupt or pick up a load.

(d) When installing or removing by hot stick simple load metering devices provided the connection does not interrupt or pickup load.

(e) Emergency repairs to the extent necessary to safeguard the general public.

(4) "Minimum approach distances." The employer shall ensure that no employee approaches or takes any conductive object closer to exposed energized parts than set forth in Table 1 through Table 4, unless:

The employee is insulated from the energized part (insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves worn in accordance with subsection (7) of this section are considered insulation of the employee only with regard to the energized part upon which work is being performed); or

The energized part is insulated from the employee and from any other conductive object at a different potential.

Note 1:WAC 296-45-475 (5)(a) and 296-45-48525(1) contain requirements for the guarding and isolation of live parts. Parts of electric circuits that meet these two provisions are not considered as "exposed" unless a guard is removed or an employee enters the space intended to provide isolation from the live parts.
Note 2:When an employee is required to work on or within reach of any unprotected conductors that are or may become energized at more than 50 volts and less than 600 volts between phases, they shall take the following precautions:
1:They shall wear approved ((rubber gloves)) insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves during the time they are working on such conductor, or
2:They shall cover, with approved devices, any adjacent unprotected conductor that could be touched by any part of their body, and use insulated tools.
3:Cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized, shall be considered as an effective barrier to protect the employees and Table 1 need not apply.

(5) Initial determination.

(a) Before any work is performed, the location of energized lines and their condition, the location and condition of energized equipment, the condition of the poles, the location of circuits and equipment including power communication lines, CATV and fire alarm circuits, shall be determined as shall any other particular hazard of a particular work site.

(b) No work shall be performed on energized lines or parts until the voltage of such equipment and lines is determined.

(6) Type of insulation.  If the employee is to be insulated from energized parts by the use of insulating gloves (under subsection (4)(a) of this section), insulating sleeves shall also be used.  However, insulating sleeves need not be used under the following conditions:

(a) If exposed energized parts on which work is not being performed are insulated from the employee; and

(b) If such insulation is placed from a position not exposing the employee's upper arm to contact with other energized parts.

(7) Working position.  The employer shall ensure that each employee, to the extent that other safety-related conditions at the worksite permit, works in a position from which a slip or shock will not bring the employee's body into contact with exposed, uninsulated parts energized at a potential different from the employee.

(8) Making connections.  The employer shall ensure that connections are made as follows:

(a) In connecting de-energized equipment or lines to an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall first attach the wire to the de-energized part;

(b) When disconnecting equipment or lines from an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall remove the source end first; and

(c) When lines or equipment are connected to or disconnected from energized circuits, loose conductors shall be kept away from exposed energized parts.

(9) Rubber gloves can only be used on 5,000 volts or less between phases.

(10) It shall not be permissible to consider one part of a high voltage switch or disconnect as de-energized for the purpose of doing work on it if the remainder of the switch or disconnect remains energized unless approved barriers are erected which will prevent employees who are doing the work on such equipment from coming in direct contact with the energized parts.

(11) Conductor support tools such as link sticks, strain carriers, and insulator cradles may be used: Provided, That the clear insulation is at least as long as the insulator string or the minimum distance specified in Table 1 for the operating voltage.

(12) Apparel.

(a) When work is performed within reaching distance of exposed energized parts of equipment, the employer shall ensure that each employee removes or renders nonconductive all exposed conductive articles, such as key or watch chains, rings, or wrist watches or bands, unless such articles do not increase the hazards associated with contact with the energized parts.

(b) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs in the hazards involved.

(c) The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of injury that would be sustained by the employee.

Note:Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibited by this subsection, unless the employer can demonstrate that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered or that the clothing is worn in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved: Acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon.


(d) Workers shall wear clothing appropriate to the season and the kind of work being performed.  Shirts or jumpers must have full length sleeves that are rolled down.  Protective hard hats and eye protection shall be worn when working on or near live parts or while climbing poles.

(13) Fuse handling.  When fuses must be installed or removed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts or with exposed parts energized at more than 50 volts, the employer shall ensure that tools or gloves rated for the voltage are used.  When expulsion-type fuses are installed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears eye protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-45-25505(1), uses a tool rated for the voltage, and is clear of the exhaust path of the fuse barrel.

(14) Covered (noninsulated) conductors.  The requirements of this section which pertain to the hazards of exposed live parts also apply when work is performed in the proximity of covered (noninsulated) wires.

(15) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts.  Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment or devices, such as transformer cases and circuit breaker housings, shall be treated as energized at the highest voltage to which they are exposed, unless the employer inspects the installation and determines that these parts are grounded before work is performed.

(16) Opening circuits under load.  Devices used to open circuits under load conditions shall be designed to interrupt the current involved.

Table 1: AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance
Distance to employee
Voltage in kilovolts phase to phase*Phase to groundPhase to Phase
(m)(ft-in) (m)(ft-in)
0 to 0.050not specifiednot specified
0.051 to 0.300avoid contactavoid contact
0.301 to 0.7500.31 1-0 0.31 1-0
((0.0751 to 15))

0.751 to 15

0.65 2-2 0.67 2-3
15.1 to 36.00.77 2-7 0.862-10
36.1 to 46.00.84 2-9 0.96 3-2
46.1 to 72.51.00**3-3** 1.203-11
72.6 to 1210.95**3-2** 1.29 4-3
138 to 1451.09 3-7 1.504-11
161 to 1691.22 4-0 1.71 5-8
230 to 2421.59 5-3 2.27 7-6
345 to 3622.59 8-6 3.8012-6
500 to 5503.42 11-3 5.5018-1
765 to 8004.5314-11 7.9126-0
*For single-phase systems, use the highest voltage available.
For single-phase lines off three phase systems, use the phase-to-phase voltage of the system.
**The 46.1 to 72.5 kV phase-to-ground 3-3 distance contains a 1-3 electrical component and a 2-0 inadvertent movement component while the 72.6 to 121 kV phase-to-ground 3-2 distance contains a 2-2 electrical component and a 1-0 inadvertent movement component.

Note 1:These distances take into consideration the highest switching surge an employee will be exposed to on any system with air as the insulating medium and the maximum voltages shown.
Note 2:The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
Note 3:See Appendix B to this section for information on how the minimum approach distances listed in the tables were derived.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-07-009, 296-45-325, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)

WAC 296-45-455
Line-clearance tree-trimming operations.

This section provides additional requirements for line-clearance tree-trimming operations and for equipment used in these operations.

This section does not apply to qualified employees.

(1) Before an employee climbs, enters, or works around any tree, a determination shall be made of the nominal voltage of electric power lines posing a hazard to employees.  However, a determination of the maximum nominal voltage to which an employee will be exposed may be made instead, if all lines are considered as energized at this maximum voltage.

(2) There shall be a second line-clearance tree trimmer within normal (that is, unassisted) voice communication under any of the following conditions:

(a) If a line-clearance tree trimmer is to approach more closely than 10 feet (305 cm) any conductor or electrical apparatus energized at more than 600 volts; or

(b) If branches or limbs being removed are closer to lines energized at more than 600 volts than the distances listed in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5; or

(c) If roping is necessary to remove branches or limbs from such conductors or apparatus.

(3) Line-clearance tree trimmers shall maintain the minimum approach distances from energized conductors given in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5.

(4) Branches that are contacting exposed energized conductors or equipment or that are within the distances specified in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5 may be removed only through the use of insulating equipment.

Note:A tool constructed of a material that the employer can demonstrate has insulating qualities meeting WAC 296-45-305(1) are considered as insulated under this section if the tool is clean and dry.


(5) Ladders, platforms, and aerial devices may not be brought closer to an energized part than the distances listed in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5.

(6) Line-clearance tree-trimming work may not be performed when adverse weather conditions make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section.  Each employee performing line-clearance tree-trimming work in the aftermath of a storm or under similar emergency conditions shall be trained in the special hazards related to this type of work.

Note:Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make line-clearance tree-trimming work too hazardous to perform safely.


(7) A tree trimmer may climb out of a basket into a tree or from a tree back into the basket so long as he is properly tied into the tree during the entire maneuver and the employer can demonstrate that this is the safest way to perform the work.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-07-009, 296-45-455, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98)

WAC 296-45-901
Appendix A--Nonmandatory.


Appendix A--Tables


TABLE 2

AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance With Transient Overvoltage Factor

Distance to employee in feet-inches, phase to ground
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltageAir((,)) and clear live-line tool
Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
121145169242362550800
1.56-09-8
1.66-610-8
1.77-011-8
1.87-712-8
1.98-113-9
2.02-52-93-03-105-38-914-11
2.12-62-103-24-05-59-4
2.22-72-113-34-15-99-11
2.32-83-03-44-36-110-6
2.42-93-13-54-56-411-3
2.52-93-23-64-66-8
2.62-103-33-84-87-1
2.72-113-43-94-107-5
2.83-03-53-104-117-9
2.93-13-63-115-18-2
3.03-23-74-05-38-6


Note 1:The distances specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. Table 1 applies otherwise.
Note 2:The distances specified in this table are the air, and live-line tool distances.


TABLE 3

AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance With Transient Overvoltage Factor

Distance to employee in feet-inches, phase to ground
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltageAir((,)) and clear live-line tool
Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
121145169242362550800
1.57-412-1
1.68-914-6
1.710-217-2
1.811-719-11
1.913-222-11
2.03-74-14-86-18-714-1026-0
2.13-74-24-96-38-1015-7
2.23-84-34-106-49-216-4
2.33-94-44-116-69-617-2
2.43-104-55-06-79-1118-1
2.53-114-65-26-910-4
2.64-04-75-36-1110-9
2.74-14-85-47-011-2
2.84-14-95-57-211-7
2.94-24-105-67-412-1
3.04-34-115-87-612-6


Note 1:The distances specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. Table 1 applies otherwise.
Note 2:The distances specified in this table are the air, and live-line tool distances.


TABLE 4

DC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance With Transient Overvoltage Factor

Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage

Distance to employee in feet-inches, conductor to ground
Air((,)) and clear live-line tool
Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
250400500600750
1.5 or lower3-85-36-98-7((10-11))

11-10

1.63-105-77-49-513-1
1.74-16-07-1110-314-4
1.84-36-58-711-215-9


Note 1:The distances specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. However, if the transient overvoltage factor is not known, a factor of 1.8 shall be assumed.
Note 2:The distances specified in this table are the air, and live-line tool distances.


TABLE 5

Altitude Correction Factor

Altitude

Correction factor

(m)(ft)
90030001.00
120040001.02
150050001.05
180060001.08
210070001.11
240080001.14
270090001.17
300010,0001.20
360012,0001.25
420014,0001.30
480016,0001.35
540018,0001.39
600020,0001.44


Note:If the work is performed at elevations greater than 3000 ft (900 m) above mean sea level, the minimum approach distance shall be determined by multiplying the distances in Table 1 through Table 4 by the correction factor corresponding to the altitude at which work is performed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-07-009, 296-45-901, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]

Washington State Code Reviser's Office