LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
Date of Adoption: August 3, 1999.
Purpose: WAC 296-79, Pulp, paper and paperboard mills and converters.
Topic: Pulp, paper and paperboard mills and converters. WAC 296-79, Pulp, paper and paperboard mills and converters, state-initiated amendments to WAC 296-79 were proposed in response to an industry request. In 1994, workers in the pulp and paper industry formally asked L&I to consider updating and revising the worker safety and health rules that regulate the pulp and paper industry. The department convened a joint labor/management advisory committee to undertake the review of WAC 296-79. The rule provides safety and health protection for workers employed in pulp, paper, and paperboard mills and converters. The committee included representatives of the Association of Western Pulp and Paper Workers, the United Paperworkers International Union, the Pacific Coast Association of Pulp and Paper Workers, and local union chapters as well as representatives of individual pulp and paper producing companies. The advisory committee produced a proposal which predominately deferred to the requirements of WAC 296-62, General occupational health standards and WAC 296-24, General safety and health standards. After reviewing the proposal, the department believed the requirements to be too restrictive within the pulp and paper mill environment and in some instances actually unworkable. After discussing these concerns with industry representatives, the department reconvened the advisory committee.
In July 1998, following a series of meetings involving industry, labor, management, and the department, another proposal was submitted. Under the new proposal the requirements were either wholly contained in WAC 296-79, a specific reference is made to the appropriate sections of other chapters, or rescinded altogether. Requirements related to the following were removed and an appropriate reference to the applicable safety and health standards was inserted.
|Fire protection, ignition sources and means of egress||WAC 296-24, Part G-1, G-2 and G-3|
|Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders and loading docks||WAC 296-24, Part J|
|Scaffolds - construction, use and maintenance||WAC 296-24, Part J-1 and WAC 296-155, Part J-1|
|Confined spaces||WAC 296-62, Part M|
|Storage of fuel, oil, flammables and chemicals||WAC 296-24, Part E|
|Chlorine dioxide system||WAC 296-62 Part P and WAC 296-67|
Initially the committee required the use of blank flanges behind all primary valve closures when reactivating hazardous material systems. The department, after coordinating with committee representatives, determined this was not always feasible and changed the requirement to a "performance based standard," which allows employers to determine the best means of compliance. The subsection was completely rewritten and reformatted without changing the requirements.
The department received public comment on the following sections and modified the proposed amendments to these sections as indicated below. All other sections proposed for amendment did not receive comment and are adopted as proposed.
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-020 General requirements.
To reword subsection (4), "Training," in response to a public hearing comment.
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-050 Personal protective clothing and equipment.
To change the title to "Personal protective clothing and equipment" and deleting the subsection (1) title, as it is not necessary.
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-110 Elevated runways and ramps used by vehicles.
To insert the word "incline" within " WAC 296-79-110 (b)." It is changed to read "Runways and ramps must not have a maximum incline exceeding 20 degrees from horizontal if used for wheeled equipment."
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-140 Installation, inspection, and maintenance of pipes, piping systems, and hoses.
To remove the subsection pertaining to "Test holes."
To change in subsection (6)(b) the wording applicable to "legend boards" for clarity.
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-150 Powered industrial trucks and other vehicles.
To change the title from "Mobile equipment and lift trucks" to "Powered industrial trucks and other vehicles" in response to a hearing comment.
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-220 Deactivating and lockout requirements.
To add language to subsection (2) which states: "The employer must develop a specific written group lockout or tagout procedure and review it with the local plant labor/management safety committee before it can be utilized."
To add a rewritten subsection (11) for clarity without changing any requirements.
To add a "Note" that retains the recommendation for the use of bleeder valves behind primary valve closures on hazardous material systems where a blank flange is used to separate off portions of the system that is in operation.
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-29001 Digester valves and piping.
To move the "test holes" requirement to this subsection from WAC 296-79-140, as a result of a hearing comment.
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-29029 Broke hole.
To reword subsection (3) to read "...any employee pushing broke down the broke hole must wear a safety belt or harness attached to a lanyard."
AMENDED SECTION WAC 296-79-300 Machine room equipment and procedures.
To add wording for the employer to ensure sufficient inspection and nondestructive testing of reel spool and calendar roll journals.
To add the word "forming" with "fourdrinier."
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-79-010 Scope and application, WAC 296-79-020 General requirements, WAC 296-79-030 Guards and guarding, WAC 296-79-040 Fire protection, ignition sources and means of egress, WAC 296-79-050 Personal protective clothing and equipment, WAC 296-79-070 Illumination, WAC 296-79-080 Elevators, manlifts and other lifting devices, WAC 296-79-090 Electrical equipment and distribution, WAC 296-79-100 Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders, loading docks, WAC 296-79-110 Elevated runways and ramps used by vehicles, WAC 296-79-120 Scaffolds, construction, use and maintenance, WAC 296-79-130 Crossovers, aisles, passages, WAC 296-79-140 Installation, inspection, and maintenance of pipes, piping systems and hoses, WAC 296-79-150 Powered industrial trucks and other vehicles, WAC 296-79-160 Requirements for cranes and hoists, WAC 296-79-170 Requirements for crawler and truck cranes, WAC 296-79-180 Privately owned standard gauge railroad operations, WAC 296-79-190 Loading and unloading materials from railway cars or trucks, WAC 296-79-200 Bridge and dock plates, WAC 296-79-210 Conveyors, maintenance and inspection, WAC 296-79-220 Deactivating and lockout requirements, WAC 296-79-230 Confined spaces, WAC 296-79-240 Storage of fuel, oil, flammables and chemicals, WAC 296-79-250 Safety procedure for handling sulfur, WAC 296-79-260 Pulpwood storage and handling, WAC 296-79-270 Pulpwood preparation, WAC 296-79-27003 Log hauls, slips, and carriages, WAC 296-79-27005 Band saws, WAC 296-79-27007 Circular saws, speeds and repairs, WAC 296-79-27009 Slasher saws-tables, WAC 296-79-27011 Circular swing saws, WAC 296-79-27013 Drag saws--Fixed chain saws--Circular cutoff saws, WAC 296-79-27015 Construction and use of pulpwood splitters, WAC 296-79-280 Chip and hog fuel storage, WAC 296-79-290 Stock preparation and reprocessing, WAC 296-79-29001 Digester valves and piping, WAC 296-79-29003 Warning of digester being blown, WAC 296-79-29005 Unplugging quick lime stoppages, WAC 296-79-29007 Bleach plant, WAC 296-79-29009 Audible alarm in bleach plant, WAC 296-79-29011 Pocket grinder doors, WAC 296-79-29013 Pulping device procedures, WAC 296-79-29015 Off machine repulping devices, WAC 296-79-29017 Pulping device cleaning, inspection and repairing, WAC 296-79-29021 Shredders and blowers, WAC 296-79-29023 Clearing shredder jams, WAC 296-79-29027 Guillotine type roll splitters, WAC 296-79-29029 Broke hole, WAC 296-79-29031 Industrial kiln guns and ammunition, WAC 296-79-29033 Chlorine dioxide system, WAC 296-79-29035 Piling and unpiling pulp, WAC 296-79-29037 Chocking roles, WAC 296-79-300 Machine room equipment and procedures, WAC 296-79-310 Converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing, and related processes), WAC 296-79-31001 General requirements for converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing and related processes), WAC 296-79-31003 Corrugator, WAC 296-79-31009 Die cutting and WAC 296-79-320 Sulfite recovery furnace area requirements; and repealing WAC 296-79-060 Protection from radiation, WAC 296-79-255 Safety procedures for handling liquid sulfur, WAC 296-79-27001 Barkers, chippers, and hog feed devices, WAC 296-79-29019 Guarding hand knives and sharpening steels, WAC 296-79-29025 Repairing shredders, WAC 296-79-31005 Adhesive system, WAC 296-79-31007 Printing and cutting, WAC 296-79-31011 Power lifts on gluers, tapers and stitchers, and WAC 296-79-31013, Strapping banding operations.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 99-06-071 on March 2, 1999.
WAC 296-79-020 General requirements.
The identified subsection (4), "Training" was rewritten and reformatted without changing requirements.
WAC 296-79-050 Personal protective clothing and equipment.
To change the title to "Personal protective clothing and equipment" and deleting the subsection (1) title, as it is not necessary.
WAC 296-79-110 Elevated runways and ramps used by vehicles.
To insert the word "incline" within " WAC 296-79-110(b)." It is changed to read "Runways and ramps must not have a maximum incline exceeding 20 degrees from horizontal if used for wheeled equipment."
WAC 296-79-140 Installation, inspection, and maintenance of pipes, piping systems, and hoses.
To change the wording applicable to "legend boards" for clarity to: "When legend systems are used, legend boards showing the color and..."
The "test holes" requirement has been moved to the digester section ( WAC 296-79-29001).
WAC 296-79-150 Powered industrial trucks and other vehicles.
To change the title from "Mobile equipment and lift trucks" to "Powered industrial trucks and other vehicles" in response to a hearing comment.
WAC 296-79-220 Deactivating and lockout requirements.
The language for subsection (2) has been reworded to read "Group lockout or tagout. Procedures must meet the minimum requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-4. The employer must develop a specific written group lockout or tagout procedure and review it with the local plant labor/management safety committee before it can be utilized."
To improve clarity, the subsection (11) for "Deactivating piping systems" has been completely rewritten to remove the confusion concerning "definitions" without changing any requirements and the word "available" is replaced with the word "feasible."
To improve clarity in subsection (11), inserted "installing," after "procedure for" so that this procedure will also be accomplished when the blank flange is "installed" not just when it is removed.
To add a "Note" that retains the recommendation for the use of bleeder valves behind primary valve closures on hazardous material systems where a blank flange is used to separate off portions of the system that is in operation.
WAC 296-79-29001 Digester valves and piping.
To move the "test holes" requirement to this subsection from WAC 296-79-140, as a result of a hearing comment.
WAC 296-79-29029 Broke hole.
To reword subsection WAC 296-79-29029(3) to read "...any employee pushing broke down the broke hole must wear a safety belt or harness attached to a lanyard."
WAC 296-79-300 Machine room equipment and procedures.
To add wording for the employer to ensure sufficient inspection and nondestructive testing of reel spool and calendar roll journals.
To add the word "forming" with "fourdrinier."
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 1, Amended 58, Repealed 9.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 1, Amended 58, Repealed 9.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 1, Amended 58, Repealed 9. Effective Date of Rule: November 3, 1999.
August 3, 1999
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-24, filed 5/6/74)
Scope and application.
(1) This chapter applies to establishments,
firms, persons and corporations ((
dealing with the manufacturing, processing, storing, finishing
or converting of pulp, paper or paperboard and all buildings, machinery and equipment
pertaining thereto)) that manufacture, process, store, finish, or convert pulp, paper or paperboard
and includes all buildings, machinery, and equipment.
(2) This chapter shall augment the Washington state general safety and health
WAC 296-24) and general occupational health standards(( , electrical
workers safety rules, and any other standards which are applicable to all industries governed by
chapter 80, Laws of 1973 (
RCW 49.17), Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act))
WAC 296-62). In the event of any conflict between any portion of this chapter and any
portion of any of the general application standards, the provisions of this
shall (( apply)) prevail.
When the words "shall" or "must" are used in this chapter, the requirement is
compulsory. The words "may" or "should," as used in this standard, identify recommendations
or suggestions only.
(4))) The rules contained in this chapter are minimum requirements and the use of
additional guards, or other means, methods or procedures may be needed ((
in order)) to make
the work or place of work safe.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-010, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-010, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
"Authorized" - One who is qualified by reason of training and to whom the responsibility to perform a specific assignment has been given by the employer.
"Guarded" - The means to remove the likelihood of approach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger.
"Knowledgeable - The demonstrated ability to communicate the safe work practices required to perform a job or task correctly.
"Qualified" - One who is familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the duties of the position they may be filling. This includes being aware of the hazards of the job and the means and procedures necessary to eliminate or control those hazards.
"Training" - The procedure that must establish and document the employee's competency in the work practices that they are required to perform.
"Shall" or "must" as used in this standard mean the requirement is compulsory.
"May" or "should" as used in this standard identify recommendations or suggestions only.
(a) Floors ((
shall)) must be kept reasonably clear of spilled or leaking oil, grease, water,
broke, etc., that may cause slipping, tripping or falling. Nonskid type surfacing (( shall)) must be
installed in vehicular or pedestrian traffic areas (( in which)) where slipping hazards otherwise
In areas where it is not possible to keep the floor free of materials which cause a slipping
hazard, mats, cleats, or other suitable materials which will effectively minimize or eliminate the
shall)) must be installed.
(2) Storage of hoses, cords, slings or similar items or equipment.)) (b) Hoses, cords,
slings or similar items or equipment (( shall)) must be stored in such a manner that they will not
create a hazard.
(3))) (2) Storage and transportation of materials. Materials, objects or equipment
(( shall)) must be stored or transported by (( use of means or)) methods which will prevent them
from falling, tipping or rolling.
(4) Compressed gas cylinders. Compressed gas cylinders shall be stored away from
heat sources, combustible materials or other materials which may cause hazardous conditions. Storage facilities shall comply with the requirements of the general safety and health standards,
WAC 296-24. Cylinders shall be secured in a manner which will prevent them from
tipping or falling. Acetylene cylinders shall be stored, transported, or used while in the upright
(5))) (3) Warning of ((
obstructions)) open manholes or excavations. Open manholes or
excavations (( shall)) must be:
Roped off, barricaded, or adequately safeguarded ((
by an approved method)) when
located in or adjacent to walkways, aisleways, or roadways. (( During periods of darkness or
reduced visibility, such areas shall be))
Provided with warning lights or lanterns during periods of darkness or reduced visibility.
(6) Employees to be instructed. Employees shall not be permitted to operate)) (4)
Training. Employees must receive proper instruction and be familiar with safe operating
(a) Before they supervise the operation, or make adjustments to any machine or
until they have received proper instruction and are familiar with safe operating
(7) Training personnel to handle emergencies. In each area where hazardous
substances may be encountered, personnel shall be trained)) (b) To be able to cope with
emergencies arising from breaks, ruptures, or spills which would create a hazardous condition.
(8))) (c) For lifting and moving objects. Mechanical devices should be used or
employees should ask for assistance in lifting or moving heavy objects.
(d) On prompt reporting of any faulty equipment or hazardous condition to the person in charge.
(5) Working alone. When an employee is assigned to work alone in a remote or isolated
a system shall)) procedures must be (( instituted whereby such)) developed to ensure:
That the employee reports by use of radio or telephone to someone periodically; or
At reasonable intervals a designated person ((
shall)) must check on (( his safety at
reasonable intervals.)) the employee; and
All persons involved in working alone ((
shall be)) are advised of the procedures to be
(9) Lifting or moving objects. Employees shall be instructed in proper lifting or
moving techniques and methods. Mechanical devices should be used or employees should ask
for assistance in lifting or moving heavy objects.
(10) Reporting hazards. Any faulty equipment or hazardous condition shall be promptly reported to the person in charge.
(11))) (6) Exits from hazardous areas. Where physically and reasonably possible, there
shall)) must be at least two unobstructed exits from any hazardous area. Such exits (( shall
preferably)) should be on opposite walls.
(12))) (7) Safe work area. Sufficient clearance (( shall)) must be maintained between
machines to allow employees a safe work area.
(13))) (8) Protection from overhead hazard. Warning (( signs shall)) signs/devices must
Placed in conspicuous locations below areas where overhead work is being done and
Removed promptly when work is completed and the overhead hazard no longer exists.
(14))) (9) Welding areas protected.
(a) Areas in which welding is being done ((
shall)) must be screened or barricaded to
protect persons from flash burns, when practical.
(b) If the welding process cannot be isolated, all persons who may be exposed to the
hazard of arc flash ((
shall)) must be properly protected.
(15))) (10) Testing safety devices. Brakes, back stops, anti-runaway devices, overload
releases, emergency stops, and other safety devices (( shall)) must be inspected and tested
frequently to ensure that all are operative and maintained in good repair.
(16))) (11) Starting and stopping devices.
Electrically or manually operated power ((
disconnecting)) starting or stopping devices
(( shall)) must be provided within easy reach of the operator (( while in his)) from the normal
If necessary for safety of the operation, the machine ((
shall)) must be so equipped that
retarding or braking action can be applied at the time of or after the source of power is
(17) Use of compressed air for cleaning purposes.)) (12) Interlocks:
Interlocks that affect the safety of employees must not be bypassed except where the employer demonstrates that alternate procedures or devices provide a level of safety for employees equivalent to that provided by the safety interlock. Interlocks are considered to be bypassed anytime the designed control strategy is bypassed by means including, but not limited to, a temporary wiring change, physical interference or a temporary software change of "force."
Prior to bypassing a safety interlock the employer must:
Develop a written procedure detailing how the bypass will be accomplished and the alternate means of protecting employees.
Inform affected employees of all pertinent information including at a minimum the reason for the change, the date of the change, who is responsible for the change, and approximately how long the change will be in effect.
Post appropriate warning of the change on the equipment or area.
(13) Designing control systems. Employers must ensure that all control systems are designed to:
Ensure that the system does not create an unsafe state that endangers personnel.
Ensure that when control systems fail, the equipment being controlled fails to a safe state.
Have an independent method to safely stop the process or equipment, such as a hardwired emergency stop button or other controls that deenergize the system, or independent methods to force the system to a safe state.
(14) Compressed air.
(a) Compressed air ((
shall)) must not be used (( for cleaning purposes if it may endanger
other persons in the area or)) for cleaning clothing (( while it)) that is being worn, or if it will
endanger persons in the area.
(18) Coupling high pressure air hoses.)) (b) Sections of high pressure air hoses (( shall))
must be properly coupled and have safety chains or equivalent safety device attached between
the sections (30 psi or more is high pressure air).
(19))) (15) Punch bars. Open pipes (( shall)) must not be used as punch bars if the use
would create a hazard.
(20))) (16) Saw table limit stop or extension. Employees (( shall)) must be protected
from contact with the front edge of a circular saw by:
A limit stop which will prevent the forward swing of the cutting edge from extending
beyond the edge of the table or ((
a table extension shall be installed))
Installation of a table extension.
(21) Explosive)) (17) Powder-actuated tools.
Explosive)) Powder-actuated tool design, construction, operation and use shall
comply with all requirements specified in "safety requirements for powder actuated fastening
systems," (( adopted by the department of labor and industries)) (see
WAC 296-24, Part
H-1). (( In addition, after using such tools))
A careful check ((
shall)) must be made (( in order)) to (( ascertain)) ensure that no
cartridges or charges are left where they could enter equipment or be accidentally discharged in
any area where they could create a fire or explosion hazard.
(22) Approved life buoys. Where work is being performed on docks or adjacent to
open water five feet or more in depth U.S. Coast Guard approved life buoys shall be provided. Such life buoys shall have sufficient line attached and be spaced at intervals not exceeding 200
(23))) (18) Ladders required on waterfront docks. Employers must ensure that either
permanent ladders or portable ladders ((
Are readily available for emergency use ((
shall be provided)) on all waterfront docks. (( Such ladders shall))
Extend from the face of the dock to the water line at its lowest elevation. ((
between ladder installations shall not))
Are installed at intervals not to exceed 400 feet.
Are noticeable by painting the dock area immediately adjacent to the ladder ((
shall be painted)) with a bright color which contrasts with the surrounding area.
Have been secured with a suitable method ((
shall be used to secure the ladders)).
Note: When working on or around water also see WAC 296-24, Part A-2.
(24) Protection from hot pipes. All exposed hot pipes within seven feet of the floor or
working platform, or within 15" measured horizontally from stairways, ramps or fixed ladders,
shall be covered with an insulating material or be guarded in such a manner as to prevent
(25))) (19) Prevent overhang while removing materials. Extreme care ((
shall)) must be
taken to prevent material from creating an overhang while removing the materials from piles or
(26) Establishments subject to
WAC 296-79 shall comply with the following
standards of the American National Standards Institute:
(a) ANSI Z33.1-1961, Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock and Vapor Removal or Conveying;
(b) ANSI B56.1-1969, Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks.))
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and RCW 49.17.050. 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), § 296-79-020, filed 6/11/82; Order 77-12, § 296-79-020, filed 7/11/77; Order 74-24, § 296-79-020, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-020, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
For additional guarding requirements see WAC 296-24, Part C.
General safety and health standards to prevail where applicable. Driving
mechanisms, power transmission equipment or apparatus, prime movers, shear or pinch points or
other similar hazardous areas of exposure shall be properly safeguarded with standard safeguards
as required by the general safety and health standards.
(2))) Safeguarding specific areas, machines or conditions. ((
To augment the general
safeguarding requirements contained in the previous rule,)) Certain equipment, tools, machines,
and areas present definite hazards and (( shall)) must be safeguarded by compliance with the
Conveyors. Hazardous areas of conveyors shall be adequately safeguarded or
workers shall be protected from hazard by other effective means.
(b))) Broke shredders. Cutting heads ((
shall)) must be completely enclosed except for
opening at feed side sufficient only to permit entry of stock. The enclosure (( shall)) must be:
Bolted or locked in place, and ((
Of solid material or with mesh or other openings not exceeding 1/2 inch.
(c) Sharp edged slitter knives. Sharp edged slitter knives subject to accidental contact
shall be effectively guarded. Carriers shall be provided and used when transporting or carrying
sharp edged slitter knives.
(d) Wheels of traveling sections of conveyors. Traveling sections of conveyors and other equipment with wheels which run on rails or guides, other than railroad equipment, shall be provided with wheel sweep guards installed in front of the traveling wheels in all areas where persons may be exposed to contact. Sweep guards shall have not greater than 1/4 inch clearance above the rail or guide.
(e))) (b) Stitching or sewing machine. Carton or bag stitching machines ((
shall)) must be
properly safeguarded to prevent persons from coming in contact with the stitching head and
other pinch or nip points.
(f))) (c) Beaters and pulpers. (( Where))
(i) A guardrail of standard height must be installed when the top edge of vessels or tubs
is less than standard height guardrails above the floor or operator's platform, ((
a guardrail of
standard height shall be installed)). If necessary for the protection of the person feeding
equipment, an intermediate guardrail or other suitable protection shall be installed.
(ii) Beater rolls ((
shall)) must be provided with covers.
(g))) (d) First dryer. A permanent guard or apron guard, or both, (( shall)) must be
installed to protect workers from any exposed ingoing nip of the first dryer drum in each section
if the area is accessible to workers while the dryer is in operation.
(h))) (e) Floor and drain openings. Floor and drain openings in walkways and general
work areas (( shall)) must be covered with material or gratings with openings no larger than 2" in
the narrow dimension.
(i))) (f) Mechanical devices to dump chip cars, trucks or trailers.
When using mechanical equipment to elevate the front end of the chip containers for
dumping into a hopper, the shear area between the floor and the elevated section ((
The pit area ((
shall)) must be adequately safeguarded or barricaded.
shall)) must be installed around the exposed sides of a chip hopper.
(3))) (2) Replacing guards. All permanent guards must be replaced or adequate
temporary safeguards provided before a machine is put into operation.
(4))) (3) Protection from moving materials. When material, such as chunks, slivers,
cants, or logs, could be thrown or flipped by a saw, barker, or other machines, adequate
barricades, screens, netting, or other safeguards (( shall)) must be provided and maintained.
(5) Circular saws (not slasher saws). Saws shall be provided with standard guards, in
accordance with American National Standard 01.1-1954 (reaffirmed 1961).
(6))) (4) Protection for areas where guards are impractical. ((
Where)) When normal
guarding is impractical (( the hazard shall be)):
The hazard must be reduced to a minimum by use of safety chains, lifelines, signs or
other reasonable means((
Areas which present a ((
major physical)) hazard which cannot be reasonably
safeguarded (( shall)) must be identified by use of paint or other materials.
(7) Transporting knives.)) (5) Knives and scissors.
(a) Knives used for chip or hog fuel machines, or guillotine cutters, ((
shall)) must be
secured in properly constructed containers during transportation.
(8) Hand knife or scissors.)) (b) Workers (( shall)) must be furnished properly designed
and constructed sheaths for safely carrying knives and scissors used for cutting or trimming pulp
(9) Safe storage for knives and scissors.)) (c) Tables where paper is being cut (( shall))
must be equipped with sheaths or shelves for safe storage of knives and scissors.
(10))) (d) Sharp edged slitter knives subject to accidental contact must be effectively
guarded. Carriers must be provided and used when transporting or carrying sharp edged slitter
(e) Hand knives and sharpening steels used in paper preparation, must be provided with guards at the junction of the handle and the blade. Utility knives with blade exposure two and one-half inches or less are exempted from this requirement.
(6) Safeguard for foot operated treadle switch used to activate power driven equipment. Foot operated treadle switches used for activation of power driven equipment ((
shall)) must be
protected by a stirrup type guard or equivalent protection (( shall)) must be provided to prevent
(11))) (7) Automatic pressure actuated stopping devices. Hand fed machines and other
moving equipment which create shear or pinch points which cannot be reasonably guarded may
be safeguarded by the installation of pressure activated bars or sensing devices which, when
contacted, will automatically stop the machine or equipment.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-030, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-030, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be constructed, tested,
maintained, and used in accordance with the recommendations specified by the National Fire
Protection Association or other similar recognized agencies.
(2) Suitable fire extinguishing equipment. Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for use for the type or types of fire which could be expected in an area shall be provided.
(3) Vaporizing liquid type extinguishers. Vaporizing liquid type extinguishers shall not be used if known to create a condition which is hazardous to health.
(4) Proper type of fire extinguisher to be used. Each person who is expected or required to use fire extinguishing equipment shall be instructed as to the proper type or types of extinguishing equipment to be used for each class of fire.
(5) Fire drills, etc. Personnel shall be instructed on procedures to be followed in case of fire.
(6) Posting areas where fire or explosion hazards exist. Areas where a fire or explosion hazard exists shall be posted with NO SMOKING or other suitable signs which would indicate that such hazard exists.
(7) Sources of ignition prohibited in hazardous areas. Spark-producing tools, lights or other sources of ignition shall not be used in any area where the hazard of explosion exists.
(8) Welding and burning permits. A written welding or burning permit shall be secured from a delegated person when welding and burning is to be done in an area near flammable or combustible materials or in areas where a potentially explosive condition exists. Permits shall not be valid for more than 24 hours.
(9) Internal dust fires in or around gas hoods. A safe written procedure shall be developed by the company for control of dust fires in or around gas hoods. Personnel shall be properly instructed and trained in this procedure.)) For fire protection, ignition source, and means of egress requirements see WAC 296-24, Part G-1, G-2 and G-3.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-040, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-040, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
protective equipment and clothing. Personal protective clothing and equipment as required by
the general safety and health standards and the general occupational health standards shall be
furnished by the employer and worn or used by the employee when needed to eliminate or
minimize the degree of hazard involved with any specific operation.
(a) Required clothing, caps, etc. Employees shall wear sufficient clothing to protect them from hazards to which they may be exposed while performing their duties. Consideration must be given to temperatures in certain areas in which persons work. Employees whose hair is long enough to be caught in machinery or equipment around which they work shall wear caps, hair nets or other protection which will adequately confine the hair while performing their duties.)) See WAC 296-24, Part A-2, for additional personal protective equipment requirements.
(1) Rings or other jewelry ((
which)) that could create a hazard should not be worn by
employees while in the performance of their work.
(b))) (2) Protective footwear.
Employees who work in areas where there is a possibility of foot injury due to falling
or rolling objects ((
shall)) must wear safety type footwear.
Employers will supply shoe guards and toe protectors ((
will be supplied by
management)). (( Management shall))
Employers must also make safety shoes available for purchase by employees at not
more than actual cost to ((
management)) the employer.
(3) Calks or other suitable footwear ((
which)) that will afford reasonable protection from
slipping (( shall)) must be:
Worn while working on logs. ((
Calk boots shall be))
Made available at not more than actual cost to the employer.
WAC 296-24, Part A-2, for additional personal protective equipment requirements.
(2) Working over or near water.
(a) Employees working over or near water who are exposed to the danger of drowning shall be provided with and shall wear U.S. Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices.
The following exceptions will apply:
|(i) When water is known to be chest-deep or less on the exposed worker(s);|
|(ii) When the employee is protected by standard guardrails;|
|(iii) When the employee is protected by a safety belt or lanyard; or|
|(iv) When the employee is within the confines of the cabin of a boat or other equivalent enclosure.|
(3) Protection from noise. The hearing protection requirements of the general occupational health standards, WAC 296-62, shall apply.
(4) Respiratory protection. The respiratory protection requirements of the general occupational health standards, WAC 296-62, shall apply.))
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17. 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-79-050, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-79-050, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and RCW 49.17.050. 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-79-050, filed 11/30/83; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), § 296-79-050, filed 6/11/82; Order 74-24, § 296-79-050, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-050, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Sufficient illumination required. All areas shall
be sufficiently illuminated in order that persons in the area can safely perform their assigned
duties. The recommended levels of illumination specified in the general occupational health
standards shall be followed where applicable. When areas are not specifically referred to in the
general occupational health standards and the adequacy of illumination for the area or task
performed is questionable, a determination of the amount of illumination needed shall be made
by the industrial hygiene section of the division of industrial safety and health.
(2))) (1) Illumination required. Lighting that is adequately adjusted to provide a margin of safety for all work tasks must be provided and maintained.
(a) The minimum level of task lighting for all indoor activities must be an average of ten-foot candles measured thirty inches above the floor or at the task.
(b) The minimum level of task lighting for all outdoor activities must be an average of five-foot candles measured thirty inches above the working surface or at the task.
(2) If general lighting is not provided throughout the work area, the employer must provide illumination which is adequately adjusted to provide visibility of nearby objects that might be potential hazards or to see to operate emergency control or other equipment. The minimum level of nontask lighting for all indoor and outdoor activities must be an average of three-foot candles measured thirty inches above the floor or working surface.
|Note:||This section establishes minimal levels of illumination for safety purposes only. Guidelines pertaining to optimal levels of lighting and illumination may be found in practice for Industrial Lighting, ANSI/IES RP7-1979. The minimum levels specified in subsections (1) and (2) of this section represent averages with the lowest level in an area to be no less than fifty percent of the indicated value.|
(a) There ((
shall)) must be an emergency or secondary lighting system (( which)) that can
be actuated immediately upon failure of the normal power supply system. The emergency or
secondary lighting system (( shall)) must provide illumination in the following areas:
(i))) Wherever it is necessary for workers to remain at their machine or station to shut
down equipment in case of power failure.
(ii))) At stairways and passageways or aisleways used by workers as an emergency
exit in case of power failure.
(iii) In all plant first aid and/or medical facilities.))
(b) Emergency lighting facilities ((
shall)) must be checked at least every 30 days for
mechanical defects. Defective equipment (( shall)) must be given priority for repair schedule.
(3) Extension cord type lights. All extension cord type lights shall be provided with
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-070, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-070, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
manlifts, etc.)) All elevators, manlifts or other lifting devices (( shall)) must be installed and
maintained in conformity with the requirements specified in the Washington state elevator laws
and regulations adopted by the elevator section of the (( division of building and construction
safety inspection,)) department of labor and industries.
(2) Inspection of elevators, etc., for acid towers.
(a) Outside elevators ((
shall)) must be inspected daily during winter months when ice
materially affects safety.
(b) Elevators, runways, stairs, etc., for acid towers ((
shall)) must be inspected monthly
for defects that may occur because of exposure to acid or corrosive gases.
Gas masks)) Respirators on elevators. Elevators located in areas where exposure to
potentially harmful concentrations of toxic substances may occur (( shall)) must be equipped with
an adequate supply of (( gas masks)) respirators to protect the maximum number of passengers.
(4) Posting elevators. Elevators shall be posted indicating the maximum number of
persons allowed to ride.))
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-080, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-080, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) National electrical
code to prevail.)) All electrical installations and electrical utilization equipment (( shall)) must
WAC 296-24, Part L.
(2) Authorized personnel to do electrical work. Only those persons who are qualified
to do the work assigned and are authorized by the employer shall be allowed to perform
electrical work on any electrical equipment or wiring installations.
(3) High voltage areas to be guarded. Motor rooms, switch panel rooms or other areas where persons may come in contact with high voltages shall be fenced off or be enclosed in a separate area. The gate, door or access to such area shall be posted with a notice stating that only authorized persons are allowed in the area.
(4) Control panels. Floor stand panels should be protected from being struck by moving equipment and handles and buttons shall be protected from accidental actuation.
(5) Switches or control devices. Switches, circuit breakers or other control devices shall be so located that they are readily accessible for activation or deactivation and shall be marked to indicate their function or machine which they control. The positions of ON and OFF shall be marked or indicated and provision shall be made for locking or tagging out the circuit.
(6) Starting requirements for electrically driven equipment after power failure. Electrically driven equipment shall be so designed that it will not automatically start upon restoration of power after a power failure if it will create a hazard to personnel.
(7))) (1) Operator controlled devices. Push buttons, selector switches, remote control switches, automatic circuit activating devices, and other control circuit type devices must be marked to indicate their function and the equipment they control.
(2) Posting equipment automatically activated or remotely controlled. If it will create a
hazard to personnel, equipment which is automatically activated or remotely controlled ((
must be posted, warning persons that machine may start automatically (( if it will create a hazard
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-79-090, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 74-24, § 296-79-090, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-090, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
Construction and maintenance. Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders, and loading docks shall be
constructed, maintained and used in accordance with the requirements specified in the general
safety and health standards and shall have nonskid type surfaces where needed to minimize the
hazard of slipping.)) See
WAC 296-24, Part J.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-100, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-100, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
runway and ramp construction. Elevated runways or ramps shall be constructed to safely
support four times the weight of any load to which it may be subjected.)) Runways and ramps
(( shall)) must:
(a) Be cleated, grooved, rough surfaced, or covered with a material ((
which)) that will
minimize the danger of skidding. (( The))
(b) Not have a maximum ((
inclination of a ramp used for wheeled equipment shall not
exceed)) incline exceeding 20° from horizontal if used for wheeled equipment.
(2) Guarding exposed sides.
Elevated ramps or runways used for the travel of wheeled equipment ((
have exposed sides guarded with a substantial bull rail or shear rail of sufficient height to
prevent wheeled equipment from going over the rail.
If elevated ramps or runways are used by pedestrians, standard guardrails ((
must be installed on runways wherever the height exceeds 4 feet above the adjacent area except
where used for loading or unloading purposes.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-110, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-110, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
must be performed at a height which cannot be reached from the floor or permanent platform
and where it would not be safe practice to use a ladder, a properly constructed scaffold shall be
provided and used. All scaffolds shall have a factor of safety of four times any load to which
they may be subjected and be adequately secured or stabilized to prevent tipping. Scaffolds shall
be constructed in accordance with acceptable engineering practices and shall be maintained in a
safe condition. Tools or materials which would create a tripping hazard or which may fall from
the platform shall be secured or removed. Persons shall not ride on a roller scaffold while it is
being moved.)) See General safety and health standards,
WAC 296-24, Part J-1 or Safety
standards for construction work,
WAC 296-155, Part J-1.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-120, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-120, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
See WAC 296-24, Part D, for additional requirements for aisles and passages.
Crossing conveyors. Where access is required, crossovers or underpasses with
proper safeguards shall be provided over or under all conveyors.
(2))) Clearances to be marked. Low clearance areas under conveyors which could
present a hazard to mobile equipment operations ((
shall)) must be identified by a suitable means,
such as signs, contrasting colors, or tell-tales.
(3) Aisles or passageways. Aisles or passageways should be at least three feet wider
than the widest vehicle or load traveling the aisle or passageway. When this clearance cannot be
maintained, adequate precautions shall be taken.
(4))) (2) Crossovers over obstructions in passageways. Crossovers ((
shall)) must be
provided where employees are required to cross over transmission drive lines or other permanent
obstructions in passageways or walkways.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-130, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-130, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Definitions applicable to this section.
(a))) "Hazardous material system" - any system within the following classifications:
(i))) Flammable or explosive - any system containing materials which are hazardous
because they are easily ignited and create a fire or explosion hazard, defined by NFPA as Class I
(ii))) Chemically active or toxic - any system containing material which offers
corrosion or toxic hazard in itself or can be productive of harmful gases upon release, defined by
NFPA 704M as Class 3 and 4 materials;
(iii))) Thermally hazardous - any system above 130°F which exposes persons to
potential thermal burns;
(iv))) Pressurized - any gaseous system above 200 psig or liquid system above 500
(b))) "Piping system" - any fixed piping, either rigid pipe or flexible hose, including all
fittings and valves, in either permanent or temporary application.
(2) Design and installation. All new piping systems intended to be used in hazardous
material service ((
shall)) must be designed and installed in accordance with applicable provisions
of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping or in accordance with applicable provisions of ANSI
B31.1-1995 through B31.8-1995. (( The referenced edition in effect at the time of installation
shall be utilized. )) Note:
Both referenced standards have identical requirements.
(3) Inspection and maintenance.
Management shall)) The employer must develop a formal program of installation
inspections and maintenance for all hazardous material piping systems. The program (( shall))
Based on sound maintenance engineering principle, and ((
Demonstrate due consideration for the manufacturing specifications of the pipe, hose, valves and fittings, the ambient environment of the installation and the corrosive or abrasive effect of the material handled within the system.
(b) Type and frequency of tests and/or inspections and selection of inspection sites
shall)) must be adequate to give indications that minimum safe design operating tolerances are
maintained. The tests may include visual or nondestructive methods.
(c) All companies shall submit their formal program of initial and ongoing inspections
to the department for approval within one year after the effective date of this requirement.
(d) All existing hazardous material systems shall be inspected to the criteria of this section prior to two years after effective date, or in accordance with a schedule approved by the department.))
(4) Inspection records.
(a) Results of inspections and/or tests ((
shall)) must be maintained as a record for each
system. Portions of systems that are buried or enclosed in permanent structures in such a
manner as to prevent exposure to employees even in the event of a failure, may be exempted
from the inspection requirements only.
(b))) Past records may be discarded provided the current inspection report and the
immediately preceding two reports are maintained.
(c))) When a system is replaced, a new record (( shall)) must be established and all
past records may be discarded.
(d))) (b) Upon request the records for each system (( shall)) must be made available for
review by the department (( upon request)) of labor and industries.
(e) Portions of systems that are buried or enclosed in permanent structures in such a
manner as to prevent exposure to employees even in the event of a failure, may be exempted
from the inspection requirements only.))
(5) Systems or sections of systems found to be below the minimum design criteria
requirements for the current service ((
shall)) must be repaired or replaced with component parts
and methods which equal the requirements for new installations.
(6) Identification of piping systems.
(a) Pipes containing hazardous materials ((
shall)) must be identified. It is recommended
that USAS A13.1 "Scheme for Identification of Piping Systems" be followed.
(b))) Positive identification of a piping system content (( shall be)):
Must have a lettered legend giving the name of the content in full or abbreviated form,
or a commonly used identification system. ((
Such identification shall))
Must be made and maintained at suitable intervals and at valves, fittings, and on both sides of walls or floors as needed.
May have arrows ((
may be used)) to indicate the direction of flow. (( Where it is
desirable or necessary to give))
May provide necessary supplementary information such as hazard of use ((
piping system content,)). This may be done by additional legend or by color applied to the
entire piping system or as colored bands. Legends may be placed on colored bands.
Examples of legend which may give both positive identification and supplementary information regarding hazards or use are:
|Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||Hazardous liquid or gas|
|Chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||Hazardous liquid or gas|
|Chlorine dioxide . . . . . . . .||Hazardous liquid or gas|
|Sulphur dioxide . . . . . . . . .||Hazardous gas|
|Liquid caustic . . . . . . . . . .||Hazardous liquid|
|Liquid sulphur . . . . . . . . . .||Hazardous liquid|
|Sulphuric acid . . . . . . . . . .||Hazardous liquid|
|Sodium chlorate . . . . . . . . .||When dry, danger of fire or explosion|
|Note:||Manual L-1, published by Chemical Manufacturers Association, Inc., is a valuable guide in respect to supplementary legend.|
|F--Fire-protection equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||Red|
|D--Dangerous materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||Yellow|
|S--Safe materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||Green|
|(or the achromatic|
|colors, white, black,|
|gray or aluminum)|
and, when required,
|P--Protective materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||Bright blue|
(d))) (b) When legend systems are used, legend boards showing the color and
identification scheme in use (( shall)) must be prominently displayed at each plant. They (( shall))
must be located so that employees who may be exposed to hazardous material piping systems
will have a frequent reminder of the identification program.
(e))) (c) All employees who work in the area of hazardous material piping systems
(( shall)) must be given training in the color and identification scheme in use.
Test holes not to be covered. Test holes in blow lines of piping systems shall not be
covered with insulation or other materials.
(8))) Steam hoses. Steam hoses ((
shall)) must be specifically designed to safely carry
steam at any pressures to which they may be subjected.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050 and RCW 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-79-140, filed 6/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.240, and chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), § 296-79-140, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, § 296-79-140, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-140, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
Additional requirements on mobile equipment and lift trucks are in WAC 296-24, Part D.
All industrial powered trucks should be engineered, designed, constructed,
maintained and used in accordance with the recommendations specified in USAS B56.1-1969
"Safety Code for Powered Industrial Trucks."
(2) Operator training. Methods shall be devised by management to train personnel in the safe operation of powered industrial trucks and only trained and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate such vehicles.
(3) Special duties of operator. Special duties of the operator of a power-driven vehicle shall include the following:
(a) To test)) The operator of a power-driven vehicle must test the brakes, steering gear,
lights, horns, warning devices, clutches, etc., before operating vehicle((
(b) Not to move a vehicle while an unauthorized rider is on his vehicle;
(c) To slow down and sound horn upon approaching blind corners or other places where vision or clearance is limited;
(d) To comply with all speed and traffic regulations and other applicable rules;
(e) To have the vehicle he operates under control at all times so that he can safely stop the vehicle in case of emergency; and
(f) When driving a fork lift vehicle on a grade, the load shall be kept on the upgrade side.
(4) Operator to be in proper position)).
(2) Control levers of lift trucks, front end loaders, or similar types of equipment ((
must not be operated except when the operator is in (( his)) the proper operating position.
(a))) (3) No person (( shall)) may be permitted to ride on a powered hand truck unless it
is so designed by the manufacturer. A limit switch (( shall)) must be on the operating handle--30
degrees each way from a 45-degree angle up and down.
(b) When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load engaging means shall be
fully lowered, controls shall be neutralized, power shall be shut off, and brakes set. Wheels shall
be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline.
(c) A powered industrial truck is unattended when the operator is 25 feet or more away from the vehicle which remains in his view, or whenever the operator leaves the vehicle and it is not in his view.
(d) When the operator of an industrial truck is dismounted and within 25 feet of the truck still in his view, the load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized, and the brakes set to prevent movement.
(5) Raised equipment to be blocked.)) (4) Employees ((
shall)) must not work below the
raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in
similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling. (( When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking shall also
be used in conjunction with the jack.
(6) Precautions to be taken while inflating tire. Unmounted split rim wheels shall be placed in a safety cage or other device shall be used which will prevent a split rim from striking the worker if it should dislodge while the tire is being inflated.
(7))) (5) Reporting suspected defects. If, in the opinion of the operator, a power-driven
vehicle is unsafe, the operator ((
shall)) must report the suspected defect immediately to the
person in charge. Any defect (( which)) that would make the vehicle unsafe to operate under
existing conditions (( shall)) will be cause to take the vehicle out of service and it (( shall)) must
not be put back into use until it has been made safe.
(8) Safe speed. Vehicles shall not be driven faster than a safe speed which is
compatible with existing conditions.
(9) Unobstructed view.)) (6) Vehicle operators ((
shall)) must have a reasonably
unobstructed view of the direction of travel, or, where this is not possible, the operator (( shall))
must be directed by a person or by a safe guidance means or device. Where practical, mirrors
(( shall)) must be installed at blind corners or intersections (( which)) that will allow operators to
observe oncoming traffic.
It is recommended that)) (7) Vehicles (( operating)) in congested areas (( should be
provided with an audible or visual alarm system)) must operate with a warning light.
(10) Passengers to ride properly.)) (8) Passengers (( shall)) must not be permitted to ride
with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor (( shall)) must they be permitted to ride
unless a passenger seat or other protective device is provided.
(11) Horns and lights.
(a) Each vehicle shall be provided with a horn.
(b) Any vehicle required to travel away from an illuminated area shall be equipped with a light or lights which adequately illuminate the direction of travel.
(12))) (9) Guard on operator's platform. Every power truck operated from an end
platform or standing position ((
shall)) must be:
Equipped with a platform extending beyond the operator's position, and
Strong enough to withstand a compression load equal to the weight of the loaded vehicle applied along the longitudinal axis of the truck with the outermost projection of the platform against the flat vertical surface.
(13) Brakes on power-driven vehicles. Vehicles shall be equipped with brakes and
devices which will hold a parked vehicle with load on any grade on which it may be used. The
brakes and parking devices shall be kept in proper operating condition at all times.
(14))) (10) Cleaning vehicles. All vehicles ((
shall)) must be kept free of excessive
accumulations of dust and grease that may present a hazard.
(15) Moving vehicles.)) (11) Vehicles (( shall)) must be controlled manually while
being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. (( Special precautions shall be taken when
pushing vehicles where view is obstructed.)) Pushing of vehicles or railroad cars with the forks
or clamps of a lift truck is prohibited.
(16) Prohibited forms of riding. Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of
vehicles is prohibited.
(17) Jumping on or off moving vehicles. Jumping on or off moving vehicles is prohibited.
(18) Traffic lanes, designation and systems. Regular traffic lanes should be established and clearly designated and followed whenever practical. A one-way traffic system should be employed if practical.
(19) Clear lanes. Traffic lanes being used by pedestrians or equipment shall be kept clear of dunnage, pallets, etc., and equipment not in use.
(20) Lifting capacity of vehicle to be observed. At no time shall a load in excess of the manufacturer's maximum lifting capacity rating be lifted, carried, or moved by a lift truck. Such lifting capacity can be altered with the approval of the equipment manufacturer.
(21) Posting rated capacity. The maximum rated lifting capacity of all lift trucks shall at all times be posted on the vehicle in such a manner that it is readily visible to the operator.
(22) Carrying loose material. Lift trucks shall not be used to carry loose loads of pipe, steel, iron, lumber, palletized material, rolls of paper, or barrels unless adequate clearance is provided and the loads are stabilized.
(23) Position of lift forks or clamps.)) (12) Aisles or passageways should be at least three feet wider than the widest vehicle or load traveling the aisle or passageway. When this clearance cannot be maintained, adequate precautions must be taken.
(13) The forks ((
or)), clamps, or attachments of lift trucks (( shall)) must be kept as low
as possible while the vehicle is moving. (( They shall be lowered to the floor when the vehicle is
(24) Walking under loads prohibited. No person shall be allowed under the raised load of a lift truck.
(25) Hoisting of personnel on vehicle forks prohibited. Personnel shall not be hoisted by standing directly on the forks of vehicles.
(26) Using forklifts as elevated work platforms. A platform or structure built specifically for hoisting persons may be used providing the following requirements are complied with:
(a) The structure must be securely attached to the forks and shall have standard guardrails and toeboards installed on all sides.
(b) The hydraulic system shall be so designed that the lift mechanism will not drop faster than 135 feet per minute in the event of a failure in any part of the system. Forklifts used for elevating work platforms shall be identified that they are so designed.
(c) A safety strap shall be installed or the control lever shall be locked to prevent the boom from tilting.
(d) An operator shall attend the lift equipment while workers are on the platform.
(e) The operator shall be in the normal operating position while raising or lowering the platform.
(f) The vehicle shall not travel from point to point while workers are on the platform except that inching or maneuvering at very slow speed is permissible.
(g) The area between workers on the platform and the mast shall be adequately guarded to prevent contact with chains or other shear points.
(27) Overhead guards on lift trucks. All lift trucks shall be equipped with an overhead guard constructed and installed to conform to USAS B56.1-1969 "Safety Code for Powered Industrial Trucks." This guard may be removed only when it cannot be used due to the nature of the work being performed in which case loads shall be maintained so as not to create a hazard to the operator.
(28) Protection from exhaust system. Any exhaust system which would be exposed to contact shall be properly insulated or isolated to prevent personnel from being burned.)) (14) The hoisting of personnel by lift trucks must meet the requirements in WAC 296-24-230.
(15) Exhaust systems on lift trucks and jitneys shall be constructed to discharge either
")) inches from the floor or 84(( ")) inches or more above the floor. (( The exhausted
gases shall be directed away from the operator and the equipment shall be designed in such a
manner that the operator will not be exposed to the fumes.
(29) Emergency exit from mobile equipment.)) (16) Mobile equipment with an enclosed
shall)) must be provided with an escape hatch or other method of exit in case the regular
exit cannot be used.
(30) Vehicle wheels chocked. When driving mobile equipment onto the bed of a
vehicle, the wheels of the vehicle shall be chocked.
(31) Prevent trailer from tipping.)) (17) Suitable methods ((
shall)) must be used or
devices installed which will prevent the trailer from tipping while being loaded or unloaded.
(32) Refueling. Gasoline or LPG engines shall be shut off during refueling.
(33) Close valve on LPG container.)) (18) Whenever vehicles using LP gas as a fuel are
parked overnight or stored for extended periods of time indoors, with the fuel container in place,
the service valve of the fuel container ((
shall)) must be closed.
(34) LP tanks. LP vehicle fuel tanks shall be installed and protected in a manner which
will minimize the possibility of damage to the tank.
(35) Inspecting and testing of LPG containers. LPG containers shall be inspected and tested periodically.
(36) Spinners on steering wheels.)) (19) The use of spinners on steering wheels ((
must be prohibited unless an anti-kick device is installed or the equipment has a hydraulic
(20) Rolls transported with a grab or clamp attachment must be carried with the core in a vertical position.
(21) When traveling empty with a grab or clamp attachment, the jaws or blades of those attachments must remain within the running lines of the lift truck.
(22) When transporting two or more rolls with a roll grab attachment, the bottom roll will have at least sixty percent of the grab attachment on it.
(23) When transporting two or more rolls or bales with a grab or clamp attachment, there must be no rolls or bales unsecured if there is risk of part or all of the load shifting or falling.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-150, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-150, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
All applicable rules for
design, construction, maintenance, operation and testing of cranes and hoists contained in the
general safety and health standards shall be complied with.)) Grounding - Where conditions such
as corrosive atmospheres, dirt, paint, rust, or other insulating materials prevent reliable
metal-to-metal contact for grounding (bridge, wheel and its respective tracks), a separate ground
conductor must be provided.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-160, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-160, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
chart. A chart indicating the manufacturer's rated capacity at all operating radii for all
permissible boom lengths and jib lengths with alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting
such ratings shall be posted in all mobile type cranes and shall be readily visible to the operator
in his normal operating position.
(2))) Boom length indicated. The length ((
shall)) must be plainly marked on each boom
section of a mobile crane having a sectioned boom.
(3))) (2) Radius or boom angle indicator. A radius or boom angle indicator (( shall))
must be installed where it is readily visible to the operator's (( in his)) normal operating position
on all cranes having a movable working boom.
(4))) (3) Safety device for light fixtures. Any light fixtures attached to crane boom or
machinery house (( shall)) must have a safety strap or other device attached which will prevent
the fixture from falling.
(5))) (4) Boom stops. Boom stops (( shall)) must be:
Installed to govern the upward travel of the boom to a safe limit. ((
Boom stops shall
Of adequate strength to prevent the boom from traveling past the vertical position.
(6))) (5) Controls marked. Crane operating controls (( shall)) must be marked or an
explanation of the controls' functions (( shall)) must be posted in full view of the operator.
(7))) (6) Locking hydraulic outriggers. Hydraulic outriggers (( shall)) must be:
Equipped with a pilot operated check valve or
Installed with a mechanical lock ((
shall be installed)) which will prevent outriggers
from retracting in case of failure of the hydraulic system.
(8))) (7) Top of boom painted. The top six feet of the boom or jib (( shall)) must be
painted bright yellow or other bright contrasting color if the boom is yellow.
(Several makes of cranes are already "all yellow." Users say they want to retain the
contrasting color theme to call attention to the boomtop.)
(9))) (8) Warning devices. All cranes ((
shall)) must be equipped with a suitable warning
device such as a horn or whistle.
(10))) (9) Hook safety device. All hooks (( shall)) must be equipped with a safety
device or other effective means (( shall)) must be used to prevent accidental unhooking of the
(11))) (10) Counterweight limited. The amount of crane counterweight (( shall)) must
not exceed the maximum amount specified by the crane manufacturer.
(12))) (11) Use proper size wire rope for sheaves. The size and diameter of sheaves
and wire rope (( shall)) must be compatible and follow the recommendations by the
manufacturer, published by the Wire Rope Institute or other acceptable engineering practices.
(13))) (12) Loading or unloading gear. Unloading gear such as grapples, tongs, and
buckets, (( shall)) must not be left suspended when not in use or whenever the machine is
(a) Where grapples, trip tongs or similar device is used for loading, the log holding
device shall be lowered to the ground whenever the machine is unattended.
(14))) (13) No one under load. Personnel ((
shall)) must not position themselves under
crane loads and such loads (( shall)) must not be carried over workers.
(15))) (14) Operating clearance from stationary objects. Where the area is accessible to
A distance of 30((
" shall)) inches must be maintained between the outermost part of a
revolving crane and any stationary object within the swing radius of the crane (( where the area is
accessible to workers)) or
The hazardous area must be temporarily guarded or barricaded.
(16) Clearance requirements from unprotected electrical transmission and distribution
(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), all parts of cranes and loads being handled shall maintain the following specified clearances:
(i) For lines rated 50 kv or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be ten feet;
(ii) For lines rated over 50 kv minimum, clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kv over 50 kv, or twice the length of the line insulator but never less than 10 feet;
(iii) In transit with no load and boom lowered the equipment clearance shall be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kv, and 10 feet for voltages over 50 kv up to and including 345 kv, and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kv;
(iv) A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means;
(v) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line and it has been visibly grounded.
(b) Cranes may be operated within the clearances specified in subdivision (a) only when the following precautions are taken:
(i) Lines may be deenergized and visibly grounded at the point of work; or
(ii) Lines owned or under the control of the employer may be deenergized, grounded and locked out on the employer's premises; or
(iii) On N.E.C. approved installation of insulated aerial cable, insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, may be erected to prevent physical contact with the line.
(17))) (15) See WAC 296-24-960 when working around energized lines.
(16) Operators ((
shall)) must avoid contacting overhead obstructions which may damage
the boom or adversely affect stability. In instances where the operator may have difficulty in
observing clearances, a signal person (( shall)) must be stationed where they can observe
clearances and signal the operator.
(18))) (17) Safe travel across thoroughfares or railroad tracks.
When moving cranes, shovels or similar types of equipment across thoroughfares or
railroad tracks ((
with cranes, shovels or similar types of equipment, which by its design does not
allow)) and the operator does not have a clear vision of approaching traffic, a flagperson (( shall))
must be used.
The flag person must be stationed where ((
he/she can control other traffic and signal))
the equipment operator can be signaled and other traffic can be controlled.
(19) One crew member to give signals.)) (18) Only a designated member of the crew
(( shall)) may give signals to the crane operator (( except that)). Exception: Anyone may give an
emergency stop signal.
(20))) (19) Standard hand signals. When using visual signals (( are used)), standard
hand signals(( ,)) as illustrated (( in the general safety and health standards, shall)), must be used
for directing crane operators.
WAC 296-79-170, Illus. 1)
Height=480 valign="center">Place illustration here.
WAC 296-79-170, Illus. 2)
Height=482 valign="center">Place illustration here.
WAC 296-79-170, Illus. 3)
Height=482 valign="center">Place illustration here.
(21) Signals by use of radio frequencies. Class "D" citizen's band radio frequencies
shall not be used for signaling crane operators.))
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050 and RCW 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-79-170, filed 6/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.240, and chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), § 296-79-170, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, § 296-79-170, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-170, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Blue flag or light for railroad operations.
A blue signal (blue flag or blue light for nonilluminated areas) ((
shall)) must be
displayed at one or both ends of an engine, car(s), or train, to indicate that workers are under or
about the railway equipment.
When such warning devices are displayed, the equipment ((
shall)) must not be coupled
to or moved.
On a dead end spur, a blue signal may be displayed adjacent to the switch opening while cars are being loaded or unloaded.
(2) Blue signals and derails.
Work being carried on which subjects employees to the hazard of moving railroad
shall)) must be protected by blue signals and locked derails set a minimum of 50
feet from one or both ends of the worksite.
Where the spur track switch is less than 50 feet from the work location, the switch
padlocked in the open position will take the place of the derail and the blue signal ((
be placed at that point.
(3) Signals unobscured. Equipment which would obscure the blue signal ((
not be placed on the track.
(4) Signals displayed by each maintenance crew. Each maintenance crew ((
display and remove its own set of blue signals.
(5) Warning device.
A flashing warning light or other device ((
shall)) must be installed near any opening
which leads to a passageway crossing railroad tracks adjacent to the building.
Such light or device ((
shall)) must be activated prior to any switching or movement of
railroad equipment to warn workers of the dangerous condition in the area.
(6) Cars to be immobilized. Spotted cars ((
shall)) must either have brakes set, wheels
blocked, or (( shall)) must be coupled to other immobilized cars to prevent each car from rolling.
(7) Crawling under or between coupled cars prohibited. Workers ((
shall)) must not crawl
under or pass between coupled railroad cars to cross tracks.
(8) Warning at road crossing. An audible whistle, horn or bell ((
shall)) must be sounded
by the locomotive engineer to give adequate warning prior to switching across any road
(9) Flying switches. When switching railroad equipment in congested areas or across
roadways or walkways "flying switches" ((
shall)) must be prohibited.
(10) Car opening devices. All box car doors and associated mechanisms ((
shall)) must be
carefully inspected before workers attempt to open or close them. If the door is not free and
cannot be opened safely by hand, equipment (( shall)) must be provided, where necessary, and a
safe method (( shall)) must be used to open or close the door.
(11) Clearance from railroad tracks. Materials ((
shall)) must not be stacked or piled
closer than 8 1/2' from the center line of a standard gauge railroad track.
(12) Operating under limited visibility conditions.
(a))) Unless trains are operated in a manner to allow the operator to see a safe stopping
distance in the direction of travel, a flagperson(s) (( shall)) must be positioned in such a manner
to safely direct movement of the train.
(b))) Flagperson (( shall)) must:
Remain within sight of the operator, or ((
Be equipped to maintain visual or voice communication with the operator as conditions dictate.
(13) A flagperson ((
shall)) must direct the movement of trains being moved across main
roads or thoroughfares which do not have adequate traffic warning lights, bells or barricades.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.240, and chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), § 296-79-180, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, § 296-79-180, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-180, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Safe access to top of railroad cars or trucks. Platforms with ladders or stairways ((
must be installed or made available when needed so that workers may safely gain access to and
perform work on the top of railroad cars or trucks when ladders are not installed on such
(2) Nets not to cover ladders. Rolled chip nets ((
shall)) must not be positioned where
they cover the ladders on railroad cars or trucks.
(3) Tipple type unloading device. When a tipple type unloading device is used for
removing chips from cars, the cars ((
shall)) must be properly secured in place and all employees
(( shall)) must be in the clear before dumping operation is started.
(4) Handling pulp chips and hog fuel from trucks and trailers.
(a) Elevating platform-type or cable-lift type unloading devices ((
shall)) must have
adequate back bumper stops.
(b) Side rails or other positive means to prevent the trailer from falling ((
shall)) must be
used while unloading single trailer units.
(c) The truck or tractor ((
shall)) must be secured when elevating platform lifts are used to
elevate both the tractor and trailer or single unit trucks.
(d) All personnel ((
shall)) must be clear of all hoisting or elevating mechanisms before
(e) No person ((
shall remain)) is allowed in any truck while the truck is being elevated.
(5) Taking chip samples. A safe area and suitable device ((
shall)) must be provided for
the chip tester to use while taking chip samples.
(6) Derail required ((
while unloading)) for hazardous materials. To protect tank cars
from being moved while loading or unloading hazardous materials by use of pipes or hoses, a
derail and blue flag (( shall)) must be set between the spotted tank cars and any moving railroad
(7) Moving cars by tugger or powered drums. When rail cars are moved by a tugger or powered drums with cables, a means should be provided or the area barricaded in such a manner that the moving cables do not endanger the workers.
(8) Handling pulpwood from flatcars and all other railway cars.
(a) Railroad flatcars for the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the
shall)) must be equipped with safety-stake pockets.
(b) Where pulpwood is loaded crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller
than 4 by 4 inches ((
shall)) must be used to prevent the load from shifting.
(c) Cutting stakes on log bundles. When it is necessary to cut stakes((
Those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first, and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side.
Wire cutters equipped with long extension handles ((
shall)) must be used.
No person ((
shall be)) is permitted along the dumping side of the car after the stakes
have been cut.
(d) Cutting bands on log bundles. When cutting bands on bundled logs, workers ((
Position themselves in a safe location((
Not use double bitted axes ((
shall not be used)) for cutting bands(( .));
Use caution ((
shall be used)) to prevent being struck by ends of bands being cut
If needed, wear personal protective equipment ((
shall be worn)).
(e) Flatcars and all other cars ((
shall)) must be:
Chocked during unloading((
. Where equipment is not provided with hand brakes,))
Rail clamping chocks ((
shall)) must be used when equipment is not provided with hand
(9) Handling pulpwood from trucks.
(a) Cutting of stakes and binder wires ((
shall)) must be done in accordance with (8)(c) of
(b) Binders or stakes ((
shall)) must not be loosened or removed:
Until the logs are secured and held by equipment which will prevent them from rolling off the truck, or
shall be provided which)) will prevent logs from striking the person
removing the binders or stakes.
(c) Where binder chains and crane slings are used((
The crane slings ((
shall)) must be attached and taut before the binder chains are
released(( .)) and,
The hooker ((
shall)) must see that the helper is clear before signaling for the movement
of the load.
Driver to leave truck cab while unloading.)) The truck driver (( shall)) must:
Leave the truck cab and ((
be)) remain in the clear, preferably in a designated area, and
Be in clear view of the unloading equipment operator while the unloader is approaching the loaded truck.
(e) Driver to remain outside cab during unloading. The truck driver shall remain
outside the cab and clear of the load while logs are being unloaded except that)) After a
complete load is lifted as a unit and held stationary (( he)), the truck driver may enter the cab and
drive forward from under the suspended load.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-190, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-190, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
Properly constructed bridge or dock plates
shall)) must be furnished and used to bridge the area between a dock and truck or railroad car. The following requirements (( shall)) must be complied with for construction and use of such
bridge or dock plates:
(1) Strength. The plate ((
shall)) must be capable of supporting three times the maximum
load to which it will be subjected.
(2) Stops ((
required)). The plates (( shall)) must be provided with positive stops to
prevent the plates from shifting or moving.
(3) Plates ((
to bear solidly)).
The plates ((
shall)) must bear solidly on the dock and on the floor of the car or truck.
Plates with excessive teeter or rock ((
shall)) must be repaired or replaced.
(4) Upturn or lip on plates. The sides of bridge or dock plates ((
shall)) must have an
upturn or lip of at least 4(( ")) inches covering the area between the edge of the loading dock and
edge of car or truck floor whenever this distance exceeds 18(( ")) inches to prevent wheeled
equipment from running off the sides.
(5) Bearing surface. Bridge or dock plates ((
shall)) must have at least 6(( ")) inches
bearing surface on the loading dock.
(6) Suitable fittings to be used. Bridge or dock plates intended to be moved by
mechanized equipment ((
shall)) must be designed for this purpose or appropriate fittings or
attachments (( shall)) must be used.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-200, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-200, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Protection from falling material. Whenever conveyors pass adjacent to or over
working areas or passageways used by personnel, protective guards shall be installed. These
guards shall be designed to catch and hold any load or materials which may fall off or become
dislodged and injure a worker.
(2) Walking on rolls prohibited. Employees shall not be allowed to walk on the rolls of roller type conveyors except for emergency.
(3) Guarding shaftway and material entrances of elevator type conveyors. Guards, screens or barricades of sufficient strength and size to prevent material from falling shall be installed on all sides of the shaftway of elevator type conveyors except at openings where material is loaded or unloaded. Automatic shaftway gates or suitable barriers shall be installed at each floor level where material is loaded or unloaded from the platform.
(4) Emergency conveyor stops. Conveyors shall be provided with an emergency stopping device which can be reached from the conveyor. Such device shall be located near the material entrance to each barker, chipper, saw, or similar type of equipment except where the conveyor leading into such equipment is under constant control of an operator who has full view of the material entrance and is located where he cannot possibly fall onto the conveyor.
(5) Safe access to conveyors. Where conveyors are in excess of 7' in height, means shall be provided to safely permit essential inspection and maintenance operations.
(6) Adjustment. All take-up devices provided for the purpose of adjusting for stretch in the belt, chain or cable should be checked at intervals for proper functioning and adjustment.
(7) Worn parts. Any part showing signs of significant wear shall be inspected carefully and replaced prior to reaching a condition where it may create a hazard.
(8) Replacement of parts. Replacement parts shall be equal to or exceed the manufacturer's specifications.)) See WAC 296-24, Part D.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-210, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-210, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
Tagout or other
alternative security procedures shall be phased out by (one after effective date). In the one year
interim, all requirements and procedures of this section shall apply except:
(a) Physical restraint devices other than padlocks may be used.
(b) Whenever devices other than identified padlocks are used, a warning information tag shall be required.
(c) Whenever the operating control cannot be physically blocked by the restraining device, a warning information tag shall be required.
(2))) Control requirement. Whenever the unexpected startup of machinery, the
energizing of electrical circuits, the flow of material in piping systems or the removal of guards
would endanger workers, such exposure ((
shall)) must be prevented by deactivating and locking
out the controls as required by (( this section))
WAC 296-24, Part A-4.
In instances where any machine must be in motion for proper adjustment, for removal or replacement of
materials from the machine, for machine clothing changes or for roping up, the following precautions ((
must be observed:
(a))) The machine (( shall)) must be operated at (( slow)) thread or jog speed;
(b))) Extension tools which minimize personnel exposure (( shall)) must be used
(c))) The operating controls (( shall)) must at all times be under the control of a
qualified operator or craftsman;
(d))) All personnel (( shall)) must remain in view of the operator or other means of
communication shall be established (( whenever possible));
(e))) All personnel must be beyond the reach of other machine section(s) or
element(s) which offer potential exposure. In any instance where such potential exposure exists,
such other section(s) or element(s) (( shall)) must be separately locked out.
(3) Equipment requirements.
(a) The employer shall provide and each employee shall use as many padlocks, tags, chains, or devices as required to implement these requirements.
(b) Provisions shall be made whereby the source of power or exposure can be locked out in accordance with the requirements of this section.
(c) On electrically powered equipment, "stop/start" control switches shall not be used as lockout switches. Lockout switches must be circuit disconnects and must adequately separate the power source from the prime mover so that accidental startup of the equipment being locked out is precluded.
(4) Training requirements.
(a) Each person who will be given authority to implement these requirements shall first be thoroughly trained in the requirements and procedures.
(b) Before being given authority to deactivate and lockout a particular system or piece of equipment, authorized personnel shall be made fully aware of all power sources and/or material entry sources which may offer exposure.
(c) On complex systems or equipment which contain multiple lockout points not at the immediate work location, a complete checklist of all lockout points necessary for isolation is recommended to help eliminate the chance of human error.
(5) Control procedure.
(a) Each person who would be exposed to the hazard shall apply a personal padlock on the control mechanism. Padlocks shall be applied in such a manner as to physically block the control from being moved into the operating position. Each lock shall be personally identified or an information tag identifying the owner shall be attached to the lock.
(b) Padlocks used in lockout procedures may only be removed by the person identified on the lock, except, when it is positively determined that the owner/user of the lock has left the premises without removing a lock, the job supervisor may remove the lock in accordance with a specific procedure formulated by the local plant labor/management safety committee or approved by the department.
(6) Testing after lockout or tagout. After tagging or locking out equipment, a test shall be conducted to ascertain that the equipment has been made inoperative or the flow of material has been positively stopped. Precautions shall be taken to ascertain that persons will not be subjected to hazard while conducting test if power source or flow of material is not shut off.
(7) Alternate lockout procedure. Before an alternate procedure can be utilized, a specific written procedure shall be reviewed by the local plant labor/management safety committee and approved by the department of labor and industries.
(8))) (2) Group lockout or tagout devices. Procedures must meet the minimum requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-4. The employer must develop a specific written group lockout or tagout procedure and review it with the local plant labor/management safety committee before it can be utilized.
(3) Temporary or alternate power ((
to be avoided)).
Whenever possible, temporary or alternate sources of power to the equipment being
worked on ((
shall)) must be avoided.
If the use of such power is necessary, all affected employees ((
shall)) must be informed
and the source of temporary or alternate power (( shall)) must be identified.
(9) Where tags are required to implement these lockout and control procedures, the tag
and attachment device shall be constructed of such material that it will not be likely to
deteriorate in the environment that it will be subjected to.
(10) Provisional exception. Electrical lighting and instrument circuits of 240 volts or less on single phase systems or 277 volts on three-phase systems may be exempted from the lockout requirements of (5)(a) of this section provided that:
(a) An information tag meeting the requirements of subsection (9) of this section is used in lieu of a padlock;
(b) The information tag shall be placed on the switch or switch cover handle in such a manner as to easily identify the deactivated switchgear.
(11))) (4) Deactivating piping systems.
Hazardous material systems are defined as:)) Nonhazardous systems must be
deactivated by at least locking out either the pump or a single valve.
(b) Lockout of the following hazardous material piping systems must isolate to the worksite and must provide protection against backflow where such potential exists:
Gaseous systems that are operated at more than 200 psig;
Systems containing any liquid at more than 500 psig;
Systems containing any material at more than 130°F;
Any cryogenic system,
Systems containing material which is chemically hazardous as defined by NFPA 704
M)) 1996 Class 3 and 4;
Systems containing material classified as flammable or explosive as defined in NFPA Class I.
(b) Lockout of piping systems shall provide isolation to the worksite, including
backflow where such potential exists and the system is classified as a hazardous material system.
The required method shall be applied based on the content of the system as specified below:
(i) Nonhazardous systems shall be deactivated by locking out either the pump or a single valve.
(ii) Hazardous material)) Such systems ((
shall)) must be deactivated by one of the
following (( methods)):
(A))) Locking out both the pump and one valve between the pump and the worksite;
(B))) Locking out two valves between the hazard source and the worksite;
(C))) Installing and locking out a blank flange between the hazard source and
worksite. When a blank flange (blind) is used to separate off portions of hazardous material
systems from a portion which is in operation, the employer must develop and implement a
procedure for installation and removal of the blank flange that will ensure all hazards have been
(D))) Line breaking between the hazard and the worksite;
On hazardous chemical systems where the methods ((
(A), (B) or (C))) already listed
are not (( available)) feasible, or (( where methods (A), (B) or (C))) by themselves create a
hazard, single valve closure isolation may be used provided that potentially exposed employees
are adequately protected by other means such as personal protective equipment.
(E))) On all steam systems where the methods (( (A), (B) or (C))) already listed are
not (( available)) feasible, single valve closure isolation may be used provided that the system is
equipped with valves meeting all requirements of ANSI B16.5-1996 and ANSI B16.34-1996. Where single valve isolation is used, the steamline must also be equipped with a bleed valve
downstream from the valve closure to prove isolation of the worksite.
(12) Reactivating separated hazardous material systems. When a blank flange (blind) is
used to separate off portions of hazardous material systems from a portion which is in operation,
removal of the blind offers potential exposure to employees. The removal procedure shall be
(a) Two separate valve closures between the blank flange and the potential exposure; or
(b) A single valve closure with a bleeder valve or weep drain between the blank flange and the valve closure. Employees shall closely check for evidence of escapement from the bleeder valve or weep plug before starting to remove the blank flange.
(c) Where subdivisions (a) or (b) are not possible or, in themselves create a hazard, potentially exposed employees must be adequately protected by personal protective equipment before removing the blank flange.
|Note:||Bleeder valves are recommended behind all primary valve closures on hazardous material systems. Consideration should be given to the nature of the material in the system when installing bleeder valves. To assist in preventing plugging, bleeder valves should generally be installed in the top one-third of the pipe. Short exhaust pipes should be installed on bleeder valves to direct the flow of possible escapement away from the position where an employee would normally be when using the bleeder valve.|
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050 and RCW 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-79-220, filed 6/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.240, and chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), § 296-79-220, filed 1/8/81; Order 76-7, § 296-79-220, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-220, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-220, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
Management's responsibility for planning. Management shall be responsible for developing a
written procedure to be followed for safe entry of employees into confined areas, tanks, vessels,
or sewers and for maintaining a safe condition while work is being performed therein. Such
procedure shall include the following minimum requirements:
(a) All vessels, sewers or confined areas must be properly ventilated at all times. Such areas shall be tested and/or evaluated by a person thoroughly trained and instructed in the use of instruments required, or qualified to make evaluations of conditions which may be encountered, before employees enter and at reasonable intervals as work progresses. Special consideration shall be given to the possibility that the area may be deficient of oxygen or may contain dangerous concentrations of gases or toxic substances.
(b) Each vessel, tank or confined area shall be cleaned and/or purged as thoroughly as practical prior to entry.
(c))) Entry into confined spaces must be in accordance with WAC 296-62, Part M.
(2) All equipment necessary to perform the work, including safety equipment, must be at
job site)) confined space and (( shall)) must be inspected or tested to assure that it functions
(d) All electrical circuits, valves, ducts, pipes, and other equipment shall be locked out,
tagged out, or blanked as required in accordance with the applicable rules contained in
WAC 296-79-220 of this chapter.
(e) Prior to and while welding or burning is being done in areas where a fire or explosion hazard may exist, the applicable rules contained in WAC 296-79-040 of this chapter, shall be complied with.
(f) For evaluating conditions concerning health, fire or explosion hazards, requirements outlined in the general occupational health standards, WAC 296-62, shall be followed.
(2) Designated person in charge. Management shall designate an individual who shall be responsible for the safety of the employees and institute such means, methods, and practices as to render the work and place of work safe. The designated person shall ascertain that the required written procedures are followed.
(3) Employees to be thoroughly instructed in procedure. All employees involved in the entry of vessels or confined areas shall be thoroughly instructed in safe procedures to be followed.
(4) Protective equipment required. Any employee entering a vessel or enclosed area shall use any protective equipment or clothing needed to afford him proper protection. Each person shall wear equipment capable of providing safe respirable air if the area may be deficient of oxygen or shall wear proper respiratory protective equipment if the atmosphere may contain a hazardous concentration of contaminants. In addition, while entering or working in an atmosphere immediately hazardous to health, employees shall wear a safety harness with lifeline attached and continue to wear such equipment so long as the hazard exists.
(5) Attendant required. An attendant shall remain outside at the opening of the confined area to render assistance necessary to persons inside. The attendant shall be provided with life support equipment necessary for his protection if an emergency arises which would require him to enter the area.
(6) Life support equipment required. Life support)) (3) Protective equipment ((
that will afford proper protection to the employee from any condition which may arise (( shall))
based on the hazard assessment, must be available either at the entrance or within the (( vessel
or)) confined (( area or at the entrance thereto)) space.
(7) Mechanical device required when entry from the top. Where employees must enter
a vessel or confined area from the top, and where it would be impossible to manually rescue or
remove overcome persons in the area, a mechanical device shall be provided with which the
attendant can lift employees out.
(8) Electrical shock protection.)) (4) Electrical circuits leading into ((
confined (( areas)) spaces where electrical conductive hazards exist (( shall)) must be protected by
a ground fault interrupter or the voltage (( shall)) must not exceed 24 volts.
(9) Battery operated flashlights or lanterns.)) (5) Battery operated flashlights or lantern
(( shall)) must be readily available for use by persons working in areas where escape would be
difficult if normal lighting system should fail. Only explosion-proof type lights (( shall)) may be
taken into any atmosphere which may contain an explosive concentration.
(10) Use of materials which may create hazardous atmosphere. Tests shall be
conducted at reasonable intervals when using materials for cleaning, coating or other purposes
which may cause the atmosphere to become hazardous.))
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-230, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-230, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Handling and
labeling of flammable and hazardous materials. Containers of toxic, flammable or irritating
substances shall be properly labeled and stored as specified in "precautionary labeling of
hazardous substances used in places of employment," as adopted by the department of labor and
(2) To be stored away from sources of ignition. Fuels, oils, flammable chemicals or other flammable materials shall be stored in a room or area away from sources of ignition.
(3) Provide for safe handling. Provisions shall be made for handling drums safely and means shall be afforded to position drums on their sides when material must be discharged from a valve or spigot placed in the top of the drum.
(4) Bonding (grounding) required. When dispensing material which may be ignited by static electricity, a method shall be provided to properly bond (ground) the drum and container into which material is being dispensed.
(5) Storage of drums. Drums shall be stored in a manner which will prevent them from falling or rolling.
(6) Bagged or drummed chemicals. Bagged or drummed chemicals shall be handled properly to prevent spillage or damage to the containers. Chemicals shall be stored in such a manner that they will not decompose, contaminate, or react with other chemicals which could present a hazard. The manufacturer's safe practices recommendations or those published by the Manufacturing Chemists Association should be followed.
(7) Storing liquid chlorine tanks. Sufficient and adequate ventilation shall be provided when liquid chlorine tanks are stored in a room. At least two exits, remote from each other, shall be provided for all rooms in which chlorine is stored.
(8) Hoops for acid storage tanks. Hoops of tanks shall be made of rods rather than flat strips and shall be safely maintained by scheduled inspections.
(9) Turpentine systems and storage tanks. Nonsparking tools and ground hose shall be used when pumping out the tank. The tank shall be surrounded by a berm or moat. Drainage or diking of tanks shall comply with the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-33005.)) See WAC 296-24, Part E.
[Order 76-7, § 296-79-240, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-240, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-240, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Sulfur burners. Sulfur-burner houses ((
Be safely and adequately ventilated, and
Every precaution ((
shall be)) taken to guard against dust, explosion hazards and fires,
in accordance with American National Standards (( Z9.2-1960 and Z12.12-1968)) Z9.2-1979
(2) Handling/storage of dry sulfur.
(a) Nonsparking tools and equipment ((
shall)) must be used in handling dry sulfur.
(b) Sulfur storage bins ((
shall)) must be kept free of sulfur dust accumulation, and
buildings should be designed with explosion relief, in accordance with the latest revision of
American National Standard (( Z9.2-1960)) Z9.2-1979 (R1991).
Electrical equipment shall be of the explosion-proof type, according to the safety
standard for installing electric wires and equipment,
WAC 296-24 Part L, general safety
and health standards.
(d))) Sulfur-melting equipment ((
shall)) must not be located in the burner room.
(3) Handling/storage of liquid sulfur.
(a) Each facility utilizing liquid sulfur must:
Carefully examine its own handling system and
Formulate a written procedure for maintenance, receiving, storing and using this product.
(b) A minimum of two trained employees must be assigned when a tank car is first opened in preparation for venting and unloading.
(c) Approved respiratory protective equipment for H2S exposure, chemical splash goggles and gloves must be worn when performing this work.
(d) Spark producing or electric operated tools must not be used to unplug railroad car vents.
(e) Where venting can cause harmful exposure to other unprotected workers in the area:
A venting system must be installed which adequately contains any gas escapement from a tank car while venting.
The vented gas must be carried to a safe location for discharge or circulated through a scrubbing system.
The venting system must be connected before valves which would allow escapement are opened.
(f) Smoking, open burning or welding must be prohibited while unloading is in process or danger of gas escapement exists.
(4) Acid plant - Protection for employees.
(a) Where lime slaking takes place, employees must be provided with rubber boots, rubber gloves, protective aprons, and eye protection. A deluge shower and eyewash must be provided to flush the skin and eyes to counteract lime and acid burns.
(b) Hoops for acid storage tanks must be:
(i) Made of round rods rather than flat strips, and
(ii) Regularly inspected and safety maintained.
(c) Sulphur burner ignitors must have a means to automatically shut off the fuel to the ignitor when the flame has been extinguished.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-79-250, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 76-7, § 296-79-250, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-250, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-250, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
Proper)) Piling of logs.
shall)) must be piled or removed in an orderly manner.
The piles ((
shall)) must be stable and individual logs properly placed to prevent them
from rolling or falling.
The ends ((
shall)) must not project into walkways, roadways or areas reserved for
other purposes and
Sufficient clearance ((
shall)) must be maintained for safe travel of all vehicles and
Prohibited use of wire rope doglines.)) Wire rope doglines used for towing or
rafting (( shall)) must not be used when:
(a))) They acquire jaggers to the extent that they present a hazard to the employees
handling them; or
(b))) When they are weakened to the extent that they are hazardous.
Boom stick to support weight.)) Boom sticks (( shall)) must be capable of safely
supporting the weight imposed upon them.
Stiff boom construction.)) Stiff booms (( shall)) must be:
Made by fastening not less than two boom sticks together. ((
The width of the stiff
boom shall be))
Not less than 36((
")) inches in width measured from outside to outside of the outer
logs. (( The boom sticks shall be))
Fastened together with not less than 4((
")) inch by 6(( ")) inch cross ties or cable
lashing properly recessed into notches in the boom sticks and secured.
Pike poles.)) Pike poles (( shall)) must be kept in good repair. Conductive pike
poles (( shall)) must not be used when it is possible that they may come in contact with electrical
Logs not to be lifted over employees.)) Logs (( shall)) must not be lifted over
employees and employees (( shall)) must stay clear of the hazardous area near where logs are
being lifted or swung.
Log storing or sorting in water.)) Storing or sorting on water or any boom work
other than boom boat operations, (( shall)) must require a minimum of two persons.
Overhead protection on mobile equipment.)) All mobile equipment used to handle
logs, blocks or cants (( shall)) must be provided with adequate overhead protection.
Arrangement of unloading lines.)) Unloading lines (( shall)) must be so arranged
that it is not necessary for the worker to attach them on the pond or dump side of the load.
Unauthorized traffic prohibited.)) Unauthorized vehicles and unauthorized foot
traffic (( shall)) must not be allowed in any active sorting, storing, loading, or unloading areas.
Safe movement of equipment.)) Log unloaders (( shall)) must not be moved about
the premises with loads raised higher than absolutely necessary.
High visibility jackets or vests required.)) Jackets or vests of fluorescent or other
high visibility material (( shall)) must be worn by persons working on dry land log storage.
Dumps to be cleaned.)) All log dumps (( shall)) must be periodically cleared of
bark and other debris.
Hand tools.)) Handles of wood hooks (( shall)) must be locked to the shank to
prevent them from rotating.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-260, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-260, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
of this chapter which include
WAC 296-79-270 in the section number apply to pulpwood
preparation.)) (1) Barker feeding devices must be designed in such a manner that the operator
will not be required to hold or make any physical contact with any log or bolt during the barking
(2) A dog or locking device in addition to the motor switch, clutch, belt shifter or other power disconnecting device must be installed on all intermittent barking drums to prevent the drum from moving while it is being filled or emptied.
(3) Hydraulic barkers.
(a) The inlet and outlet areas of hydraulic barkers must be equipped with baffles or devices that will reasonably prevent material from flying out while the machine is in operation.
(b) The operator must be protected by at least five-ply laminated glass or material of equivalent strength.
(4) The high pressure hoses of hydraulic barkers must be secured in such a manner that the hose connection ends will be restrained if a hose connection fails.
(5) The feed operator's station must not be in direct line with the chipper blades. Suitable safeguards must be installed to prevent chips or chunks from being thrown out and striking the person feeding the machine.
(6) When the operator cannot readily observe the material being fed into the chipper, a mirror or other device must be installed in such a position that the ingoing material can be monitored.
(7) Metal bars or other nonchippable devices must not be used to clear jams or plug-up at the feed entrance to a chipper or hog while the machine is running.
(8) Water wheel speed governor.
Water wheels, when directly connected to marker disks or grinders, must be provided with speed governors, if operated with gate wide open.
Water wheels directly connected to pulp grinders must be provided with speed governors limiting the peripheral speed of the grinder to that recommended by the manufacturer.
(9) Knot cleaners of the woodpecker type.
The operators of knot cleaners of the woodpecker type must wear eye protection equipment.
Such knot cleaners should be enclosed to protect passersby from flying chips.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-270, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-270, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) Controls ((
shall)) must be:
Arranged to operate from a position where the operator will at all times be in the clear
of logs, machinery, lines, and rigging. ((
Controls shall be))
Marked to indicate their function.
A guard shall be provided to prevent logs from rolling off the log deck into the
well.)) Log decks must be provided with effective means to prevent logs from accidentally
rolling down the deck and onto the carriage or its runway.
(3) When needed for protection of personnel, an automatic stop or interlocking device
shall)) must be installed on log hauls or slips. These devices are not a substitute for lockout.
(4) A barricade or other positive stop of adequate strength ((
shall)) must be provided to
protect the sawyer from rolling logs.
(5) Canting gear or other equipment ((
shall)) must not (( be allowed to)) hang over the log
deck in such a manner as to endanger employees.
Canting gear controls shall be marked to indicate their function.
(7))) The sawyer shall be primarily responsible for the safety of the carriage crew and
. He shall)) and must exercise due care in the operation of the carriage and log
(8))) (7) Feed works and log turning control levers (( shall)) must be so arranged that
they may be secured when not in use and (( shall)) must be adequately guarded against accidental
(9))) (8) A control device (( shall)) must be provided so that the sawyer may stop the
head rig section of the mill without leaving (( his)) the stand.
(10))) (9) An effective method of disengaging the head rig saws from the power unit
(( shall)) must be installed on all head rigs where the power unit is not directly controlled by the
sawyer. (( The saws shall be disengaged from the source of power and locked or tagged out
before repairs or changes are made.
(11))) (10) The sawyer ((
shall)) must be safeguarded either by (( his)) location or by use
of substantial screens or approved safety glass.
(12))) (11) Carriages upon which (( persons)) employees are required to work (( shall))
must be solidly decked over and the employees properly protected.
(13))) (12) The feed control lever of friction or belt-driven carriage feed works (( shall))
must be designed to operate away from the saws or carriage track.
(14))) (13) A substantial stop or bumper (( shall)) must be installed at each end of the
(15))) (14) Substantial sweeps (( shall)) must be installed in front of each carriage
wheel. Such sweeps (( shall)) must extend to within 1/4 inch of the rails.
(16))) (15) Where power-operated log turners are used, carriage knees (( shall)) must be
provided with goosenecks or other substantial means of protecting the carriage crew.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-27003, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Band saws ((
shall)) must be given a thorough
daily inspection and any deficiency reported and corrected.
(2) Any band saw found to have developed a crack greater than one-tenth the width of
the saw ((
shall)) must be:
Removed from service until the width of the saw is reduced to eliminate the crack,
The cracked section is removed, or
The development of the crack is arrested by welding.
(3) Band saws ((
shall)) must not be continued in use on the head rig for which they have
been designed after they have been reduced 40% in width.
(4) Band saw guides ((
shall)) must be maintained in good condition and proper alignment
at all times.
(5) All head band saw wheels ((
shall)) must have a minimum rim thickness of 5/8(( "))
inches, except for a distance not to exceed one inch from the front edge of the wheel.
(6) Band saws ((
shall)) must not be run at a speed in excess of the manufacturer's
(7) A band wheel that has developed a crack in the rim ((
shall)) must be immediately
removed from service. If a crack has developed in a spoke, the wheel (( shall)) must be removed
from service until properly repaired.
(8) All band wheel guards ((
shall)) must be constructed of not lighter than ten U.S.
Gauge metal, or not less than two-inch wood material or equivalent, attached to substantial
frames. Necessary ventilating ports, not larger than two by four inches, and suitable doors or
gates for the lubrication and repair of the saw will be permitted.
(9) Every band mill ((
shall)) must be equipped with a saw catcher, rest or guard of
(10) Each gang ripper of band or straight saw type ((
shall)) must have the cutting edges
of the saw guarded by a hood or screen substantially secured to the framework of the machine.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-27005, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Circular saws ((
must not be operated at speeds in excess of those specified by the manufacturers.
(2) Circular saws ((
shall)) must be inspected for cracks each time the teeth are filed or
set. They (( shall)) must be discontinued from use until properly repaired when found to have
developed a crack exceeding the safe limits specified by the manufacturer.
(3) Damaged saws ((
shall)) must be repaired only by persons experienced and
knowledgeable in this type of work or by a manufacturers representative.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-27007, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Slasher saws ((
shall)) must be guarded in
WAC 296-79-030(( (4))) (3) of this chapter.
(2) Saws ((
shall)) must be stopped and locked or tagged out whenever it is necessary for
any person to be on the slasher table.
(3) Saws below table where not protected by the frame of the machine, the underside of
the slasher saws ((
shall)) must be adequately guarded.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-27009, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Each circular swing saw ((
be provided with a hood guard that completely encloses the upper half of the saw.
(2) Each swing saw ((
shall)) must be equipped with a positive stop at the extent of the
swing necessary to cut the material.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-27011, filed 5/6/74.]
shall)) must be so arranged that they will not project into any passageway when in an idle or
working position. When existing conditions do not leave clear passage the saws (( shall)) must
be fenced off in order to make it impossible for anyone to walk into them.
(2) Log decks ((
shall)) must be equipped with a device to hold the material stable when
(3) Drag saws and fixed chain saws ((
shall)) must be equipped with a device that will
safely lock them in an "up" position.
(4) All persons ((
shall)) must be in the clear before starting operations (( of a drag-chain
or swing saw)).
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-27013, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) The activating
control unit for a splitter ((
shall)) must be of the clutch or positive acting type and (( shall)) must
be so arranged and designed that it will not repeat without additional activation before starting a
(2) The base or rest upon which the wood seats while being split ((
shall)) must have a
corrugated surface or other means shall be provided which will prevent the wood block or log
from shifting as the pressure is applied.
(3) The splitter base or rest and wood to be split ((
shall)) must be free of ice, snow, and
(4) The splitter machine operator ((
shall)) must have a clear, unobstructed view of the
work area adjacent to the splitting operation when other workers must be in such area while
blocks are being split.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-27015, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Entry into bins and silos.
No worker shall be permitted to enter a bin unless provided with a safety belt, with
line attached, and an attendant stationed at the bin to summon assistance.
(b) Before)) Entry into chip bins and silos, ((
all applicable rules under vessel)) must be in
compliance with the requirements of confined space entry,
WAC 296-79-230, of this chapter,
(( shall be complied with)).
(c))) (b) Chip and sawdust bins. Steam or compressed air lances, or other (( facilities,
shall)) safe methods, must be used for breaking (( down the arches caused by jamming in chip
lofts)) bridges and hangups.
(d))) (c) Employees (( shall)) must be prohibited from working under or on top
overhangs or bridges. Extreme care (( shall)) must be taken to prevent chips or hog fuel from
creating an overhang or bridging.
(e))) (d) Hog fuel bins (( shall)) must be provided with an approved railed platform or
walkways near the top or other approved means (( shall)) must be provided for use of employees
engaged in dislodging hog fuel.
(2) Exterior chip and hog fuel storage.
(a) When mobile equipment is used on top of hog fuel or chip piles, a roll-over
protection system ((
shall)) must be installed on the equipment.
(b) If the cab is of the enclosed type, windshield wipers ((
shall)) must be installed.
(c) If used during hours of darkness the area ((
shall)) must be adequately illuminated or
the equipment (( shall)) must have adequate lights to provide the operator sufficient illumination
to safely perform the work.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-280, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-280, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
All sections of this chapter which include
WAC 296-79-290 in the section number apply to
stock preparation and reprocessing.))
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-290, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-290, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
(1) The blow valve of a digester
shall)) must be arranged so as to be operated from another room, remote from safety valves.
(1) Digester piping shall meet the criteria of the boiler and pressure vessel standards.))
(2) Heavy duty pipe, valves, and fittings ((
shall)) must be used between the digester and
blow pit, blowtanks and dumptanks. These valves, fittings, and pipes (( shall)) must be inspected
at least semiannually to determine the degree of deterioration and should be replaced when
(3) Digester blow valves or controls ((
shall)) must be pinned or locked in closed position
throughout the entire cooking period.
(4) Test holes in blow lines of piping systems must not be covered with insulation or other materials.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29001, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Procedures must be developed to ensure that digester operators are aware of personnel entering hazardous areas.
Audible warning signals and red warning lights ((
shall)) must be installed in areas
which may be hazardous to personnel while digesters are being blown.
Such devices ((
shall)) must be activated prior to blowing a digester and the warning
lights (( shall)) must remain lighted as long as the hazard exists.
(1))) (2) Blowing digester. Blow-off valves (( shall)) must be opened slowly.
(2))) (3) After the digester has started to be blown, the blow-off valve (( shall)) must be
left open, and the hand plate (( shall)) must not be removed until the person responsible signals
the blow-pit person that the blow is completed. Whenever it becomes necessary to remove the
hand plate to clear stock, operators (( shall)) must wear eye protection equipment and protective
clothing to guard against burns from hot stock.
(3) In addition to the vessel entry procedure of
WAC 296-79-230, of this chapter, the
blow-pit door or hatch shall be locked open whenever a person is in the blow-pit.))
(4) Blow-pit hoops ((
shall)) must be maintained in a safe condition.
(5) Where the processes of the sulfate and soda operations are similar to those of the
sulfite processes, the standard of
WAC 296-79-29001 and 296-79-29003, of this chapter, ((
apply)) applies to both processes.
At least one unobstructed exit at each end of the room shall be provided on each
floor of a digester building.
(7))) Means ((
shall)) must be provided (( whereby)) so the digester cook (( shall)) can
signal the (( man)) employee in the chip bin before starting to load the digester.
[Order 77-12, § 296-79-29003, filed 7/11/77; Order 76-7, § 296-79-29003, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-29003, filed 5/6/74.]
shall)) must not be
used to unplug quick lime stops or plugs in pipes or confined spaces.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29005, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Work areas used for preparation and processing
of bleaching mixtures ((
shall)) must be equipped with properly designed exhaust ventilation
systems capable of clearing the area of toxic gases. See
WAC 296-62, Part H and Part
(2) Bleaching containers, such as cells, towers, etc., except the Bellmer type, ((
must be completely covered on the top, with the exception of one small opening large enough to
allow filling but too small to admit a person. (( This opening should be covered by a door and
guarded with standard guardrail and toeboards. Platforms leading from one engine to another
shall have standard guardrails in accordance with the general safety and health standards,
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29007, filed 5/6/74.]
An audible alarm system
shall)) must be installed and it (( shall)) must be activated whenever a serious leak or break
develops in the bleach plant area which creates a health or fire hazard.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29009, filed 5/6/74.]
Doors of pocket grinders ((
shall)) must be
so designed and arranged as to keep them from closing accidentally.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29011, filed 5/6/74.]
Each company ((
develop a safe procedure which shall be followed for feeding, clearing jams, or removing
foreign objects from any pulping device. These procedures (( shall)) must comply with
applicable provisions of this standard.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29013, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) When fed manually from the
floor above, conveniently located emergency stop devices ((
shall)) must be provided at the top
(2) When fed from floor above((
The chute opening, if less than standard guardrail height from the feed platform or
shall)) must be provided with a complete guardrail or other enclosure to standard
Openings for manual feeding ((
shall)) must be sufficient only for entry of stock and
(( shall)) must be provided with at least two permanently secured crossrails, in accordance with,
the general safety and health standards,
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29015, filed 5/6/74.]
cleaning, inspecting or performing other work that requires that persons enter pulping devices,
all control devices ((
shall)) must be locked or tagged out in accordance with the requirements of
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29017, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) On manually fed broke ((
[shredders])) shredders, the feed table (( shall)) must be of (( such)) a height and distance from
the knives as to prevent the operator from reaching or falling into the knives or the operator
(( shall)) must be safeguarded by other acceptable means.
(1))) (2) A smooth-pivoted idler roll resting on the stock or feed table (( shall)) must be
provided in front of feed rolls except when arrangements prevent the operator from standing
closer than 36 inches to any part of the feed rolls.
(2))) (3) Any manually fed cutter, shredder, or duster (( shall)) must be provided with an
idler roll as specified in (( (1))) (2) of this section or the operator shall use special hand-feeding
(3) Hoods of cutters, shredders, and dusters shall have exhaust ventilation, in
accordance with American National Standard Z9.2-1960 and
WAC 296-62, general
occupational health standards.))
(4) Blowers used for transporting ((
rags shall)) materials must be provided with feed
hoppers having outer edges located not less than 48 inches from the fan.
(5) The ((
arrangement of the)) blower discharge outlets and work areas (( shall)) must be
(( such as)) arranged to prevent material from falling on workers.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29021, filed 5/6/74.]
To clear jams or blockage to the
machine, the operator ((
shall)) must use objects which will not create a hazard. The use of metal
bars for such purposes is prohibited.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29023, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) The engaging control for
activating the guillotine blade ((
shall)) must be a "deadman type" switch that demands
continuous operator activation and must be:
A positive two-hand operating control, or
Located far enough from the cutting location so that the operator cannot reach the
blade during the cutting process((
. In either control method, "deadman type" switch gear which
demands continuous operator activation shall be installed and used)).
(2) Personnel ((
shall)) must not position any part of the body under the blade.
(3) Rolls ((
shall)) must be in the horizontal position while being split.
(4) Rolls ((
shall)) must be centered directly below the blade.
[Order 76-7, § 296-79-29027, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-29027, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) An alarm bell or flashing light ((
shall)) must be
actuated or other suitable warning (( shall)) must be given before dropping material through a
broke hole when persons working below may be endangered.
(2) Broke holes ((
shall)) must be guarded to the fullest extent possible consistent with
operational necessities. The degree of guarding provided by standard height and strength
guardrails will be considered as a minimum acceptable level of protection.
(3) When repulping devices or feed conveyor systems for repulping devices are located
beneath broke holes, special precautions ((
shall)) must be used.
The broke hole opening ((
shall)) must be reduced to the smallest practical dimension.
such)) the broke hole opening (( must be)) is large enough to permit a worker to
fall through and (( the opening)) is not guarded at least to the equivalent degree of protection
provided by standard guardrails, any employee pushing broke down the broke hole (( shall)) must
wear a safety belt or harness attached to a (( safety belt line.)) lanyard, and
safety belt line shall)) lanyard must be fastened in such a manner that it is
impossible for the person to fall into the repulping device.
(4) Guarding to the equivalent degree of protection provided by standard guardrails and meeting the requirements of subsections (2) and (3), may be achieved by the use of guard bars separated no more than 15-1/2 inches in a vertical plane and 12 inches in a horizontal plane, or any other location within that segment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.240, and chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), § 296-79-29029, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, § 296-79-29029, filed 5/6/74.]
develop)) The employer must ensure that there are written instructions, including safety
procedures, for storing and operating industrial kiln guns and ammunition. All personnel
working with this equipment (( shall)) must be instructed in these procedures and (( shall)) must
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29031, filed 5/6/74.]
See WAC 296-62, Part P and WAC 296-67, process safety management. (1) Sodium chlorate.
(a) Personnel handling and working with sodium chlorate ((
shall)) must be thoroughly
instructed in precautions to be used in handling and special work habits. (( Refer to
Manufacturing Chemists Association Chemical Data Sheet No. SD-42 (Sodium Chlorate).
(b) Personnel exposed to direct contact with sodium chlorate shall wear neoprene or other special protective clothing and special footwear.
(c))) (b) Facilities for storage and handling of sodium chlorate ((
shall)) must be
constructed so as to eliminate possible contact of dry or evaporated sodium chlorate with wood
or other material which could cause a fire or explosion. (( Refer to Manufacturing Chemists
Association Chemical Data Sheet No. SD-42 (Sodium Chlorate).
(d))) (c) Sodium chlorate facilities should be constructed with a minimum of packing
glands, stuffing boxes, etc. ((
Refer to Manufacturing Chemists Association Chemical Data
Sheet No. SD-42 (Sodium Chlorate).))
(2) Chlorine dioxide.
(a))) Chlorine dioxide generating and storage facilities (( shall)) must be placed in areas
which are adequately ventilated and are easily kept clean of wood, paper, pulp, etc., to avoid
contamination which might cause a reaction. This can be accomplished by placing these
facilities in a separate room or in a designated outside space.
(b) Only authorized personnel shall be allowed in close proximity to the chlorine
dioxide generating equipment. The generating area shall have signs warning of the hazard and
restricting entrance to authorized personnel only.
(c) When reasonably possible, the sample station should be located on the outside of the generating room. Goggles must be worn when taking samples.
(d) Two alternate direction exits shall be provided from the generator working areas.))
Safety showers and/or jump tanks and eye wash facilities shall be provided for
persons working around sodium chlorate and the other hazardous chemicals involved in this
(b) Water hoses for flushing spills shall be adequate in size and located where needed.
(c) All equipment involved in this process where pressure may be generated shall be provided with adequate pressure relief.
(d) Welding or burning shall not be performed on the generator system while it is operating. Immediately before maintenance can be performed on the inside of any of this equipment, it shall be thoroughly flushed with water and purged of hazardous gases.
(e) Respiratory protective equipment approved for use in chlorine and chlorine dioxide exposures shall be provided at appropriate locations.
(f))) Facilities handling sodium chlorate and chlorine dioxide ((
shall)) must be declared
"no smoking" areas and (( shall)) must have signs posted accordingly.
(g))) (b) Management shall be responsible for developing written instructions including
safety procedures for operating and maintaining the generator and associated equipment. All
personnel working on this equipment (( shall)) must be thoroughly trained in these procedures
and (( shall)) must follow them. A periodic review of these procedures is recommended.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29033, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Piles of wet lap pulp (unless
shall)) must be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each 8 feet of pile
height. Sheets of pulp (( shall)) must be interlapped to make the pile secure. Pulp (( shall)) must
not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading of floors, or to
within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.
(2) Piles of pulp ((
shall)) must not be undermined when being unpiled.
(3) Floor capacities ((
shall)) must be clearly marked on all floors.
(4) When sprinklers are used for fire protection in the storage area, baled paper and rags
shall)) must be stored in stable piles which do not extend into the area necessary for the proper
function of sprinkler systems(( , where sprinklers are used for fire protection in the storage are)).
[Order 76-7, § 296-79-29035, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-29035, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Where pulp or paper rolls are of uniform
size, cribbing should be constructed to keep rolls from moving.
(2) Where rolls are stacked and not nested two or more high, chocks shall be installed between each roll on the floor and at every row. The face of each chock should be formed on a radius to conform to the average roll size in use, and the chock shall prevent roll movement.
(3) When rolls are decked two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.
(4) A supply of portable roll chocks should be available to be used where there are gaps in the bottom row of rolls. These should be as light as possible while still providing maximum blocking effect.)) Rolls must be secured by chocks or other means to prevent movement when stored horizontally.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-29037, filed 5/6/74.]
tag-out procedures to be followed. Lock-out and tag-out requirements and procedures contained
in these standards shall be complied with.
(2) Emergency stopping controls.)) Pulp and paper machines ((
shall)) must be equipped
with emergency stopping control(s) which can be actuated quickly from all normal operating
stations. If useful for the safety of personnel, the stopping control(s) (( shall)) must be
interlocked with adequate retarding or braking action to stop the machine as quickly as is
practical. The devices must consist of push buttons for electric motive power (or electrically
operated engine stops), pull cords connected directly to the prime mover, control clutches, or
(3) Walkways.)) (2) Steps and footwalks along the fourdrinier/forming and press
section (( shall)) must have nonslip surfacing and be complete with standard handrails, when
(4) Machine lubrication.)) (3) If a machine must be lubricated while in operation an
automatic lubricating device (( shall)) must be provided or oil cups and grease fittings (( shall))
must be provided which can be serviced safely without exposing the worker to any hazards.
(5) Weights on levers.)) (4) All levers carrying weights (( shall)) must be so constructed
that weights will not slip or fall off.
(6))) (5) Guarding inrunning nip points.
(a) The drums on pulp and paper machine winders ((
(i) These drums must be provided with suitable guards to prevent a person from being
caught between the roll and the front drum on the winder when the pinch point is on the
operator's side. ((
(ii) Such guards ((
shall)) must be interlocked with the drive mechanism to prevent the
winder from running while the guard is not in place. Except that the winder may be wired to
allow it to run at (( a slow)) thread or jog speed only for adjustment and start-up purposes while
the guard is not in position.
(iii) A zero speed switch or locking device ((
shall)) must be installed to prevent the guard
from being removed while the roll is turning above thread or jog speed.
Paper machine winders when used to produce rolls of 15 inches or less in diameter may
be exempted from this subsection but must comply with the provisions of (6)(b).))
(i))) When rewinding large rolls and the nip point is adjacent to the normal work
The nip point ((
shall)) must be protected by a barrier guard(( .)) and
Such guard ((
shall)) must be interlocked with the drive mechanism to prevent
operating the machine above thread or jog speed without the guard in place(( .)) and
A zero speed switch ((
shall)) must be installed to prevent the guard from being raised
while the roll is turning.
(ii) On small rolls 15 inches or less in diameter where barrier guards are impractical
they shall not be required if the nip point is separated from the employees by at least 18" while
operating at more than jog speed. When the rewinder is running at more than jog speed no
worker shall place any part of their body closer than 18" from the nip.))
(c) Inrunning nips where paper is not being fed into a calender ((
should be protected by
barriers)) must be guarded.
(7) Audible alarm in dryer section.)) (6) An audible alarm (( shall)) must be sounded
prior to starting up any section of a pulp or paper machine. Sufficient time (( shall)) must be
allowed between activation of the alarm system and start-up of the equipment to allow any
persons to clear the hazardous area.
(8) Starting up dryer section. In)) (7) When starting up a dryer section, steam to heat
the drums (( shall)) must be introduced slowly and while the drums are revolving.
(9) Starting paper into nip.)) (8) A safe method must be used when starting paper into
the nip of drum type reels or calender stacks (( a safe method shall be used)). This may be
accomplished by the use of feeder belts, carrier ropes, air carriage or other device or instrument.
A rope carrying system should be used wherever possible at points of transfer((
Sheaves should be spaced so that they do not create a nip point with each other and the sheave and its support should be capable of withstanding the speed and breaking strength of the rope for which they are intended.
(10) Feeding stack with hand held device.)) (9) Employees (( shall)) must not feed a
stack with any hand held device which is capable of going through the nip.
(11) Broken carrier rope.)) (10) Employees (( shall)) must not attempt to remove a
broken carrier rope from a dryer while the section is running at operating speed.
(12) Removing a wrap.)) (11) Employees (( shall)) must stop the dryer to remove a
wrap except in cases where it can be safely removed by using air or other safe means.
(13) Deposits on rolls.)) (12) To remove deposits from rolls, a specially designed
scraper or tool shall be used. Scraping of rolls (( shall)) must be performed on the outgoing nip
(14) Cleaning)) (13) Doctor blades.
(a) Cleaning. Employees ((
shall)) must not place their hands between the sharp edge of
an unloaded doctor blade and the roll while cleaning the doctor blade.
(15) Sharp edges of doctor blades to be covered.)) (b) Doctor blades (( shall)) must have
the sharp edges properly guarded during transportation and storage.
(16) Handling doctor blades.)) (c) Special protective gloves (( shall)) must be provided
and (( shall)) must be worn by employees when filing or handling sharp edged doctor blades.
(17) Steps, platforms or walkways for calender stacks. When steps, platforms, or
walkways are necessary to perform work on calender stacks they shall have nonskid type
surfaces. Guardrails shall be installed where possible.
(18) Lifting)) (14) Handling reels.
(a) Reels ((
shall)) must stop rotating before being lifted away from reel frame.
(b) All lifting equipment (clamps, cables, and slings) shall be maintained in a safe
condition and inspected regularly.)) Crane hooks must not be used to stop a turning reel.
(c))) (b) Exposed rotating reel shafts with square block ends (( shall)) must be guarded.
(19) Reels to be properly seated.)) (c) The crane operator (( shall)) must ascertain that
reels are properly seated at winder stand or at reel arms before they disengage the hooks.
(20) Space between reels.)) (d) On (( stack)) stored reels, a clearance of at least 8 inches
between the reels of paper (( shall)) must be maintained.
(21) Set screws. Set screws for securing core collars to winding and unwinding shafts
shall not protrude above the face of the collar. All edges of the collar that an operator's hand
may come in contact with shall be beveled to remove all sharp corners.
(22) Properly set up core cutting device. The worker shall make certain that any core cutting device is properly set up and guard is in proper position before using the machine.
(23) Winder shaft.)) (15) All winder shafts ((
should)) must be equipped with a winder
collar guide. The winder (( should)) must have a guide rail to align the shaft for easy entrance
into the opened rewind shaft bearing housing. If winder shafts are too heavy for manual
handling, mechanical equipment (( shall)) must be used.
(24) Barrier guards for shaftless winders.)) (16) Shaftless winders (( shall)) must be
provided with a barrier guard of sufficient strength and size to confine the rolls in the event they
become dislodged while running.
(25) Grounding.)) (17) All calender stacks and spreader bars (( shall)) must be grounded
WAC 296-24, Part L as protection against shock induced by static
(26) Sole plates. All exposed sole plates between dryers, calenders, reels and rewinders
shall have a nonskid type surface.
(27))) (18) Nonskid type surface required.
(a) All exposed sole plates between dryers, calenders, reels, and rewinders must have a nonskid type surface.
(b) A nonskid type surface ((
shall)) must be provided in the work areas around the
winders or rewinders. (( Areas in front of the winder shall be kept clear of oil, broke, and other
debris that may cause workers to slip, trip, or fall.
(28) Roll lowering table.)) (19) If a powered roll ejector is used it should be interlocked to prevent accidental actuation until the receiving platform or roll lowering table is in position to receive the roll.
(29) Lowerator.)) (20) Employees (( shall)) must keep clear of hazardous areas around
the lowerator, especially all lowerator openings in a floor and where roll is being discharged.
(30) Rider rolls.)) (21) Provision (( shall)) must be made to hold the rider roll when in a
raised position unless counterbalancing eliminates the hazard.
(31) Gas hood entry procedures. Whenever an employee is inside a gas hood they shall
be accompanied by another worker or a person shall be stationed near the entrance.
(32))) (22) Drain openings in pits. Flush floor drain openings larger than 3((
")) inches in
diameter in the bottom of pits (( shall)) must be guarded to prevent workers from stepping
through, while working in this area.
(23) Employees must not enter into or climb on any paper machine roll that is subject to free turning unless a positive locking device has been installed to prevent the roll from turning.
(24) The employer must ensure sufficient inspection and nondestructive examination of reel spool and calender roll journals. The type and frequency of testing must be adequate to detect indications of failure. Any reel spool or calender roll journal found to have an indication of failure must be removed from service. Nondestructive examination personnel must be qualified in accordance with SNT-TC 1A.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-79-300, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.240, and chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), § 296-79-300, filed 1/8/81; Order 76-7, § 296-79-300, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-300, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-300, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
of this chapter which include
WAC 296-79-310 in the section number apply to converting
operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating, finishing and related
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-310, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-310, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
Applicable rules of this standard to prevail. Rules contained in this standard shall prevail
where applicable to converting operations.
(2) Use of both hands required to activate guillotine trimmers.)) Guillotine-type
shall)) must be designed in a manner which will require the operator to use both
hands simultaneously to activate the cutting blade. If machine helpers are employed in the
control function of the cutter, separate two-hand controls (( shall)) must be provided for the
control function performed by the helper.
(3) Nonrepeat device required for guillotine trimmers.)) (2) Guillotine-type trimmers
(( shall)) must be designed in a manner that the trimming blade will not repeat unless manually
(4))) (3) Sorting and counting tables(( . Tables shall)) must be smooth and free from
splinters, with edges and corners rounded.
(a))) Paddles (( shall)) must be smooth and free from splinters.
(5) Mirrors should)) (4) Devices (i.e., mirrors) must be installed to assist the converting
machine operator in viewing blind work stations where a hazard exists.
(6))) (5) Mechanical lifting devices (( shall)) must be provided for placing and removing
rolls from rewinders. Rolls (( shall)) must not be left suspended overhead while the controls are
(7) Rolls handled by cranes or hoists shall not be handled over the heads of workers.
(8))) (6) When using a crane or hoist to place rolls into a backstand and the operator
cannot see both ends of the backstand, assistance will be provided or appropriate devices will be
installed to eliminate the hazards involved. The operator ((
shall)) must ascertain that rolls are
properly seated at winder stand or at roll arms before (( he disengages)) disengaging the hooks.
(9))) (7) Slitters, slotters, and scorers not in use (( shall)) must be properly stored (( as
not to create)) so a hazard is not created.
(10))) (8) All power closing sections (( shall)) must be equipped with an audible
warning system which will be activated when closing the sections.
(11))) (9) Roll-type embosser. The nipping point located on the operator's side (( shall))
must be guarded by either automatic or manually operated barrier guards interlocked with the
[Order 76-7, § 296-79-31001, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-24, § 296-79-31001, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Every recessed floor conveyor system ((
must be identified by standard color coding, and so designed and installed to minimize tripping
(2) All areas subject to wet processes ((
shall)) must be provided with drains.
(a))) Drain trenches (( shall)) must be provided with gratings flush with the adjoining
(b))) Use of curbing in work areas should be avoided in new installations. If the use
of curbing cannot be avoided, the design (( shall)) must be such that the curbs do not constitute a
tripping hazard in normal working areas. When curbing exists and constitutes a hazard, it
(( shall)) must be color coded.
(3) Rails of rail mounted devices such as roll stands ((
shall)) must be flush with the
adjacent floor, and so installed to provide a minimum of 18(( ")) inches clearance between the
equipment and walls or other fixed objects.
(4) All corrugating and pressure rolls ((
shall)) must be equipped with appropriately
designed and installed threading guides so as to prevent contact with the infeed nip of the
various rolls by the operator.
(5) A minimum of 4((
")) inches clearance (( shall)) or effective nip guarding must be
maintained between heated drums, idler rolls, and cross shafting on all preheaters and
(6) Lower elevating conveyor belt rolls on the single facer bridge ((
shall)) must have a
minimum nip clearance of 4(( ")) inches or effective nip guarding.
(7) Web shears at the discharge end of the double facer ((
shall)) must be equipped with
barrier type guards.
(8) Slitter stations not in use ((
shall)) must be disconnected from the power source by
(9) Elevating type conveyors ((
shall)) must have the floor area color-coded.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-31003, filed 5/6/74.]
(1))) Bobst type die cutters.
(a) The space where the sheet enters the die shall be guarded to prohibit entry of the
operator's hand. If this guard is hinged or otherwise moveable it shall be interlocked to prevent
the equipment from moving unless the guard is in the proper position.
(b))) A minimum of 4((
" shall)) inches must be provided between the end of the slat and
the guide bar.
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-31009, filed 5/6/74.]
system.)) The employer must have a program to train all personnel associated with recovery
boiler operations in safe operating procedures and emergency shutdown procedures.
(2) An audible warning system ((
shall)) must be installed in kraft and soda base sulfite
recovery furnace areas and (( shall)) must be actuated whenever an emergency exists.
(2) Personnel to be instructed in emergency procedures. All personnel working in
recovery furnace areas shall be instructed on procedures to be followed when emergency
warning systems are actuated.))
(3) All personnel who enter the recovery furnace area must understand the emergency evacuation procedure.
(4) Warning system maintenance. Emergency warning systems in the recovery furnace
shall)) must be kept in proper working condition and (( shall)) must be tested or checked
(4) Personnel to stand to side while opening firebox door.)) (5) Personnel (( shall)) must
stand to the side while opening a furnace or boiler firebox door.
(5) Smelt tanks. Smelt-dissolving tanks shall be covered and the cover kept closed,
except when samples are being taken.))
[Order 74-24, § 296-79-320, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-320, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]
The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:
|WAC 296-79-060||Protection from radiation.|
|WAC 296-79-255||Safety procedure for handling liquid sulfur.|
|WAC 296-79-27001||Barkers, chippers, and hog feed devices.|
|WAC 296-79-29019||Guarding hand knives and sharpening steels.|
|WAC 296-79-29025||Repairing shredders.|
|WAC 296-79-31005||Adhesive system.|
|WAC 296-79-31007||Printing and cutting.|
|WAC 296-79-31011||Power lifts on gluers, tapers and stitchers.|
|WAC 296-79-31013||Strapping-banding operations.|