WSR 99-17-117

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed August 18, 1999, 11:42 a.m. , effective December 1, 1999 ]

Date of Adoption: August 18, 1999.

Purpose: This rule proposal was developed over a year-and-a-half effort by the Logging Advisory Committee, with members representing management, labor, equipment suppliers, other government entities, and the department. As a part of the Governor's Executive Order 97-02 on Regulatory Reform, WAC 296-54, Safety standards for logging operations, is being adopted in order to be consistent with current local industry practice and technology; reorganize the contents to make it easier to find specific requirements; rewrite for plain language; and update rules to be identical to or consistent with OSHA logging rules.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: AMENDED SECTIONS: WAC 296-54, Safety standards for logging operations. WAC 296-54-501 Scope and application, 296-54-503 Variance, 296-54-505 Definitions applicable to this chapter, 296-54-507 Management's responsibility, 296-54-509 Employee's responsibility, 296-54-511 Personal protective equipment, 296-54-513 Safety education, training and first-aid requirements, 296-54-515 General requirements, 296-54-517 Camps, 296-54-519 Motor vehicles, 296-54-521 Transportation of crews by use of speeders and trailers, 296-54-523 Methods of crew transportation other than those specified, 296-54-527 Truck roads, 296-54-529 Falling and bucking--General, 296-54-531 Power saws and power equipment, 296-54-533 Falling and bucking--Springboards and tree jacking, 296-54-535 Tree pulling, 296-54-537 Mechanized falling, 296-54-539 Climbing equipment and passline, 296-54-541 Selection of spar, tail and intermediate trees, 296-54-543 General requirements, 296-54-545 Rigging--Wood spar trees, 296-54-547 Rigging--Tail tree, 296-54-549 Lines, straps and guyline attachments--Steel spars, 296-54-551 Yarding, loading, skidding and chipping machines--General requirements, 296-54-553 Yarding, loading and skidding machines--Mobile towers and boom-type yarding and loading machines, 296-54-555 Yarding--General requirements, 296-54-557 Yarding--Tractors, skidders and rough terrain log loaders (to include feller bunchers and tree shears), 296-54-559 Yarding--Helicopters and helicopter cranes, 296-54-561 Log loading--General requirements, 296-54-563 Log loading--Special requirements, 296-54-565 Log loading--Self-loading log trucks, 296-54-567 Motor truck log transportation--General requirements, 296-54-569 Motor truck log transportation--Brake requirements, 296-54-571 Motor truck log transportation--Trailer hitches and safety chains, 296-54-573 Motor truck log transportation--Reaches and bunks, 296-54-575 Motor truck log transportation--Stakes, stake extensions and chock blocks, 296-54-577 Motor truck log transportation--Wrappers and binders, 296-54-579 Motor truck log transportation--Miscellaneous requirements, 296-54-581 Motor truck log transportation--Steered trailers, 296-54-583 Stationary log truck trailer loading, 296-54-585 Log unloading, booms, and rafting grounds--Storage and sorting areas--General requirements, 296-54-587 Water dumps, 296-54-589 Boom and rafting grounds, 296-54-591 Boats and mechanical devices on waters, 296-54-593 Dry land sorting and storage, 296-54-595 Railroad operations, 296-54-597 Railroad maintenance--Loading or unloading, 296-54-601 Signals and signal systems, 296-54-603 Electric signal systems, 296-54-605 Radio systems used for voice communication, activation of audible signals, or equipment, 296-54-607 Radio signal systems--Specifications and test procedures, 296-54-99002 Appendix 1--Signals, 296-54-99003 Appendix 2--Sample minimum lockout/tagout procedure, and 296-54-99004 Appendix 3--Industry consensus standards.

REPEALED SECTIONS: WAC 296-54, Safety standards for logging operations. WAC 296-54-525 Railroad construction and maintenance, and 296-54-599 Truck and equipment maintenance shops.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 99-08-072 on April 5, 1999.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: Changes to WAC 296-54, Safety standards for logging operations.

WAC 296-54-505 Definitions.

• Added examples to the definition of "in the clear" for clarification.
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "logging operations."
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "machine."
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "new job site."
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "long sticks."
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "swing cut."
• Added a definition for "mainline train" that had been inadvertently left out of the proposal.
• Added a definition for the term "should."
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "running line/running rope."
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "spar/spar tree."
• Added "or D" to the definition of "strap socket."
• Added clarifying language to the definition of "tie back." This change was made based on public comment.
• Inserted an illustration to follow the definition of "twister." This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-509 Employee's responsibility.

• Added language relating to employees making prompt report to supervision of each industrial injury or occupational illness, regardless of the degree of severity. This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-51140 Hand protection.

• Added a subsection relating to hand protection that must be maintained in serviceable condition. This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-51160 Leg protection.

• Added a subsection relating to leg protection that must be maintained in serviceable condition. This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-51170 Foot protection.

• Added the words "cut resistant" in front of foot wear and clarified the language relating to a running chain saw to be at-least-as-effective-as the federal standard.
• Added a subsection relating to foot protection that must be maintained in serviceable condition. This change was made based on public comment.
• Deleted the words "waterproof or water-repellant." This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-51190 Highly visible clothing.

• Replace the word "contrasting" with "high visibility." This change was made based on public comment.
• Added an "a" that had been inadvertently left out.
WAC 296-54-513 Arrangement of work areas and emergency contact.

• Added a new subsection to read, "Mechanics or other employees must not be assigned to work on equipment by themselves when there is a probability of a fall from elevated work locations or equipment. Also, if the work is of such nature that heavy parts require moving, or there is a probability that anything heavy could fall on the person, there must be another person in the immediate area to render assistance." This change was made based on public comment.
• Clarified the language in the note after subsection (5) to avoid confusion.
• Clarified the language in WAC 296-54-513 (9)(d) to avoid confusion.
• Renumbered section.
WAC 296-54-515 Accident prevention program.

• Deleted subdivision (3)(g). This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-51510 Safety and health meetings.

• Changed the word "shall" to "must" in subsection (3).
WAC 296-54-51520 First-aid training.

• Deleted two bullets that included loss of mental functioning and drug overdose in the requirements for first-aid training. This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-517 Lockout/tagout procedures.

• Renumbered section.
WAC 296-54-521 Inspection and repair of equipment and vehicles.

• In subsection (1), deleted the words "in writing." This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-529 Seat belts.

• Clarified the language to be consistent with the rest of the standard.
WAC 296-54-531 Motor vehicles.

• In subsection (2), replaced "crew bus" with "school bus type." This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-53910 Falling and bucking--Falling.

• Added language relating to when backcuts must be as level as possible. This language was inadvertently left out of the proposal and is a current requirement.
WAC 296-54-545 Climbing equipment and passline.

• Added a new subsection to read, "A climber's rope must encircle the tree before the climber leaves the ground, except when the climber is riding the passline." This language was inadvertently left out of the proposal and was a proposed requirement in WAC 296-54-701.
• Renumbered section.
WAC 296-54-547 Rigging--General.

• Added the words "is prohibited" that were inadvertently left out of the proposal.
WAC 296-54-54730 Rigging--Shackles.

• Clarified the language for consistency.
• Added the word "slackline" to subsection (2) for clarity and consistency.
WAC 296-54-54740 Rigging--Straps.

• Clarified the language for consistency.
WAC 296-54-54750 Rigging--Blocks.

• In subsection (4) replaced the word "trees" with "spars" for clarity. Also, added clarifying language which reads, "pins must be secured with a nut and cotter pin or nut and molle" for consistency. This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-553 Metal spars.

• After subsection (4), added a clarifying note explaining that items (d) and (e) are lists of options. This change was made based on public comment.
• Added clarifying language to subsection (4)(d).
WAC 296-54-557 Wire rope.

• Added an illustration on wire rope.
WAC 296-54-55730 Wire rope--Attaching and fastenings.

• Corrected the reference by relocating it.
WAC 296-54-561 Guylines.

• Clarified language and reformatted subsection (3).
WAC 296-54-563 Guying tail/lift trees.

• Clarified language in subsection (2) to avoid confusion.
• Added language from WAC 296-54-561 (5)(b) for consistency.
WAC 296-54-565 Intermediate support trees.

• In subsection (1)(a), replaced "at least" with "approximately." This change was made based on public comment.
• In subsection (1)(b), added the words "support line" for clarity.
• Added language from WAC 296-54-561 (3)(d) and (5)(b) for consistency.
WAC 296-54-567 Rigging skylines.

• In subsection (4), deleted the words "if the carriage runs over the extension" for clarity.
• Added a reference to subsection (6)(a) for clarity.
• Added the words "rigged" and "lift" for clarity and consistency in subsection (7).
WAC 296-54-569 Anchoring.

• In subsection (7), added the words "wood spars" for clarity.
WAC 296-54-573 Logging machines--General.

• Added a clarifying note after subsection (5) that reads, "This requirement includes the loading, securing and unloading of a machine on and off a transport vehicle."
• Clarified the language in subsection (8) for consistency.
• Moved subsection (24) to WAC 296-54-577(13) for better organization of information. This change was made based on public comment.
• In subsection (26), deleted the words "turn of logs" for clarity and added a new subsection (27) to read, "Riding on arches, reaches or turn of logs is prohibited."
• Added a new subsection (31) to read, "Guylines required in rigging spars or towers must be evenly spooled to prevent fouling" for clarity.
• Clarified language in subsection (38).
• Renumbered section.
WAC 296-54-57315 Logging machines--Exhaust pipes.

• Clarified the language in subsection (1) relating to spark arrestors.
WAC 296-54-57345 Logging machines--Moving.

• Deleted an incorrect reference in subsection (3).
WAC 296-54-57355 Logging machines--Protective structures for operators.

• Added a clarifying note at the end of this section relating to the exemption of self-loaders.
WAC 296-54-575 Landing area.

• Clarified the language in subsection (1)(a) to avoid confusion. This change was made based on public comment.
• Clarified the language in subsection (1)(d) to avoid confusion. This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-577 Yarding, skidding, landing.

• Added the proposed language from WAC 296-54-573(24) to this section for better organization of information. This change was made based on public comment. Also, changed the last sentence into a separate item and replaced "should" with "must" to make this a constant reminder for employees to maintain a 36-inch clearance.
• Renumbered section.
WAC 296-54-581 Helicopter logging--General.

• Clarified the language in subsection (3). This change was made based on public comment.
• Deleted the reference in subsection (8) because the figure that was referenced is being deleted out of Appendix 1--Signals.
• Added a new subsection (9) to read, "Developed hand signals must be clearly communicated and understood by all persons working in the area who may be affected by their use." This change was made to add more flexibility.
• In subsection (13), added the language "used by ground personnel to position loads." This change was made based on public comment.
• Renumbered section.
WAC 296-54-58130 Helicopter logging--Fueling area.

• In subsection (7), replaced the word "grounded" with "bonded." This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-583 Loading logs.

• Added new subsection (20) that was inadvertently left out of the proposal. It reads, "Power saws must not be operated on top of loaded logging trucks." This change was made based on public comment.
• Added a clarifying note, which reads, "This does not apply to incidental limbs/knots placed on loads during the normal loading process."
WAC 296-54-589 Log trucks--General.

• In subsection (1), added three items to the bullet list of daily inspection requirements. They are bunks, stakes and bunk blocks. This was done for clarification.
WAC 296-54-58950 Log trucks--Wrappers and binders.

• Added a clarifying note relating to nylon straps and ratchet binders in subsection (12).
• Renumbered section.
WAC 296-54-59520 Trailers used to transport crews.

• Removed the word "to" in subsection (3) for clarity.
WAC 296-54-601 Signals and signal systems.

• Clarified the language in subsection (12) to include voice communication. Also, clarified the language as to when the horn or whistle must be sounded. This change was made based on public comment.
• In subsection (13), added language to read, "or an audible whistle must be sounded from the yarder." This change was made based on public comment.
• In subsection (17), replaced the language with, "(17) When the normal crew configuration consists of two or more persons at the point where chokers are being set, they must each carry an operable transmitter on their person. Only one transmitter is required if:
(a) The signal person has no other duties and remains in an area where there are no hazards created by the moving rigging or logs, or
(b) The rigging crew is comprised of only one employee."
This change was made based on public comment.
WAC 296-54-605 Radio systems used for voice communication, activation of audible signals, or control of equipment.

• In subsection (1), deleted the words "voice or functional" to avoid confusion.
• In subsection (2)(a), deleted the words "or other audible" for clarification and added an "s" to the word "signal."
• In subsection (6), added a reference to point out an illustration.
• In subsection (9), added a reference to point out an illustration.
WAC 296-54-607 Radio signal systems--Specifications and test procedures.

• In subsection (3), corrected a reference.
WAC 296-54-701 Wood spar trees.

• Corrected a typographical error.
WAC 296-54-99002 Appendix 1--Signals.

• Deleted figure 42: Standard hand signals for helicopters.
For better organization of information and requirements the numbering of the following sections was changed:

WAC Number at Proposal WAC Number at Adoption
296-54-521 296-54-523
296-54-523 296-54-535
296-54-527 296-54-529
296-54-529 296-54-527
296-54-531 296-54-521
296-54-533 296-54-531
296-54-535 296-54-533
296-54-559 296-54-54770
296-54-703 296-54-584

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 65, Amended 55, Repealed 2; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 65, Amended 55, Repealed 2.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 65, Amended 55, Repealed 2. Effective Date of Rule: December 1, 1999.

August 18, 1999

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-2827.5


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-501
Scope and application.

((This standard establishes safety practices, means, methods and operations for all types of logging, regardless of the end use of the wood.  These types of activities include, but are not limited to, pulpwood and timber harvesting and the logging of sawlogs, veneer bolts, poles, pilings and other forest products.  The requirements herein contained do not apply to log handling at sawmills, plywood mills, pulp mills or other manufacturing operations governed by their own specific safety standards.

These requirements are minimum safety requirements and shall augment other safety standards developed by the department which are of a general nature and apply to all industrial operations such as those contained in the general safety standards, WAC 296-24; occupational health standards, WAC 296-62; or others which may be applicable.  Regulations adopted by the department concerning certain types of equipment or conditions, such as metal and nonmetallic mines, quarries, pits and crushing operations, WAC 296-61, and possession, handling and use of explosives, WAC 296-52 shall be complied with when applicable.

Copies of all society of automotive engineers reports (SAE) referred to in these standards are on file in all regional offices of the department of labor and industries, and may be reviewed by any interested person.  Individuals desiring to obtain copies of such material shall arrange to do so directly from the publishers or from other sources.  The department of labor and industries will not assume the responsibility of acquiring such material for uses other than its own needs.)) This chapter establishes safety practices for all types of logging, log road construction and other forest activities using logging machinery and/or power saws regardless of the end use of the wood. This chapter does not apply to log handling at sawmills, plywood mills, pulp mills, or other manufacturing operations governed by specific safety standards. This chapter provides minimum safety requirements for the logging industry. The logging industry is also covered by the general safety standards, WAC 296-24; occupational health standards, WAC 296-62; or others that may apply. WAC 296-52, which covers the possession, handling and use of explosives, applies when explosives are used in logging operations.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-501, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.  88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-54-501, filed 11/14/88.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-501, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-503
Variance.

((The assistant director may, upon receipt of application and after adequate investigation by the department, permit a variation from these requirements when an approved alternate means or manner of protection is provided, which affords an equivalent measure of safety as required by the rule from which a variance is requested.)) If an employer finds it impractical to comply with specific requirements of this chapter, the department may permit a variation from the requirements. However, the employer must still provide equal protection by substitute means. To request a variance, write to:

WISHA Services Division--Variance Request

Department of Labor Industries

P.O. Box 44648

Olympia, WA 98504-4648

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-503, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-505
Definitions ((applicable to this chapter)).

A-frame - a structure made of two independent columns fastened together at the top and separated by a reasonable width at the bottom to stabilize the unit from tipping sideways.

An operation - any place where logging or log related activities are taking place.

Approved - approved by the department of labor and industries.

Arch - any device attached to the back of a vehicle and used for raising one end of logs to facilitate movement.

Authorized person - a person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty(s) or to be at a specific location at a certain time(s).

Backcut (felling cut) - the cut in a felling operation made on the opposite side from the undercut.

Backline - the portion of the haulback that runs between the spar/spar tree and the corner block.

Ballistic nylon - a nylon fabric of high tensile properties designed to provide protection from lacerations.

Barrier - a fence, wall or railing to prevent passage or approach.

Base of tree - that portion of a natural tree not more than three feet above ground level.

Bight of the line - ((any area where a person is exposed to a controlled or uncontrolled moving line)) a hazardous zone created by running lines under tension. Any section of a line between the ends.

Binder - a hinged lever assembly for connecting the ends of a wrapper to tighten the wrapper around the load of logs or materials.

Boomboat - any boat used to push or pull logs, booms, bundles, or bags, in booming ground operations.

Boomscooter - a small boat, usually less than fourteen feet in length, equipped with an outboard motor, having directional pushing capabilities of 360 degrees.

Brailing - when tiers of logs, poles, or piles are fastened together with a type of dogline and the ends of the side members are then fastened together for towing.

Brow log - a log or a suitable substitute placed parallel to any roadway at a landing or dump to protect the carrier and facilitate the safe loading or unloading of logs, timber products, or materials.

Buck - means the process of severing a tree into sections (logs or bolts).

Butt - the bottom of the felled part of a tree.

Butt welding - the practice of welding something end to end.

Cable tree thinning - the selective thinning of a timber stand using mobile yarding equipment specifically designed or adapted for the purpose. Cable tree thinning includes skyline, slackline, or modified slackline, overhead cable systems.

Cable yarding - the movement of felled trees or logs from the area where they are felled to the landing on a system composed of a cable suspended from spars and/or towers.  The trees or logs may be either dragged across the ground on the cable or carried while suspended from the cable.

Chock - a block, often wedge shaped, which is used to prevent movement; e.g., a log from rolling, a wheel from turning.

Choker - a length of wire rope with attachments for encircling the end of a log to be yarded.

Chunking - to clear nonusable material from a specified area.

Cold deck - a pile of yarded logs left for future removal.

Competent person - one who is capable of identifying hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous.

Corner block - the first block the haulback passes through on its way to the tail block.

Crotch line - two short lines attached to the same ring or shackle, used for loading or unloading.

Cutter - an employee whose primary job is to fall, buck, or limb trees before they are moved to the landing area.

Danger trees - any tree of any height, dead or alive, that presents a hazard to workers because of rot, root, stem or limb damage, lean, or any other observable condition created by natural process or man-made activity.

Dapped - a notch in a timber for receiving part of another timber.

DBH - diameter at breast height.

Deadman - buried log or other object used as an anchor.

Debark - to remove bark from trees or logs.  Debark generally denotes mechanical means as opposed to manual peeling.

Deck - a stack of trees or logs.

Designated person - an employee who has the requisite knowledge, training, and experience to perform specific duties.

Directional falling - a mechanical means to control the direction of falling timber.

Dog line - type of line used to fasten logs or timber products together by the use of dogs.

Domino felling - the partial cutting of multiple trees which are left standing and then pushed over with a pusher tree.

Donkey - any machine with a series of drums used to yard logs.

Double ended logs - two logs end to end on the same lay.

Drop zone - the area where the helicopter delivers logs from the logging site.

Droplines - a short line attached to the carriage or carriage block which is used as an extension to the main line.

Drum - a mechanical device on which line is spooled or unspooled.

Dry land storage - decks of logs stored for future removal or use.

Dutchman -

• a block used to change direction of line lead (sideblocking).

• a method ((of falling timber consisting of inserting a piece of material into one side of the undercut to assist in pulling a tree against the lean or a section of the undercut can be left in a corner to accomplish the same purpose)) used to pull a tree against its lean by leaving a section of the undercut on one corner of the face. The portion left consists of a single saw kerf in one side of the face, with the face completely removed on the opposite side of the face cut. A single saw kerf must never extend completely across the stump.

Experienced person - a person who has been trained and has participated in the subject process for a period of time long enough to thoroughly acquaint the person with all facets of the process.

F.O.P.S. - falling object protective structure.

Fair lead - sheaves, rolls, or a combination thereof arranged to receive a line coming from any direction for proper line spooling on to a drum.

Fell (fall) - to cut down trees.

Feller (faller) - an employee who fells trees.

Front end loader - a mobile machine mounted on a wheeled or tracked chassis, equipped with a grapple, tusk, bucket, or fork-lift device, and employed in the loading, unloading, stacking, or sorting of logs or materials.

Grounded - the placement of a component of a machine on the ground or on a device where it is firmly supported.  Grounded may also relate to the placement of a tree on the ground or a method to dissipate static or electrical charges.

Guarded - covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable enclosures, covers, casings, shields, troughs, railings, screens, mats, or platforms, or by location, to prevent injury.

Guard rail - a railing to restrain a person.

Guyline - a line used to support or stabilize a spar, tail/lift tree, intermediate support tree or equipment. A guyline is considered a standing line.

Gypsy drum - a mechanical device wherein the line is not attached to the drum and is manually spooled to control the line movement on and off the drum.

Haulback - a line used to pull the buttrigging and mainline to the logs to be yarded.

Haulback block - any block the haulback line passes through including the corner block and tailblock.

Hay rack -

• a type of loading boom where two tongs are used and logs are suspended.

• a transporting vehicle with multiple sets of bunks attached to a rigid frame usually used for hauling logs.

Haywire - see strawline.

Hazardous falling area - the area within a circle centered on the tree being felled and having a radius not less than twice the height of that tree.

Head tree - the tree where yarding and/or loading takes place.  (See spar)

Heel boom - a type of loading boom where one tong is used and one end of the log is pulled up against the boom.

High lead - a system of logging wherein the main line is threaded through the main line block, which is attached near the top of the spar, to obtain a lift of the logs being yarded.

High visibility colors - white, bright, or fluorescent colors that stand out from the surrounding background color so they are easily seen.

Hobo log and/or hitchhiker - a free or unattached log that is picked up by a turn and is transported with the turn.

Hooktender - the worker that supervises the method of moving the logs from the woods to the landing.

Hot deck - a landing where logs are being moved.

Hydraulic jack - a mechanical device, powered by internal pressure, used to control the direction in which a tree is to be felled.

In the clear - ((being in a position where the possibility of harmful physical contact is minimized)) a position within the work area where the probability of hazardous contact with falling trees, moving logs, rootwads, chunks, material, rigging and equipment is minimized by distance from the hazards and/or use of physical barriers, such as stumps, trees, terrain or other objects providing protection.

Examples:

• Back behind on the uphill side of the turn and out of reach of any upending logs.

• Out of the bight.

• In the logged off area.

• In a position where movement will not be obstructed.

Intermediate support system - a system for supporting a loaded skyline in a support jack by one of the two following methods:

• Double tree support - the skyline is suspended on a single piece of wire rope supported by two trees so that the load is shared between the two trees.

• Single tree support - the skyline is suspended on a single piece of wire rope, single-eyed choker or double-eyed strap supported by a single tree. The support tree may be vertical or leaning.

Jackstrawed - trees or logs piled in an unorderly manner.

Jaggers - any projecting broken wire in a strand of cable.

Kerf - the part of timber products taken out by the saw teeth.

Knob - a metal ferrule attached to the end of a line.

Landing - any place where logs are laid after being yarded, awaiting subsequent handling, loading, and hauling.

((Lift tree - an intermediate support for skylines.))

Landing chute - the head of the skid trail or road where the logs are temporarily placed before handling, loading and hauling.

Lay -

• the straight-line distance it takes a strand of wire rope to make one complete spiral around the core of a rope.

• the position of a log in a pile, on a load, or in the fell and bucked.

Limbing - to cut branches off felled or standing trees.

Loading boom - any structure projecting from a pivot point to guide a log when lifted.

Lodged tree (hung tree) - a tree leaning against another tree or object which prevents it from falling to the ground.

((Logging operations - operations associated with felling and moving trees and logs from the stump to the point of delivery, such as, but not limited to, marking, felling, bucking, limbing, debarking, chipping, yarding, loading, unloading, storing, and transporting machines, equipment and personnel from one site to another.

Log dump - a place where logs are removed from transporting equipment.  It may be either dry land or water, parbuckled over a brow log or removed by machine.

Logging machine - a machine used or intended for use to yard, move, or handle logs, trees, chunks, trailers, and related materials or equipment.  This shall include self-loading log trucks only during the loading and unloading process.

Log - a tree segment suitable for subsequent processing into lumber, pulpwood, or other wood products, including but not limited to poles, piling, peeler blocks, sections and/or bolts.

Log stacker - a mobile machine mounted on a wheeled or tracked chassis, equipped with a frontally mounted grapple, tusk, or forklift device, and employed in the loading, unloading, stacking, or sorting of logs.)) Log - a tree segment suitable for subsequent processing into lumber, pulpwood, or other wood products, including, but not limited to, poles, piling, peeler blocks, sections and/or bolts.

Log bronco - a sturdily built boat usually from twelve to twenty feet in length, used to push logs or bundles of logs in a generally forward direction in booming and rafting operations.

Log dump - a place where logs are removed from transporting equipment. It may be either dry land or water, parbuckled over a brow log or removed by machine.

Log stacker - a mobile machine mounted on a wheeled or tracked chassis, equipped with a frontally mounted grapple, tusk, or forklift device, and employed in the loading, unloading, stacking, or sorting of logs.

Logging machine - a machine used or intended for use to yard, move, or handle logs, trees, chunks, trailers, and related materials or equipment.


Note: A self-loading log truck is only considered a logging machine when in use for loading and unloading.
Note: A helicopter is not considered a logging machine.

Logging operations - operations associated with felling and/or moving trees, logs, veneer bolts, poles, pilings, and other forest products from the stump to the point of delivery. Such operations are such, but not limited to, marking, felling, bucking, limbing, debarking, chipping, yarding, loading, unloading, storing, and the transporting of machines, equipment and personnel from one site to another.

Long sticks - an overlength log or tree length that creates a hazard by exceeding the safe perimeters of the landing.

Machine - a piece of stationary or mobile equipment having a self-contained power plant, that is operated off-road and used for the movement of material.  Machines include but are not limited to tractors, skidders, front-end loaders, scrapers, graders, bulldozers, ((swing yarders ())rough terrain logging shovels(())), log stackers and mechanical felling devices, such as tree shears and feller-bunchers.

Mainline - the line attached to the buttrigging used to pull logs to the landing.

Mainline block - the block hung in the portable spar or tower through which the mainline passes.

Mainline train - any train that is made up for travel between the woods and log dump.

Matchcutting - the felling of trees without using an undercut.

Mechanized falling - falling of standing timber by a self-propelled mobile wheeled or tracked machine equipped with a shear or other powered cutting device.

Mechanized feller - any such machine as described in WAC ((296-54-535 and 296-54-537)) 296-54-541 and 296-54-543, and includes feller/bunchers and similar machines performing multiple functions.

Mechanized logging machine - a feller-buncher, single-grip harvester, processor, forwarder, clambunk, or log loader.

Mobile log loader - a self-propelled log loading machine mounted on wheels or tracks, incorporating a boom and employed in the loading or unloading of logs by means of grapples or tongs.

Mobile yarder - a logging machine mounted on wheels, tracks, or skids, incorporating a vertical or inclined spar, tower, or boom, employed in skyline, slackline, high lead or grapple overhead cable logging systems.

Molle - a single strand of wire rope rolled into a circle with six wraps. A molle can be used as a temporary method of connecting the eye splices of two lines. A molle is used in most pin shackles in place of a cotter key.

Must - the same as "shall" and is mandatory.

((New area or setting - a location of operations when both the loading station and the yarder are moved.))

New job site - a location of operations when the loading station and/or the yarder or cutting operations are moved to a new area outside of the current sale or contracted unit.

Pass line - a small line threaded through a block at the top of the spar to assist the high climber.

Permissible (as applied to any device, equipment or appliance) - such device, equipment, or appliance has the formal approval of the United States Bureau of Mines, American Standards Association, or National Board of Fire Underwriters.

Portable spar or tower - a movable engineered structure designed to be used in a manner similar to which a wood spar tree would be used.

Qualified person - a person, who by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, professional standing, or by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Rated capacity - the maximum load a system, vehicle, machine or piece of equipment was designed by the manufacturer to handle.

Reach - a steel tube or wood timber or pole connected to the truck and inserted through a tunnel on the trailer.  It steers the trailer when loaded and pulls the trailer when empty.

((Receding line - the line on a skidder or slackline comparable to the haulback line on a yarder.))

Reload - an area where logs are dumped and reloaded or transferred as a unit to another mode of transportation.

Rollway - any place where logs are dumped and they roll or slide to their resting place.

Root wad - the ball of a tree root and dirt that is pulled from the ground when a tree is uprooted.

R.O.P.S. - roll over protection structure.

Rub tree - a tree used to guide a turn around an area.

Running line/running rope - any ((line which moves)) moving line directly involved with the yarding of logs.

Safety factor - the ratio of breaking strength to a safe working strength or loading.

Safety glass - a type of glass that will not shatter when broken.

Sail block - a block hung inverted on the sail guy to hold the tong block in proper position.

Scaler - the person who measures the diameter and length of the logs, determines specie and grade, and makes deductions for footage calculations.

Serviceable condition - a state or ability of a tool, machine, vehicle or other device to operate as it was intended by the manufacturer to operate.

Shall - a requirement that is mandatory.

Shear log - a log placed in a strategic location to divert passage of objects.

Shore skids - any group of timbers spaced a short distance apart on which logs are rolled.

Should - means recommended.

Signal person - the person designated to give signals to the machine operator.

Siwash - to change the lead of a line with a physical object such as a stump or tree instead of a block.

Skidder - a machine or animal used to move logs or trees to a landing.

Skidding - movement of logs or trees on the surface of the ground to the place where they are to be loaded.

Skidding line - the main haulage line from a carriage to which chokers are attached. Sometimes referred to a mainline.

Skyline - the line suspended between two points on which a block or carriage travels.

Slackline - a form of skyline where the skyline cable is spooled on a donkey drum and can be raised or lowered.

Slack puller - any weight or mechanical device used to increase the movement of a line when its own weight is inadequate.

Slope (grade) - the increase or decrease in altitude over a horizontal distance expressed as a percentage.  For example, change of altitude of 20 feet (6 m) over a horizontal distance of 100 feet (30 m) is expressed as a 20 percent slope.

Snag - a dead standing tree or a portion thereof.  (See Danger tree)

Snorkel - a loading boom modified to extend its limitations for yarding.

Spar/spar tree - a tree or device (rigged for highlead, skyline or slackline yarding) used to yard logs by any method of logging.

Speeder - a small self-powered vehicle that runs on a railroad track.

Spike - a long heavy nail similar to a railroad spike.

Springboard - a board with an iron tip used by fallers to stand on while working above ground level.

Spring pole - a tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling which is under stress or tension due to the pressure or weight of another object.

Square lead - the angle of 90 degrees.

Squirrel - a weight used to swing a boom when the power unit does not have enough drums to do it mechanically.

Squirrel tree - a topped tree, guyed if necessary, near the spar tree in which the counter balance (squirrel) of a tree rigged boom is hung.

Standing line -

• guyline

• a nonoperating rope with end terminations to support a boom or mast.

Stiff boom - two or more boom sticks wrapped together on which boom persons walk or work.

Strap - any short piece of line with an eye or "D" in each end.

Strap socket or D - a socket with a closed loop arranged to be attached to the end of a line by the molten zinc, or an equivalent method. It is used in place of a spliced eye.

Strawline - a ((small line used for miscellaneous purposes.)) light cable used in rigging up, or in moving other cables or blocks. The smallest line on the yarder. (Mainline - haulback line - strawline.)

Strip - a definite location of timber on which one or more cutting crews work.

Swamping - the falling or cutting of brush around or along a specified place.

Swede connection - a line configuration made by wrapping two choker lines in the same direction around a tree or log connecting the line knobs to opposite line bells.

Swifter - a piece of equipment used to tie the side sticks of a log raft together to keep the raft from spreading.

Swing cut - ((a back cut in which the holding wood on one side is cut through)) an intentional dutchman left on one corner of an undercut or a backcut in which the holding wood on one side is cut through in conjunction with an intentional dutchman to achieve a desired lay for the tree being fell.

Tail block - ((the haulback block at the back end of the show)) a block used to guide the haulback line at the back corner of the yarding area.

Tail hold - an anchor used for making fast any line or block.

Tail/lift tree - the tree at the opposite end from the head tree on which the skyline or other type rigging is hung.

Tie back - to use a twister(s) (or similar system/device) that has a breaking strength equal to fifty percent of the breaking strength of the mainline or skyline whichever is greater. To secure or support one anchor by securing it to a second anchor(s) such as wrapping one stump and choking another.

Tie down - a chain, cable, steel strips or fiber webbing and binders attached to a truck, trailer or other conveyance as a means to secure loads and to prevent them from shifting or moving when they are being transported.

Tight line - when either the mainline or haulback are held and power is exerted on the other or when power is exerted on both at the same time.

Tong line block - the block hung in a boom through which the tong line operates.

Tongue - a device used to pull and/or steer a trailer.

Topping - cutting off the top section of a standing tree.

Tower - (see portable spar or tower).

Tractor - a machine of wheel or track design used in logging.

Tractor logging - the use of any wheeled or tracked vehicle in the skidding or yarding of logs.

Transfer (as used in loading) - changing of logs in a unit from one mode of transportation to another.

Tree jack - a grooved saddle of wood or metal rollers contained within two steel plates, attached to a tree with a strap, used as a guide for skyline, sail guy, or similar static line.  It is also formed to prevent a sharp bend in the line.

Tree plates - steel bars sometimes shaped as elongated J's, which are fastened near the top of a tree to hold guylines and prevent them from cutting into the tree when tightened.  The hooks of the J are also used to prevent the mainline block strap from sliding down the tree.

Tree pulling - a method of falling trees in which the tree is pulled down with a line.

Tug - a boat, usually over twenty feet in length, used primarily to pull barges, booms of logs, bags of debris, or log rafts.

Turn - any log or group of logs attached by some means to power and moved from a point of rest to a landing.

Twister - a line (usually small diameter wire rope "haywire") that supports a tailhold stump, guyline stump, or tree that does not appear to be strong enough. This is done by connecting the tailhold to another stump or tree opposite by wrapping the two with a line. This line is then tightened by placing a piece of large-diameter limb between the wrappings and twisting them together.
Place illustration here.

Undercut - a notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the tree fall and to prevent splitting or kickback.

V-lead - a horizontal angle of less than ninety degrees formed by the projected lines of the mainline from the drum of the logging machine through the block or fairlead and the yarding log or turn.

Vehicle/crew bus - a car, bus, truck, trailer or semi-trailer owned, leased, or rented by the employer that is used for transportation of employees or movement of material.

WAC - Washington Administrative Code.

Waistline - that portion of the haulback running between the corner block and the tail block.

Winching - the winding of cable or rope onto a spool or drum.

Within the stakes - when one-half the log diameter is below the stake top.

Work areas - any area frequented by employees in the performance of assigned or related duties.

Wrapper - a cable assembly or chain used to contain a load of logs.

Wrapper rack - barrier used to protect a person while removing binders and wrappers from a loaded logging truck.

Yarder (donkey) - a machine with a series of drums used to yard logs.  

Yarding - the movement of logs from the place they are felled to a landing.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-505, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.  87-24-051 (Order 87-24), § 296-54-505, filed 11/30/87.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-505, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-505, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 94-16-145, filed 8/3/94, effective 9/12/94)

WAC 296-54-507
((Management's responsibility.)) Employer's responsibilities.

((In addition to observance of the general safety and health standards:

(1) The employer shall assume the responsibility of safety training for new employees.

(2) The employer shall develop and maintain a hazard communication program as required by WAC 296-62, Part C, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.

(3) The employer shall assume the responsibility of work assignments so that no employee shall be allowed to work in a position or location so isolated that he/she is not within ordinary calling distance of another employee who can render assistance in case of emergency.  In any operation where cutting, yarding, loading, or a combination of these duties is carried on, there shall be a minimum of two employees who shall work as a team and shall be in visual or hearing contact with one another to allow prompt awareness of injury or cessation of work activity of one employee by the other.  No employee shall be left alone for a period of time to exceed fifteen minutes without visual or hearing contact.  In addition, there shall be some system of back-up communication in the near proximity to enable an employee to call for assistance in case of emergency.

Note: This does not apply to operators of motor vehicles, watchpersons or certain other jobs which, by their nature, are singular employee assignments.  However, a definite procedure for checking the welfare of all employees during their working hours shall be instituted and all employees so advised.


(4) The employer shall establish a method of checking the employees in from the woods at the end of each shift.  Each immediate supervisor shall be responsible for his/her crew being accounted for.  This standard also includes operators of all movable equipment.

(5) Prior to the commencement of logging operations in a new area or setting, a safety meeting shall be held and a plan shall be developed and implemented whereby management shall ascertain by direct supervision that the work is being carried out with special emphasis on safety and safe work practices.

(6) When extreme weather or other extreme conditions are such that additional hazards arise, additional precautions shall be taken to assure safe operations.  If the operation cannot be made safe because of the aforementioned conditions, the work shall be discontinued until safe to resume.

(7) Danger trees within reach of landings, roads, rigging, buildings or work areas shall be either felled before regular operations begin or work shall be arranged so that employees shall not be exposed to hazards involved.

(8) Management shall ensure that intoxicating beverages and narcotics are not permitted or used by employees on or in the vicinity of the work site.  Management shall cause employees under the influence of alcohol or narcotics to be removed from the work site.  This requirement does not apply to employees taking prescription drugs and/or narcotics as directed by a physician providing such use shall not endanger the employee or others.)) The employer must comply with the requirements of all safety and health regulations and must:

(1) Provide safety training for new employees.

(2) Take additional precautions to ensure safe logging operations when extreme weather or other extreme conditions create hazards. If the logging operation cannot be made safe, the work must be discontinued until safe to resume.

(3) Ensure that danger trees within reach of landings, rigging, buildings, or work areas are either fell before regular logging operations begin, or arrange work so that employees are not exposed to the related hazards.

(4) Develop and maintain a hazard communication program as required by WAC 296-62, Part C. The program must provide information to all employees about hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.

(5) Ensure that intoxicating beverages and narcotics are prohibited on or near the worksite. The employer must remove from the worksite any employee under the influence of alcohol or narcotics.


Note: Narcotics do not include prescription drugs taken under a doctor's direction if the use does not endanger any employee.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.  94-16-145, § 296-54-507, filed 8/3/94, effective 9/12/94; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-54-507, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-507, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-507, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-509
Employee's responsibility.

(((1) Employees shall coordinate and cooperate with management and other employees in an attempt to eliminate accidents.

(2) Employees shall study and observe all safe work practices governing their work.

(3) They should offer safety suggestions, wherein such suggestions may contribute to a safer work environment.

(4) Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used by employees in or around the work sites.  Employees under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be permitted on the work site.  This rule does not apply to employees taking prescription drugs and/or narcotics as directed by a physician providing such use shall not endanger the employee or others.

(5) Employees shall conduct themselves in a workmanlike manner while on the work site.)) (1) Employees must coordinate and cooperate with the employer and other employees in an attempt to eliminate accidents.

(2) Employees must be aware of and follow all safe practices that apply to their work.

(3) Employees should offer safety suggestions that may contribute to a safer work environment.

(4) Intoxicating beverages and narcotics must not be permitted or used by employees in or around the worksites. Employees under the influence of alcohol or narcotics must not be permitted on the worksite.


EXCEPTION: This rule does not apply to employees taking prescription drugs and/or narcotics as directed by a physician if the use does not endanger the employee or others.

(5) Employees must conduct themselves in a workmanlike manner while on the worksite.

(6) Employees must make prompt report to their immediate supervisor of each industrial injury or occupational illness, regardless of the degree of severity.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-509, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-511
Personal protective equipment (PPE).

(((1) General requirements.

(a) Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, hearing and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices and protective shields and barriers, shall be used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

(b) The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is maintained in a serviceable condition.

(c) Design.  All personal protective equipment shall be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed.  All safety belts and attachments shall meet the requirements of section 3 of ANSI A10.14-1975.

(d) The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift.  Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable personal protective equipment shall be replaced before work is commenced.

(2) Eye and face protection.  The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee wears the following:

(a) Eye protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-2 where there is potential for eye injury due to falling or flying objects; and

(b) Face protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-2 where there is potential for facial injury such as, but not limited to, operating a chipper.  Logger-type mesh screens may be worn by employees performing chain-saw operations and yarding.  Note to subsection (2): The employee does not have to wear a separate eye protection device where face protection covering both the eyes and face is worn.

(3) Respiratory protection.  The respiratory protection requirements of the general occupational health standards, WAC 296-62, shall apply.

(4) Occupational head protection.  The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that all employees involved in the logging operation or any of its related activities wears head protection, unless such employees are protected by F.O.P.S., cabs or canopies, meeting the requirements of this chapter.  Protective helmets shall be maintained in serviceable condition.

(a) Protective helmets purchased after February 20, 1995, shall comply with ANSI Z89.1-1986, "American National Standard for Personnel Protection--Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers--Requirements," which is incorporated by reference, or shall be demonstrated to be equally effective.

(b) Protective helmets purchased before February 20, 1995, shall comply with the ANSI standard "American National Standard Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection," ANSI Z89.1-1969, or shall be demonstrated by the employer to be equally effective.

(5) Personal flotation devices.  Employees working on, over or along water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with and shall wear approved personal flotation devices in accordance with General safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-086.

(6) Occupational footwear.  The employer shall assure that each employee wears foot protection, such as heavy-duty logging boots that are waterproof or water repellent, cover and provide support to the ankle.  The employer shall assure that each employee who operates a chain saw wears foot protection that is constructed with cut-resistant material which will protect the employee against contact with a running chain saw.  Example: The traditional heavy-duty logging boot will meet the cut-resistant requirements of this subsection.

(a) All employees whose duties require them to walk on logs or boomsticks, shall wear sharp-calked (boots) shoes, or the equivalent, except when conditions such as ice, snow, etc., render calks ineffective.  When calks are ineffective and other footwear does not afford suitable protection, workers shall not be required to work on logs or boomsticks.

(b) When nonslip type shoes or boots afford a greater degree of employee protection than calk (boots) shoes, such as at scaling stations, log sorting yards, etc., then this type footwear may be worn in lieu of calk shoes providing firm ankle support and secure footing are maintained.

(7) Leg protection.  The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who operates a chain saw wears leg protection constructed with cut-resistant material, such as ballistic nylon.  The leg protection shall cover the full length of the thigh to the top of the boot on each leg to protect against contact with a moving, chain saw.

Exception: This requirement does not apply when an employee is working as a climber if the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by wearing leg protection in the particular situation, or when an employee is working from a vehicular mounted elevating and rotating work platform meeting the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part J-2, Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

(8) Hand protection.  The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee handling wire rope or other rough materials wears hand protection which provides adequate protection from puncture wounds, cuts and lacerations.

(9) Hearing protection.  The hearing protection requirements of the general occupational health standards, WAC 296-62, shall apply.

(10) Protective clothing.  Employees working on landings or in log sorting yards, when working on or from the ground, shall wear highly visible hard hats and/or yellow or orange vests, or similarly colored garments, to enable equipment operators to readily see them.  It is recommended that such hard hats and vests or outer garments be of a luminous or reflectorized material.  Employees performing duties of a flagperson shall wear a hard hat and vest or garment of contrasting colors.  Warning vests and hard hats worn at night shall be of a reflectorized material.

Note: See WAC 296-24, Part A-2, for additional personal protective equipment requirements.

))


(1) Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, hearing and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices and protective shields and barriers, must be used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

(2) Personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, must be maintained in a serviceable condition.

(3) Design. All personal protective equipment must be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed. All safety belts and attachments must meet the requirements of section 3 of ANSI A10.14-1975.

(4) Personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, must be inspected before initial use during each workshift. Defects or damage must be repaired or the unserviceable personal protective equipment must be replaced before work is commenced.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-511, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.  94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-54-511, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and RCW 49.17.050.  83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-54-511, filed 11/30/83.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-511, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-511, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51110
Head protection.

The employer must provide, at no cost to the employee, and ensure that all employees involved in the logging operation or any of its related activities wear head protection, unless the employees are protected by FOPS, cabs, or canopies meeting the requirements of this chapter.

(1) Hard hats purchased after February 20, 1995, must meet the requirements of ANSI Z89.1-1986, "American National Standard for Personnel Protection--Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers--Requirements," or the employer must demonstrate that they are equally effective.

(2) Hard hats purchased before February 20, 1995, must meet the requirements of ANSI Z89.1-1969, "American National Standard Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection," or the employer must demonstrate that they are equally effective.

(3) Hard hats must be maintained in serviceable condition.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51120
Eye and face protection.

The employer must provide, at no cost to the employee, and ensure that each employee wears:

(1) Eye protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-2, where there is potential for eye injury from falling or flying objects; and

(2) Face protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-2, where there is potential for facial injury such as, but not limited to, operating a chipper. An employee using a chain saw may use either eye or face protection.


Note: The employee does not have to wear separate eye protection when the face protection also covers the eyes.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51130
Hearing protection.

The employer must provide hearing protection when required by the general occupational health standards, WAC 296-62.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51140
Hand protection.

(1) Each employee handling wire rope or other rough materials must wear hand protection that provides adequate protection from puncture wounds, cuts, and lacerations.

(2) Hand protection must be maintained in serviceable condition.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51150
Respiratory protection.

The employer must provide respiratory protection when required by the general occupational health standards, WAC 296-62.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51160
Leg protection.

(1) The employer must provide, at no cost to the employee, and ensure that each employee who operates a chain saw wears leg protection constructed with cut-resistant material, such as ballistic nylon. The leg protection must cover the full length of the thigh to the top of the boot on each leg to protect against contact with a moving chain saw.


EXCEPTION: This requirement does not apply to an employee working aloft in trees when supported by climbing spurs and climbing belt, or when an employee is working from a vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platform meeting the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part J-2, Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

(2) Leg protection must be maintained in serviceable condition.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51170
Foot protection.

(1) Each employee must wear foot protection that covers and supports the ankle, such as heavy-duty logging boots.

(2) Each employee who operates a chain saw must wear cut resistant foot protection that will protect the employee against contact with a running chain saw.


For example: Leather logging boots, insulated rubber pacs, and rubber boots with cut protection will meet the cut-resistant requirement of this section.

(3) All employees whose duties require them to walk on logs or boomsticks must wear sharp-calked boots, or the equivalent.


EXCEPTION 1: When calks are ineffective because of ice, snow, or other conditions and other footwear does not provide suitable protection, employees must be prohibited from working on logs or boomsticks.
EXCEPTION 2: The employer may allow employees to wear nonslip boots instead of calks when the nonslip boots provide greater employee protection than calks (such as at scaling stations, log sorting yards, etc.). The nonslip boots must still provide firm ankle support and secure footing.

(4) Foot protection must be maintained in serviceable condition.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51180
Personal flotation devices.

(1) Employees working on, over, or along water, where there is a danger of drowning, must be provided with and wear approved personal flotation devices.

(2) Employees are not considered exposed to the danger of drowning when:

(a) The water depth is known to be less than chest deep on the exposed individual;

(b) Employees work behind standard height and strength guardrails;

(c) Employees work inside operating cabs or stations that will prevent accidentally falling into the water; or

(d) Employees wear approved safety belts with lifeline attached to prevent falling into the water.

(3) Before and after each use, personal flotation devices must be inspected for defects that would reduce their designed effectiveness. Using a defective personal flotation device is prohibited.

(4) An approved personal flotation device must be approved by the United States Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD, or Type V PFD, or their equivalent, as required in 46 CFR 160 (Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications) and 33 CFR 175.23 (Coast Guard table of devices equivalent to personal flotation devices). Ski belt or inflatable personal flotation devices are prohibited.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51190
Highly visible clothing.

(1) Employees working on landings or in log sorting yards on or from the ground, must wear highly visible hard hats, yellow or orange vests, or other similarly colored garments, to make employees more visible to equipment operators.


Note: The department recommends that hard hats and vests or outer garments be luminous or reflective.

(2) An employee working as a flagger must wear a hard hat and vest or other garment of high visibility colors. Warning vests and hard hats worn at night must be reflective.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-513
((Safety education, training and first-aid requirements.)) Arrangement of work areas and emergency contact.

((The general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-040 through 296-24-055 accident prevention program requirements are applicable to this chapter.

(1) Training.  The employer shall provide training for each employee, including supervisors, at no cost to the employee.

(2) Frequency.  Training shall be provided as follows:

(a) Before an employee is assigned to work independently on new tasks, tools, equipment, machines or vehicles; and

(b) Whenever an employee demonstrates unsafe job performance.

(3) Content.  At a minimum, training shall consist of the following elements:

(a) Safe performance of assigned work tasks;

(b) Safe use, operation and maintenance of tools, machines and vehicles the employee uses or operates, including emphasis on understanding and following the manufacturer's operating and maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions;

(c) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee's specific work tasks, including the use of measures and work practices to prevent or control those hazards;

(d) Recognition, prevention and control of other safety and health hazards in the logging industry;

(e) Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer's work site; and

(f) The requirements of this chapter.

(4) Training of an employee due to unsafe job performance, or assignment of new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles; may be limited to those elements in subsection (3) of this section which are relevant to the circumstances giving rise to the need for training.

(5) Portability of training.

(a) Each current employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in subsection (3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements.

(b) Each new employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in subsection (3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements prior to initial assignment.

(c) The employer shall train each current and new employee in those elements for which the employee has not received training.

(d) The employer is responsible for ensuring that each current and new employee can properly and safely perform the work tasks and operate the tools, equipment, machines, and vehicles used in their job.

(6) Each new employee and each employee who is required to be trained as specified in subsection (2) of this section, shall work under the close supervision of a designated person until the employee demonstrates to the employer the ability to safely perform their new duties independently.

(7) First-aid training.

(a) The employer shall assure that each employee, including supervisors, receives or has received first-aid and CPR training.

(b) First-aid and CPR training shall comply with the requirements of this section and WAC 296-24-060 (3)(e), Part A-1.

(c) The employer shall assure that each employee's first-aid and CPR training and/or certificate of training remain current.

Note: First-aid trained personnel at sorting yards may be provided as prescribed in WAC 296-24-060 "First-aid training and certification."


(8) All training shall be conducted by a designated person.

(9) The employer shall assure that all training required by this standard is presented in a manner that the employee is able to understand.  The employer shall assure that all training materials used are appropriate in content and vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language skills of the employees being trained.

(10) Certification of training.

(a) The employer shall verify compliance with subsection (1) of this section by preparing a written certification record.  The written certification record shall contain the name or other identity of the employee trained, the date(s) of the training, and the signature of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the employer.

(b) The most recent training certification shall be maintained.

(11) Safety and health meetings.

The employer shall hold safety and health meetings as necessary and at least each month for each employee.  Safety and health meetings may be conducted individually, in crew meetings, in larger groups, or as part of other staff meetings.

(12) First-aid kits.  The employer shall provide first-aid kits at each work site where trees are being cut (e.g., felling, bucking, limbing), at each active landing, and on each employee transport vehicle.  The number of first-aid kits and the content of each kit shall reflect the degree of isolation, the number of employees, and the hazards reasonably anticipated at the work site.

(13) First-aid kits shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-065 of the general safety and health standard.  The size and quantity of first-aid kits can be determined by the following table:


Number of employees

assigned to worksite

Minimum first-aid supplies

required at worksite

1-5 10 package kit*
6-15 16 package kit*
16-50 24 package kit*

*Refer to WAC 296-24-065(7) for a list of required contents.


(14) When required by the department, there shall be available within the closest practicable distance from the operations (not to exceed 1/2 mile) the following items:


1 set of arm and leg splints.

2 all wool blankets or blankets equal in strength and fire resistance (properly protected and marked).

1 stretcher.  (For crew and emergency vehicles, see WAC 296-54-519(11).)

(15) The employer shall maintain the contents of each first-aid kit in a serviceable condition.

(16) First-aid kits shall also be equipped with the following items:

(a) Latex gloves (1 pr.).

(b) Resuscitation equipment such as resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask.)) (1) Employee work areas must be spaced and employee duties organized so the actions of one employee do not create a hazard for any other employee.

(2) Work areas must be assigned so that:

(a) Trees cannot fall into an adjacent occupied work area;

(b) The distance between work areas is at least two tree lengths of the trees being fell;

(c) The distance between work areas reflects the degree of slope, the density of the growth, the height of the trees, the soil structure and other hazards reasonably anticipated at the worksite; and

(d) A distance of more than two tree lengths is maintained between work areas on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable.

(3) Each employee must be within visual, audible, or radio/telephone contact with another person who can assist in case of emergency.

(4) In any logging operation where cutting, yarding, or loading are performed, there must be at least two employees working as a team.

(5) Each employee must have visual or audible signal contact with another employee as often as this schedule requires:

(a) Cutters - 30 minutes.

(b) All other employees - 2 hours, which allows for making layouts, notching guyline stumps, etc., during normal work hours.


Exception: The requirements for a two-person team and check-in schedule do not apply to operators of motor vehicles, mechanized logging machines, watchpersons or certain other jobs which, by their nature, are singular employee assignments. However, a procedure for checking the welfare of these employees during their working hours must be instituted and all employees so advised.

(6) Mechanics or other employees must not be assigned to work on equipment by themselves when there is a probability of a fall from elevated work locations or equipment. Also, if the work is of such nature that heavy parts require moving, or there is a probability that anything heavy could fall on the person, there must be another person in the immediate area to render assistance.

(7) The employer must establish a method of checking the employees in from the woods at the end of each shift, including operators of all movable equipment. Each immediate supervisor must account for their crew.

(8) Each worksite must have at least one serviceable and operable two-way radio, phone, or radio/phone combination available to reach emergency service. Citizen band radios are permitted only as a secondary means of communication.

(9) Each worksite must have an emergency medical plan to ensure rapid emergency medical care for employees with major illnesses and injuries. The plan must be in writing and include the following:

(a) Township, range, and section numbers or latitude and longitude or UMS Grid System coordinates;

(b) Directions by road, or escort provisions to the site;

(c) Telephone number of emergency medical services; and

(d) Provisions for emergency vehicle(s) access, when working behind locked gate(s).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-513, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-513, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-515
((General requirements.)) Accident prevention program.

(((1) Emergency stops.  Speed limiting devices, safety stops or emergency shut down devices or shut off valves shall be provided, with the controls so located that in the event of an emergency, the prime mover may be shut down from a safe place.

(2) Machine operators.  Machine operators shall be experienced in operating the equipment they are using, except that inexperienced persons may operate the equipment to gain experience while in training and may do so only while working under immediate supervision of an experienced authorized person.

(3) Refueling vehicles.  Each machine, vehicle, and portable powered tool shall not be fueled while the motors are running with the exception of helicopters, which is permitted under certain conditions.  (See WAC 296-54-559(36).)

(4) Hydraulic lines.  If failure of hydraulic lines would create a hazard to an equipment operator while at the operating station, safeguards shall be installed in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard.  All hydraulic lines shall be maintained free of leaks and shall be shielded from damage wherever possible.

(5) Defective equipment.

(a) Equipment in need of repair shall be reported to management in writing as soon as possible and such equipment shall not be used until repairs are completed if there is a possible hazard to safety of the operator or other employees.

(b) The employer shall assure that each vehicle used to perform any logging operation is maintained in serviceable condition.

(c) The employer shall assure that each vehicle used to perform any logging operation is inspected before initial use during each workshift.  Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable vehicle shall be replaced before work is commenced.

(6) Lock out - tag out.  Procedures for lock out - tag out shall be established and implemented to prevent the accidental starting of equipment that is shut down for repairs, maintenance or adjustments.

(7) Control marking.  The controls of all machines shall be marked as to their purpose in the operation of the machine.

(8) Metal objects.  Metal objects driven into trees or logs shall be removed immediately after serving their intended purpose.

(9) Fire protection.  The employer shall provide and maintain portable fire extinguishers on each machine and vehicle in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part G-3, Fire suppression equipment.

(10) Hand and portable powered tools.

(a) The employer shall assure that each hand and portable powered tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable condition.

(b) The employer shall assure that each tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift.  At a minimum, the inspection shall include the following:

(i) Handles and guards, to assure that they are sound, tight-fitting, (properly shaped, free of splinters and sharp edges, and in place);

(ii) Controls, to assure proper function;

(iii) Chain saw chains, to assure proper adjustment;

(iv) Chain saw mufflers, to assure that they are operational and in place;

(v) Chain brakes and/or nose shielding devices, to assure that they are in place and function properly;

(vi) Heads of shock, impact-driven and driving tools, to assure that there is no mushrooming.

(c) The employer shall assure that each tool is used only for purposes for which it has been designed.

(d) When the head of any shock, impact-driven or driving tool begins to chip, it shall be repaired or removed from service.

(e) The cutting edge of each tool shall be sharpened in accordance with manufacturer's specifications whenever it becomes dull during the workshift.

(f) Each tool shall be stored in the provided location when not being used at a work site.

(g) Hand and portable powered tools and other hand-held equipment not addressed by this chapter shall be maintained and used in accordance with the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-650.

(11) Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored, handled, transported and used in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part E, and the following:

(a) Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be transported in the driver compartment or in any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.

(b) Flammable or combustible liquids, including chain-saw and diesel fuel, may be used to start a fire, provided the employer assures that in the particular situation its use does not create a hazard for an employee.

(12) Smoking prohibited.  Smoking shall be prohibited in battery charging areas and within fifty feet of all refueling operations.  Precautions shall be taken to prevent open flames, sparks or electric arcs in battery charging or refueling areas.

(13) Charging batteries.  When charging batteries, the vent caps shall be kept in place to avoid electrolyte spray.  Care shall be taken to ensure caps are functioning.  The battery (or compartment) cover(s) shall be open to dissipate heat.

(14) Uncovered batteries.  Tools and other metallic objects shall be kept away from the tops of uncovered batteries.

(15) Work areas.

(a) Employees shall be spaced and the duties of each employee shall be organized so the actions of one employee will not create a hazard for any other employee.

(b) Work areas shall be assigned so that trees cannot fall into an adjacent occupied work area.  The distance between adjacent occupied work areas shall be at least two tree lengths of the trees being felled.  The distance between adjacent occupied work areas shall reflect the degree of slope, the density of the growth, the height of the trees, the soil structure and other hazards reasonably anticipated at that work site.  A distance of greater than two tree lengths shall be maintained between adjacent occupied work areas on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable.

(16) Signaling and signal equipment.  Engine noise, such as from a chain saw, is not an acceptable means of signaling.  Signaling and signal equipment shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.

(17) Overhead electric lines.

(a) Logging operations near overhead electric lines shall be done in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-54-557(25).

(b) Special precautions shall be taken to prevent trees from falling into power lines.  The employer shall notify the power company immediately if a felled tree makes contact with any power line.  If it appears that a tree will hit a power line, the power company shall be notified before it is attempted to fall the tree.  If an unsuspected tree does contact a power line, each employee shall remain clear of the area until the power company advises that there are no electrical hazards.

(18) Explosives and blasting agents.  Explosives and blasting agents shall be stored, handled, transported, and used in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-52, Possession and handling of explosives.

(19) Seat belts.  For each vehicle or machine (equipped with ROPS/FOPS or overhead guards), including any vehicle or machine provided by an employee, the employer shall assure:

(a) That a seat belt is provided for each vehicle or machine operator;

(b) That each employee uses the available seat belt while the vehicle or machine is being operated;

(c) That each employee securely and tightly fastens the seat belt to restrain the employee within the vehicle or machine cab;

(d) That each machine seat belt meets the requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers Standard SAE J386, June 1985, "Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines." Prior to February 9, 1995, seat belts and assemblies shall be designed, constructed and maintained to conform to the requirements specified in the society of automotive engineers technical report J386 or J333a.  Seat belts need not be provided for equipment which is designed for stand-up operations;

(e) That seat belts are not removed from any vehicle or machine.  The employer shall replace each seat belt which has been removed from any vehicle or machine that was equipped with seat belts at the time of manufacture; and

(f) That each seat belt is maintained in a serviceable condition.

(20) The rated capacity of any vehicle transporting a machine shall not be exceeded.

(21) Machines shall be loaded, secured and unloaded in a manner so that it will not create a hazard for any employee.)) (1) The employer must develop a formal accident prevention program, tailored to the needs of the particular logging operation and to the type of hazards involved.

(2) The accident prevention program must be in writing.

(3) The accident prevention program must cover at least the following elements:

A safety training program that describes the employer's total safety program.

(a) How and when to report injuries;

(b) The location of first aid supplies;

(c) How to report unsafe conditions and practices;

(d) The use and care of required personal protective equipment;

(e) An on-the-job review of the practices necessary to perform job assignments safely; and

(f) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee's specific work tasks, including using measures and work practices to prevent or control those hazards.

(4) The employer must document and maintain current records of required training, including:

• Who was trained;

• The date(s) of the training; and

• The signature of the trainer or the employer.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-515, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-515, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-515, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51510
Safety and health meetings.

(1) The employer must hold safety and health meetings at the following intervals:

(a) Each time the employer moves to a new jobsite; and

(b) Monthly after the initial jobsite meeting.

(2) Safety and health meetings may be conducted individually, in crew meetings, in larger groups, or as part of other staff meetings.

(3) Attendance and subject(s) must be documented.


Note: When moving to a new jobsite, site specific hazards should be identified and discussed during the prejob safety meeting.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51520
First-aid training.

(1) Each employee, including supervisors, must receive or have received first-aid and CPR training. New employees not holding a valid first-aid card must be trained within a reasonable time, not to exceed six months from hiring.


EXCEPTION: Log truck drivers are not required to receive first-aid and CPR training if they are not involved with falling, yarding, loading, or processing logs.

(2) Each employee's first-aid and CPR training and/or certificate of training must be current.

(3) At least two persons holding a valid certificate of first aid training must be present or available at all times in sorting yard operations.

(4) First-aid and CPR training must cover at least the following:

(a) The definition of first aid.

(b) Legal issues of applying first aid (Good Samaritan Laws).

(c) Basic anatomy.

(d) Patient assessment and first aid for the following:

• Respiratory arrest.

• Cardiac arrest.

• Hemorrhage.

• Lacerations/abrasions.

• Amputations.

• Musculoskeletal injuries.

• Shock.

• Eye injuries.

• Burns.

• Loss of consciousness.

• Extreme temperature exposure (hypothermia/hyperthermia).

• Paralysis.

• Poisoning.

• Artificial ventilation.

(e) CPR.

(f) Applying dressings and slings.

(g) Treating strains, sprains, and fractures.

(h) Immobilizing injured persons.

(i) Handling and transporting injured persons.

(j) Treating bites, stings, or contact with poisonous plants or animals.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-51530
First-aid kits.

(1) The employer must provide first-aid kits:

(a) At each worksite where trees are being cut (e.g., falling, bucking, limbing);

(b) At each active landing/logging site; and

(c) In the absence of readily accessible first-aid supplies such as first-aid kits, first-aid stations, first-aid rooms or their equivalent, all transport vehicles, log trucks, speeders, road graders and similar equipment must be equipped with not less than a ten package first-aid kit; and

(d) The number of first-aid kits and the content of each kit must reflect the degree of isolation, the number of employees, and the hazards reasonably anticipated at the worksite.

(2) Following is the minimally acceptable number and type of required first-aid supplies to meet the requirements of subsection (1)(a) and (b) of this section.


Note: The contents of the first-aid kit listed should be adequate for small worksites of two or three employees. For larger or multiple logging operations conducted at the same location, the employer should provide additional first-aid kits or additional quantities of supplies in the first-aid kits.

(a) Gauze pads (at least 4 x 4 inches).

(b) Two large gauze pads (at least 8 x 10 inches).

(c) Box adhesive bandages (band-aids).

(d) One package gauze roller bandage at least 2 inches wide.

(e) Two triangular bandages.

(f) Wound cleaning agent such as sealed moistened towelettes.

(g) Scissors.

(h) At least one blanket.

(i) Tweezers.

(j) Adhesive tape.

(k) Latex gloves.

(l) Resuscitation equipment such as resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask.

(m) Two elastic wraps.

(n) Splint.

(o) Stretcher.

(3) Transport vehicles, log trucks, speeders and road graders must have at least the following number and type of first-aid supplies:

10 package kit.

1 pkg. adhesive bandages, 1" (16 per pkg.).

1 pkg. bandage compress, 4" (1 per pkg.).

1 pkg. scissors and tweezers (1 each per pkg.).

1 pkg. triangular bandage, 40" (1 per pkg.).

1 pkg. antiseptic soap or pads (3 per pkg.).

5 pkgs. employer's choice.

(4) When six or more employees are generally being transported on any one trip, the first-aid kit must be increased in size following the requirements of subsection (2) of this section. Subsection (2)(h), (n) and (o) are optional.

(5) The employer must maintain the contents of each first-aid kit in a serviceable condition.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 80-15, filed 8/20/80)

WAC 296-54-517
((Camps.)) Lockout/tagout procedures.

((Rules, regulations and standards for camps shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-125.)) (1) The employer must establish and implement written procedures for lockout/tagout to prevent the accidental start up or release of stored energy of logging machinery that is shut down for repairs, maintenance, or adjustments.

(2) Lockout/tagout procedures must contain specific steps for:

(a) Shutting down, blocking, and securing machines to control hazardous energy;

(b) Locking and/or tagging out machinery; and

(c) Release from lockout/tagout.

(3) Lockout/tagout procedure details must include at least the following:

(a) Employees performing maintenance, repairs, or adjustments have knowledge of the hazardous energy to be controlled and the means to control the energy.

(b) Logging machine shutdown.

• Apply brakes, swing locks, etc.

• Place the transmission in the manufacturer's specified park position.

• Lower to the ground or secure each moving element such as, but not limited to, blades, booms, grapples, buckets, saws, and shears to prevent a release of stored energy.

• Shut down machinery and ensure that a responsible person removes and maintains possession of the ignition/master key.

• Engage hydraulic safety locks when applicable.

• Before working on hydraulic or air systems, relieve pressure by bleeding tanks or lines and operate controls to dissipate residual stored energy (pressure).

• Place lockout and/or tagout device.

(4) Release from lockout/tagout. Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and machinery is started, the work area must be inspected to ensure that all tools have been removed, guards are replaced, and employees are in the clear.

(5) The employer must provide padlocks and/or tags for locking and/or tagging out logging machinery that are durable enough to withstand the environment.

(6) Tags must have a legend such as "do not start" or "do not operate." Tags must be placed so they are obvious to anyone attempting to operate the machinery.


Note: In lockout, padlocks are commonly used to prevent access to ignition/master switches or battery disconnects.

(7) Energy sources. Stored or residual energy such as that in elevated machine members, rotating saws, hydraulic systems, air pressure and springs, must be dissipated or restrained by methods such as grounding, repositioning, blocking, chaining, bleeding down, etc.

(8) The employer must provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the lockout/tagout program are understood by employees performing maintenance, repairs, or adjustments covered by this section. This program must be reviewed at least annually and training provided as needed. This training may be accomplished through safety meetings.


Note: See appendix 2 for a sample lockout/tagout program (energy control program).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-517, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-517, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-519
((Motor vehicles.)) Miscellaneous requirements.

(((1) Seats.  The seats of each vehicle shall be securely fastened.

(2) Seat belts.  The driver of a crew vehicle shall be provided with and shall wear a seat belt according to the provisions of WAC 296-54-515(19).

(3) Barricade.  After May 1, 1980, a substantial barricade shall be provided behind the driver of a crew bus or vehicle that will transport nine or more passengers.  The barricade shall extend from the floor to at least a level even with the top of the driver's head.

(4) Safe entrance and exits.  Adequate provisions shall be made for safe entrance and exits.  Mounting steps and handholds shall be provided for each vehicle wherever it is necessary to prevent an employee from being injured when entering or leaving the vehicle.

(5) Enclosed racks.  When equipment or tools are carried inside the vehicle, racks, boxes, holsters or other means shall be provided, arranged and used for the transportation of tools so that a hazard is not created for any vehicle operator or passenger.

(6) Vehicle to be stopped.  Persons shall not enter or exit from any vehicle until the vehicle is completely stopped.

(7) Keep within vehicle.  Persons shall keep all parts of the body within the vehicle.

(8) Stoves prohibited.  Provisions shall be made for heat and light in the passenger portion of the vehicle.  Use of stoves in vehicles is prohibited.

(9) Emergency exit.  On vehicles designed to transport nine or more passengers, an emergency exit not less than six and one-half square feet in area, with the smaller dimension being not less than 18 inches, shall be placed at the back of the vehicle or near the back on the side opposite the regular entrance.  The route to and egress from the exit must be unobstructed at all times.

(10) Fire extinguisher.  When no fuel is transported in the crew vehicle, a minimum rated 5/BC dry chemical fire extinguisher shall be kept in the passenger compartment.  When fuel is transported on the crew vehicle in accordance with subsection (14) of this section, a minimum rated 10/BC dry chemical fire extinguisher shall be kept in the passenger compartment.  The extinguishing agent shall be nontoxic and preferably a noncorrosive type.

(11) Crew and emergency vehicles.  Vehicles designed to transport five or more passengers shall be equipped with stretchers, two blankets, and first-aid kits.  If used as a means of transporting injured persons, it shall be designed to enable persons to pass a loaded stretcher into the vehicle.  Provisions shall be made for proper securing of the stretcher.

(12) Exhaust systems.  Exhaust systems shall be designed and maintained to eliminate the exposure of passengers to toxic agents.

(13) The employer shall assure that operating and maintenance instructions are available in each vehicle.  Each vehicle operator and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.

(14) Limitation of transportation of fuels.  Fuels shall be transported or stored only in approved safety containers.  Enclosed areas where fuels are carried or stored shall be vented in such a manner that a hazardous concentration of fumes cannot accumulate.  All containers or drums shall be properly secured to the vehicle while being transported.  Commercially built vehicles of the pick-up or flatbed type with a seating capacity of not to exceed six persons may be used to carry fuels in or on the bed of such vehicles, providing such fuels are not carried in the crew compartment.  Van-type vehicles may be used to carry fuels only when a vapor-proof bulkhead is installed between the passenger compartment and storage compartment.  Not more than forty-two gallons of gasoline may be carried or stored in the compartment and each container shall have a capacity not exceeding seven gallons.

(15) Motor vehicle laws.  Motor vehicles used as crew vehicles regularly for the transportation of workers shall be covered against the weather and equipped and operated in conformity with applicable state of Washington motor vehicle laws.

(16) Operator's license.  The employer shall assure that all operators of crew vehicles are experienced drivers and have a valid operator's license for the class of vehicle being operated.

(17) Daily vehicle check.  Operators of crew vehicles shall check brakes and lights daily and shall keep windshields and mirrors clean.

(18) Good repair.  Crew vehicles shall be maintained in good repair and safe condition.

(19) Dump trucks.  Dump trucks shall only be used in an emergency to transport workers and shall be equipped with adequate safety chains or locking devices which will eliminate the possibility of the body of the truck being raised while employees are riding in the truck.  Emergency shall mean any unforeseen circumstances which calls for immediate action when danger to life or danger from fire exists.

(20) Means of signaling.  An effective means of signaling shall be provided for communication between the driver and the passengers being transported when they are in separate compartments.

(21) Load limit.  The passenger load limit of a crew vehicle shall not exceed the seating capacity of the vehicle.

(22) Vehicle check.  Crew vehicles shall be thoroughly inspected by a mechanic for defects which could create a hazardous condition for operation.  Such inspections shall be carried out at least every month.  Defects known to the operator shall be reported in writing to the mechanic or person in charge.  If defects are found, they shall be corrected before the vehicle is used for the transportation of crews.)) (1) Spikes, drift bolts, nails, or other metal must not be left in any recoverable log.

(2) The employer must provide and maintain portable fire extinguishers on each machine and vehicle.

(3) Machines, vehicles, and portable powered tools (unless diesel powered) must not be fueled while the motors are running.


Note: See WAC 296-54-58130(3) for exceptions related to helicopters.

(4) Flammable and combustible liquids must be stored, handled, transported, and used according to the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part E, and the following:

(a) Flammable and combustible liquids must not be transported in the driver compartment or in any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.

(b) Flammable or combustible liquids, including chain-saw and diesel fuel, may be used to start a fire, if the employer ensures that in the particular situation its use does not create a hazard for an employee.

(5) Smoking is prohibited in battery charging areas and within fifty feet of all refueling operations. Precautions must be taken to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in battery charging or refueling areas.

(6) When charging batteries:

(a) The vent caps must be kept in place to avoid electrolyte spray;

(b) Caps must be functioning; and

(c) The battery (or compartment) cover(s) must be open to dissipate heat.

(7) Tools and other metallic objects must be kept away from the tops of uncovered batteries.

(8) Explosives and blasting agents must be stored, handled, transported, and used according to the requirements of WAC 296-52, Possession and handling of explosives.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-519, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-519, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-519, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-521
((Transportation of crews by use of speeders and trailers.)) Inspection and repair of equipment and vehicles.

(((1) Braking systems.  All speeders shall be equipped with two separate and independently operated braking systems either of which shall be of sufficient capacity to lock all wheels when speeder is fully loaded.

(2) Sanding methods.  All speeders used for transporting crews shall be equipped with methods for sanding tracks, operative for both directions of travel.

(3) Lights, windshield wipers.  Electric lights of sufficient candle power and range so that vehicle can be stopped within the range of the beam, and which will shine in the direction of travel, shall be provided on all speeders.  Adequate tail lights shall be installed and maintained in good order.  Automatic windshield wipers of sufficient capacity to maintain clear visibility shall be installed on all speeders.

(4) Trailers.  When trailers are coupled behind speeders, they shall be equipped with two separate and independent braking systems, either shall be of sufficient capacity to lock all wheels when the trailer is fully loaded.  One of these shall be power operated and shall be controlled from the speeder; the other manually operated from the trailer.  One person shall be designated to operate this brake in case of emergency.

(5) Trailer coupling.  All trailers shall be coupled to speeders with metal couplings and safety chains or straps of sufficient strength to withstand the impact caused by a broken coupling.

(6) Trailer not to coast.  No trailer shall coast or be used as a crew car without being attached to a speeder.)) Defective equipment.

(1) Equipment in need of repair must be reported to management as soon as possible and such equipment must not be used until repairs are completed if there is a possible hazard to safety of the operator or other employees.

(2) Each vehicle used to perform any logging operation must be inspected before initial use during each workshift. Defects or damage must be repaired or the unserviceable vehicle must be replaced before work is commenced.

(3) Each vehicle, machine and piece of equipment used to perform any logging operation must be maintained in serviceable condition.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-521, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-521, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-523
((Methods of crew transportation other than those specified.)) Hand and portable powered tools.

((Special approval.  Persons or firms desiring to transport crews by methods other than those specified in these rules shall so inform the department of labor and industries, so that an evaluation of that method may be made.  Should the proposed method be found to afford a measure of safety acceptable to the department of labor and industries, a written order stating that finding shall be issued to the person or firm concerned by the department of labor and industries and the proposed method may be utilized.)) (1) Each hand and portable powered tool, including any tool provided by an employee, must be maintained in serviceable condition.

(2) Each tool, including any tool provided by an employee, must be inspected before initial use during each workshift. The inspection must include at least the following:

(a) Handles and guards, to ensure that they are sound and tight-fitting, (properly shaped, free of splinters and sharp edges, and in place);

(b) Controls, to ensure proper function;

(c) Chain saw chains, to ensure proper adjustment;

(d) Chain saw mufflers, to ensure that they are operational and in place;

(e) Chain brakes and/or nose shielding devices, to ensure that they are in place and function properly;

(f) Heads of shock, impact-driven and driving tools, to ensure that there is no mushrooming.

(3) Each tool must be used and maintained according to the following requirements:

(a) Each tool is used only for purposes for which it was designed.

(b) Any shock, impact-driven or driving tool is repaired or removed from service when the head begins to chip.

(c) The cutting edge of each tool is sharpened according to manufacturer's specifications whenever it becomes dull during the workshift.

(d) Each tool is stored in the provided location when not being used at a worksite.


Note: See WAC 296-24-650 for rules on the use and maintenance of tools and other equipment not covered by this chapter.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-523, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-523, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 80-15, filed 8/20/80)

WAC 296-54-527
((Truck roads.)) Overhead electrical lines clearance.

(((1) Truck road grades.  Truck road grades shall not be too steep for safe operation of logging or work trucks which operate over them and shall not exceed twenty percent in any case unless a positive means of lowering trucks is provided.

(2) Truck road surfaces.

(a) Truck roads shall be of sufficient width and evenness to insure the safe operation of equipment.

(b) Hazards such as broken planking, deep holes, large rocks, logs, etc., which prevent the safe operation of equipment, shall be immediately corrected.

(c) Road width.  On blind curves, truck roads shall be of sufficient width for two trucks to pass, or some type of signal system shall be maintained or speed limited to such that the vehicle can be stopped in one-half the visible distance.

(3) Safe roadways.  All danger trees shall be felled a safe distance back from the roadway.  Rocks, which present a hazard, shall be cleared from banks.  Brush and other materials that obstruct the view at intersections or on sharp curves shall be cleared.  (This subsection is applicable only to those portions of roads under direct control of the employer.)

(4) Bridges.  All structures shall be adequate to support the maximum imposed loads without exceeding the maximum safe working unit stresses.  All bridges shall have an adequate number of reflectors to clearly define the entrance to the bridge.  All structures shall be maintained in good condition and repair and shall be inspected at least annually by a qualified authorized person and a record maintained of each inspection, which shall be made available to the division of industrial safety and health, department of labor and industries on request.

(5) Shear rails.  Shear rails shall be installed on both outside edges of bridges.  The shear rails must be securely fastened and made of material capable of withstanding the impact generated by contact with the wheels of a loaded vehicle.  The top of shear rails shall be not less than fifteen inches above the bridge surface.  Bridges in use prior to the effective date of these regulations with outside shear rails of a minimum of ten inches high or center type shear rails of not less than five inches high are permissible until such time repairs are needed.

(6) Control of dust on logging roads.  Measures shall be instituted which will minimize dust to such degree that visibility will not be reduced beyond the point where an operator can safely operate a vehicle.  Vehicle operators shall govern the speed of vehicles by road conditions.

(7) Fenders.  Pneumatic-tired equipment shall be equipped with fenders as described in the Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Report J321a.)) One of the following conditions must exist in work areas where equipment or machines are operated near electrical distribution and transmission lines:

(1) The lines have been de-energized and visibly grounded at the point of work;

(2) Insulating barriers that are not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery are erected to prevent physical contact with the lines; or

(3) All of the following requirements are met:


Line Voltage Required minimum clearance between lines and any part of equipment or machine
(a) 50 kV or below ten feet
(b) over 50 kV ten feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than ten feet
For equipment or machinery in transit with no load and any boom or extended equipment lowered:
(c) 50 kV or below four feet
(d) 50-345 kV ten feet
(e) 345-750 kV sixteen feet

(4) Someone must be designated to observe proper clearance and to give timely warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to see well enough to maintain the clearance.

(5) All overhead wires shall be considered energized unless the line owner or the electrical utility authorities ensure that it is not an energized line and has been visibly grounded.

(6) Special precautions must be taken to prevent trees from falling into power lines. The employer must notify the power company immediately if a felled tree makes contact with any power line. Before falling any tree that appears will hit a power line, the employer must notify the power company. If a tree does contact a power line, all employees must remain clear of the area until the power company ensures that there is no electrical hazard.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-527, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-527, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-529
((Falling and bucking--General.)) Seat belts.

(((1) Before starting to fall or buck any tree or snag, conditions such as, but not limited to, snow and ice accumulation, the wind, the lean of tree, dead limbs, and the location of other trees, shall be evaluated by the feller and precautions taken so a hazard is not created for an employee.  Accumulations of snow and ice that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed before felling is commenced in the area or the area shall be avoided.  Snags which are unsafe to cut shall be blown down with explosives or felled by other safe methods.

(2) No employee shall approach a feller closer than two tree lengths of trees being felled until the feller has acknowledged that it is safe to do so, unless the employer demonstrates that a team of employees is necessary to manually fell a particular tree.

(3) Before falling or bucking any tree:

(a) A sufficient work area shall be swamped;

(b) The feller shall plan and clear a retreat path; and

(i) The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternate retreat path; and

(ii) An escape path shall be used as soon as the tree or snag is committed to fall, roll, or slide.

(4) Warning to be given.  Fallers shall give timely and adequate warning prior to falling each tree; such warning shall be given with the saw motor at idle or shut off.  Persons in the area shall give response to the faller and shall also notify faller(s) when they are in the clear.

(5) A competent person, properly experienced in this type of work, shall be placed in charge of falling and bucking operations.  Inexperienced workers shall not be allowed to fall timber or buck logs unless working under the direct supervision of an experienced worker.

(6) Each danger tree shall be carefully checked for signs of loose bark, broken branches and limbs or other damage before they are felled or removed.  Accessible loose bark and other damage that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed or held in place before felling or removing the tree.  When a danger tree has elevated loose bark which cannot be removed, the buddy system shall be used to watch for and give warning of falling bark or other hazards.

(7) Tools of fallers and buckers, such as axes, sledges, wedges, saws, spring boards, etc., must be maintained in safe condition.  Case hardened or battered sledges and wedges shall not be used.

(8) Trees shall not be felled if the falling tree can endanger any worker or strike any line or any unit in the operation.

(9) When practical, strips shall be laid out so cutters face out into opening when starting strip, and all trees shall be felled into the open whenever conditions permit.

(10) Trade leaners.  Cutters shall not fall into another strip; leaners on the line shall be traded.

(11) When there is danger from kickback of a sapling, the same must be either undercut or felled.

(12) Cutters shall place an adequate undercut and leave sufficient holding wood to insure the tree will fall in the intended direction.  When required, mechanical means shall be used to accomplish this objective.

(13) Cutters shall be careful their chopping range is unobstructed.

(14) Cutters shall confer with their supervisor regarding a safe manner of performing the work and in unusually hazardous situations shall not proceed with the work until their method has been approved by their supervisor.

(15) The person in charge of cutting crews shall regularly inspect the work of the cutting crews and shall be responsible for seeing the work is performed in a proper and safe manner.

(16) Domino felling of trees, including danger trees, is prohibited.  The definition of domino felling does not include the felling of a single danger tree by felling another single tree into it.

(17) Cutters shall be assigned to work in locations where they are in contact with others or their welfare shall be checked on as provided for by WAC 296-54-507(3).

(18) Persons in charge of cutting crews shall account for all persons in their crews being on hand when work ceases as provided for by WAC 296-54-507(4).

(19) All fallers and buckers shall have a current first-aid card.

(20) All fallers and buckers shall carry or have with them in near proximity at all times, an axe, a minimum of two wedges, a whistle and a first-aid kit.  The whistle shall be carried on their person.

(21) While manual felling is in progress, no yarding machine shall be operated within two tree lengths of trees being manually felled.  Exception: This provision does not apply to yarding machines performing tree pulling operations or grounding of hazard trees according to WAC 296-54-557(24).

(22) Wedges shall be of soft metal, hardwood or plastic.

(23) Wedges shall be driven with a hammer or other suitable tool.  Double-bitted axes or pulaskies shall not be used for this purpose.

(24) While wedging, fallers shall watch for falling limbs or other material that might be jarred loose.  Cutting of holding wood in lieu of using wedges is prohibited.

(25) Undercuts are required except in matchcutting, and shall be large enough to safely guide trees and eliminate the possibility of splitting.  Trees with no perceptible lean having undercuts to a depth of one-fourth of the diameter of the tree with a face opening equal to one-fifth of the diameter of the tree, will be assumed to be within reasonable compliance with this rule.  Swing cuts are prohibited except by an experienced person.

(26) Undercuts shall be completely removed except when a dutchman is required on either side of the cut.

(27) Backcuts.

(a) All backcuts shall be as level as possible and shall leave sufficient hinge wood to hold the tree to the stump until the tree is committed to the path of fall in the intended direction.

(i) The backcut alignment on larger trees shall be approximately two inches above the undercut hinge point to provide a platform to help prevent kickback when the holding wood breaks off.

(ii) On moderate or smaller size trees the backcut alignment shall be above the undercut but can be less than two inches.

(b) In tree-pulling operations the backcut may be at or below the undercut hinge point.

(c) A backcut shall be made in each tree being felled.

(28) Trees with face cuts or backcuts shall not be left standing.  When a tree is not completely felled, the faller shall clearly mark the tree, shall discontinue work in the hazardous area and notify the immediate supervisor.  The supervisor shall be responsible for notifying all workers who might be endangered and shall take appropriate measures to ensure that the tree is safely felled before other work is undertaken in the hazardous area.

(29) To avoid use of wedges, which might dislodge loose bark or other material, snags shall be felled in the direction of lean unless other means (mechanical or dynamite) are used.

(30) Lodged trees shall be clearly marked and identified by a predetermined method and all persons in the area shall be instructed not to pass or work within two tree lengths of such trees except to ground them.

(31) Work areas shall be assigned so that a tree cannot fall into an adjacent occupied work area.  The distance between work areas shall be at least twice the height of the trees being felled.  A greater distance may be required on downhill slopes depending on the degree of the slope and on the type of trees and other considerations.

(32) Where felled trees are likely to roll and endanger workers, cutting shall proceed from the bottom toward the top of the slope, and performed uphill from previously felled timber.

(33) Cutters shall not be placed on a hillside immediately below each other or below other operations where there is probable danger.

(34) Fallers shall be informed of the movement and location of buckers or other cutters placed, passing or approaching the vicinity of trees being felled.

(35) A flagperson(s) shall be assigned on roads where hazardous conditions are created from falling trees.  Where there is no through traffic, such as on a dead end road, warning signs or barricades shall be used.

(36) No tree or danger tree shall be felled by one cutter where and when the assistance of a fellow cutter is necessary to minimize the dangers or hazards involved.

(37) Cutters shall be in the clear as the tree falls.

(38) Undercuts and backcuts shall be made at a height above the highest ground level to enable the cutter to safely begin the cut, control the tree, and have freedom of movement for a quick escape to be in the clear from a falling tree.

(39) When falling, a positive means, method or procedure that will prevent accidental cutting of necessary holding wood shall be established and followed.  Particular care shall be taken to hold enough wood to guide the tree or snag and prevent it prematurely slipping or twisting from the stump.

(40) The undercut shall not be made while buckers or other workers are in an area into which the tree could fall.

(41) Matchcutting should not be permitted and shall be prohibited for trees larger than six inches in diameter breast high.

(42) The tree (and root wad if applicable) shall be carefully examined to determine which way the logs (and root wad) will roll, drop, or swing when the cut is completed.  No worker shall be allowed in this danger zone during cutting.

(43) Logs shall be completely bucked through whenever possible.  If it becomes hazardous to complete a cut, then the log shall be marked and identified by a predetermined method.  Rigging crews shall be instructed to recognize such marks and when possible, cutters shall warn the rigging crew of locations where such unfinished cuts remain.

(44) Cutters shall give timely warning to all persons within range of any log which may have a tendency to roll after being cut off.

(45) Propping of logs or trees as a means to protect workers downslope from the logs or trees, shall be prohibited.

(46) Logs shall not be jackstrawed when being bucked in piles or decks at a landing.

(47) The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly over head.

(48) The chain saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut.  The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.)) Each machine equipped with ROPS and each vehicle (whether provided by the employee or the employer) must meet the following requirements:

(1) A seat belt must be provided for each vehicle, vehicle occupant, and all machines equipped with ROPS.


Note: An employer is not required to retrofit a machine or vehicle that was not equipped with seat belts at the time of manufacture.

(2) Each employee must use the available seat belt while the vehicle or machine is being operated.


EXCEPTION: During road construction operations ONLY, when road building machine operators are faced with a significant steep and deep cliff on the side, a seat belt is not required to be worn, if the employee's immediate supervisor approves of such action.

(3) Each employee must securely and tightly fasten the seat belt to restrain the employee within the vehicle or machine cab.

(4) Each machine seat belt must meet the requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers Standard SAE J386, June 1985, "Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines." Seat belts need not be provided for equipment that is designed for stand-up operations.

(5) Seat belts must not be removed from any vehicle or machine. The employer must replace each seat belt that was removed from any vehicle or machine that was equipped with seat belts at the time of manufacture.

(6) Each seat belt must be maintained in a serviceable condition.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-529, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-529, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-529, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-531
((Power saws and power equipment.)) Motor vehicles.

(((1) Operators shall inspect chain saws daily to ensure that handles and guards are in place, and controls and other moving parts are functional.

(a) Each chain saw placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a chain brake and, shall otherwise meet the requirements of the ANSI B175.1-1991 "Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws" and the requirements of this chapter; and

(b) Each chain saw placed into service before February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a protective device that minimizes chain saw kickback i.e., reduced kick back bar, chains, bar tip guard or chain brake; and

(c) No chain saw kick back device shall be removed or otherwise disabled.

(2) Fuel outdoors.  The chain saw shall be fueled outdoors at least fifty feet (15.2 meters) from persons smoking or from other potential sources of ignition.

(3) Chain saws shall not be operated unless equipped with a muffler.

(4) Chain saws shall be operated and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the requirements of this chapter.

(5) Combustion-engine type power saws shall be equipped with a positive means of stopping the engine.

(6) Electric power saws shall be equipped with an automatic (deadman type) control switch.  Saws with faulty switches shall not be used.

(7) Unless the carburetor is being adjusted, the saw shall be shut off before any adjustments or repairs are made to the saw, chain or bar.

(8) Combustion-engine type power saws shall be equipped with a clutch.

(9) The chain saw clutch shall be properly adjusted to prevent the chain from moving when the engine is at idle speed.

(10) Power chain saws with faulty clutches shall not be used.

(11) The bar shall be handled only when the power chain saw motor is shut off.

(12) Power chain saws shall have the drive end of the bar guarded.

(13) Combustion-engine driven power saws shall be equipped with an automatic throttle control (deadman type), which will return the engine to idle speed upon release of the throttle (idle speed is when the engine is running and the chain does not rotate on the bar).

(14) When falling of tree is completed, the power saw motor shall be at idle or shutoff. The power saw motor shall also be shutoff while fueling.

(15) Saw pinching and subsequent chain saw kickback shall be prevented by using wedges, levers, guidelines, and saw placement, or by undercutting.

(16) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.

(17) Reserve fuel shall be handled and stored in accordance with WAC 296-54-515(11).

(18) Hand-held files shall be equipped with a handle.

(19) Only experienced cutters shall buck windfalls.

(20) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported.  Drop starting a chain saw is prohibited.

(21) Chain saws equipped with chain brakes shall be started with the chain brake engaged.

(22) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation.

(23) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.

(24) The chain saw shall be shut off or at idle before the feller starts to retreat.

(25) The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged whenever a saw is carried further than 50 feet (15.2 m).  The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged when a saw is carried less than 50 feet if conditions such as, but not limited to, the terrain, underbrush and slippery surfaces, may create a hazard for an employee.)) (1) The seats of each vehicle must be securely fastened.

(2) Each school bus type vehicle that will transport nine or more passengers must have a substantial barricade behind the driver. The barricade must extend from the floor to at least a level even with the top of the driver's head.

(3) Adequate provision must be made for safe entrance and exits. Each vehicle must have mounting steps and handholds wherever it is necessary to prevent an employee injury when entering or leaving the vehicle.

(4) When equipment or tools are carried inside the vehicle, the employer must provide and use racks, boxes, holsters or other means to transport tools so that a hazard is not created for any vehicle operator or passenger.

(5) No one may enter or exit any vehicle until the vehicle is completely stopped.

(6) Employees must keep all parts of the body within the vehicle.

(7) Heat and light must be available in the passenger area of the vehicle. Use of stoves in vehicles is prohibited.

(8) Vehicles designed to transport nine or more passengers must have an emergency exit that:

(a) Is at least six and one-half square feet in area, with the smallest dimension being at least 18 inches;

(b) Is placed at the back of the vehicle or near the back on the side opposite the regular entrance; and

(c) Has an unobstructed route to and from the exit.

(9) When no fuel is transported in the crew vehicle, a minimum rated 5/BC dry chemical fire extinguisher must be kept in the passenger compartment. When fuel is transported on the crew vehicle according to subsection (12) of this section, a minimum rated 10/BC dry chemical fire extinguisher must be kept in the passenger compartment. The extinguishing agent must be nontoxic and preferably noncorrosive.

(10) Exhaust systems must be designed and maintained to eliminate the exposure of passengers to toxic agents.

(11) Operating and maintenance instructions must be available in each vehicle. Each vehicle operator and maintenance employee must comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.

(12) Fuel must be transported or stored only in approved safety containers. Enclosed areas where fuels are carried or stored must be vented so that a hazardous concentration of fumes cannot accumulate. All containers or drums must be properly secured to the vehicle while being transported. Commercially built pick-up or flatbed trucks with a maximum seating capacity of six persons may be used to carry fuel in or on the bed of such vehicles, if the fuel is not carried in the crew compartment. Van-type vehicles may be used to carry fuel only when a vapor-proof bulkhead is installed between the passenger compartment and storage compartment. A maximum of forty-two gallons of gasoline may be carried or stored in the compartment and each container must have a maximum capacity seven gallons.

(13) Motor vehicles used regularly to transport employees must be covered against the weather and equipped and operated according to applicable state of Washington motor vehicle laws.

(14) All operators of crew vehicles must be experienced drivers and have a valid operator's license for the class of vehicle being operated.

(15) Dump trucks must only be used in an emergency to transport workers and have adequate safety chains or locking devices that eliminate the possibility of the body of the truck being raised while employees are riding in the truck. "Emergency" means any unforeseen circumstances that call for immediate action when danger to life or danger from fire exists.

(16) An effective means of signaling must be provided for communication between the driver and the passengers being transported when they are in separate compartments.

(17) The passenger load limit of a crew vehicle must not exceed the seating capacity of the vehicle.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-531, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-531, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-531, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-533
((Falling and bucking--Springboards and tree jacking.)) Truck roads.

(((1) Springboards shall be of clear, straight-grained sound stock of sufficient length, width and strength and shall be replaced when they will no longer safely support the expected load at the extreme end.

(2) Springboard irons shall be well lipped and firmly attached with bolts or a means of attachment furnishing equivalent strength.

(3) Two workers shall be present when falling any tree or snag when springboards are used.

(4) Power saw chains shall be stopped while shifting springboards.

(5) Jack plates shall be used with hydraulic tree jacks and the base plate shall be seated on solid wood inside the bark ring as close to level as possible.

(6) Two workers shall be present at all times during the use of tree jacks.

(7) Wedges shall be used as a follow-up method while using tree jacks.  The wedges shall be continuously moved in as the tree is jacked.

(8) Effective January 1, 1980, all hydraulic tree jacks shall be equipped with an operable velocity fuse (check valve) and the pump shall be equipped with an operable pressure gauge.

(9) When tree jacking, the facecut shall be nominally one-fourth the diameter of the tree.

(10) The vertical height of the facecut shall be not less than one-fifth of the diameter of the tree when tree jacking.


Note: See Figure No. 1, for illustrations of undercuts.



UNDERCUTS

Place illustration here.
(A) Conventional undercut. Can be made with parallel saw cut and axe diagonal cut or both cuts with the saw.  Generally used on trees of small diameter.

(B) Both cuts made with the saw. Leaves square-end log.  Same as (A), except that waste is put on the stump.

(C) Two parallel cuts with the saw. The material between the cuts is chipped out with an axe-adz (pulaski) combination.  Used on trees over 30 inches in diameter.

(D) Three parallel cuts with the saw, leaving a step.  Same in principle as (C).  Used on trees of very large diameters.


Item
1 Undercut depth
2 Undercut height
3 Holding wood
4 Backcut))


(1) Haul road grades must not exceed 20 percent unless:

(a) Special equipment and safety measures are used to accommodate the steep grade; or

(b) The logging equipment or truck is specifically designed and approved by the manufacturer for operation on grades over twenty percent.

(2) Truck road surfaces must meet the following requirements:

(a) Truck roads are wide enough and even to ensure the safe operation of equipment.

(b) Hazards such as broken planking, deep holes, large rocks, logs, etc., that make equipment operation unsafe, must be immediately corrected.

(c) On blind curves, one of the following must be implemented:

(i) Truck roads are wide enough for two trucks to pass;

(ii) A signal system is maintained; or

(iii) Speed is limited so that the vehicle can be stopped in one-half the visible distance.

(3) For all portions of roads under the direct control of the employer, the employer must ensure that:

(a) All danger trees are fell a safe distance back from the roadway;

(b) Rocks that present a hazard are cleared from banks; and

(c) Brush and other materials that obstruct the view at intersections or on sharp curves are cleared.

(4) All bridge structures used in the logging operation must meet the following requirements:

(a) Structures are adequate to support the maximum imposed loads without exceeding the maximum safe working unit stresses;

(b) Bridges have an adequate number of reflectors to clearly define the entrance to the bridge;

(c) Structures are maintained in good condition and repair;

(d) Structures are inspected at least annually by a qualified authorized person; and

(e) A record maintained of each inspection must be available to a representative of the department on request.

(5) Shear rails must be installed on both outside edges of bridges. The shear rails must be securely fastened and made of material able to withstand the impact generated by contact with the wheels of a loaded vehicle. The top of shear rails must be at least fifteen inches above the bridge surface. Bridges in use before 1980 with outside shear rails a minimum of ten inches high or center shear rails at least five inches high are permissible until repairs are needed.

(6) The employer must implement measures that minimize dust to the degree that visibility is sufficient to allow an operator to safely operate a vehicle. Vehicle operators must travel at a speed consistent with road conditions.

(7) Pneumatic-tired equipment must have fenders as described in the Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Report J321a.

(8) Employee(s) must be assigned to flag on roads or provide other equivalent protection where hazardous conditions are created from logging such as but not limited to:

(a) Running wire rope lines or rigging across road grades, excluding guylines and standing skylines if lines remain a safe distance above the road to allow a vehicle to pass under; or

(b) The movement of logs, chunks, or debris across or suspended over road grades.


EXCEPTION: Where there is no through traffic, such as on a dead end road or where the property owner's permission or proper authority is granted to close a section of road, warning signs and barricades may be used instead of flagger(s).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-533, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-535
((Tree pulling.)) Road pioneering and earthwork.

(((1) The cutter shall be responsible for determining if a tree can be safely pulled.  If, for any reason, the cutter believes the tree pulling cannot be completed safely, the tree shall be conventionally felled.

(2) When using radio positive radio communications shall be maintained at all times between the tree pulling machine and cutter when tree pulling.  An audible signal shall be blown when the initial pull is made on the tree and the line is tightened.  Hand signals, in lieu of radio communications and an audible signal, may be used only if the cutter is clearly visible to the tree puller operator.

(3) A choker, with bell, or a line and sleeve shackle shall be used as the means of attachment around the tree when tree pulling.  The bight on the line shall be only that necessary to hold the choker or line around the tree.

(4) The tree pulling machine shall be equipped with a torque converter, fluid coupler, or an equivalent device to insure a steady even pull on the line attached around the tree.

(5) The tree pulling line shall have as straight and direct path from the machine to the tree as possible.  Physical obstructions which prevent a steady even pull on the tree pulling line shall be removed or the line shall be rerouted.

(6) Siwashing, in lieu of a block, in order to change tree pulling lead, is prohibited.)) (1) Banks at the borrow area must be sloped to prevent slides.

(2) Backfill must be firmly compacted.

(3) Roadside banks must be sloped or stabilized to prevent slides.

(4) Overhanging banks, large rocks and debris must be removed or secured.

(5) Where riprap is used, the material and design must ensure containment of material.

(6) Trees or snags that may fall into the road must be fell.

(7) Root wads, logs, and other unstable debris must not be placed against standing timber or otherwise placed so as to create a hazard for timber falling or other logging operations.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-535, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-535, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-535, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-537
((Mechanized falling.)) Chain saws.

(((1) When using selfpropelled mobile falling devices, a watchman and/or warning signs shall be posted at appropriate locations indicating that devices of this type are being used to fall trees.

(2) Self-propelled mobile falling equipment used for falling trees shall be designed in a manner or shall have auxiliary equipment installed which will cause the tree to fall in the intended direction.

(3) Mechanized falling shall be conducted in such a manner as not to endanger persons or equipment.

(4) Where a mechanized feller incorporates a cab structure having a single entrance door, it shall be equipped with an alternate means of escape from the cab should the door be blocked in the event of vehicle rollover or fire.  Cab doors shall be fitted with latches operable from both sides of the door.

(5) No employee shall approach a mechanical felling operation closer than two tree lengths of the trees being felled until the machine operator has acknowledged that it is safe to do so.)) (1) Operators must inspect chain saws daily to ensure that handles and guards are in place, and controls and other moving parts are functional.

(a) Each chain saw placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, must be equipped with a chain brake and, shall otherwise meet the requirements of ANSI B175.1-1991 "Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws" and the requirements of this chapter;

(b) Each chain saw placed into service before February 9, 1995, must be equipped with a protective device that minimizes chain saw kickback, i.e., reduced kick back bar, chains, bar tip guard, or chain brake; and

(c) No chain saw kick back device shall be removed or otherwise disabled.

(2) Saw pinching and subsequent chain saw kickback must be prevented by using wedges, levers, guidelines, and saw placement, or by undercutting.

(3) Chain saws must be:

(a) Shutoff while fueling;

(b) Fueled outdoors at least ten feet from anyone smoking or from other potential sources of ignition; and

(c) Started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.

(4) Chain saws must have a positive means of stopping the engine.

(5) Unless the carburetor is being adjusted, the chain saw must be shut off before any adjustments or repairs are made to the saw, chain, or bar.

(6) Using a chain saw with a faulty clutch is prohibited.

(7) The bar must be handled only when the chain saw motor is shut off.

(8) The drive end of the chain saw bar must be guarded.

(9) The chain saw must have an automatic throttle control that will return the engine to idle speed when the throttle is released.


Note: Idle speed is when the engine is running and the chain does not rotate on the bar.

(10) The chain saw must be started on the ground, log or where otherwise firmly supported. Drop starting a chain saw is prohibited.

(11) A chain saw must be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in a specific situation.

(12) The chain saw must be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.

(13) The chain saw must be shut off or at idle before the faller starts to retreat.

(14) The chain saw must be shut down or the chain brake engaged whenever a saw is carried:

(a) Further than 50 feet (15.2 m); or

(b) Less than 50 feet if conditions such as, but not limited to, the terrain, underbrush, and slippery surfaces, may create a hazard for an employee.

(15) Using a chain saw to cut directly over head is prohibited.

(16) The chain saw operator must be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw must not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have unsteady footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-537, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-537, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-539
((Climbing equipment and passline.)) Falling and bucking--General.

(((1) Standard climbing equipment shall be furnished by the employer; however, this shall not be construed to mean that the climber may not use personal equipment, provided it meets the following standards and is permitted by the employer.  The climbing ropes shall be of steelcore type.  The climber may fasten climbing rope by passing it through "D" rings fastened to the belt and around his body before tying it to itself.  When topping standing trees, it is recommended that a steel chain of 3/16-inch or larger, with appropriate fittings attached, shall be used in addition to the climbing rope.  All climbing equipment shall be maintained in good condition.  An extra set of climbing equipment shall be kept at the climbing operation and another person with climbing experience shall be present.

(2) A person shall ride only the passline to thread lines, oil blocks or to inspect rigging.

(3) No one shall work directly under a tree except when directed by the climber.  Warning shall be given prior to intentionally dropping any objects or when objects are accidentally dropped.

(4) Running lines shall not be moved while the climber is working in the tree, except such "pulls" as climber directs and are necessary for the work.

(5) One experienced person shall be dispatched to transmit the climber's signals to the machine operator and shall not otherwise be occupied during the time the climber is in the tree, nor shall the machine operator be otherwise occupied while the climber is using the passline.  The designated signal person shall position themselves clear of hazards from falling, flying or thrown objects.

(6) Long or short splices and knots in passline are not permitted.  Chains used in passlines shall be in good condition and shall not contain cold shuts or wire strands.

(7) The climber shall be an experienced logger with proper knowledge of logging methods and the safety of rigging spar and tail trees.

(8) Trees shall not be topped during windy weather.

(9) At no time shall topping, rigging-up, or stripping work be done when visibility is impaired.

(10) When the friction lever and passline drum is on the opposite side of the machine from the operator, an experienced person shall operate the friction lever while the engineer operates the throttle.  While being used, the passline drum shall be properly attended by another person to guide the passline onto the passline drum with a tool suitable for the purpose.

(11) The use of a gypsy drum for handling persons in the tree is prohibited.

(12) Danger trees leaning towards and within reach of landings, roads, rigging or work areas shall either be felled before the regular operations begin or work shall be arranged so that workers will not be exposed to hazards involved.

(13) Noisy equipment such as power saws, tractors and shovels shall not be operated around the area where a climber is working when such noise will interfere with the climber's signals.

(14) Climbing and passline equipment shall not be used for other purposes.

(15) Defective climbing equipment shall be immediately removed from service.

(16) The climber shall be equipped with a climbing equipment assembly having a breaking strength of not less than five thousand four hundred pounds.

The equipment shall include:

(a) A safety belt with double "D" rings;

(b) Steel spurs long and sharp enough to hold in any tree in which they are used; and

(c) A climbing rope made of wire-core hemp, wire or chain construction.

(17) When the climber is using a chain saw in the tree, the climbing rope shall be made of material that cannot be severed by the saw.

(18) Lineman hooks shall not be used as spurs.

(19) When power saws are used in topping or limbing standing trees, the weight of the saw shall not exceed thirty pounds.

(20) Tools used by the climber, except the power saw, shall be safely secured to climbers belt when not in use.

(21) Snaps shall not be used on a climber's rope unless a secondary safety device between the belt and snap is used.

(22) A climber's rope shall encircle the tree before the climber leaves the ground except when the climber is riding the passline.

(23) While the climber is working in the tree, persons shall keep at sufficient distance from the tree to be clear of falling objects.

(24) When used, passline fair-leads shall be kept in alignment and free from fouling at all times.

(25) Spikes, used by the climber as a temporary aid in hanging rigging, shall be removed before the tree is used for logging.

(26) Loose equipment, rigging or material shall either be removed from the tree or securely fastened.

(27) All spar trees shall be equipped with passlines that shall:

(a) Be not less than 5/16-inch and not be over 1/2-inch in diameter;

(b) Not be subjected to any sawing on other lines or rigging, and kept clear of all moving lines and rigging;

(c) Be of one continuous length and in good condition with no splices, knots, molles, or eye-to-eye splices between the ends;

(d) Be long enough to provide three wraps on the drum before the climber leaves the ground.

(28) Drums used for passlines shall have sufficient flange depth to prevent the passline from running off the drum at any time.

(29) Passline chains shall:

(a) Be not less than 5/16-inch alloy or 3/8-inch high test chain and shall not contain cold shuts or wire strands;

(b) Be attached to the end of the passline with a screw-pin shackle, a slip-pin shackle with a nut and molle, or a ring large enough to prevent going through the pass block; and

(c) Be fitted with links or rings to prevent workers from being pulled into the passline block.

(30) Pass blocks shall:

(a) Be inspected before placing in each spar and the necessary replacements or repairs made before they are hung;

(b) Have the shells bolted under the sheaves;

(c) Have the bearing pin securely locked and nuts keyed or the block be of the type which positively secures the nut and pin;

(d) Equipped with sheaves not less than six inches in diameter; and

(e) Comply with applicable portions of WAC 296-54-543(6) pertaining to blocks.

(31) When workers are required to go up vertical metal spars, passlines, chains and blocks shall be provided and used.)) (1) The employer must assign work areas so that:

(a) Trees cannot fall into an adjacent occupied work area;

(b) The distance between work areas is at least two tree lengths of the trees being fell (see Figure 1: Distance Between Work Areas);

Place illustration here.

(c) The distance between work areas reflects the degree of slope, the density of the growth, the height of the trees, the soil structure and other hazards reasonably anticipated at the worksite; and

(d) A distance of more than two tree lengths is maintained between work areas on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable.


EXCEPTION: This rule does not apply to a team of cutters working on the same tree.

(2) Before falling or bucking, conditions such as, but not limited to, snow and ice accumulation, the wind, the lean of tree, dead limbs, and the location of other trees, must be evaluated by the cutter and precautions taken so a hazard is not created for an employee. Accumulations of snow and ice that may create a hazard for an employee must be removed before beginning falling in the area, or the area must be avoided.

(3) Employees must not approach a cutter closer than two tree lengths of trees being felled until the cutter has acknowledged that it is safe to do so.

(4) A competent person, properly experienced in this type of work, must be placed in charge of falling and bucking operations. Inexperienced workers must not be allowed to fall timber, buck logs or windfalls unless working under the direct supervision of an experienced cutter.

(5) Trees must not be fell if the falling tree can strike any line in the logging operation and endanger workers.

(6) Before an employee falls or bucks any tree:

(a) A sufficient work area must be swamped;

(b) The cutter must plan and clear an escape path; and

(i) The escape path must extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless such an escape path poses a greater hazard than an alternate escape path; and

(ii) An escape path must be used as soon as the tree or snag is committed to fall, roll, or slide.

(7) If a cutter has determined a tree cannot be safely fell, the work must stop until the cutter has conferred with a supervisor or an experienced cutter and determined the safest possible work method or procedure.

(8) The person in charge of cutting crews must regularly inspect the work of the cutting crews and is responsible to ensure the work is performed in a proper and safe manner.

(9) All cutters must carry or have in near proximity at all times:

(a) An axe or suitable tool for driving wedges;

(b) A minimum of two wedges;

(c) A whistle carried on the person; and

(d) A first-aid kit.

(i) The first-aid kit must contain at least two trauma bandages or equivalent absorbent gauze material and a means to secure the material in place.

(ii) First aid supplies must be kept clean and dry.

(10) A flagperson(s) must be assigned on roads where hazardous conditions are created from falling trees. Where there is no through traffic, such as on a dead end road, warning signs or barricades may be used instead of a flagperson(s).

(11) A cutter must not fall a tree or danger tree alone when at least two cutters are necessary to minimize hazards.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-539, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-539, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-539, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-53910
Falling and bucking--Falling.

(1) Where felled trees are likely to roll and endanger workers, cutting must proceed from the bottom toward the top of the slope, and uphill from previously fell timber.

(2) A cutter must not be placed on a hillside immediately below another cutter or below other logging operations where there is probable danger.

(3) Cutters must be informed of the movement and location of other employees placed, passing, or approaching the vicinity of trees being fell.

(4) Cutters must give audible warning when falling trees, and:

(a) Indicate the direction of fall;

(b) Ensure that all employees are out of reach of the tree; and

(c) Ensure that all employees are in clear of logs, fallen trees, snags, or other trees that may be struck by the falling tree.


EXCEPTION: Audible warnings are not required when falling trees less than 18 inches DBH, if the cutter has an unobstructed view of the entire area that could be affected by the tree being fell and is assured there is no one within the area.

(5) While manual falling is in progress, all logging machines must be operated at least two lengths away from trees being manually fell.


EXCEPTION: This provision does not apply to logging machines performing tree pulling operations or logging machines called upon by the cutter to ground hazard trees. All cutters must be notified of the logging machine's entrance into the area and all falling within two tree lengths of the logging machine must stop.

(6) Trees must be fell into the open whenever conditions permit.

(7) Cutters must not fall into another strip; trade leaners on the line.

(8) Knocking over trees larger than six inches in diameter in lieu of cutting is prohibited, except as provided in WAC 296-54-53910(9).

(9) Domino falling of trees, including danger trees, is prohibited. Domino falling does not include the falling of a single danger tree by falling another single tree into it.

(10) Undercuts large enough to safely guide trees and eliminate the possibility of splitting must be used on all trees over 6 inches DBH.


For example: A tree with no perceptible lean, having an undercut depth of one-fourth of the diameter of the tree and a face opening equal to one-fifth of the diameter of the tree would meet the requirement.

(11) A cutter must place an adequate undercut and leave enough holding wood to ensure the tree will fall in the intended direction.

(12) The two cuts that form the undercut must not cross where they meet, except where a dutchman is required on either side of the cut.

(13) The undercut must not be made while other workers are in an area into which the tree could fall.

(14) A backcut must be made in each tree being fell.

(a) The backcut must be as level as possible;

(b) The backcut must leave enough hinge wood to hold the tree to the stump during most of its fall so that the hinge is able to guide the tree's fall in the intended direction; and

(c) The backcut must be above the level of the horizontal facecut to provide an adequate platform to prevent kickback.


EXCEPTION: This requirement does not apply to open-faced falling where two angled facecuts are used instead of a horizontal facecut.

(d) In tree-pulling operations the backcut may be at or below the undercut hinge point.

(15) Cutting holding wood instead of using wedges is prohibited. Swing cuts are prohibited except by an experienced person.

(16) Trees with face cuts and/or backcuts must not be left standing unless all the following conditions are met:

(a) The cutter clearly marks the tree;

(b) Discontinues work in the hazardous area;

(c) Notifies all workers who might be endangered; and

(d) Takes appropriate measures to ensure that the tree is safely fell before other work is undertaken in the hazardous area.

(17) Undercuts and backcuts must be made at a height above the highest ground level to enable the cutter to safely begin the cut, control the tree, and have freedom of movement for a quick escape from a falling tree.

(18) Lodged trees must be clearly marked and identified by a predetermined method and all persons in the area must be instructed not to pass or work within two tree lengths of the trees except to ground them.


Note: See Figure No. 2, for illustrations of undercuts.

Place illustration here.

FIGURE 2: UNDERCUTS


(A) Conventional undercut. Can be made with parallel saw cut and axe diagonal cut or both cuts with the saw. Generally used on trees of small diameter.
(B) Humboldt undercut. Leaves square-end log. Same as (A), except that waste is put on the stump.
(C) Two parallel cuts with the saw. The material between the cuts is chopped out with an axe-adz (pulaski) combination. Used on trees over 30 inches in diameter.
(D) Three parallel cuts with the saw, leaving a step. Same in principle as (C). Used on trees of very large diameters.

Item
1 Undercut depth
2 Undercut height
3 Holding wood
4 Backcut

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-53920
Falling and bucking--Bucking.

(1) The tree (and root wad if applicable) must be carefully examined to determine which way the logs (and root wad) will roll, drop, or swing when the cut is completed. No worker shall be allowed in this danger zone during cutting. The cut must be made from a position that will not expose the cutter to potential injury.

(2) Logs must be completely bucked through whenever possible. If it becomes hazardous to complete a cut, then the log must be marked and identified by a predetermined method. Rigging crews must be instructed to recognize such marks and when possible, cutters must warn the rigging crew of locations where unfinished cuts remain.

(3) Cutters must give timely warning to all persons within range of any log that may have a tendency to roll after being cut off.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-53930
Falling and bucking--Danger trees.

(1) Each danger tree must be carefully checked for signs of loose bark, broken branches and limbs, or other damage before they are fell or removed. Accessible loose bark and other damage that may create a hazard for an employee must be removed or held in place before falling or removing the tree. When a danger tree has elevated loose bark that cannot be removed, the buddy system must be used to watch for and give warning of falling bark or other hazards.

(2) Danger trees that are unsafe to cut must be blown down with explosives or fell by other safe methods.

(3) To avoid use of wedges, which might dislodge loose bark or other material, danger trees must be fell in the direction of lean unless other means (mechanical or dynamite) are used.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-53940
Falling and bucking--Springboards and tree jacking.

(1) Springboards must be:

(a) Made of clear, straight grained sound stock;

(b) Long enough, wide enough, and strong enough; and

(c) Replaced when they will no longer safely support the expected load at the extreme end.

(2) Springboard irons must be well lipped and firmly attached with bolts or other equally strong attachment.

(3) Saw chains must be stopped while shifting springboards.

(4) Jack plates must be used with hydraulic tree jacks and the base plate must be seated on solid wood inside the bark ring as close to level as possible.

(5) When necessary, two workers must be present at the tree during hydraulic tree jacking to lend assistance.

(6) Wedges must be used as a follow-up method while using tree jacks, and continuously moved in as the tree is jacked.

(7) All hydraulic tree jacks must be equipped with a check valve and the pump must be equipped with an operable pressure gauge.

(8) Jacking a tree straight uphill is prohibited when the tree may slide back past the stump.

(9) On slopes over 50% grade, tree(s) must at least be quartered to a degree that prevents employees from being exposed to the possibility of sliding or rolling trees or logs.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-541
((Selection of spar, tail and intermediate trees.)) Tree pulling.

(((1) Douglas fir or spruce shall be used as spar, tail, or intermediate support trees when they are available.  If other species must be used, additional guylines, tree plates, or other precautions shall be taken to insure the tree will withstand the strains to be imposed.

(2) Spar, tail and intermediate support trees shall be examined carefully for defects before being selected.  They shall be sound, straight, green and of sufficient diameter to withstand the strains to be imposed.

(3) Trees having defects that impair their strength shall not be used for spar, tail or intermediate support trees.  Raised trees shall be identified and marked as such.

(4) Before raising spar trees, dummy trees shall be topped and guyed with three guylines equivalent in breaking strength to the mainline.)) (1) The cutter must be responsible for determining if a tree can be safely pulled. If, for any reason, the cutter believes the tree pulling cannot be completed safely, the tree must be conventionally fell.

(2) When using a radio, positive radio communications must be maintained at all times between the tree pulling machine and cutter when tree pulling. An audible signal must be blown when the initial pull is made on the tree and the line is tightened. Hand signals, instead of radio communications and an audible signal, may be used only if the cutter is clearly visible to the tree puller operator.

(3) A choker with bell, or a line and sleeve shackle must be used as the means of attachment around the tree when tree pulling. (See also WAC 296-54-54710(4).) The bight on the line must be the minimum necessary to hold the choker or line around the tree.

(4) The tree pulling machine must be equipped with a torque converter, fluid coupler, or an equivalent device to ensure a steady even pull on the line attached around the tree.

(5) The tree pulling line must have as straight and direct path from the machine to the tree as possible. Physical obstructions that prevent a steady even pull on the tree pulling line must be removed or the line must be rerouted.

(6) Siwashing, in lieu of a block, in order to change tree pulling lead, is prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-541, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 80-15, filed 8/20/80)

WAC 296-54-543
((General requirements.)) Mechanized falling.

(((1) Rigging.

(a) Rigging shall be arranged and operated so rigging or loads will not foul, or saw against lines, straps, blocks or other equipment.

(b) A thorough inspection of all blocks, straps, guylines and other rigging shall be made before they are placed in positions for use.  Inspections shall include an examination for damaged, cracked or worn parts, loose nuts and bolts, and of lubrication, and the condition of straps and guylines.  All necessary repairs or replacements for safe operation shall be made before the rigging is used.

(c) Rigging equipment, when not in use, shall be stored so as to not present a hazard to employees.

(d) Running lines shall be arranged so workers will not be required to work in the bight.  When this is not possible, workers shall move out of the bight of lines before the lines are tightened or moved.

(2) Shackles.

(a) Shackles with screw pins should have either a molle or cotter key when used to fasten guylines to spar trees.

(b) All shackles used to hang blocks, jacks, or rigging on trees or loading booms shall have the pins fastened by a nut secured with a cotter pin or molle.  When used, molles shall be as large as the pin hole will accommodate and with the loose ends rolled in.

(c) The size of the opening between the jaws of shackles used to hang blocks, jacks, rigging, and for joining or attaching lines, shall not be more than one inch greater than the size of the rope, swivel, shackle, or similar device to which it is attached.

(d) All shackles used for mainline or skyline extensions shall be of a type designed for that purpose.

(e) Shackles used other than for mainline extension connections, shall be of the screw-pin type or with the pin secured by a nut and cotter pin or molle, except as specified elsewhere for specific purposes.

(f) Shackles, swivels, links and tree plates shall be replaced or repaired when they will not safely support the imposed strains of their intended use.

(g) Shackles shall not be loaded in excess of the working load recommended by the manufacturer.

(h) All shackles must be made of forged steel or material of equivalent strength and one size larger than the line it connects.

(3) Straps.

(a) Safety straps of appropriate size shall be placed on all high lead blocks; also other blocks whenever practicable.  Safety straps shall be shackled, with closed end of shackle up, to a guyline which extends as near as possible at right angles with power unit, but shall not be placed on a guyline having an extension within one hundred feet of the tree.  When the top guyline on which the safety strap of the high lead block is fastened is changed, safety strap must be attached to another guyline or loosened guyline tightened after change.

(b) All tree straps shall be at least 1/4-inch larger than the pulling line.  If impossible to use safety strap, all tree straps shall be 1/2-inch larger than the pulling line.

(c) All straps in back of show must be as large as the running line.

(d) All blocks other than passline and straw line lead blocks shall be hung in both eyes or "D's" of straps.  Threading eye through eye is prohibited.

(e) Skyline jack shall not be hung by double strap through shackle and hanging jack in two eyes.

(f) Tree straps shall initially be made of new wire rope when made up.  They shall be replaced when there is evidence of damage or broken wires.

(g) A guyline safety strap or equivalent device shall be installed at the top of metal spars to prevent guylines from falling more than five feet in case of structural or mechanical failure of the guyline attachment.

(h) Metal spar guyline safety straps or equivalent devices shall be equal to the strength of the guyline.

(i) Nylon straps may be used in accordance with manufacturer recommendations.

(j) Nylon straps shall be removed from service when the wear reaches the limits prescribed by the manufacturer.  The person responsible for inspecting the condition of rigging shall be aware of these limits.

(4) Guylines.

(a) All component parts of the guyline system on head tree shall be of equal or greater strength than the mainline and guylines shall be properly spaced to effectively oppose the pull of the mainline.

(b) Guylines on wood spar trees shall be secured to solid stumps with not less than two and one-half complete wraps with at least six staples or eight railroad spikes driven solidly into sound wood on the first and last wrap.  The bark shall be removed and the stump adequately notched or other equivalent means shall be used to prevent movement of the line on the stump or tree.  Guyline stumps shall be inspected periodically.  Guylines may be secured to properly installed "deadmen" when suitable stumps are not available.  It is permissible, on the tail tree, to secure the guylines by placing three wraps around a tree or stump and securing them properly by use of clamps.

(c) When a mainline of 7/8-inch or less is used, the spar shall be supported by at least five top guylines or other positive means of supporting the spar.

(d) When tail hold on skyline is choked on stump, there shall be no excessive bight against shackle.

(e) In removing guylines and skylines from stumps, etc.:

(i) A reversed safety wrap shall be put on and secured before loosening the last wrap.

(ii) An experienced person shall be in charge loosening guylines or skylines using proper precautions, and giving warning before lines are released.

(iii) Safety holdbacks shall be used when necessary for the safety of workers.

(iv) Powder or power shall be used for releasing the last wrap on skylines.

(f) Guylines shall be used with any logging equipment when required by the equipment manufacturer.

(g) Guying shall not be less than the minimum recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

(h) Top guys on vertical metal and wooden spars which require five or more guylines shall be so arranged that at least three guys oppose the pull of the load, with at least one guyline anchored adjacent to the yarding quarter.

(i) Guylines shall be of plow steel or better material, and shall be maintained in good condition.

(j) When side blocking or lateral yarding, lateral stability to the head spar tree shall be insured by guylines sufficient in number, breaking strength and spacing.

(k) All guylines shall be kept well tightened while the spar, tree, equipment or rigging they support is in use.

(l) All trees that interfere with proper alignment, placement or tightening of guylines shall be felled.

(m) Guylines shall be hung in a manner to prevent a bight or fouling when they are tightened.

(n) All spliced guyline eyes shall be tucked at least three times.

(o) Extensions to guylines shall be:

(i) Equal in strength to the guyline to which they are attached; and

(ii) Connected only by a shackle connecting two spliced eyes or by double-end hooks.  Connections shall have at least one and one-half times the strength of the guyline.

(p) Portable metal spars and their appurtenances shall be inspected by a qualified person each time the spar is lowered and at any time its safe condition is in doubt.  When damage from over-stress is noted or suspected, the part in question shall be inspected by a suitable method and found to be safe, or the part repaired or replaced before the spar is again used.

(q) No person shall go up a raised metal spar unless suitable passline equipment is provided and used.

(r) Repairs, modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of metal spars shall be made only under the direction of a registered engineer and within the manufacturer's recommendations.

(i) In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.

(ii) If such modifications or additions are made, the identification plate required by WAC 296-54-553(1) shall reflect such changes.

(s) When using skylines 7/8-inch or smaller, tail trees shall be supported by at least two guylines when the rigging is placed on the tail tree at a height greater than five times the tree diameter (dbh) or higher than ten feet from the highest ground point, whichever is lower.

(t) When using skylines one inch or larger, tail trees shall be supported by at least four guylines when the rigging is placed on the tail tree at a height greater than five times the tree diameter (dbh) or higher than ten feet from the highest ground point whichever is lower.

(u) Tail trees shall be supported by additional guylines if necessary to insure stability of the tree.

(v) Wood head spar trees shall be guyed as follows:

(i) All spar trees one hundred ten feet and over in height shall be provided with a minimum of six top guys and three buckle guys, each of which shall be substantially equal in strength to the strength of the mainline.  This requirement, however, shall not be construed as applying where more than three buckle guys are specifically required.

(ii) Spar trees used for loading and yarding at the same time, or for loading and swinging at the same time, or supporting a skyline yarding system, shall have not less than six top and four buckle guylines each of which shall be substantially equal in strength to the strength of the mainline.

(iii) Spar trees under one hundred ten feet high used only for yarding with heavy equipment (over 7/8-inch mainline) shall have not less than six top guys each of which shall be substantially equal in strength to the strength of the mainline.

(iv) Spar trees used for yarding with light equipment (7/8-inch or smaller mainline) shall be guyed in such a manner that strains will be imposed on not less than two guylines.  If less than five top guys are used, guylines shall be at least 1/4-inch larger than the mainline.

(v) More guylines shall be added if there is any doubt as to the stability of any spar tree, raised tree, tail trees and lift trees, or other equipment or rigging they support.

(w) Guylines shall alternately be passed around the wood spar in opposite directions to prevent twisting of the spar.

(x) Guylines shall be attached to the upper portion of the wood spar by means of shackles.

(y) A-frames shall be guyed by at least two quarter-guylines and one snap guyline or equivalent means to prevent A-frame from tipping back.

(5) Anchoring.

(a) Stump anchors used for fastening guylines and skylines shall be carefully chosen as to position, height and strength.  When necessary, stump anchors shall be tied back in a manner that will distribute the load.

(b) Stump anchors shall be barked where attachments are to be made, or devices designed to accomplish the same purpose shall be used.

(c) Stump anchors shall be notched to a depth not greater than one and one-half times the diameter of the line to be attached.

(d) Deadman anchors may be used if properly installed.  Guylines shall not be directly attached to deadman anchors.  Suitable straps or equally effective means shall be used for this purpose.

(e) Rock bolts and other types of imbedded anchors may be used if properly designed and installed.

(f) Stumps, trees and imbedded type guyline anchors shall be regularly inspected while the operation is in progress.  Insecure or hazardous anchors shall be immediately corrected.

(g) Workers shall not stand close to the stump, or in the bight of lines as the guyline or wraps are being tightened.

(6) Blocks.

(a) All blocks shall:

(i) Not be used for heavier strains or lines than those for which they are constructed;

(ii) Be fitted with line guards and shall be designed and used in a manner that prevents fouling, with the exception of special line blocks not designed with line guards;

(iii) Be kept in proper alignment when in use;

(iv) Have bearing and yoke pins of a material that will safely withstand the strains imposed and shall be securely fastened;

(v) Have sheaves of a size designed for the size of the wire rope used.

(b) Blocks with cracked or excessively worn sheaves shall not be used.

(c) Lead blocks used for yarding, swinging, loading and unloading used in wood spars shall:

(i) Be of the type and construction designed for this purpose;

(ii) Be bolted with not less than two bolts through the shells below the sheaves in a manner that will retain the sheave and line in case of bearing pin failure (this does not apply to haulback lead blocks); and

(iii) Mainline blocks shall have a sheave diameter of not less than twenty times the diameter of the mainline.

(d) Block bearing shall be kept well lubricated.

(e) All blocks must be of steel construction or of material of equal or greater strength and so hung that they will not strike or interfere with other blocks or rigging.

(f) All pins in blocks shall be properly secured by "Molle Hogans" or keys of the largest size the pin hole will accommodate.  When blocks are hung in trees, threaded pins and nuts shall be used.

(g) Sufficient corner or tail blocks to distribute the stress on anchors and attachments shall be used on all logging systems.

(h) Blocks used to lead lines directly to yarding, loading or unloading machines other than passline or strawline blocks shall be hung by the following method: In both eyes or "D"s of straps; threading eye through eye is prohibited.

(i) Tail, side or corner blocks used in yarding shall be hung in both eyes of straps.

(7) Wire rope.

(a) Wire rope shall be of the same or better grade as originally recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

(b) Wire rope shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions exist:

(i) In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay;

(ii) Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires.  Kinking, crushing, bird-caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure;

(iii) Evidence of any heat damage from any cause;

(iv) Reductions from nominal diameter of more than 3/64-inch for diameters to and including 3/4-inch, 1/16-inch for diameters 7/8-inch to 1-1/8-inch, inclusive, 3/32-inch for diameters 1-1/4-inches to 1-1/2-inches inclusive;

(v) In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection;

(vi) In standing ropes, when twelve and one-half percent of the wires are broken within a distance of one wrap (lay); and

(vii) Corroded, damaged or improperly applied end connections.

(c) Wire rope shall be kept lubricated as conditions of use require.

(8) Splicing wire rope.

(a) Marlin spikes or needles in good condition and large enough for the size of the line being spliced, shall be used for splicing.

(b) When available, and practical to use, a patented wire cutter shall be used.  If using a wire axe to cut cable, the hammer used to strike the axe shall be made of soft nonspalling type material.  Eye and face protection shall be worn in accordance with WAC 296-54-511(2).

(c) Short splices, eye-to-eye splices, cat's paws, knots, molles and rolled eyes are prohibited except for use in the moving of slack lines.  Knots will be permitted for use on single drum tractors and grapple pick-up lines when properly tied.

(d) Wire rope 1/2-inch or less in diameter may be tucked two times provided the rope is used only as straw line.

(e) Splices other than eye splices in lang lay lines are prohibited.  Eye splices in lang lay lines shall be tucked at least four times.

(f) Long splices shall be used for permanently joining "regular lay" running lines.

(g) When U-bolt wire rope clips (clamps) are used to form eyes on high strength wire rope, an additional clip (clamp) for each grade of line above improved plow steel shall be used over and above the following table: (See Figure No. 2, following this section, for proper application of wire rope clips.)


Improved

Plow Steel

Diameter

of Rope

Number of

Clips

Drop

Forged

Required

Other Material

Minimum

Space

Between

Clips


3/8

to
5/8 inch 3 4 3-3/4 inches
3/4 inch 4 5 4-1/2 inches
7/8 inch 4 5 5-1/4 inches
1 inch 5 6 6 inches
1 -1/8 inch 6 6 6-3/4 inches
1 -1/4 inch 6 7 7-1/2 inches
1 -3/8 inch 7 7 8-1/4 inches
1 -1/2 inch 7 8 9 inches

(h) All line eye splices shall be tucked at least three full tucks.  D's and knobs are recommended for line ends.

(i) Two lines may be connected by a long splice, or by shackles or patent links of the next size larger than the line being used where practical.  Double "Molle Hogans" may be used on drop lines only and single "Molle Hogans" may be used on strawline.

(j) Splicing of two lines together for loading line or pass line is prohibited.

(k) Safe margin of line must be used for making long splices.  The following table shows comparative safe lengths as to size of cable in making long splices:


Rope Diameter

To Be

Unraveled

Total Length


1/4"

8'

16'
3/8" 8' 16'
1/2" 10' 20'
5/8" 13' 26'
3/4" 15' 30'
7/8" 18' 36'
1 " 20' 40'
1 -1/8" 23' 46'
1 -1/4" 25' 50'
1 -3/8" 28' 56'
1 -1/2" 30' 60'
1 -5/8" 33' 66'
1 -3/4" 35' 70'
1 -7/8" 38' 76'
2 " 40' 80'

(9) Miscellaneous requirements.

(a) All lines, straps, blocks, shackles, swivels, etc., shall be inspected frequently and shall be used only when found to be in good condition.  Such items shall be of sufficient size and strength as to safely withstand the stress which can be imposed by the maximum pull of the power unit against such equipment or devices as rigged or used in that particular logging operation.

(b) When used or second-hand cables are purchased, they shall not be used for any purpose until inspection determines they will withstand the maximum imposed strain.

(c) Skyline shall be anchored by placing three full wraps around tail hold and staples or spikes shall be used to securely hold each wrap or choked and secured with a shackle or three wraps and at least three clamps securely tightened.

(d) When using haulback lines greater than 7/8-inch diameter on interlocking drum-type yarders, additional precautions shall be taken to prevent the corner blocks or tail blocks from dislodging the anchors to which the blocks are secured.

(e) Where "dutchman" is used, either for yarding or on skyline, a block of heavy construction must be used.  Regular tree shoe or jack may be used for "dutchman" on skyline.  Cable must be fastened securely.

(f) Choker drops shall be connected to the butt rigging by knobs or shackles.  The use of molles or cold shuts is prohibited in all components of the butt rigging.  All butt rigging shall be designed to prevent loss of chokers and defective swivels shall not be used.  Open hooks shall not be used to connect lines to the butt rigging.

(g) When heel tackle is fastened near machine, safety line must be placed in such manner that in case of breakage, lines shall not strike power unit and endanger operator.

(h) Only in case of necessity shall any metallic object be driven into a log.  The metal must be removed immediately when splice or other work is completed.  Stumps shall be used whenever possible for splicing.



PUT CLIPS ON RIGHT

Place illustration here.

Figure No. 2


Clips should be spaced at least six rope diameters apart to get the maximum holding power and should always be attached with the base or saddle of the clip against the longer or "live" end of the rope. The "U" bolt goes over the dead end. This is the only right way. Do not reverse the clips or stagger them. Otherwise the "U" bolt will cut into the live rope when the load is applied. After the rope has been used and is under tension, the clips should again be tightened to take up any looseness caused by the tension reducing the rope diameter. Remember that even when properly applied, a clip fastening has only about eighty percent of the strength of the rope and far less than that when on wrong.))


(1) A flagger(s) must be assigned on roads where hazardous conditions are created from falling trees. Where there is no through traffic, such as on a dead end road, warning signs or barricades may be used instead of a flagger(s).

(2) Self-propelled mobile falling equipment used for falling trees must be designed, or have auxiliary equipment installed, that will cause the tree to fall in the intended direction.

(3) Until the machine operator has acknowledged that it is safe to do so, no employee shall approach a mechanical falling operation closer than a minimum of two tree lengths of the trees being fell.

(4) Mechanized falling must be conducted in a way that does not endanger people or equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-543, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-543, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-545
((Rigging--Wood spar trees.)) Climbing equipment and passline.

(((1) Wood spar trees shall be of sound material of sufficient size and strength to withstand any stresses which may be imposed by any equipment used for that specific operation.  The top of the tree shall extend not more than sixteen feet above the top guylines on spar trees over fifty feet in height.  Spar trees less than fifty feet in height shall extend no more than eight feet above the top guylines.  School marms used as spar trees shall be topped at the forks.  Spar trees, except cedar, must be barked where guylines, straps, bull blocks and tree plates are placed.

(2) Spar trees must be topped and limbs must be cut off close so that running lines will not foul or saw on protruding knots.

(3) At least four tree plates shall be placed under top guylines on spar trees over fifty feet in height and at least three tree plates shall be used on spar trees less than fifty feet in height.

(4) Tree plates shall be equipped with lugs or other suitable means of holding them in place.

(5) When spar trees are raised, stumps used for snubbing shall be properly notched.  Guylines shall be held by some mechanical means.  Snubbing by hand is prohibited.

(6) All rub trees shall be limbed and topped.

(7) Guylines.

(a) Wood spar trees using a line greater than 7/8-inch and used as loading and yarding trees shall have at least six top guys and four buckle guys, providing a sail guy is used.

(b) Wood spar trees using a mainline greater than 7/8-inch and used only as yarding trees shall have at least six top guys and, at least three buckle guys shall be used.

(c) Wood spar trees used for loading only with crotch line, spreader bar or swinging boom shall have at least four top guys and, at least three buckle guys shall be used.

(d) Wood spar trees used for any skyline system of logging shall have additional guylines as are necessary to assure rigidity of tree at skyline jack, skidding block, receding and transfer line blocks, and loading rigging.

(e) Wood spar trees used for transfer shall have at least five top guys and, at least three buckle guys shall be used.

(f) When high lead block is hung below buckle guys, at least three top guys of equal strength to the mainline shall be used to keep the top from swaying.

(g) When buckle guys are required, they shall be installed on the tree where they will provide the maximum effectiveness.

(8) Loose material such as bark, spikes, straps or chains not in use and slabs caused by bumping logs of chafing straps must be removed from the spar tree.  Heavy bark shall be removed from trees used for a permanent installation.)) (1) Standard climbing equipment must be furnished by the employer. However, the climber may use personal equipment, if it meets the requirements of this section and is permitted by the employer.

(a) The climber may fasten climbing rope by passing it through "D" rings fastened to the belt and around his body before tying it to itself.

(b) An extra set of climbing equipment must be kept at the jobsite and another person with climbing experience must be present.

(2) The climber must be equipped with a climbing equipment assembly that includes:

(a) A safety belt with double "D" rings;

(b) Steel spurs long and sharp enough to hold in any tree in which they are used; and

(c) A climbing rope made of wire-core hemp, wire or chain construction.

(3) All climbing equipment must be maintained in good condition.

(4) Defective climbing equipment must be immediately removed from service.

(5) Going up a raised portable spar or tower without suitable equipment is prohibited.

(6) Only an employee directed by the climber may work directly under a tree. The climber must give warning before intentionally dropping any objects or when objects are accidentally dropped.

(7) Running lines must not be moved while the climber is working in the tree, except such "pulls" as climber directs and are necessary for the work.

(8) One experienced person must be assigned to transmit the climber's signals to the machine operator.

(a) This signal person must not otherwise be occupied while the climber is in the tree.

(b) The machine operator must not be distracted while the climber is using the passline.

(c) The designated signal person must be positioned clear of hazards from falling, flying, or thrown objects.

(9) The climber must be an experienced logger with proper knowledge of logging methods and the safety of rigging spar and tail trees.

(10) Noisy equipment such as power saws, tractors, and shovels must not be operated near where a climber is working when such noise will interfere with the climber's signals.

(11) Climbing and passline equipment must not be used for other purposes.

(12) Lineman hooks must not be used as spurs.

(13) Tools used by the climber, except the chain saw, must be safely secured to climbers belt when not in use.

(14) Using snaps on a climber's rope is prohibited unless a secondary safety device between the belt and snap is used.

(15) A climber's rope must encircle the tree before the climber leaves the ground, except when the climber is riding the passline.

(16) While the climber is working in the tree, persons must keep at sufficient distance from the tree to be clear of falling objects.

(17) When used, passline blocks must be kept in alignment and free from fouling.

(18) Loose equipment, rigging, or material must either be removed from the tree or securely fastened.

(19) Drums used for passlines must have enough flange depth to prevent the passline from running off the drum at any time.

(20) Passlines must:

(a) Be at least 5/16-inch and not over 1/2-inch in diameter;

(b) Not be subjected to sawing on other lines or rigging, and kept clear of all moving lines and rigging;

(c) Be one continuous length and in good condition with no splices, knots, molles, or eye-to-eye splices between the ends;

(d) Long enough to provide three wraps on the drum before the climber leaves the ground.

(21) Passline chains must be:

(a) At least 5/16-inch alloy or 3/8-inch high test chain and must not contain cold shuts or wire strands;

(b) Attached to the end of the passline with a screw-pin shackle, a slip-pin shackle with a nut and molle, or a ring large enough to prevent going through the pass block; and

(c) Fitted with links or rings to prevent workers from being pulled into the passline block.

(22) Pass blocks must:

(a) Be inspected before placing in each spar and the necessary replacements or repairs made before they are hung;

(b) Have the shells bolted under the sheaves;

(c) Have the bearing pin securely locked and nuts keyed, or the block positively secures the nut and pin;

(d) Be equipped with sheaves at least six inches in diameter; and

(e) Comply with WAC 296-54-54750.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-545, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-547
Rigging--((Tail tree)) General.

(((1) No work shall continue on tail tree while the climber is working on the head tree or vice versa, if trees are connected by any line.

(2) Tail trees shall be adequately guyed to withstand any stress to which the tree may be subjected.  Live (slackline) or standing skylines may be anchored to the base of standing trees only if no part of the tree will enter the work area (cutting unit) if pulled over.  The guyline shall be anchored as low as possible to the base of the tree.  If using a live (slackline) standing or running (Grabinski) skyline, the tail tree need not be topped provided the slackline or skyline passes through a jack or block on the tree before being anchored.  At least two guylines shall be installed to support the tail tree and may be anchored to the base of standing trees if the above conditions are complied with.  Attaching the end of the skyline or slackline to the base of the tail tree is prohibited.


Note: See Figure No. 3 for rigging illustrations.
Place illustration here.))

(1) Rigging must be arranged and operated so that rigging and loads will not foul or saw against lines, straps, blocks, or other equipment or material.

(2) When not in use, rigging must be stored so that it does not present a hazard to employees.

(3) Tongs, grapples, logs and materials must not be swung or suspended over employees.

(4) All employees must be in the clear of running lines, standing skylines, moving rigging, or suspended loads until the rigging or loads have completely stopped.

(5) Riding on a turn of logs or rigging is prohibited, except on the passline. Holding on to moving rigging or chokers to be pulled uphill is prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-547, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-54710
Rigging--Inspection.

(1) An authorized, qualified person must thoroughly inspect all blocks, straps, guylines, butt rigging, and other rigging before they are used.

(2) The inspections must include examining for:

(a) Damaged, cracked, or worn parts;

(b) Loose nuts and bolts;

(c) Need for lubrication; and

(d) The condition of straps and guylines.

(3) All necessary repairs or replacements for safe operation must be made before the rigging is used.

(4) All rigging elements must be large and strong enough to safely withstand the stress that can be imposed by the maximum pull of the power unit against the equipment or devices as rigged or used in that particular logging operation.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-54720
Rigging--Molles.

(1) Molles must not be used as a temporary connection between two spliced eyes of a load-supporting running line. Double molles may be used on droplines only and single molles may be used on strawline.

(2) Molles must be as large as the pinhole will accommodate and have the loose ends rolled in.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-54730
Rigging--Shackles.

(1) Shackles used to hang blocks, jacks, or rigging on spars, must have the pins secured with a nut and cotter key or a nut and molle.

(2) Flush pin, straight-sided shackles must be used for mainline, slackline and skyline extensions.

(3) Shackles with screw pins, knockout or slip pins may be used to anchor skylines, slackline, guyline, and/or guyline extensions.

(4) All other shackles must be screw pin type or have the pin secured with a nut and cotter key or a nut and molle, except as specified elsewhere for specific purposes.

(5) The opening between the jaws of shackles used to hang blocks, jacks, and rigging and to join or attach lines, must be a maximum of one inch greater than the size of the rope, swivel, or shackle to which it is attached.

(6) All shackles must be one size larger than the lines they connect and made of forged steel or material of equivalent strength.

(7) Shackles used to join lines must be hung with the pin and "U" part of the shackle through the eyes of the lines.


Place illustration here.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-54740
Rigging--Straps.

Straps must be used according to the following requirements:

(1) Straps or chokers used to hang corner or tail blocks and straps used to anchor skylines/slacklines must be the size required by Table 1: Strap/Choker Size in Inches.


Table 1: Strap/Choker Size in Inches
Running Line Size in Inches Block or Skyline / Slackline Hung in Both Eyes Block Hung in Single Eye
5/16 1/4 1/2
3/8 3/8 9/16
7/16 7/16 5/8
1/2 1/2 3/4
9/16 9/16 7/8
5/8 5/8 1
3/4 3/4 1 1/8
7/8 7/8 1 1/4
1 1 1 3/8
1 1/8 1
1 1/4 1
1 3/8 1
1 1/2 1 1/8
1 5/8 1 1/4
1 3/4 1 1/4
1 7/8 1 3/8
2 1 3/8

Note: Both strap ends must be under equal tension.

(2) When a single choker or single part strap is used to support lift blocks, jacks and tree shoes they must be adequately sized to support the applied loads.

(3) When a two part strap or two chokers are used to hang a block, jack, tree shoe, or rigging, both eyes or ends must be under equal tension.

(4) Where two equal length chokers are used instead of one choker to gain extra breaking strength, they must be arranged in a swede connection.

(5) Straps or chokers used to hang or support blocks, jacks, tree shoes, or rigging must be replaced when there is evidence of damaged or broken wires. They must:

(a) Be made of new wire rope; or

(b) Meet the pull test strength of new wire rope.

(6) Threading wire rope straps eye through eye is prohibited.

(7) Synthetic straps must be used as recommended by the manufacturer and only at a flat or downward angle unless wrapped one full turn around the tree support to prevent the strap from riding up on the support.

(8) Synthetic straps must be removed from service when wear reaches the limits prescribed by the manufacturer or when deterioration is evident.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-54750
Rigging--Blocks.

(1) Load-bearing blocks must:

(a) Not be used for heavier strains or lines than those for which they are constructed;

(b) Be fitted with line guards;

(c) Be designed and used to prevent fouling;

(d) Be kept in proper alignment when in use;

(e) Be equipped with bearing and yoke pins that will safely withstand the strains imposed, and are securely fastened; and

(f) Be equipped with sheaves designed for the size of the wire rope used.


EXCEPTION: Subsections (b), and (f) do not apply to rig-up ("Tommy Moore") blocks.

(2) Blocks with cracked or excessively worn sheaves or shells must not be used.

(3) Block bearings must be kept well lubricated.

(4) All pins in blocks must be properly secured by "Molle Hogans" or keys of the largest size the pin hole will accommodate. When blocks are hung in spars, pins must be secured with a nut and cotter pin or nut and molle.

(5) Lead blocks used for yarding, swinging, loading and unloading used in wood spars shall:

(a) Be of the type and construction designed for this purpose;

(b) Be bolted with not less than two bolts through the shells below the sheaves in a manner that will retain the sheave and line in case of bearing pin failure (this does not apply to haulback lead blocks); and

(c) Mainline blocks shall have a sheave diameter of not less than twenty times the diameter of the mainline.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-54760
Rigging--Hanging blocks.

(1) All logging systems must use enough corner or tail blocks to distribute the stress on anchors and attachments.

(2) Blocks (other than passline or haywire) must be hung by one of the following methods:

(a) Hanging the block in both eyes or Ds of the straps (threaded straps are prohibited); or

(b) If chokers are used, the ferrule must be properly seated in the socket of the bell or hook to prevent the ferrule from coming unbuttoned. The chokers must be the size required in WAC 296-54-54740(1); or

(c) If single part straps are used, the straps must be secured with a shackle and be the size required in WAC 296-54-54740(1).

(3) The yoke pin of haulback blocks shall be inserted with the head facing the direction from which the rigging approaches.

(4) When there is danger of tail block straps slipping up or off the stump or tree, the stump or tree must be adequately notched or the line properly wrapped and secured. When the tail tree or stump is not secure, it must be tied back.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 80-15, filed 8/20/80)

WAC 296-54-549
((Lines, straps and guyline attachments--Steel spars.)) Selecting spar, tail and intermediate support trees.

(((1) When in use, steel tower guyline safety straps shall have a minimum amount of slack.

(2) A safety strap shall be installed on steel towers at the bight of the guylines to prevent the guylines from falling in the case of failure of guyline attachments, guyline lug rings or collar plates, where such exist.  Such devices shall have a breaking strength at least equivalent to that of the guylines.

(3) The use of cable clips or clamps for joining the ends of steel tower guylines safety straps is prohibited, unless used to secure end of rolled eye.)) (1) Spar, tail and intermediate support trees must be examined carefully for defects before being selected. They must be sound, straight, green and of sufficient diameter to withstand the strains to be imposed.

(2) Trees having defects that impair their strength must not be used for spar, tail or intermediate support trees. Raised trees must be identified and marked as such.

(3) Douglas fir or spruce must be used as spar trees when available. If other species must be used, additional guylines, tree plates or other precautions must be taken to ensure that the tree will withstand the strains to be imposed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-549, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-549, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-551
((Yarding, loading, skidding and chipping machines--General requirements.)) Raising and lowering portable spars or towers.

(((1) The employer shall assure that each machine, including any machine provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable condition and the following:

(a) The employer shall assure that each machine, including any machine provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift.  Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable machine shall be replaced before work is commenced.

(b) The employer shall assure that operating and maintenance instructions are available on the machine or in the area where the machine is being operated.  Each machine operator and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.

(c) Each machine shall be operated only from the operator's station or as otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

(d) No employee shall ride on any load.

(2) Overhead protection and other barriers shall be installed to protect the operator from lines, limbs and other moving materials on or over all yarding, loading or skidding machines.  The overhead cab covering shall be of solid material and shall extend over the entire canopy.


Exception: Tower or spar type cable yarders may be equipped with a "sunroof" viewport in the solid material cab cover to enable the operator to see the top of the spar while seated in the normal operating position.  When a viewport is provided it shall be constructed to sustain the same structural loading factors as the solid material cover or the viewport shall also be covered by standard cab-opening guards.

(3) When using a yarder, loader or skidding machine, the location of the machine or position of the yarder shall be such that the operator will not be endangered by incoming logs or debris.

(4) Logging machines and their components shall be securely anchored to their bases.

(5) A safe and adequate means of access and egress to all parts of logging machinery where persons must go shall be provided and maintained in a safe and uncluttered condition.  Machine access systems, meeting the specifications of the Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE J185, June 1988, "Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road Machines," shall be provided for each machine where the operator or any other employee must climb onto the machine to enter the cab or to perform maintenance.  Walking and working surfaces of each machine and machine work station shall have a slip-resistant surface to assure safe footing.

(6) Any logging equipment having a single cab entrance door, shall be equipped with an alternate means of escape from the cab should the door be blocked in the event of vehicle rollover or fire.  Door latches shall be operable from both sides.

(7) Logging machines shall be kept free of flammable waste materials and any materials which might contribute to slipping, tripping or falling.

(8) Logging machine engines shall be stopped during inspection or repairing, except where operation is required for adjustment.

(9) Grab rails shall be provided and maintained in good repair on all walkways of stationary units elevated more than four feet.

(10) Standard safeguards shall be provided at every place on a machine where persons may be exposed to contact with revolving parts or pinchpoints during normal operations.

(11) To protect workers from exposure to the hazardous pinchpoint area between the rotating superstructure and the nonrotating undercarriage of any logging machine, signs shall be conspicuously posted on all sides of that type machine warning workers: "DANGER - STAY CLEAR." This requirement shall not apply when:

(a) The distance from the highest point of the undercarriage to the lowest point of the rotating superstructure is greater than eighteen inches.  This applies only to that portion of the rotating superstructure that swings directly over the undercarriage;

(b) The distance from the ground to the lowest point of the rotating superstructure is greater than five feet six inches.  This applies only to that portion of the rotating superstructure that swings directly over the undercarriage; or

(c) On crawler-type track-mounted logging machines only, the rotating superstructure is positioned at a right angle to the tracks, and the distance from the side of the cab to the extreme end of the track is four feet or less.  This exemption shall apply to side barricades only; barricades between the tracks at both ends of any crawler-type logging machine are required regardless of the right angle dimension.

(12) Items of personal property, tools or other miscellaneous materials shall not be stored on or near any logging machine if retrieval of such items would expose a worker to the hazardous pinchpoint referred to in subsection (11) of this section.

(13) Workers shall approach the hazardous pinchpoint area referenced in subsection (11) of this section, only after informing the operator of their intent and receiving acknowledgment that the operator understands their intention.  All such machines shall be stopped while any worker is in the hazardous pinchpoint area.

(14) A minimum distance of thirty-six inch clearance shall be maintained between the counterweight of a loading machine and trees, logs, banks, trucks, etc., while the machine is in operation.  If this clearance cannot be maintained, suitable barricades with warning signs attached, similar to a standard guardrail, shall be installed to isolate the hazardous area.  "DANGER--36 inch clearance" shall be marked in contrasting colors on sides and face of counterweight on shovels, loaders and other swing-type logging equipment.

(15) Guarding.

(a) Each machine shall be equipped with guarding to protect employees from exposed moving elements, such as but not limited to, shafts, pulleys, belts on conveyors, and gears, in accordance with the requirements of this standard and WAC 296-24, Part C, Machinery and machine guarding.

(b) Each machine used for debarking, limbing and chipping shall be equipped with guarding to protect employees from flying wood chunks, logs, chips, bark, limbs and other material in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part C, Machinery and machine guarding.

(16) Stationary logging machines and their components shall be securely anchored or otherwise stabilized to prevent movement while yarding or skidding.

(17) Ends of drum lines shall be securely fastened to the drum and at least three wraps shall be maintained on the drum at all times.  (This rule does not apply to tractor winch lines.)

(18) Such units shall not be tied to any part of the towing unit, when they are being moved on truck and trailer units.

(19) Logs shall not be moved, swung or held over any persons.

(20) Brow logs in the loading or unloading area shall be blocked or secured to prevent movement.  Log decks shall be maintained in a safe condition and shall not present a hazard of logs rolling or sliding on workers.

(21) Brakes shall be set and brake locking devices engaged on logging machines when the operator leaves his normal operating position.

(22) Guyline drum controls and outrigger controls shall be separated, color coded or marked in a manner that will prevent engaging of the wrong control.

(23) Exhaust systems.

(a) Engines not equipped with turbochargers shall comply with the department of natural resources WAC 332-24 requirements for spark emitting equipment; and

(b) Each machine muffler provided by the manufacturer, or their equivalent, shall be in place at all times the machine is in operation; and

(c) Exhaust pipes shall be located or insulated to protect workers from accidental contact with the pipes or muffler and shall direct exhaust gases away from the operator and other persons.

(24) Glass on logging machines shall be safety glass or equivalent and shall be free of deposits of oil, mud, or defects that could endanger the operator or other persons.  When transparent material is used to enclose the upper portion of the cab, it shall be made of safety glass or other material that the employer demonstrates provides equivalent protection and visibility.

(25) Broken or defective glass shall be removed and replaced.

(26) Where safety glass or equivalent, does not provide adequate operator protection from flying chokers, chunks, saplings, limbs, etc., an additional metal screen and/or barrier shall be provided over the safety glass.  The operator's vision shall not be impaired.  Barriers shall consist of 1/4-inch diameter woven wire material with maximum two inch openings, 3/4-inch diameter steel rod with eight inch maximum openings in any direction or barriers so designed and constructed to provide equivalent operator protection.  Such barriers shall be installed no closer than four inches to the glass to enable keeping the glass clean.

(27) Except for hydraulic drums, brakes shall be installed on all logging machines and maintained in effective working condition.  Brake levers shall be provided with a ratchet or other effective means for securely holding drums.  Brakes shall be tested prior to putting the machine in operation.  If defective, they shall be repaired immediately.

(28) A stable base shall be provided under outriggers or leveling pads and a means shall be provided to hold outriggers in both the retracted and extended position.

(29) Abrasive contact with hydraulic hose, tubing or fittings shall be eliminated before further use and defective hydraulic hoses, lines and fittings shall be replaced.

(30) When moving logging machines, the driver or operator shall have a clear and unobstructed view of the direction of travel.  When this is not possible, a signalperson with a clear and unobstructed view of the direction of travel shall be designated and used to direct movement of the machine.

(31) Where a signalperson is used, the equipment operator shall move the equipment only on signal from the designated signalperson and only when the signal is distinct and clearly understood.

(32) When moving power units, persons other than the operator and the person in charge shall not be permitted to ride thereon.

(33) All obstructions which may reach the operator while moving machines, shall be removed.

(34) Only shackles with threaded pins shall be used for connecting moving rigging.

(35) Anchors used for moving power units shall be carefully chosen and must be stable.

(36) When snubbing a machine down a steep slope, use the mainline for snubbing and pull with the haulback whenever possible.

(37) Self-powered mobile logging machines of the type where towers or spars can be raised, shall not travel on steep road grades unless they are securely snubbed or towed.

(38) When moving, all persons working on the landing shall stay in the clear of the machine and shall inform the operator of their intention to approach or be near the machine.

(39) Service brakes shall be provided on crawler crane-type logging machines that will bring the machine to a complete stop from normal travel speeds.

(40) A traction lock or brake or an equivalent locking and braking system shall be provided on crawler crane-type machines that is capable of holding the machine stationary under normal working conditions, and on any grade the machine is capable of negotiating.

(41) No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made by the employer without written approval of the manufacturer or a qualified engineer.  If such modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, shall be changed accordingly.  In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.

(42) Equipment shall be classed and used according to the manufacturer's rating.  Where low gear ratios or other devices are installed to increase the line pull in accordance with subsection (41) of this section, the size of the rigging shall be increased accordingly so that it will safely withstand the increased strains.

(43) Every tractor, skidder, front-end loader, scraper, grader and dozer shall be equipped with a roll-over protective structure (R.O.P.S.).  Such structures shall be installed, tested and maintained in accordance with:

(a) WAC 296-155-950 through 296-155-965 of the safety standards for construction, if manufactured prior to October 21, 1979.

(b) The society of automotive engineers SAE 1040a-1975, "performance criteria for roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for earthmoving, construction, logging and industrial vehicles," if manufactured after the effective date of this chapter.

(44) The ROPS shall be of sufficient height and width so that it will not impair the movements of the operator or prevent his immediate escape from the vehicle in emergencies and shall allow as much visibility as possible.  Clearance above the deck and the ROPS of the vehicle at points of egress shall not be less than fifty-two inches (1.3 meters).

(45) Certified roll-over protective systems shall be identified by a metal tag permanently attached to the ROPS in a position where it may be easily read from the ground.  The tag shall be permanently and clearly stamped, etched or embossed indicating the name and address of the certifying manufacturer or registered professional engineer, the ROPS model number (if any) and the vehicle make, model or serial number the ROPS is designed to fit.

(46) Roll-over protective structure systems shall be maintained in a manner that will preserve their original strength.  Welding shall be performed by qualified welders only.  (A qualified welder is defined under "welder qualification" in American Welding Society A.W.S. A3.0-69.)

(47) Every tractor, skidder, front-end loader, log stacker, forklift truck, scraper, grader and dozer shall be equipped with a FOPS.  Such structures shall be installed, tested and maintained in accordance with:

(a) The society of automotive engineers SAE J231-1971, "minimum performance criteria for falling object protective structures (F.O.P.S.) prior to February 9, 1995."

(b) Society of automotive engineers SAE J231, January 1981, "minimum performance criteria for falling object protective structures (FOPS) for each tractor, skidder, log stacker, log loader and mechanical felling device, such as tree shears or feller-buncher, placed into initial service after February 9, 1995."

(c) The employer shall replace FOPS which have been removed from any machine.

(48) Vehicles equipped with ROPS or FOPS as required in subsections (43) and (47) of this section, shall comply with the society of automotive engineers SAE J397a-1972, "deflection limiting volume for laboratory evaluation of roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and falling object protective structures (FOPS) of construction and industrial vehicles." Vehicles placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, shall meet the requirements of SAE J397-1988.

(49) The opening in the rear of the ROPS on the crawler or rubber-tired tractors (skidders) shall be covered with 1/4-inch diameter woven wire having not less than 1-1/2-inches or more than 2-inch mesh, or material which will afford equivalent protection for the operator.  The covering shall be affixed to the structural members so that ample clearance is provided between the screen and the back of the operator.  Structural members shall be free from projections which would tend to puncture or tear flesh or clothing.  Suitable safeguards or barricades shall be installed, in addition to the screen, to protect the operator when there is a possibility of being struck by any material that could enter from the rear.

(50) Crawler and rubber-tired tractors (skidders) working in areas where limbs or brush may endanger the operator shall be guarded.  Shear or deflector guards shall be installed on each side of the vehicle at an angle leading forward and down from the top front edge of the canopy of the vehicle, which will tend to slide the brush or limbs up and over the top of the canopy.  Open mesh material with openings of a size that will reject the entrance of an object larger than 1-3/4-inches in diameter, shall be extended forward as far as possible from the rear corners of the cab sides to give the maximum protection against obstacles, branches, etc. entering the cab area.  Deflectors shall also be installed ahead of the operator to deflect whipping saplings and branches.  These shall be located so as not to impede ingress or egress from the compartment area.  The floor and lower portion of the cab shall be completely enclosed with solid material, except at entrances, to prevent the operator from being injured by obstacles which otherwise could enter the cab compartment.

(51) Enclosures for agricultural and industrial tractors manufactured after September 1, 1972, shall be constructed, designed and installed as detailed in the society of automotive engineers technical report J168.  Each machine manufactured after August 1, 1996, shall have a cab that is fully enclosed with mesh material with openings no greater than 2 inches (5.08 cm) at its lease dimension.  The cab may be enclosed with other material(s) where the employer demonstrates such material(s) provides equivalent protection and visibility.  Exception: Equivalent visibility is not required for the lower portion of the cab where there are control panels or similar obstructions in the cab, or where visibility is not necessary for safe operation of the machine.

(52) All bidirectional machines, such as rollers, compactors, front-end loaders, log stackers, log loaders, bulldozers, shovels, and similar equipment, shall be equipped with a horn distinguishable from the surrounding noise level, which shall be operated as needed when the machine is moving in either direction.  The horn shall be maintained in an operative condition.

(53) No employer shall permit earthmoving, compacting, or yarding equipment, which has an obstructed view to the rear, to be used in reverse gear unless the equipment has in operation a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from the surrounding noise level or an employee signals that it is safe to do so.

(54) Overhead guards.  Each forklift shall be equipped with an overhead guard meeting the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME B56.6-1992 (with addenda), "Safety Standard for Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks."

(55) Chipping (in-woods locations).

(a) Chipper access covers or doors shall not be opened until the drum or disc is at a complete stop.

(b) Infeed and discharge ports shall be guarded to prevent contact with the disc, knives, or blower blades.

(c) The chipper shall be shut down and locked out in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-4 when an employee performs any servicing or maintenance.

(d) Detached trailer chippers shall be chocked during usage on any slope where rolling or sliding of the chipper is reasonably foreseeable.)) (1) A qualified, authorized person must direct each raising and lowering of a portable spar or tower.

(2) All employees not engaged in the raising or lowering of portable spars must stay in the clear during these operations.

(3) Portable spars must be leveled to provide proper line spooling and avoid excessive stress on component parts.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-551, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-551, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-551, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-553
((Yarding, loading and skidding machines--Mobile towers and boom-type yarding and loading machines.)) Metal spars.

(((1) Portable (mobile) tower specification plate.  A specification plate shall be permanently attached to the base of each portable (mobile) tower so it can be easily read by a person standing on the ground or on the base platform.  It shall contain the following information:

(a) Name and address of manufacturer and model number;

(b) The maximum diameter of the mainline or skyline for which the unit is designed and size of haulback and mainline to be used together if drums are interlocking or automatic tensioning type;

(c) The number and size of guylines required to stabilize the unit;

(d) The maximum length and capacity of a loading boom or similar equipment which may be attached if the structure is engineered for such;

(e) If the unit is designed for use on any skyline system of logging; and

(f) Maximum degree of inclination from vertical at which the spar (tower) may be used.

(2) The critical parts of portable spars (towers) shall be inspected by a qualified person at reasonable intervals while in service and each time the spar (tower) is lowered.  If indication of failure or weakness is noted or suspected, the part shall be inspected by an approved method and found to be safe, or it shall be repaired or replaced before the operation is allowed to proceed.

(3) Blocks and fair leads shall be so located that there will be no chafing or sawing of any line or part of the structure.

(4) Guyline attachments.

(a) Power guylines used for stabilizing any unit may be choked around an adequately notched stump if using a shackle or approved choker attachment.  Three full wraps or more must be placed around an adequately notched stump to secure the guyline if clamps are used.  Guyline extensions shall be property shackled to the guylines.

(b) When using a deadman anchor to support a guyline, the connection shall be made by properly shackling both eyes of the anchor strap to the guyline.

(c) If guylines on metal spars or towers are not power guylines, they shall be secured to stumps or anchorages in the same manner as guylines on wood spar trees.

(5) Power driven devices shall be securely anchored when used to tighten guylines.  Holding of such devices manually is prohibited.

(6) Machine stabilization.

(a) Machines or equipment shall be stabilized by their design or the attachment of guylines or other devices which will prevent the machine from overturning.  Machine operators shall be advised of the stability limitations of the equipment.

(b) If stabilization of a machine is dependent upon the use of hydraulic outriggers, a pilot operated hydraulic check valve or other locking device shall be installed to prohibit the outrigger from retracting in case a hydraulic line breaks, except when proper blocking is provided.

(7) A qualified person shall direct each raising or lowering of a portable spar or tower.

(8) All persons not engaged in the actual raising or lowering of portable spars or towers shall stay in the clear during such operations.

(9) Guylines required in rigging spars or towers shall be evenly spooled to prevent fouling.

(10) Portable spars or towers shall be leveled to provide even line spooling and avoid excessive stress on component parts.

(11) The portable spar or tower shall be lowered or supported so the stability of the machine is not impaired during movement of the portable spar or tower.

(12) Guylines of portable spars or towers shall not be anchored to standing trees if the unit is used for yarding as a head tree.

(13) Timbers used for masts or booms shall be straight-grained, solid, and capable of withstanding the working load.

(14) Boom points of timber booms shall be equipped with metal straps, plates, or other devices as needed to properly secure eyebolts and fittings used to support lines, blocks, or other rigging.

(15) All mobile vehicles on which yarding equipment, towers, spars, masts or booms are installed, shall be maintained in a safe operating condition.

(16) A-frames shall be secured against displacement and the tops shall be securely bolted or lashed to prevent displacement.

(17) When any portable-type tower, A-frame or spar is used, the base shall be securely and solidly supported.

(18) All loading, unloading and skidding machines shall be equipped with a horn or whistle which is audible above the surrounding noise level.  Such horn or whistle shall be maintained in an operative condition.)) (1) Each portable metal spar must have an identification plate permanently attached to its base or on the yarder in a position that can be easily read by a person standing on the ground or on the base platform.


EXCEPTION: A hydraulic loader with yarding drums is not required to have an identification plate if the drums are installed and used according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

(2) The identification plate must have the following information:

(a) Name and address of manufacturer;

(b) Model number; and

(c) The maximum and minimum angle at which the metal spar is designed to operate.

(3) The identification plate on metal spars manufactured after July 1, 1980, must also have the following information:

(a) The maximum breaking strength and/or size of the mainline for which the spar is designed;

(b) The maximum breaking strength and/or size of the haulback line for which the spar is designed;

(c) The number, breaking strength, and size of guylines or any other lines required; and

(d) For a spar designed for a skyline, slackline, or modified slackline system, the maximum breaking strength and size of the skyline, mainline, and haulback line that can be used.

(4) All portable metal spars must be operated within the manufacturer's capacity:

(a) As specified on the identification plate; or

(b) As modified by the manufacturer; or

(c) As designed and specified by a registered engineer; or

(d) A tension limiting device must be installed on the yarder. The device must be:

(i) Designed to automatically slack the skyline or mainline to within the manufacturer's line strength specifications;

(ii) Tamper proof;

(iii) Inspected; and

(iv) Maintained in good operating condition; or

(e) A line fuse installed in the skyline or mainline. Line fused systems must have a design breaking strength equal to or less than the maximum line rating of the spar as listed on its identification plate.


Note: Item (d) and (e) list options to follow when using wire rope which exceeds the manufacturer's line strength specifications.

(5) Equipment used for yarding, which is specifically designed to be self-stabilizing during operation, may be used without guyline(s) provided the equipment is used with guylines when required by the manufacturer.

(6) Portable spars or towers and their parts must be inspected by a qualified person whenever:

(a) The portable spar or tower is lowered;

(b) Its safe condition is in doubt; or

(c) When damage from over-stress or any other source is noted or suspected. Before being used again, the part in question must be inspected by a suitable method and:

(i) Found safe;

(ii) Repaired by a qualified person; or

(iii) Replaced.

(7) Any structural modifications or additions that affect the capacity or safe operation of metal spars must be made under the direction of the manufacturer or a registered professional engineer. If such modifications or additions are made, the identification plate required in this section must reflect such changes.

(8) When moving metal spar logging machines, the spar must be lowered.


EXCEPTION: The spar may be raised when necessary for mobility if it is adequately supported to ensure the stability of the machine during movement.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-553, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-553, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-555
((Yarding--General requirements.)) Metal spar guyline safety straps.

(((1) Workers shall be alert and be positioned in the clear where they will not be exposed to the hazards of moving logs, saplings, root wads, chunks, rigging, or any other material which might be put in motion by the rigging or turn, before the "go ahead" signal is given.  They shall remain in the clear at all times while the rigging is moving.

(2) No person shall be near rigging which is stopped at a hangup, until the rigging has been slacked to reduce the hazard.

(3) No person shall stand or remain within the bight of any running line, nor in a position where he could be struck by a line were it to break or come loose.

(4) Whenever possible, chokers shall be set from the uphill side of a log.  Persons shall not be on the lower side of a log which appears to be unstable or likely to roll.

(5) Wire rope used for chokers shall not exceed seventy-five percent of the breaking strength of the mainline.

(6) Chokers shall be placed near the end of the log/tree whenever possible.


Exception: A longer butt attachment point may be used when abnormally long logs or tree-length logs are being yarded and the long-butt is necessary to safely land the logs/trees on the available landing space.

(7) When pulling lines, do not stand close to fair leads or blocks.

(8) Lines shall not be guided on drums with hands or feet.  The use of a bar or equivalent means is recommended.

(9) Yarding with more than one unit on any one head spar is prohibited.

(10) The angle between the power unit, the high lead block, and the mainline road shall not exceed a square lead on rigged spars.  When using portable spars or towers, the location of the machine or position of the operator shall be such that the operator shall not be endangered by incoming logs.

(11) When there is danger of tail block straps slipping up or off the stump or tree, the stump or tree shall be adequately notched or the line properly wrapped and secured.  When the tail tree or stump is not secure, it shall be tied back.

(12) When yarding is being done during the hours of darkness, the area shall be provided with illumination which will allow persons to safely perform their duties.  The source of illumination shall be located and directed creating a minimum of shadows and glare.  If using a portable tail-hold, lights shall be directed on the equipment to allow the person to visually ascertain that the tail-hold equipment remains stabilized.

(13) No person shall be required or allowed to ride on a turn of logs or rigging excepting the passline.  The practice of holding on to moving rigging or chokers to assist a person by being pulled uphill shall be prohibited.

(14) Wire rope shall be wound evenly on the drum and not be allowed to lap one layer on another in an irregular manner.  Sheaves shall be smooth and free from defects that could cause rope damage.

(15) Chaser shall be sure that turns are safely landed before approaching to remove the chokers.

(16) Signaling machine operator at landings by throwing bark, chips or other material in the air is prohibited.  Whistle or hand signals shall be used at all times.

(17) Logs shall not be landed while loaders or chasers are working in the chutes.  Logs shall not be removed from yarder tree by the loader or tractors while the chaser is unhooking a turn from the yarder.

(18) Landings shall be as level as possible and of sufficient size to safely accommodate the majority of type turns to be yarded.  At least two-thirds of the log shall rest on the ground or other substantial material when landed.  Logs shall be set on the ground or deck and not dropped when being landed.  Long sticks shall be safely removed before additional logs are landed.

(19) Chokers shall not be used on a grapple system when the yarder operator cannot clearly see the persons setting the choker, unless conventional whistle signals are used.

(20) Landings shall be free of root wads, limbs, tops, etc., that constitute a safety hazard.

(21) When shorter logs are yarded in the same turn with long sticks, the shorter logs shall be landed and chokers released before the long stick choker is released.


Note: See Figures No. 4-A and 4-B for Standard Hand Signals for High Lead Logging.

(22) Each yarded tree/log shall be placed in a location that does not create a hazard for an employee and an orderly manner so that the trees/logs are stable before bucking or limbing is commenced.


Place illustration here.))

(1) A metal spar guyline safety strap or equivalent device must be installed at the bight of the guylines to prevent guylines from falling vertically more than five feet in case of structural or mechanical failure of the guyline attachment.

(2) The safety strap or equivalent devices must be equal to the strength of one guyline being used.

(3) Using cable clips or clamps to join the ends of portable spar or tower guyline safety straps is prohibited, unless used to secure the end of a farmer's eye.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-555, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-555, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-555, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-557
((Yarding--Tractors, skidders and rough terrain log loaders (to include feller bunchers and tree shears).)) Wire rope.

(((1) Operators shall ensure that all persons are safely in the clear before initiating or continuing the movement of any mobile equipment.  The machine shall be operated at such a distance from employees and other machines such that operation will not create a hazard for an employee.

(2) No person shall ride on any mobile equipment, except where adequate and protected seats, or other safe facilities have been provided.

(3) While in use, tractors and skidders shall be maintained in a safe operable condition, with all guards in proper places.

(4) No person shall be under a tractor or other mobile equipment, or be placed in a hazardous position around the equipment without first making certain it cannot move or be moved by another person.

(5) Prior to working on tractor or skidder blades, arches, or other equipment, the equipment must be blocked up lowered to the ground or otherwise secured against slipping or falling.  

(6) When making repairs to tractor or skidder equipment, such as blades, arches, etc., the engine shall be stopped.  The engine may be run when necessary for making adjustments to the engine or equipment.

(7) Operators shall operate and control their machines in a safe manner and avoid operations in areas where machine stability may not be maintained.

(8) The following safe work procedures shall be adhered to:

(a) When hobo logs are picked up with a log turn, the turn shall be dropped to free the hobo.

(b) No line shall be allowed to trail behind the tractor or skidder where it may hang up and snap forward.

(c) Each machine shall be positioned during winching so the machine and winch are operated within their design limits.

(d) Grapple skidded log turns shall be evenly bunched with squared butt ends, securely grappled and safely positioned before travel commences.

(e) Before climbing or descending grades, the proper gear shall be selected to allow the engine to govern the tractor speed.

(f) On side hills, an abrupt turn uphill shall be avoided.  The tractor or skidder shall be backed downhill first then turned uphill. The turn may be slacked off as necessary to permit this maneuver.

(g) The operator shall, before leaving a tractor or skidder, lower the blade to the ground and apply the parking brake.

(h) Tractor or skidder speed shall be adjusted to the circumstances prevailing.  Excessive or uncontrolled speed shall be avoided.

(i) Winch lines on logging tractors or skidders shall be attached to the drum with a break-away device.

(9) When hand signals are required for giving instructions to the tractor or skidder operator, the signals as illustrated in Figure No. 5 shall be used.

(10) Brakes.

(a) Service brakes shall be sufficient to stop and hold each machine and its rated load capacity on the slopes over which it is being operated.  They shall be effective whether or not the engine is running and regardless of the direction of travel.

(b) Each machine placed into initial service on or after September 8, 1995, shall also be equipped with back-up or secondary brakes that are capable of stopping the machine regardless of the direction of travel or whether the engine is running; and parking brakes that are capable of continuously holding a stopped machine stationary.

(11) Tractors and skidders shall be provided with a brake locking device that will hold the machine indefinitely on any grade on which it is being operated.

(12) Operating a tractor or skidder with defective steering or braking devices is prohibited.

(13) Arches shall be equipped with line guards.

(14) Where tractor and skidder operators or helpers, because of the nature or their work duties, are required to wear calk soled footwear, the decks and operating foot controls shall be covered with a suitable nonslip material.

(15) Glass used in windshields or in cabs shall be of "safety glass." Broken or cracked glass shall be replaced as soon as practical.  Barriers shall be provided, as needed, to protect the glass from being broken by using screen, bars or other material.  The protective material shall be a type that will not create a hazard by undue impairment of the operators' vision.

(16) Barriers shall be constructed of at least 1/4-inch diameter woven wire with two inch maximum openings or other material providing equivalent protection.  The barrier shall be installed at least four inches from the glass to provide space to clean the glass.

(17) Enclosed-type cabs installed on mobile equipment shall have two means of exit.  One may be deemed as an emergency exit and be available for use at all times, regardless of the position of the side arms or other movable parts of the machine.  (An easily removable window will be acceptable as the emergency exit if it is of adequate size for a person to readily exit through.)

(18) Before the operator leaves the operator's station of a machine, it shall be secured as follows:

(a) The parking brake or brake locks shall be applied;

(b) The transmission shall be placed in the manufacturer's specified park position; and

(c) Each moving element such as, but not limited to blades, buckets, saws and shears, shall be lowered to the ground or otherwise secured.

(19) No load shall exceed the rated capacity of the pallet, trailer, or other carrier.

(20) Seat belts required by WAC 296-54-515(19) shall have buckles of the quick release type, designed to minimize the possibility of accidental release.

(21) Before a tractor or skidder is started or moved, the operator shall be certain nothing is in the way that could be set in motion by the movement of the machine thereby endangering persons.

(22) A log or turn shall not be moved until all persons are in the clear (behind the turn and on the uphill side on sloping ground).

(23) Towed equipment, such as but not limited to, skid pans, pallets, arches, and trailers, shall be attached to each machine or vehicle in such a manner as to allow a full ninety degree turn; to prevent overrunning of the towing machine or vehicle; and to assure that the operator is always in control of the towed equipment.

(24) Tractors or skidders shall not be operated within a radius of two tree heights of trees being felled unless called upon by the cutter or faller to ground lodged trees.  All cutters shall be notified of the tractor or skidder entrance into the area and all felling within two tree lengths of the tractor or skidder shall be stopped.

(25) Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been de-energized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the following:

(a) For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the equipment or machine shall be ten feet;

(b) For lines rated over 50 kV, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the equipment or machine shall be ten feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than ten feet;

(c) In transit with no load and boom or extended equipment lowered, the equipment clearance shall be a minimum of four feet for voltages less than 50 kV, and ten feet for voltages over 50 kV up to and including 345 kV, and sixteen feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV;

(d) A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means;

(e) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate it is not an energized line and it has been visibly grounded.

(26) Log piles and decks shall be located and constructed to provide working areas around them that will accommodate the safe movement of personnel and machinery.

(27) Braking systems required by subsection (10) of this section, shall be capable of stopping the equipment fully loaded as specified in the society of automotive engineers technical reports listed in subdivisions (a), (b), (c) or (d) of this subsection and shall be installed by June 30, 1973.  All rubber-tired tractors or other types of mobile equipment listed below, manufactured after the effective date of these standards, shall have braking systems and requirements specified in the applicable technical reports of the society of automotive engineers as follows:

(a) Brake systems for off-highway, rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers shall meet or exceed the requirements outlined in SAE technical report J319b.

(b) Brake systems for off-highway, rubber-tired, front-end loaders, log stackers and dozers (skidders) shall meet or exceed the requirements outlined in SAE technical report J237.

(c) Brake systems for rubber-tired, self-propelled graders shall meet or exceed the requirements outlined in SAE technical report J236.

(d) Brake systems for off-highway trucks and wagons shall meet or exceed the requirements outlined in SAE technical report J166.

(28) The yarding machine or vehicle, including its load, shall be operated with safe clearance from all obstructions.

(29) The overhead covering of each cab shall be of solid material and shall extend over the entire canopy.

(30) If a hydraulic or pneumatic storage device can move the moving elements such as, but not limited to, blades, buckets, saws and shears, after the machine is shut down, the pressure or stored energy from the element shall be discharged as specified by the manufacturer.

( WAC 296-54-557, Illus. 1, Figure No. 5) Place illustration here.))

(1) Wire rope must be of the same or better grade as originally recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

(2) Wire rope must be removed from service when any of the following conditions exist:

(a) In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay;

(b) Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure;

(c) Evidence of any heat damage from any cause;

(d) Reductions from nominal diameter of more than 3/64-inch for diameters to and including 3/4-inch, 1/16-inch for diameters 7/8-inch to 1-1/8-inch, inclusive, 3/32-inch for diameters 1-1/4-inches to 1-1/2-inches inclusive;

(e) In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection;

(f) In standing ropes, when twelve and one-half percent of the wires are broken within a distance of one wrap (lay); and

(g) Corroded, damaged, or improperly applied end connections.

(3) Wire rope must be kept lubricated as conditions of use require.


EXCEPTION: This section does not apply to chokers.

Place illustration here.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-557, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-557, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-557, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-55710
Wire rope--Cutting.

(1) Hard hammers must not be used for cutting cable with a wire ax or when splicing.

(2) Employees must wear eye protection when cutting lines.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-55720
Wire rope--Splicing.

(1) Marlin spikes must be used for splicing. The marlin spikes must be:

(a) Large enough for the size of the line being spliced; and

(b) Maintained in good condition;

(2) Short splices, eye-to-eye splices, cat's paws, and knots are prohibited except for moving nonload-bearing lines. Knots may be used on single drum tractors, grapple pickup lines, and dropline carriage systems using slider bells if the knot is tied on the end of the dropline.

(3) Wire rope one-half inch in diameter or less must be tucked at least two times provided the rope is used only as a strawline.

(4) Eye splices in all regular lay lines and straps must be tucked at least three times.

(5) Eye splices in lang lay lines must be tucked at least four times.

(6) Splices, other than eye splices, in lang lay loading lines are prohibited.

(7) Long splices must be used to permanently join regular lay running line.

(8) The length of line strand to be unraveled to make a long splice in wire rope must be as shown in Table 2: Length of Line Strand. The full length of the splice is twice the length of the rope to be unraveled.

Table 2: Length of Line Strand


Rope Diameter

To Be Unraveled

Total Length

1/4" 8' 16'
3/8" 8' 16'
1/2" 10' 20'
5/8" 13' 26'
3/4" 15' 30'
7/8" 18' 36'
1" 20' 40'
1-1/8" 23' 46'
1-1/4" 25' 50'
1-3/8" 28' 56'
1-1/2" 30' 60'
1-5/8" 33' 66'
1-3/4" 35' 70'
1-7/8" 38' 76'
2" 40' 80'

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-55730
Wire rope--Attaching end fastenings.

(1) The manufacturer's recommendations must be followed when attaching sockets and other end fastenings.

(2) Using cable clips or clamps for joining lines is prohibited, except to transfer slack lines from one place to another.

(3) When U-bolt cable clips are used to form eyes, Table 3: U-bolt Cable Clips to Form Eyes must be used to determine the number and spacing of clips.

Table 3: U-bolt Cable Clips to Form Eyes

Improved Plow Steel Diameter of Rope

Number of Clips Forged

Required Other Material

Minimum Space Between Clips

3/8 to 5/8 inch 3 4 -3/4 inch
3/4 inch 4 5 4-1/2 inch
7/8 inch 4 5 5-1/4 inch
1 inch 5 6 6 inches
1-1/8 inch 6 6 6-3/4 inch
1-1/4 inch 6 7 7-1/2 inch
1-3/8 inch 7 7 8-1/4 inch
1-1/2 inch 7 8 9 inches

(4) When U-bolt cable clips are used:

(a) For eye splices, the U-bolt wire rope clip must be attached so that the U section is in contact with the dead or short end of the rope (see Figure 3: Eyes Formed with U-bolt Cable Clips);

(b) U-bolt cable clips must be spaced at least six rope diameters apart to obtain the maximum holding power. Nuts must be tightened evenly and tightened again after application of the first sustained load. After the rope has been used and is under tension, the clips must be tightened again to take up any looseness caused by the tension reducing the rope diameter;

(c) With high strength wire rope, one more U-bolt cable clip must be added for each grade above improved plow steel; and

(d) Eyes formed with U-bolt cable clips are prohibited with running lines or straps.

Place illustration here.

Figure 3: Eyes Formed with U-bolt Cable Clips

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-559
((Yarding--Helicopters and helicopter cranes.)) Chokers and butt rigging.

(((1) Helicopters and helicopter cranes shall comply with any applicable regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration.

(2) Prior to each day's operation, a briefing shall be conducted.  This briefing shall set forth the plan of operation for the pilot and ground personnel.

(3) A take-off path from the log pickup point shall be established, and shall be made known to all workers in that area before the first turn of logs is moved.

(4) The helicopter flight path to and from the drop zone shall be designated and no equipment or personnel (other than flight personnel necessary to assist landing and take-off) will occupy these areas during helicopter arrival or departure.

(5) The approach to the landing shall be clear and long enough to prevent tree tops from being pulled into the landing.

(6) The helicopter shall not pass over an area in which cutters are working at a height which would cause the rotor wash to inhibit a cutter's ability to safely control a tree or dislodge limbs.

(7) Drop zones shall be twice the nominal length of logs to be landed.

(8) The drop zone shall be no less than one hundred twenty-five feet from the loading or decking area.

(9) Separate areas shall be designated for landing logs and fueling the helicopter(s).

(10) The yarding helicopter shall be equipped with a siren to warn workers of any hazardous situation.

(11) Workers shall remain in the clear as chokers are being delivered, and under no circumstances will workers move under the helicopter that is delivering the chokers or take hold of the chokers before they have been released by the helicopter.

(12) Log pickup shall be arranged in a manner that the hook up crew will not work on slopes below felled and bucked timber.

(13) If the load must be lightened, the hook shall be placed on the ground on the uphill side of the turn before the hooker approaches to release the excess logs.

(14) Landing crew shall be in the clear before logs are dropped.

(15) One end of all the logs in the turn shall be touching the ground and lowered to an angle of not more than 45° from the horizontal before the chokers are released.

(16) Logs shall be laid on the ground and the helicopter will be completely free of the choker(s) before workers approach the logs.

(17) If the load will not release from the hook, the load and the hook shall be on the ground before workers approach to release the hook manually.

(18) Loads shall be properly slung.  Tag lines shall be of a length that will not permit their being drawn up into rotors.  Pressed sleeve, swaged eyes, or equivalent means shall be used for all freely suspended loads to prevent hand splices from spinning open or cable clamps from loosening.

(19) All electrically operated cargo hooks shall have the electrical activating device so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation.  In addition, these cargo hooks shall be equipped with an emergency mechanical control for releasing the load.  The hooks shall be tested prior to each day's operation to determine that the release functions properly, both electrically and mechanically.

(20)(a) Personal protective equipment for employees receiving the load shall consist of complete eye protection and hard hats secured by chinstraps, and high visibility vests or outer garments.

(b) Loose-fitting clothing likely to flap in the downwash, and thus be snagged on hoist line, shall not be worn.

(21) Every practical precaution shall be taken to provide for the protection of employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash.  All loose gear within one hundred feet of the place of lifting of the load, depositing the load, and all other areas susceptible to rotor downwash shall be secured or removed.

(22) Good housekeeping shall be maintained in all helicopter loading and unloading areas.

(23) The helicopter operator shall be responsible for size, weight, and manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter.  If, for any reason, the helicopter operator believes the lift cannot be made safely, the lift shall not be made.

(24) Employees shall not perform work under hovering craft except for that limited period of time necessary to guide, secure, hook and unhook loads.  Regardless of whether the hooking or unhooking of a load takes place on the ground or other location in an elevated work position in structural members, a safe means of access and egress, to include an unprogrammed emergency escape route or routes, shall be provided for the employees hooking or unhooking loads.

(25) Static charge on the suspended load shall be dissipated with a grounding device before ground personnel touch the suspended load, or protective rubber gloves shall be worn by all ground personnel touching the suspended load.

(26) The weight of an external load shall not exceed the manufacturer's rating.

(27) Hoist wires or other gear, except for pulling lines or conductors that are allowed to "pay out" from a container or roll off a reel, shall not be attached to any fixed ground structure, or allowed to foul on any fixed structure.

(28) When visibility is reduced by dust or other conditions, ground personnel shall exercise special caution to keep clear of main and stabilizing rotors.  Precautions shall also be taken by the employer to eliminate as far as practical reduced visibility.

(29) Signal systems between aircrew and ground personnel shall be understood and checked in advance of hoisting the load.  This applies to either radio or hand signal systems.  Hand signals shall be as shown in Figure 6.

(30) No unauthorized person shall be allowed to approach within fifty feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning.

(31) Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position.  Employees shall avoid the area from the cockpit or cabin rearward unless authorized by the helicopter operator to work there.

(32) Sufficient ground personnel shall be provided, when required, for safe helicopter loading and unloading operations.

(33) There shall be constant reliable communication between the pilot, and a designated employee of the ground crew who acts as a signalperson during the period of loading and unloading.  This signalperson shall be distinctly recognizable from other ground personnel.

(34) Open fires shall not be permitted in an area that could result in such fires being spread by the rotor downwash.

(35) Under no circumstances shall the refueling of any type helicopter with either aviation gasoline or Jet B (turbine) type fuel be permitted while the engines are running.

(36) Helicopters using Jet A (turbine-kerosene) type fuel may be refueled with engines running provided the following criteria is met:

(a) No unauthorized persons shall be allowed within fifty feet of the refueling operation or fueling equipment.

(b) A minimum of one thirty-pound fire extinguisher, or a combination of same, good for class A, B and C fires, shall be provided within one hundred feet on the upwind side of the refueling operation.

(c) All fueling personnel shall be thoroughly trained in the refueling operation and in the use of the available fire extinguishing equipment they may be expected to utilize.

(d) There shall be no smoking, open flames, exposed flame heaters, flare pots or open flame lights within fifty feet of the refueling area or fueling equipment.  All entrances to the refueling area shall be posted with "NO SMOKING" signs.

(e) Due to the numerous causes of static electricity, it shall be considered present at all times.  Prior to starting refueling operations, the fueling equipment and the helicopter shall be grounded and the fueling nozzle shall be electrically bonded to the helicopter.  The use of conductive hose shall not be accepted to accomplish this bonding.  All grounding and bonding connections shall be electrically and mechanically firm, to clean unpainted metal parts.

(f) To control spills, fuel shall be pumped either by hand or power.  Pouring or gravity flow shall not be permitted.  Self-closing nozzles or deadman controls shall be used and shall not be blocked open.  Nozzles shall not be dragged along the ground.

(g) In case of a spill, the fueling operation shall be immediately stopped until such time as the person-in-charge determines that it is safe to resume the refueling operation.

(h) When ambient temperatures have been in the 100 degree F. range for an extended period of time, all refueling of helicopters with the engines running shall be suspended until such time as conditions become suitable to resume refueling with the engines running.

(37) Helicopters with their engines stopped being refueled with aviation gasoline or Jet B (turbine) type fuel, shall also comply with subsection (36)(a) through (g) of this section.

(38) Hook on persons in logging operations shall wear contrasting colored hard hats, with chinstraps, and high visibility vests or outer garments to enable the helicopter operator to readily identify their location.

(39) Riding the load or hook of a helicopter is prohibited except in the case of an emergency with the proper safety gear.

Place illustration here.
Note: See Figures No. 7-A through 7-P, for illustrations of various types of cable logging systems.
See Figures No. 7-Q through 7-U, for illustrations of whistle signals used on various cable logging systems.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.


HIGH LEAD LOGGING WHISTLE SIGNALS


- Means longer spacing between signals.
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop all lines.
3 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead slow on mainline.
3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on mainline.
2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on haulback.
2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead slow on haulback.
3 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on strawline.
3 short-1 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead slow on strawline.
4 short or more . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack mainline.
2 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack haulback.
3 short-1 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack strawline.
3 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Standing tight line.
1 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Tight line while lines are running, or break if running tight.
3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When rigging is in: Strawline back on haulback.
3 short / plus "X" num-

ber of shorts . . . . . . . . . . . .

When rigging is in: Indicates number of sections of strawline back on rigging.

3 short-1 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Strawline back on rigging.
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When rigging is in: Chaser inspect and repair rigging.
2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When rigging is in: No chokers back.
2 short-1 short / plus

"X" number of shorts . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of chokers back.

2 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When rigging is in: Slack haulback-hold all lines until 2 short blown.
3 medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Hooker.
3 medium-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Hooker and that crew.
5 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Climber.
4 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreman.
1 long-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Start or stop work.
7 long-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Person injured, call transportation and stretcher.
1 long-1 short repeated . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire.

Grabinski system

2 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . .

Slack mainline and haulback together.

2 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Take off or put on rider block.

Figure 7-Q


SKIDDER WHISTLE SIGNALS


- Means longer spacing between signals.
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stops moving carriage-stops or goes ahead on slack puller, as case may be, if carriage is stopped.
2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Go ahead on skidding line holding carriage.
1 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Pick up skidding line, easy.
2 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Shake up carriage to clear choker.
2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on receding line.
3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on carriage, holding at present level, using interlock.
3 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead easy on skidding line.
2 short-2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack skyline, cable down.
2 short-2 short-2 short-

1 short . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pick up skyline, cable up.

2 short-2 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack receding line.
2 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack skidding line.
2 short-2 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten all lines.
1 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack off slack puller.
1 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Pick up slack puller when slack.
2 short-2 short / plus

"X" number of shorts . . . . . . . . . . . .

When carriage is in: Number of chokers wanted.

2 short-2 short-1 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Bull choker.
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Inspect butt rigging.
2 short-4 short / 1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . For each additional ten feet of tong line.
1 long / plus "X" number of

shorts . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of coils of strawline wanted.

5 medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Tail or second rigger.
5 medium-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Tail or second rigger and that crew.
2 medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Skidder head rigger.
3 medium-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Hooker and that crew.
2 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on transfer.
2 long-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack transfer
1 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on carriage with slack puller line.
1 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on strawline.
1 long-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack strawline.
1 long-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead easy on strawline.
5 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Climber.
4 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreman.
1 long-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Start or stop work.
7 long-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Person injured, call transportation and stretcher.
1 long-1 short repeated . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire.

Figure 7-R


SLACKLINE WHISTLE SIGNALS



- Means longer spacing between signals.
2 short-2 short-2 short-

1 short . . . . . . . . . . . .

First cable up when road has been changed and tail hold made fast.

2 short-2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Drop skyline.
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop any moving line.
1 long . . . . . . . . . . . . When logging, slack skyline.
2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on skyline.
1 long-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead easy on skyline.
3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on skidding line, holding haulback.
3 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead easy on skidding line with slack haulback.
4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack skidding line.
2 short-2 short / 2 short-

2 short . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ahead easy on haulback with slack skidding line.

2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on haulback.
2 short-2 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack haulback.
2 short / 3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Pick up skyline and skid.
2 short / 2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Pick up skyline and skin.
3 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Strawline back on haulback.
3 short-1 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Strawline back on carriage.
3 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When strawline is out: Ahead on strawline.
3 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Tight line.
3 short-1 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack strawline.
3 short-1 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Pull easy on strawline.
2 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on transfer.
2 long-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack transfer.
2 long-2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Transfer back on carriage.
1 long / plus "X" number of

shorts . . . . . . . . . . . .

When carriage is in: Number of coils.

2 short-2 short-1 short / plus

"X" number of shorts . . . . . . . . . . . .

When carriage is in: Number of chokers.

1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Inspect rigging, repair and send back.
2 short-2 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Slack haulback and hold all lines until 1 short is blown-then send back.
3 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Send back powder.
5 medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Tail rigger.
5 medium-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Tail rigger and that crew.
3 medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Head hooker.
3 medium-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Second hooker and that crew.
5 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Climber.
4 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreman.
1 long-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Start or stop work.
7 long-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Person injured, call transportation and stretcher.
1 long-1 short repeated . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire.

Figure 7-S


RUNNING SKYLINE WHISTLE SIGNALS


- Means longer spacing between signals
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop all moving lines
2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Skin carriage back
2 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack haulback
2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Skin carriage easy
2 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Standing tight line
1 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on drop line
4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack drop line
1 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack both mainlines
1 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop drop line going up and move carriage forward
3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Move carriage forward
3 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Move carriage forward easy
3 short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When strawline is out: Ahead on strawline
3 short-1 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack strawline
3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Strawline
3 short-X short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Number sections
3 short-1 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Strawline back on carriage
2 short-X short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Number of chokers
4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Inspect rigging, repair and send back
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . When carriage is in: Hold all lines until 2 shorts, then send back
3 medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Head hooker
3 medium-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Hooker and that crew
4 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreman
1 long-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Start or stop work
7 long-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Person injured; call transportation and stretcher
1 long-1 short (repeated) . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire
3 short-1 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledged by engineer to signify hazardous turn

Figure 7-T


TENSION SYSTEM SIGNALS

4 . . . . . . . . . . . . Release tension
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop carriage and start unspooling tong line
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop tong line
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Resume unspooling tong line
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Will stop any moving line or slack tong line when carriage is stopped
2 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Go into interlock and go back
2 short-4 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Slack haulback and let carriage down
After turn is set
2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Go ahead on tong line
2 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Go ahead easy on tong line
3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Go into interlock and take carriage to landing
3 short-3 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead on carriage easy
1 short-2 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Increase tension on tong line when carriage is going in
short-1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Decrease tension on tong line when carriage is going in

Figure 7-U))

(1) Chokers must be at least one size smaller than the mainline. If a dropline is used it must have a breaking strength equal to a line one size smaller than the mainline.

(2) All butt hook rigging must be used in a manner to prevent loss of the choker.

(3) Molles or cold shuts are prohibited in butt rigging as a load bearing connection.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-559, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.  88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-54-559, filed 11/14/88.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and RCW 49.17.050.  81-05-013 (Order 81-3), § 296-54-559, filed 2/10/81.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-559, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-561
((Log loading--General requirements.)) Guylines.

(((1) Loading operators shall have a clear view of the landing and of the cars or trucks being loaded.

(2) Persons shall not ride logs, tongs, grapples or other loading devices.

(3) The use of plain spiked loading hooks without a bell is prohibited for loading logs.

(4) All limbs or knots that would project beyond the stakes or legal height shall be removed before the log is loaded on the car or truck.

(5) When the loading operator is not able to see the loading operation, signals shall be given by a designated person, who shall have a clear view of the operations and shall be visible to the operator.  Hand signals used shall be as illustrated in Figure No. 7, following WAC 296-54-565.

(6) Logs shall not be swung or suspended over occupied equipment by loading machines on landings.  Persons shall not stand or walk under suspended logs.

(7) No one shall ride loads while cars or trucks are being spotted or dropped, except those whose regular duties require them to do so.

(8) Cars and trucks shall not be moved until the head loader or loading machine operator is positive that all persons are in the clear.

(9) When grapples, trip tongs or similar devices are used in the loading operation, they shall be lowered to the ground whenever the machine is unattended.  If the device can tip or fall over, it shall be laid on its side on the ground.

(10) While logs are being loaded, no one shall remain on the load, chain deck or behind the cab protector.  Any unattached material shall be removed from the top of the cab protector before the truck is moved from the landing.

(11) To control the movement of a log truck being loaded, a positive audible means of communication shall be established between the truck driver and the loading machine operator.  The established means of communication shall be familiar to all employees on the landing and shall include a danger signal to warn employees in case of an emergency.  If a movable loader is being used, the loader operator shall sound a warning signal before moving the loader.  The signals so used shall be easily distinguishable from other whistle or horn signals used in the landing area.

(12) When signals are used at a landing, reload or deck to control the movement of logging trucks in accordance with subsection (11) of this section, the following signals shall be used:


1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop
1 short . . . . . . . . . . . . Ahead
2 shorts . . . . . . . . . . . . Back
2 shorts then 2 shorts . . . . . . . . . . . . Wrapper
3 shorts . . . . . . . . . . . . Check scales
1 long-repeated . . . . . . . . . . . . Danger
1 long . . . . . . . . . . . . Loader moving

(13) No person shall be permitted alongside or underneath trucks being loaded or on the load until communication has been established with the loading machine operator and truck driver and assurance has been received that it is safe to be there.

(14) Power saws shall not be operated on top of loaded logging trucks.

(15) Standing underneath a suspended trailer or its reach is prohibited.

(16) The outside bunklogs (bottom tier) shall be loaded tight against the stakes.

(17) Logs shall be loaded in a manner to prevent undue strain on wrappers, binders, bunk stakes and chains or straps.

Note: Logs shall be considered to be "within the stakes" when one-half the log diameter is below the top of the stakes.


(18) Logs in any tier or layer unsecured by stakes or chalk blocks shall be well saddled and have their diameter centers inside the diameter centers of the outer logs of the next lower tier or layer.

(19) Bunk and wing logs shall extend not less than twelve inches beyond the front and rear bunks or stakes.  On rigid type bunks, they shall extend not less than six inches beyond the front and rear bunks or stakes.

(20) Double ended logs, above the stakes, shall not be loaded on the side of the load from which the binders or wrappers are intended to be released from.

(21) Logs shall be loaded in a manner that will not impair full and free movement of the truck and trailer.

(22) Each log not contained within the stakes shall be secured with at least two wrappers before the truck leaves the immediate landing area.

(23) Loads or logs shall not be moved or shifted while wrappers and binders are being applied or adjusted.

(24) Stable loads.  Loads shall be built up or loaded in a manner to be stable without the use of wrappers.  Wrappers shall be considered only as precautionary measures to ensure stability of the load.

(25) Loading equipment maintained.  All loading machines and equipment shall be maintained in a safe condition.  The critical parts of such equipment, such as bolts in base plates, etc., that cannot be inspected while in operation, shall be inspected at reasonable intervals by a qualified person when the machine is shutdown.  If indications of failure or weakness is noted or suspected, the parts in question shall be examined by an approved method and if found to be defective, shall be repaired or replaced before the equipment is put back into operation.

(26) Tongs pulling out.  Where there is a danger of tongs or hooks pulling out of the log, straps shall be used.  Tongs may be used on extra-large logs provided the logs are barked and notched to provide a secure hold.

(27) The transport vehicle shall be positioned to provide working clearance between the vehicle and the deck.

(28) Only the loading or unloading machine operator and other personnel the employer demonstrates are essential shall be in the work area during loading and unloading.)) (1) Guylines must be used with any logging equipment when required by the equipment manufacturer.

(2) At least the minimum number and angle of guylines recommended by the equipment manufacturer must be used.

(3) Unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer, guylines must be of the following sizes:

(a) In highlead logging, the head spar guylines must be equal in breaking strength to the mainline.

(b) In skyline logging, if the skyline is one and three-eighths inch or greater, the head spar guylines must be at least one and three-eighths inch. If the skyline is less than one and three-eighths inch, the head spar guylines must be equal in breaking strength to the skyline.

(c) On all other cable logging machines, the guylines must have a breaking strength at least equal to the mainline/skyline, whichever is largest.

(d) Tail/lift and intermediate support trees must be adequately guyed to withstand any stress to which the tree may be subjected.

(4) When guylines are required for spars they must be positioned according to Table 4: Guyline Positioning, or according to the manufacturer's specifications.

Table 4: Guyline Positioning

Number of Guys on Spar Number of Guys Sharing Load Positioning Figure Number
1 1 4 - 1 Guyline Case
2 2 5 - 2 Guyline Case
3 3* 6 - 3 Guyline Case
2 7 - 3 Guyline Case (2)
4 2 8 - 4 Guyline Case
5 2 9 - 5 Guyline Case
3 10 - 5 Guyline Case (2)
6 2 11 - 6 Guyline Case
3 12 - 6 Guyline Case (2)
7 3 13 - 7 Guyline Case
8 2 14 - 8 Guyline Case
4 15 - 8 Guyline Case (2)

* For metal spars designed to operate without snap guy

(5)(a) Guylines supporting metal spars must be made of plow steel or better material and must be maintained in good condition.

(b) Guylines for tail/lift and intermediate support trees may be made of synthetic material and must be used according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

(6) Load bearing guyline angles must be no greater than fifty degrees measured horizontally (See Figure 18: Maximum Angle for Load Bearing Guylines and Skyline). If suitable anchors are unavailable or the terrain is so steep that the guyline angle exceeds fifty degrees, an additional guyline must be rigged to oppose the load.

(7) Guylines must be kept securely tightened while the spar, tree, equipment or rigging they support is in use.

(8) Power driven devices must be securely anchored when used to tighten guylines. Holding such devices is prohibited.

(9) All trees that interfere with proper alignment, placement, or tightening of guylines must be fell.

(10) Guylines must be hung in a manner to prevent a excessive bight or fouling when they are tightened.

(11) The use of loops or molles for attaching guylines is prohibited.

(12) The U part of shackles or sleeves must be around the guyline and the pin passed through the eye of the guyline.

(13) Splicing of guylines is prohibited except to make an eye splice.

(14) All spliced guyline eyes must be tucked at least three times.

(15) Extensions to guylines must be:

(a) Equal in breaking strength to the guyline to which they are attached; and

(b) Connected only by a shackle connecting two spliced eyes, pressed eyes or by double-end hooks. Connections must have at least one and one-half times the strength of the guyline.

(16) When hanging a block or jack on a guyline, only sleeve-type safety pin shackles must be used. The shackle sleeve shall have not less than two and one-half times the line diameter bearing on the guyline.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

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Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

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Place illustration here.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-561, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-561, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 80-15, filed 8/20/80)

WAC 296-54-563
((Log loading--Special requirements.)) Guying tail/lift trees.

(((1)(a) Loading machines shall be equipped with an effective parking braking system which is not dependent on the air or hydraulic pressure which is used to stop the machine while traveling.

(b) A braking system shall be installed on the load line and boom supporting equipment which shall be capable of stopping and holding, in any position, the maximum load for which the loading machine is designed.  The equipment shall be of such design as to lower the boom with power.  Booms not having power down shall be dogged before workers enter the hazardous area around the boom.  Workers shall not be under any boom while it is being held by the brake.

(2) A minimum distance of thirty-six-inch clearance shall be maintained between the counterweight of a loading machine and trees, logs, banks, trucks, etc., while the machine is in operation.  If this clearance cannot be maintained, suitable barricades with warning signs attached, similar to a standard guardrail, shall be installed to isolate the hazardous area.  "DANGER - 36-inch clearance" shall be marked in contrasting colors on sides and face of counterweight on shovels, loaders and other swing-type logging equipment.

(3) Persons shall not work under a slack puller.  A warning line, of sufficient length to reach the ground at all positions, shall be hung from any slack puller.

(4) Where a backstop of a loading machine is so constructed that it could crush the operator's cab should the heel boom be pulled or pushed too far backward, positive boom stops shall be installed.

(5) All mobile fork-lift type log handling machines shall be equipped with a means or mechanism to prevent the logs from leaving or rolling off the forks, and shall be used at all times while moving logs.)) (1) Whenever a tail/lift tree is within reach of the work area and the rigging is placed on the tail/lift tree at a height greater than five times the tree diameter (dbh), at least two guylines must be used unless tree size and strength and rigging position eliminate the need for guylines or employees must be in the clear before the go-ahead signal is given.

(2) Guylines on tail/lift trees must not be anchored to standing trees unless:

(a) There is no danger that the guyline anchor tree will enter the work area;

(b) The guyline anchor tree is properly tied back; or

(c) Employees are in the clear of the guyline anchor tree(s) before the go-ahead signal is given.

(3) When guylines are required, they must be positioned according to Figure 16: Positioning Guylines in Back of Tree and Figure 19: 4 Guyline Case - Tail/Lift Tree Guying as follows:

(a) When the angle between the horizontal and skyline coming into the tree (angle A in Figure 16) is less than the angle between the horizontal and the skyline leaving the tree towards the anchor point (angle B in Figure 16), the guylines must be in back of the tail/lift tree as specified in Figure 19.

(b) If angle A is greater than angle B, then the guys must be placed in front of the tail/lift tree. This situation usually occurs when a tail/lift tree is used during downhill yarding as shown below. Placing the guys on the uphill side only helps to pull the tail/lift tree over uphill.

(c) If a suitable anchor is not available within a specified shaded zone, two guylines may be used instead of one guyline, provided a guyline is placed on either side of and as near as possible to the affected shaded zone.

(4) Tail/lift trees must be supported by additional guylines if necessary, to ensure the stability of the tree.

(5) Guylines for tail/lift trees may be made of synthetic material and must be used according to the manufacturer's recommendation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-563, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-563, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-565
((Log loading--Self-loading log trucks.)) Intermediate support trees.

(((1) A safe means of access and egress shall be provided to the operator's loading work station.

(2) Self-loading log truck operators shall not unload their own load unless a positive means of securing the logs has been provided when binders and wrappers are removed.

(3) New self-loading log trucks purchased and put in operation after January 1, 1980, shall be equipped with:

(a) A check valve installed on the jib boom; and

(b) A seat that is offset from the point of attachment of the boom.  The seat and boom structure shall rotate concurrently.

(4) The operator of a self-loading log truck shall not heel the log over the operator's work station.


STANDARD SIGNALS FOR LOADING LOGS

Place illustration here.))

(1) Trees used as intermediate supports must be sound and straight from the ground to the point of strap attachment; and must be rigged so that:

(a) Carriage clearance, as measured at the base of the support tree(s) is approximately five feet.

(b) The jackline/support line (see Figure 21: Critical Measurements of the Double Tree Intermediate Support System) is a single piece of line that is one-eighth inch larger than the tong or skidding line or rigged to provide a strength equal to a line one-eighth inch larger than the tong or skidding line.

(2) Vertical support trees must be firmly rooted.

(3) The base of all leaning tree supports must be prevented from moving by:

(a) Retaining twenty percent of the stump diameter in holding wood; or

(b) Other suitable rigging arrangements.

(4) Double tree supports must be rigged so that (see Figure 22: Double Tree Intermediate Support System):

(a) The minimum and maximum heights of the jack relative to the height of the block are as shown below:

(b) The angle the block line makes with the center line of the support tree is as follows:

(i) For skylines one and one-eighth inch and smaller, ten degrees in any direction; and

(ii) For skylines larger than one and one-eighth inch, deflection of the block is in the direction of the jack and a maximum of ten degrees.

(c) The loaded support tree does not displace more than two feet at the point of rigging attachment.

(5) Intermediate support trees must be adequately guyed to withstand any stress to which the tree may be subjected.

(6) Single tree supports must be guyed as follows:

(a) For skylines one and one-eighth inch and less, as shown in Figure 4; and

(b) For skylines larger than one and one-eighth inch, as shown in Figure 6.

(7) Double tree supports must be guyed as follows:

(a) For skylines one and one-eighth inch and less, no guys are required;

(b) For skylines larger than one and one-eighth inch, as shown in Figure 4.

(8) Guylines for intermediate support trees may be made of synthetic material and must be used according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-565, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-565, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-567
((Motor truck log transportation--General requirements.)) Rigging skylines.

(((1) Prior to use, the operator shall make a complete daily inspection of the truck and trailer with particular attention to steering apparatus, lights and reflectors, brake boosters, brake hoses and connections, reaches, and hitches (couplings).  The brakes shall be tested before and after movement of the vehicle.  The operator shall submit a written list of necessary repairs to a person designated by the employer.

(2) Any defective parts that would make the vehicle unsafe to operate, shall be replaced or repaired before the vehicle is placed in service.

(3) All motor vehicles operated on public roads shall comply with the rules of the regulatory body having jurisdiction.  Motor vehicles used on roads not under the control of the state department of transportation, counties or cities shall be equipped with accessories necessary for a safe operation including operable head lamps and at least two tail lamps and brake lamps which shall emit a red light plainly visible from a distance of one thousand feet to the rear and shall also have two reflectors visible at night from three hundred fifty feet when directly in front of properly adjusted motor vehicle head lamps.

(4) Truck tires worn beyond a point of safety or not meeting the safety requirements of the jurisdiction having authority as to tread wear and tire conditions, shall not be used.

(5) The driver shall do everything reasonably possible to keep the truck under control at all times and shall not operate in excess of a speed at which the driver can stop the truck in one-half the distance between the range of unobstructed vision.

(6) The area between the truck frame members, extending from the cab rearward as far as necessary to provide a safe work area, shall be covered with suitable nonslip type material.  Log trucks which have logs scaled at stations shall be provided with a platform on each side extending outward from the frame members at least eighteen inches, and shall be eighteen inches long or as near this dimension as the design of the truck will permit.  The treading surface of the platforms shall be of nonslip type material and the platform shall be capable of safely supporting a five hundred pound load.

(7) To protect the operator of vehicles from loads, a substantial bulkhead shall be provided behind the cab which shall extend up to the height of the cab.

(8) If logs must be scaled or branded while the loading operation is being carried on, the loading operation shall cease while the scaling or branding is being done so that the scaler or person doing the branding is not subjected to any hazards created by the loading operation.

(9) When at the dump or reload or where logs are scaled or branded on the truck, the logs shall be scaled or branded before the binders are released.

(10) All vehicles, where vision of the operator in the direction of travel is impaired by the load or vehicle, shall be moved only on a signal from a worker who shall have a clear view in the direction in which the vehicle is to be moved.

(11) Where a bridge or other roadway structure is posted with a load limit sign, log truck drivers or operators of other heavy equipment are prohibited from driving a load in excess of the posted limit over such structure.

(12) Persons shall be allowed to ride only when in the cab of the log truck.

(13) All trucks shall keep to the right side of the road except where the road is plainly and adequately posted for left side travel.

(14) A method shall be provided to assure that the trailer will remain mounted on the truck while driving on highways or logging roads.

(15) When trucks are towed on any road, the person guiding the vehicle being towed shall, by prearranged signals, govern the speed of travel.  The towing of vehicles shall be done at a reasonable speed and in a prudent manner.  A tow cable or chain over fifteen feet in length shall have a white flag affixed at the approximate center, however, it is recommended that a rigid tow bar be used for this purpose.

(16) All air lines, air chambers and systems shall be free of leaks and be able to maintain air pressure on constant brake application with the motor shut-off for one minute, or air pressure does not drop more than 4 p.s.i. in one minute with the engine running at idling speed and the service brake applied.

(17) All rubber-tired motor vehicles shall be equipped with fenders.  Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever the motor vehicle is not designed for fenders.

(18) Seat belts and anchorages meeting the requirements of 49 CFR Part 571 (D.O.T. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards) shall be installed and used in all motor vehicles.

(19) All trucks shall be equipped with doors with operable latches, or a safety bar or strap shall be provided in lieu of the door.

(20) All trucks shall be equipped with a means to protect the operator from inclement weather.

(21) Log trucks shall not approach a landing while there is danger from incoming logs.

(22) Log truck drivers shall stop their vehicle, dismount, check and tighten loose load wrappers and binders, either just before or immediately after leaving a private road to enter a public road.  While enroute, the operator shall check and tighten the wrappers/tie downs whenever there is reason to believe that the wrappers/tie downs have loosened or the load has shifted.)) (1) A skyline must not make an angle greater than fifty degrees measured from the horizontal as it leaves the tail/lift tree. (See Figure 18: Maximum Angle for Load Bearing Guylines and Skyline.)

(2) When rigged in a tail/lift tree, the skyline must be anchored no more than eight degrees offline from the rearward projection of the skyline. If a suitable anchor is not available within the specified zone and the tail/lift tree is stable, a more suitable anchor outside the zone may be used. (See Figure 23: Skyline Positioning Limits Tail/Lift Tree.)

(3) A skyline must not be considered a guyline.

(4) Extensions to skylines must be equal in breaking strength to the skyline to which they are attached and must not alter the safe capacity of the tower. In addition, the extension must be attached only by a regular long splice or by a flush pin straight side shackle connecting the two eyes.


Note: See exception in WAC 296-54-553 (4)(e).

(5) Live, running or standing skylines must be anchored by one of the following methods:

(a) Directly to a stump or suitable manufactured anchor;

(b) Directly to the base of a standing tree provided the point of attachment is no more than three feet above the ground and no part of the tree will enter the work area if pulled over;

(i) If the tree will enter a work area, it must be properly tied back; or

(ii) Employee(s) must be in the clear before the go-ahead signal is given.

(c) By passing the skyline though a jack or block hung on a tail/lift tree before being anchored.

(6) Skylines or mainlines must be secured by one of the following methods:

(a) With at least two and one-half wraps, well spiked, or properly clamped (see WAC 296-54-569 (5)(b)); or

(b) Choked by using an approved shackle over the skyline or mainline with the pin through the eye; or

(c) With an approved strap having both eyes hung in a shackle and the knockout pin or safety pin through the eye of the skyline or mainline.

(7) Attaching the end of the skyline or slackline to the base of the rigged tail/lift tree is prohibited.

Place illustration here.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-567, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and RCW 49.17.050.  81-05-013 (Order 81-3), § 296-54-567, filed 2/10/81.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-567, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 90-01, filed 4/10/90, effective 5/25/90)

WAC 296-54-569
((Motor truck log transportation--Brake requirements.)) Anchoring.

(((1) Motor logging trucks and trailers shall be equipped with brakes or other control methods which will safely stop and hold the maximum load on the maximum grade.  When unattended trucks are parked on a grade, in addition to setting the brakes, the wheels shall be chocked or blocked.

(2) All trucks equipped with air brakes shall be also equipped with a readily visual or audible low air pressure warning device in good working order.

(3) Engine-type brakes shall be considered as auxiliary controls, not a substitute for the requirement for a service brake system.

(4) Brake drums shall be maintained free of cracks, breaks or defects.  Defective brake drums, cans, shoes or air lines shall be immediately repaired or replaced.)) (1) Stumps used to anchor guylines and skylines must be carefully chosen for position, height, and strength. When necessary, stump anchors must be tied back to distribute the load.

(2) Stump anchors when spiked must be barked where attachments are to be made.

(3) Stump anchors must be adequately notched to keep the line in place and not adversely affect the stump strength.

(4) Employees must not stand close to the stump or tree or in the bight of lines as the guyline or wraps are being tightened.

(5) When spikes or cable clamps are used, guylines or skylines must be anchored with at least two and one-half wraps around the stumps. Wraps must:

(a) Be well secured with at least eight spikes or six staples in sound wood on the first and last wrap; or

(b) Have the end of the line secured with two wire rope clips on lines up to one inch diameter and three wire rope clips on lines one inch diameter and over.

(6) Properly installed deadman anchors are permitted. Guylines must not be directly attached to deadman anchors. Suitable straps or equally effective means must be used.

(7) Guylines of portable spars, wood spars or towers must not be anchored to standing trees if the unit is used as a head tree, except as specified in subsection (8) of this section.

(8) In special cases such as hanging on foreign ownership or in cable thinning operation where frequent moves make the retrieval of fell guyline trees difficult, the following will apply:

(a) Standing trees within reach of a work area or haul road may be used provided:

(i) They are solid;

(ii) Have a sound undisturbed root system;

(iii) If fell, would be suitable for a guyline stump or tailhold as required in subsection (1) of this section; and

(iv) Are properly tied back to distribute the load; or

(b) Guyline and/or tailhold anchor trees, when located so they will not fall into the work area or haul road, need not be tied back if stable.


Note: Under no circumstances must an employer accept a requirement, or be required to use standing trees to anchor guylines.

(9) Rock bolt anchors must be grouted, installed, tested, and maintained according to the rock bolt manufacturer's recommendations.

(10) Anchors must be regularly inspected while the logging operation is in progress. Insecure or hazardous anchors must be corrected immediately.

(11) Artificial earth anchors must be installed and used according to their design specifications and manufacturer's recommendations.

(12) Mobile equipment may be used to anchor skylines, running lines and guylines, provided the weight of the machine or other methods are used to ensure machine stability for all applied loads.

Place illustration here.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.  90-09-026 (Order 90-01), § 296-54-569, filed 4/10/90, effective 5/25/90.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-569, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-571
((Motor truck log transportation--Trailer hitches and safety chains.)) Releasing spiked guylines and spiked skylines from anchors.

(((1) All log truck and trailer combinations shall be equipped with approved hitches (couplings) which shall:

(a) Be capable of withstanding, in any direction, the potential stresses imposed;

(b) Be of a design which would not be rendered inoperative by dirt and debris and shall be locked securely and positively;

(c) Be attached to the truck frame or extension of the truck frame by means of not less than four machine bolts and nuts (120,000 p.s.i. material or better) 3/4-inch diameter or larger, secured by lock nuts.  Other means of attachment furnishing strength equal to or greater than the above may be accepted if of approved design and application; and

(d) Hitches (couplings) or parts that are broken, cracked, excessively worn, or otherwise defective hitches shall be repaired before use.

(2) Each log truck and trailer combination or log truck and independent trailer combination shall be provided with two or more safety chains or cables with a rated breaking strength of not less than the gross weight of the towed vehicle, be capable of holding the trailer in line in case of failure of the hitch assembly, and be as follows:

(a) Be permanently attached to the frame of the truck or an extension of the truck frame;

(b) Form a separate continuous connection between the truck frame or extension of the truck frame and the reach or trailer;

(c) Be attached not more than twelve inches from the eye of the reach or trailer;

(d) Be of a length short enough to prevent the trailer reach or tongue from contacting the ground in the event of disengagement from the truck;

(e) Be of a design to provide a positive connection that cannot be rendered inoperative by any condition of use or exposure.

(3) Safety chains and cables shall be replaced immediately if they contain cut, cracked, or excessively worn links, or frayed, stranded, or otherwise defective wire rope.

(4) Butt welding of safety chain links to reach truck frame, or extension of truck frame is prohibited.

(5) Cold-shuts may be used in safety chains provided they are welded shut and one size larger than the chain being used.

(6) There shall be no welding or hole drilling in frames on which the manufacturer recommends this not be done.)) The following procedures must be followed when removing spiked guylines or spiked skylines from stumps:

(1) Reversed safety wrap is put on and secured before loosening the last wrap;

(2) An authorized employee is in charge of loosening guylines or skylines;

(3) The authorized employee uses all precautions and gives warning before releasing lines; and

(4) Safety holdbacks are used when necessary for employee safety.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-571, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-573
((Motor truck log transportation--Reaches and bunks.)) Logging machines--General.

(((1) Log trailers shall be connected to tractors by reaches of a size and strength to withstand all normal imposed stresses.  Spliced wooden reaches shall not be used.  Proper repair of metal reaches by welding will be permitted if done by a qualified welder.

(2) Hand-holds or other facilities shall be installed on trailer tongues or trailer reaches if workers are required to manually assist in coupling them to their tractors or trucks.

(3) A positive means, other than clamp and in addition to the clamp, shall be installed on the reach of log truck trailers when the trailers are being towed without a load.

(4) Persons shall never enter the area below a suspended load of logs.  At dumps where the load must remain suspended above the bunks until the truck is moved away, and when the trailer is the type with a compensating pin in the reach, a method shall be utilized which will allow the trailer to be towed away from the danger area.

(5) The reaches of unloaded trailers being towed shall be provided with and use a minimum one-inch pin near the end or an equally effective means to prevent pulling or stripping through the tunnel.

(6) Reach locks, clamps, or tighteners shall be of the type that will securely lock the reach in the tunnel.

(7) No reach of less than the maximum size usable in the tunnel of a trailer shall be permitted.

(8) Alteration of trailer tunnel to permit reduction of reach size is prohibited.

(9) Every truck or truck and trailer engaged in the transportation of logs loaded lengthwise, shall be equipped with bunks and chock blocks or stakes.

(10) Log bunks or any part of bunk assembly bent enough to cause bunks to bind, shall be straightened.  Bunks shall be sufficiently sharp to prevent logs from slipping.  Trip type stakes shall be properly secured and locked in a manner which will prevent them from accidentally tripping or falling.

(11) All trucks with swivel type bunks shall have bunk locks or an equivalent system of holding the bunks in place while loading logs.

(12) The bunks or bolsters of any truck or trailer shall be either curved upward or straight.  Bunks with ends lower than their centers are prohibited.

(13) Sufficient clearance between the bunk and bunk rider shall be maintained to prevent bunk binding.

(14) Trailer bunks shall be provided with a false or tilt bunk.  The channel of the bunk shall be kept reasonably free of debris.

(15) Stakes and stake extensions shall be installed and maintained so that the angle between bunks and stakes (and extensions if used) shall not exceed ninety degrees when loaded.

(16) Frames, reaches, bunks and running gear of log trucks shall be maintained free of cracks, breaks and defects.  If defects are found, they shall be immediately repaired or the part replaced.)) (1) All logging machinery must have speed limiting devices, safety stops, or emergency shut down devices or shut off valves, with the controls located so that in the event of an emergency, the prime mover may be shut down from a safe place.

(2) Machine operators must be experienced in operating the equipment they use.


EXCEPTION: Inexperienced employees may operate equipment to gain experience while in training but may do so only while working under the immediate supervision of an experienced authorized person.

(3) All machine controls must be marked as to their purpose in the operation of the machine.

(4) The rated capacity of any vehicle transporting a machine must not be exceeded.

(5) Machines must be loaded, secured, and unloaded in a manner that will not create a hazard for any employee.


Note: This requirement includes the loading, securing and unloading of a machine on and off a transport vehicle.

(6) The employer must not make any modifications or additions that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment without written approval of the manufacturer or a qualified engineer. If modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, must be changed accordingly. The original safety factor of the equipment must never be reduced.

(7) Equipment must be classed and used according to the manufacturer's rating. Where low gear ratios or other devices are installed to increase the line pull in accordance with subsection (6) of this section, the size of the rigging must be increased accordingly so that it will safely withstand the increased strains.

(8) Each machine, including any machine provided by an employee, must be maintained in serviceable condition and the following:

(a) Each machine must be inspected before initial use during each workshift. Defects or damage must be repaired or the unserviceable machine is replaced before beginning work.

(b) Operating and maintenance instructions must be available on the machine or in the area where the machine is being operated. Each machine operator and maintenance employee must comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.

(c) Each machine must be operated only from the operator's station or as otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

(d) Employees must not be allowed to ride on any load.

(9) The yarding machine or vehicle, including its load, must be operated with safe clearance from all obstructions.

(10) While manual/mechanized falling is in progress, all logging machines must be operated at least two tree lengths away from trees being fell.


EXCEPTION: This provision does not apply to logging machines performing tree pulling operations or logging machines called upon by the cutter to ground hazard trees. All cutters must be notified of the logging machine entrance into the area and all falling within two tree lengths of the logging machine must stop.

(11) If a hydraulic or pneumatic storage device can move the moving elements such as, but not limited to, blades, buckets, saws and shears, after the machine is shut down, the pressure or stored energy from the element must be discharged as specified by the manufacturer.

(12) Loads must not exceed the rated capacity of the pallet, trailer, or other carrier.

(13) Boom-type logging machines must have a boom stop to prevent over-topping of the boom.

(14) Boom points of timber booms must be equipped with metal straps, plates, or other devices as needed to properly secure eyebolts and fittings used to support lines, blocks, or other rigging.

(15) Logging machine sleds or bases must be strong enough to withstand any stresses imposed upon them.

(16) Stationary logging machines must be securely anchored or otherwise stabilized to prevent unintended movement while yarding or skidding.

(17) Logging machines and their components must be securely anchored to their bases.

(18) Logging machines must be kept free of flammable waste materials and any materials that might contribute to slipping, tripping or falling.

(19) A safe and adequate means of access and egress to all parts of logging machinery where persons must go must be provided and maintained in a safe and uncluttered condition. Machine access systems, meeting the specifications of the Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE J185, June 1988, "Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road Machines," must be provided for each machine where the operator or any other employee must climb onto the machine to enter the cab or to perform maintenance. Walking and working surfaces of each machine and machine work station must have a slip-resistant surface to assure safe footing.

(20) Enclosed-type cabs installed on mobile logging machines must have two means of exit. One may be an emergency exit and be available for use at all times regardless of the position of the side arms or other movable parts of the machine. An easily removable window is acceptable as the emergency exit if it is large enough for an employee to readily exit.


EXCEPTION: Mobile logging machines manufactured before July 1,1980 are not required to have two means of exit.

(21) Before leaving the operator's station of a machine, the operator must ensure the machine is secured as follows:

(a) The parking brake or brake locks must be applied;

(b) The transmission must be placed in the manufacturer's specified park position; and

(c) Each moving element such as, but not limited to, blades, buckets, saws and shears, must be lowered to the ground or otherwise secured.

(22) Storing employee property, tools, or other miscellaneous materials on or within three feet of any logging machine is prohibited if retrieving the items would expose an employee to the hazardous pinch point area between the rotating superstructure and the nonrotating undercarriage.

(23) Employees must approach the hazardous pinch point area only after informing the operator of that intent and receiving acknowledgment from the operator that the operator understands the employee's intention. All logging machines must be stopped while any employee is in the hazardous pinch point area.

(24) After adjustments or repairs are made, logging machines must not be operated until all guards are reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment removed.

(25) Fairleads must be properly aligned at all times and designed to prevent line damage.

(26) Employee(s), except a mechanic or employee in training to operate equipment, must not ride on any mobile logging machine unless provided with seating, seat belts, and other protection equivalent to that provided for the operator.

(27) Riding on arches, reaches or turn of logs is prohibited.

(28) Tractors, skidders, arches, or logs being yarded by them must not run over or rub against anchored lines, tailhold stumps, or other rigging.

(29) Ends of lines attached to drums on logging machines must be secured by end attachments that develop the ultimate strength of the line unless three wraps of line are maintained on the drum at all times.


EXCEPTION: This does not apply to tractors or skidders.

(30) Wire rope must be wound on drum spools in a manner to prevent excessive wear, kinking, chafing or fouling.

(31) Guylines required in rigging spars or towers must be evenly spooled to prevent fouling.

(32) A guide pulley, tool, stick, iron bar or other mechanical or manual means must be used when guiding lines onto drums. Guiding lines onto drums with any part of the body in direct contact with the line is prohibited.

(33) A limit switch must be installed on electric-powered log loaders to prevent the lift arms from traveling too far in the event the control switch is not released in time.

(34) All forklift type log handling machines must be equipped with a grapple system and the arms must be closed whenever logs are being carried.

(35) When forklift machines are used to load, unload, or handle trailers, a positive means of holding the lifting attachment on the fork must be installed and used.

(36) Loads on forklift type log handling machines must be transported as low as safely operable without obstructing visibility.

(37) Guyline drum controls and outrigger controls must be separated and clearly identified in a manner that will prevent the engaging of the wrong control.

(38) Each machine must be equipped with guarding to protect employees from exposed moving elements, such as, but not limited to, shafts, belts, pulleys on chains, sprockets and gears in accordance with the requirements of this standard and WAC 296-24, Part C, Machinery and machine guarding. Guards must be in place at all times when machines are in use.


Note: This does not apply to lifting or yarding components such as, but not limited to, cable nip points, sheaves and blocks.

(39) Each machine used for debarking, limbing, and chipping must be guarded to protect employees from flying wood chunks, logs, chips, bark, limbs, and other material in accordance with the requirements of this standard and WAC 296-24, Part C, Machinery and machine guarding.

(40) Grab rails must be provided and maintained in good repair on all walkways of stationary units elevated more than four feet.

(41) Towed equipment such as, but not limited to, skid pans, pallets, arches, and trailers, must be attached to each machine or vehicle to allow a full ninety degree turn; to prevent overrunning of the towing machine or vehicles; and to ensure that the operator is always in control of the towed equipment.

(42) Timbers used for masts or booms shall be straight-grained, solid, and capable of withstanding the working load.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-573, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57310
Logging machines--Chipping in woods locations.

In-woods chipping must be performed according to the following:

(1) Chipper access covers or doors remain closed until the drum or disc stops completely.

(2) Infeed and discharge ports are guarded to prevent contact with the disc, knives, or blower blades.

(3) The chipper is shut down and locked out according to the lockout/tagout requirements of WAC 296-24, Part A-4, when an employee performs any servicing or maintenance.

(4) Detached trailer chippers are chocked when used on any slope where rolling or sliding of the chipper is reasonably foreseeable.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57315
Logging machines--Exhaust pipes.

(1) Engines not equipped with turbochargers must be equipped with spark arrestors in compliance with the department of natural resources, WAC 332-24, requirements for spark-emitting equipment.

(2) Each machine muffler provided by the manufacturer, or their equivalent, must be in place at all times the machine is in operation.

(3) Exhaust pipes must be located or insulated to protect workers from accidental contact with the pipes or muffler and must direct exhaust gases away from the operator and other persons.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57320
Logging machines--Glass.

Glass installed on logging machines must:

(1) Be free of deposits of oil and mud or defects that could endanger the operator or other employees;

(2) Be safety glass or a type that provides equal protection;

(3) Be removed or replaced if defective or broken glass impairs the vision of the operator; and

(4) Have an additional metal screen or guard installed where glass does not provide adequate operator protection from flying chokers, chunks, saplings, limbs, etc. The operator's vision must not be impaired.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57325
Logging machines--Brakes.

(1) Brakes or dogs must be installed on all machine drums and maintained in effective working condition.

(2) Drum brakes must have an independent locking device that will hold the drum when the operator leaves the machine and the machine is not operating.

(3) Brakes must be protected from direct exposure to the elements or be designed or constructed to make them impervious to such exposure.

(4) At the start of each shift, logging machine operators must test all brakes before taking a load.

(5) Service brakes must be able to stop and hold each machine and its rated load capacity on the slopes over which it is being operated. Brakes must be effective whether or not the engine is running and regardless of the direction of travel.

(6) Self-propelled logging machines manufactured on or after July 1, 1985, must be equipped with braking systems as follows:

(a) A service braking system, which must be the primary means of stopping and holding the equipment;

(b) An emergency stopping system, which must be a secondary means of stopping the equipment in the event of any single failure of the service system; and

(c) A parking brake system, which must be used to continuously hold a stopped machine stationary within the limits of traction on any grade on which it is operated so as to allow the operator to leave the vehicle without the vehicle moving, and to prevent subsequent movement of the vehicle while unattended. The parking brake system must maintain this parking performance despite any contraction of brake parts, failure of the source of application, energy or leakage of any kind.

(7) The braking systems required in subsection (5) of this section must be installed, tested, and maintained according to the following Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) Recommended Practices:

(a) J1026-1982--Braking Performance--In Service Crawler Tractors and Crawler Loaders;

(b) J1473-1984--Braking Performance--Rubber-Tired Construction Machines;

(c) J1178-1980--Minimum Performance Criteria for Braking Systems for Rubber-Tired Skidders.

(8) Self-propelled logging machines manufactured before July 1, 1985, must have braking systems installed, tested and maintained in as effective a condition as originally intended by the manufacturer.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57330
Logging machines--Outriggers.

(1) All outriggers must have a stable base under the outrigger or equivalent leveling pads as recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

(2) Outriggers must have a means to hold them in both the retracted and extended position.

(3) Hydraulic outriggers must have a positive holding device (velocity fuse, load check valve, manually operated valve or equivalent) to prevent movement of the piston in the event of a hose, fitting or other failure in the hydraulic system except when proper blocking is provided.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57335
Logging machines--Hydraulics.

(1) If failure of hydraulic lines could create a hazard to an equipment operator while at the operator's station, safeguards must be installed that will eliminate the hazard.

(2) Machines or equipment must not be operated when hydraulic fluid leakage creates contamination of the operator's workstation, means of access or egress, or creates other unsafe conditions such as fire hazard or control malfunction.

(3) Abrasive contact with hydraulic hoses, tubing or fittings must be eliminated before further use.

(4) Defective hydraulic hoses, lines and fittings must be replaced.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57340
Logging machines--A-frames.

(1) A-frames must be guyed or braced to provide stability and prevent tipping.

(2) A-frame bases must be secured against displacement and the tops must be securely bolted or lashed to prevent displacement.

(3) Where guylines are used, A-frames must have at least one snap guy and two guylines securely attached, anchored and spread to form an angle 70 degrees to 90 degrees opposite the direction of stress or strain.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57345
Logging machines--Moving.

(1) Operators must ensure that all employees are in the clear before initiating or continuing the movement of any mobile equipment. The machine must be operated far enough from employees and other machines so that operation does not create a hazard for an employee.

(2) At any time when moving logging machines, the driver must have a clear and unobstructed view of the direction of travel. When this is not possible, a signal person with a clear and unobstructed view of the direction of travel must be designated and used to direct the movement of the machine, or the machine must have an audible horn that is sounded.


EXCEPTION: This does not apply to tractors, skidders or tree harvesters during normal yarding operations.

(3) Where a signalperson is used, the equipment operator must move the equipment only on signal from the designated signalperson and only when the signal is distinct and clearly understood.

(4) When moving power units, persons other than the operator and the person in charge must not be permitted to ride on the unit.

(5) All obstructions that may reach the operator while moving a machine must be removed.

(6) When moving to areas within the immediate landing area, all employees must stay in the clear of the logging machine(s) or must inform the operator of the intent to approach or be near the machine(s).

(7) Mobile yarders and wheel or crawler loaders must not travel on road grades greater than 15 percent unless they are securely snubbed or towed, or have a braking system designed for such travel by the manufacturer.

(8) Crawler-type, track-mounted logging machines with manual transmissions must be equipped with a ratchet or other device that will prevent unintended disengagement or reversing of the machine and the operator must be informed of the proper technique.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57350
Logging machines--Tractors and skidders.

(1) Operators must operate and control their machines in a safe manner and avoid operations in areas where machine stability may not be maintained.

(2) Winch lines on logging tractors or skidders must be attached to the drums with a breakaway device.

(3) Arches must be equipped with line guards.

(4) A turnaround, if needed for skidders, must be provided on all skidding roads every 500 feet.

(5) The following safe work procedures must be followed:

(a) Lines must not be allowed to trail behind the tractor or skidder where it may hang up and snap forward.

(b) Each machine must be positioned during winching so the machine and winch are operated within their design limits.

(c) Logs/trees must be chocked near the ends of the logs/trees whenever possible and safely positioned before traveling.

(d) Before climbing or descending grades, the proper gear must be selected to allow the engine to govern the tractor speed.

(e) On side hills, abrupt turns uphill must be avoided. The tractor or skidder must be backed downhill first then turned uphill. The turn may be slacked off as necessary to permit this maneuver.

(f) Tractor or skidder speed must be adjusted to the circumstances prevailing. Excessive or uncontrolled speed must be avoided.

(6) Where tractor and skidder operators or helpers, because of the nature of their work duties, are required to wear calk soled footwear, the decks and operating foot controls must be covered with a suitable nonslip material.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-57355
Logging machines--Protective structures for operators.

(1) Each tractor, skidder, log stacker and mechanical felling device, such as tree shears or feller-buncher, placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, must be equipped with falling object protective structure (FOPS) and/or rollover protective structure (ROPS). The employer must replace FOPS or ROPS which have been removed from any machine.


EXCEPTION: This requirement does not apply to machines which are capable of 360 degree rotation.

(2) ROPS must be installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J1040, April 1988, "Performance Criteria for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Construction, Earthmoving, Forestry, and Mining Machines."

(3) The ROPS must be high enough and wide enough so that it will not impair the movements of the operator or prevent his immediate escape from the vehicle in emergencies and must allow as much visibility as possible. Clearance above the deck and the ROPS of the vehicle at exits must be at least fifty-two inches (1.3 meters).

(4) Certified roll-over protective systems must be identified by a metal tag permanently attached to the ROPS in a position where it may be easily read from the ground. The tag must be permanently and clearly stamped, etched or embossed indicating the name and address of the certifying manufacturer or registered professional engineer, the ROPS model number (if any) and the vehicle make, model or serial number the ROPS is designed to fit.

(5) Roll-over protective structure systems must be maintained in a manner that will preserve their original strength. Welding must be performed by qualified welders only. (A qualified welder is defined under "welder qualification" in American Welding Society A.W.S. A3.0-69.)

(6) FOPS structures must be installed, tested and maintained according to:

(a) The society of automotive engineers SAE J231-1971, "minimum performance criteria for falling object protective structures (FOPS) prior to February 9, 1995."

(b) Society of automotive engineers SAE J231, January 1981, "minimum performance criteria for falling object protective structures (FOPS) for each tractor, skidder, log stacker, log loader and mechanical falling device, such as tree shears or faller-buncher, placed into initial service after February 9, 1995."

(7) The employer must replace FOPS that have been removed from any machine.

(8) Vehicles with ROPS or FOPS as required in subsection (1) of this section, must comply with the society of automotive engineers SAE J397a-1972, "deflection limiting volume for laboratory evaluation of roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and falling object protective structures (FOPS) of construction and industrial vehicles." Vehicles placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, must meet the requirements of SAE J397-1988.

(9) The opening in the rear of the ROPS on the crawler or rubber-tired tractors (skidders) must be covered with 1/4-inch diameter woven wire having not less than 1-1/2-inches or more than 2-inch mesh, or material which will afford equivalent protection for the operator.

(a) The covering must be attached to the structural members so that enough clearance is provided between the screen and the back of the operator.

(b) Structural members must be free from projections that would tend to puncture or tear flesh or clothing.

(c) Suitable safeguards or barricades must be installed, in addition to the screen, to protect the operator when there is a possibility of being struck by any material that could enter from the rear.

(10) Crawler and rubber-tired tractors (skidders) working in areas where limbs or brush may endanger the operator must be guarded.

(a) Shear or deflector guards must be installed on each side of the vehicle at an angle leading forward and down from the top front edge of the canopy of the vehicle, which will tend to slide the brush or limbs up and over the top of the canopy.

(b) Open mesh material with openings of a size that will reject the entrance of an object larger than 1-3/4-inches in diameter, must be extended forward as far as possible from the rear corners of the cab sides to give the maximum protection against obstacles, branches, etc., entering the cab area.

(c) Deflectors must also be installed ahead of the operator to deflect whipping saplings and branches.

(d) Deflectors must be located so as not to impede entrance to or exit from the compartment area.

(e) The floor and lower portion of the cab must be completely enclosed with solid material, except at entrances, to prevent the operator from being injured by obstacles which otherwise could enter the cab compartment.

(11) Enclosures for agricultural and industrial tractors manufactured after September 1, 1972, must be constructed, designed and installed as detailed in the society of automotive engineers technical report J168. Each machine manufactured after August 1, 1996, must have a cab that is fully enclosed with mesh material with openings no greater than 2 inches (5.08 cm) at its lease dimension. The cab may be enclosed with other material(s) where the employer demonstrates such material(s) provides equivalent protection and visibility.


EXCEPTION: Equivalent visibility is not required for the lower portion of the cab where there are control panels or similar obstructions in the cab, or where visibility is not necessary for safe operation of the machine.

(12) Overhead protection and other barriers must be installed to protect the operator from lines, limbs, and other moving materials on or over all loading or skidding machines and on all yarding machines where the operator's station is mounted on board. The overhead covering of each cab must be of solid material and extend over the entire canopy. A skylight in a logging machine must be made of safety glass or provide equivalent protection.


Note: This does not apply to self-loaders.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-575
((Motor truck log transportation--Stakes, stake extensions and chock blocks.)) Landing area.

(((1) Trucks and trailers shall be equipped with bunk stakes or chock blocks of strength and sized material to perform their intended function.

(2) Stake extensions shall not be used unless all component parts of the bunking system are of sufficient size and strength to support the added stresses involved.  Stake extensions shall be secured by safety chains or other devices to prevent their accidental displacement.

(3) The linkage used to support the stakes or chocks must be of adequate size and strength to withstand the maximum imposed impact load.  Molles or cold shuts are prohibited in chains or cables used for linkage.

(4) Stake chains or cables shall be equal to or better than "high test" steel chain or "plow steel" wire rope, and shall be of a size necessary to meet the requirements of a safe working load of not less than six thousand six hundred pounds.  (3/8-inch alloy chain, 7/16-inch high test chain of welded link construction, and 5/8 inch improved plow steel cable in 6 x 19 and 6 x 37 construction meet this requirement.)

(5) Bunk chains containing cut, cracked, excessively worn, or otherwise defective links, shall be immediately removed from service.  Molles, cold-shuts (welded or otherwise), or bolts are not permitted in bunk chains.

(6) The use of frayed, stranded, or otherwise defective wire rope for chock block cable or stake straps is prohibited.

(7) Only chain links approved for welding (and properly welded) or approved repair links which will develop a strength equivalent to the chain, are permissible for repairs or attachments to stake chains or binder chains.

(8) Chains or cables used to secure stakes or chock blocks shall be secured in a manner which will not necessitate hammering directly on them to release the stakes or blocks.  Keyhole slots and similar methods of securing chains are prohibited.

(9) Deformed or defective stakes, stake securing or stake locking devices, or bunks shall be immediately repaired or removed from service.

(10) Each stake and chock which is used to trip loads shall be so constructed that the tripping mechanism is activated on the side opposite the release of the load.)) (1) Unless otherwise specified, landing areas must:

(a) Be large enough that if logs are to be heeled and swung, they will not strike standing timber, rigging, or other equipment or objects;

(b) Be large and level enough to land and deck the logs in the turns so that they will not slide or roll in the direction of employees or equipment. This is not intended to restrict the yarding and/or loading of logs for pole piling or an infrequent long break or tree length, provided the log is secured before unhooking the choker;

(c) Be large enough for safe movement of all logs and machinery;

(d) Landings must be free of root wads, limbs, tops, etc., that constitute a safety hazard; and

(e) Not have materials pushed, thrown, or dumped over the edge in a manner or at a time that will endanger employees.

(2) When during roadside thinning, logs stacked on the roadside without a landing must be placed in a stable condition.

(3) During uphill yarding, the landing chute must be cleared of logs before the next turn of logs is landed unless:

(a) The logs are fully contained in the landing chute; or

(b) There is no possibility that employees working below the landing may be struck by rolling objects coming off the landing.

(4) Roadside or continuous landings must be large and wide enough to safely operate and maintain the yarding or loading equipment. Outrigger pads, tracks or wheels must be on firm, stable ground.

(5) In logging operations where the yarder is set up in the haul road and logs are landed on the slope below the road, the following must apply:

(a) If the landing chute slope is twenty percent or less, logs may be landed and decked in the chute provided the logs can be left in a stable position;

(b) If the landing chute slope exceeds twenty percent, decking is not permitted in the chute if a chaser is required to unhook the rigging from the logs or if employees are working below the landing chute and are exposed to rolling or sliding logs;

(c) If logs are to be decked below the road, the logs must be effectively secured from rolling or sliding down the hill; or

(d) If the landing process or weather conditions (rain, snow, ice, mud) prevent the required log stability and exposes employees to the hazard of rolling or sliding logs, the logs must be decked at a different location.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-575, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-575, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-575, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-577
((Motor truck log transportation--Wrappers and binders.)) Yarding, skidding, landing.

(((1) On log trucks equipped with stakes, the following requirements shall apply:

(a) In the hauling of a one log load, one wrapper chain or cable shall be required and secured to the rear bunk.  The log shall be properly blocked or secured in a manner which will prevent it from rolling or shifting.  An additional wrapper secured to the front bunk is optional.

(b) In the hauling of two log loads, not less than two wrapper chains or cables shall be used to secure the load.  The logs shall be properly blocked to prevent them from rolling or shifting.

(c) On loads consisting of three or four logs not over forty-four feet in length, the load shall be secured by not less than two properly spaced wrapper chains or cables.  Ends of short logs not secured by such wrappers shall be secured with extra wrappers.  If any log is over forty-four feet in length, the load shall be secured by not less than three properly spaced wrappers.

(d) Loads consisting of five or more logs, when the logs are all seventeen feet or less in length, shall be secured by not less than two properly spaced wrappers.  Loads consisting of five or more logs, when any log is over seventeen feet in length, shall be secured by not less than three properly spaced wrappers.

(2) On log trucks equipped with chock blocks, the following requirements shall apply:

(a) In the hauling of a one log load, one wrapper chain or cable shall be required and secured to the rear bunk and the log shall be properly blocked in a manner to prevent it from rolling or shifting.

(b) One additional wrapper chain or cable shall be required on log trucks using chock blocks over and above the requirements in subdivisions (1)(c) and (d) of this section.

(3) In the case of short logs loaded crosswise, the following method of securing the load shall be used if the truck or trailer is not provided with solid ends of a height sufficient to prevent any log in the load from rolling off: Not less than two chock blocks shall be used at each open end of the vehicle and the load shall be held with at least two wrapper chains or cables.  The wrappers shall be firmly attached to the end of the truck or trailer.  Rigid standards or stakes may be used in lieu of chock blocks but each such standard or stake shall be either rigidly connected to the bed of the truck or trailer or shall be placed in a tight-fitting socket at least 12 inches in depth.  Other means furnishing equivalent security may be acceptable.

(4) When two wrappers are required, they shall be applied within six feet of the front and rear bunks.  When more than two wrappers are required, the front and back binder shall be applied within six feet of the front and rear bunks.

(5) To properly secure short logs, binders shall be placed near the end, not less than twelve inches from the end of the log.

(6) No log loaded on top or in outside saddles of a load shall be transported unless secured by not less than two wrapper chains or cables, one of which shall be placed near each end of such log.

(7) All wrappers and binders shall be fastened in place prior to tightening to prevent the displacement of logs on the top of the load.

(8) All wrapper chains or cables, except in the case of one log loads, shall entirely surround the load.  This does not apply to gut-wrappers.

(9) Gut-wrappers, when used, shall be adjusted so as to be tightened by, but not carry the weight of the logs above them.

(10) A warning shall be given before throwing wrappers over the load and care shall be taken to avoid striking other persons with the wrapper.

(11) Wrappers and binders shall be placed and tightened around the completed load before the truck leaves the immediate loading area.

(12) While moving logs, poles, or log chunks within sorting or mill yards, that could roll or slide off the truck due to snow or ice conditions, or the logs or log chunks do not extend beyond the stakes, at least two wrappers and binders shall be used regardless of the height of the load.

(13) Wrapper chains or cables, binders, fasteners, or attachments thereof, used for any purpose as required by these standards, shall have a minimum breaking strength of not less than fifteen thousand pounds and shall be rigged so that it can be safely released.


Note: 3/8-inch hi-test steel chain, 7/16-inch improved plow steel wire rope of 6x19 or 6x37 construction, or materials having equivalent strength, when in compliance with the requirements herein contained, will be acceptable.  (The diameter of the wire rope is immaterial as long as it meets the minimum breaking strength requirements.)

(14) A loaded logging truck required to have wrappers by this section, may be moved within the loading area without wrappers only if such movement does not present a hazard to workers.

(15) For the purposes of this standard, applied bundle straps or banding are not acceptable as wrappers and binders.

(16) All loose ends of wrapper chains or cables shall be securely fastened so as to prevent their swinging free in a manner that will create a hazard.

(17) Binders for securing wrappers on logging trucks shall be fitted with hooks of proper size and design for the wrapper chain being used.

(18) Wrappers shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions exist:

(a) Excessively worn links on chains;

(b) Deformed or stretched chain links;

(c) Cracked chain links;

(d) Frayed, stranded, knotted, or otherwise defective wire rope.

(19) Pipe extension handles (swedes) for tightening or securing binders shall be limited to not longer than thirty-six inches.  Care shall be taken that a sufficient amount of the pipe extends over the binder handle.

(20) Defective binders shall be immediately removed from service.


Note: See Figures 9-A and 9-B for illustrations of placement and number of wrappers.

PLACEMENT AND NUMBER OF WRAPPERS

One Log Load

Place illustration here. One wrapper required which shall be secured to the rear bunk. Log shall be blocked or secured in a manner to prevent it from rolling or shifting. An additional wrapper secured to the front bunk is optional.

Two Log Load

Place illustration here. A minimum of two wrappers required.  Logs shall be blocked to prevent them from rolling or shifting. If all logs are not contained by the stakes, additional wrappers required.

Three Or Four Log Load 44 Ft. Or Less

Place illustration here. A minimum of two wrappers required. If all logs are not contained by the stakes, additional wrappers required.

Three Or Four Log Loads More Than 44 Feet

Place illustration here. A minimum of three wrappers required. If all logs are not contained by the stakes, additional wrappers required.

Five Or Six Log Load

All Logs 17 Feet Or Less

Place illustration here. A minimum of two wrappers required. If all logs are not contained by the stakes, additional wrappers required.

Seven Or More Log Load

All Logs 17 Feet Or Less

Place illustration here. A minimum of two wrappers required. If all logs are not contained by the stakes, additional wrappers required.

Five Or More Log Load

If Any Logs Are More Than 17 Feet

Place illustration here. A minimum of three wrappers are required. If all logs are not contained by the stakes, additional wrappers required.

Proper Support For Logs

Place illustration here. Not more than approximately one-third the weight of any log shall extend beyond the end of the logs or bunk supporting it.

Outside Logs Or Top Logs

Place illustration here. All outside (wing) or top logs shall be secured by a wrapper near but not within 12 inches of each end.

A Wrapper Shall Be Near Each Bunk

Place illustration here. Each load shall be secured by having a wrapper within 6 feet of each bunk except on one log loads.

Short Logs Loaded Crosswise

Place illustration here. A minimum of two wrappers are required and two chocks or stakes shall be used on the open end of the truck.

Note: All loads of logs on logging trucks equipped with chock blocks instead of stakes, shall have at least one additional wrapper over and above the requirements for trucks equipped with stakes, excepting on one and two log loads and trucks with short logs loaded crosswise.))

(1) Running lines must be arranged so that employees are not required to work in the bight of the line. When employees must work in the bight, employees must move out of the bight of the lines before the signal to move the turn is given, or be in a position where they are protected by standing timber, terrain, or other objects large enough to ensure their safety.

(2) Choker holes must be dug from the uphill side of the log when there is danger of the log rolling or moving.

(3) Chokers must be placed near the end of the log/tree whenever possible.


EXCEPTION: When long logs or tree-length logs are being yarded and a long end is necessary to safely land the logs/trees on the available landing space.

(4) Employees must be in the clear of logs, root wads, chunks, hazardous trees, rolling material and rigging before the go-ahead signal is given and must stay in the clear until all rigging movement has stopped.

(5) Employees must move away from the turn so as to be above or behind the turn and in the clear. They must remain on their feet and face the turn before the go-ahead signal is given.

(6) All employees must remain away from rigging that is stopped at a hangup, until the rigging has been slacked to reduce the hazard.

(7) Chokers must not be hooked or unhooked until all rigging is stopped completely.

(8) Logs must not be landed until all employees, trucks or equipment are in the clear.

(9) Logs must not accumulate in the landing chute to the point where they become a hazard to the landing personnel.

(10) Logs must be stable and secure before being approached by employees and before chokers are unhooked.

(11) An employee must not buck, limb or trim logs from a position that will expose the employee to contact with moving lines.

(12) Logs must not be placed in, moved about, or removed from the bucking area of the landing unless all employees are in the clear.

(13) An unimpaired horizontal clearance of at least three feet must be maintained between the rotating superstructure of any logging machine working on a landing and any adjacent object or surface. If this clearance cannot be maintained, a safety zone barrier must be used to isolate the hazardous area. The safety zone barrier may be a warning line constructed of rope or ribbon, supported on stanchions.

(14) "DANGER 36-INCH CLEARANCE" must be marked near the rear of the machine.

(15) Employees must not approach a machine's working circle until the operator has acknowledged that it is safe to do so.

(16) Whenever possible, chokers must be set from the uphill side of a log. Persons must not be on the lower side of a log which appears to be unstable or likely to roll.

(17) When yarding during the hours of darkness, the area must be lighted enough to allow employees to safely perform their duties. The source of light must be located and directed to create minimum shadows and glare. If using a portable tailhold, lights must be directed on equipment to allow the person to visually determine that the tailhold equipment remains stabilized.

(18) Each yarded tree/log must be placed in a location that does not create a hazard for an employee and in an orderly manner so that the trees/logs are stable before bucking or limbing is commenced.

(19) When using a yarder, loader or skidding machine, the location of the machine or position of the yarder must be such that the operator will not be endangered by incoming logs or debris.

(20) Employee(s) must be assigned to flag on roads or provide other equivalent protection where hazardous conditions are created from logging such as, but not limited to:

(a) Running wire rope lines or rigging across road grades, excluding guylines and standing skylines if lines remain a safe distance above the road to allow a vehicle to pass under; or

(b) The movement of logs, chunks, or debris across or suspended over road grades.


EXCEPTION: Where there is no through traffic, such as on a dead end road or where the property owner's permission or proper authority is granted to close a section of road, warning signs and barricades may be used instead of flagger(s).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-577, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-579
((Motor truck log transportation--Miscellaneous requirements.)) Log decks.

(((1) No truck wheel shall have more than twenty-five percent of the lugs missing or defective.

(2) All truck wheels shall be maintained free of cracks, breaks, or defects.

(3) Windshields on all equipment shall be provided with windshield wipers in good working condition.

(4) Mule train trailers shall have a platform on the trailer tongue at least twelve inches by twenty-four inches made of nonslip material and capable of supporting at least three hundred pounds.  The platform shall be of the self-cleaning type.

(5) Logs shall be loaded so that not more than approximately one-third of the weight of any log shall extend beyond the end of the logs or bunk supporting it.

(6) Trailer loading and unloading straps, links, or chains shall be fastened securely to the trailer frame and used in hoisting the trailer.  The connections shall be maintained in good condition and shall not be attached to the trailer bunk.  The use of molles for this purpose is prohibited.

(7) In unloading trailers from trucks, trailers shall be hoisted clear, the truck driven forward a safe distance, and the trailer lowered to within one foot of the roadway before persons approach the trailer or reach.

(8) Trailer hoisting or unloading straps shall be constructed and installed in a manner enabling the loading or unloading machine to engage the strap without manual personal contact.

(9) All motor vehicles shall be equipped with a horn that is audible above the surrounding noise level.  The horn shall be sounded before operating the vehicle in reverse gear and sounded intermittently during the entire backing operation.  The horn shall be maintained in an operative condition.)) (1) Logs must be placed in and removed from decks in a straight and orderly manner so as to minimize the hazards from rolling or shifting logs.

(2) If employees are working on the ground near the deck, the deck must be constructed and located so it is stable and provides each employee with enough room to safely move and work in the area.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-579, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-581
((Motor truck log transportation--Steered trailers.)) Helicopter logging--General.

((Steered trailers, not controlled from the truck cab, shall be designed, constructed, and operated as follows:

(1) A secure seat with substantial foot rest shall be provided for the operator at the rear of the bunk.  Any arrangement that permits the operator to ride in front of the bunk is prohibited unless a false bunk or other adequate protection is provided for the operator.

(2) The seat for the operator shall be so arranged that he has an unobstructed exit from both sides and the rear.

(3) The bunk support shall be so constructed that the operator has a clear view ahead at all times.

(4) Adequate means of communication shall be provided between the operator and the truck driver.

(5) Eye protection and respirator shall be provided for the operator.

(6) The trailer shall be equipped with fenders or splash plates to protect the operator from mud and dust so far as possible.

(7) If used during periods of reduced visibility on roads not under the control of the state department of transportation, counties, or cities, the trailer shall be equipped with head, tail, turn and stop lights.)) (1) Prior to daily logging operations, a briefing must be conducted. The briefing must set forth the plan of operation for the pilot(s) and ground personnel. Anytime a change in operating procedure is necessary, affected personnel must be notified.

(2) Employees and equipment must remain in the clear and employees must never be under a suspended load.

(3) Employees must not work under hovering craft except for that limited period of time necessary to guide, secure, hook/unhook loads, and perform maintenance/inspections or other related job duties.

(4) The location of the drop zone, decking areas, loading areas, and designated safety zones must be established by a pilot and a responsible supervisor taking into consideration current operating conditions.

(5) Personal protective equipment.

(a) Employees must wear high visibility hard hats secured by a chinstrap.

(b) Employees hooking and receiving the load must wear high visibility vests or outer garments.

(6) Whenever approaching or leaving a support helicopter with blades rotating, employees must:

(a) Remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position;

(b) Obtain a visual or audible acknowledgment from the pilot before entering or exiting the helicopter;

(c) Avoid the area from the cockpit or cabin rearward unless authorized by the helicopter company to work there; and

(d) Exercise special caution to keep clear of rotors when visibility is reduced.

(7) Before approaching or departing the service area for maintenance, visual and/or audible communication must be established.

(8) There must be reliable communication available between the helicopter, woods crew, landing, and service areas. In the absence of radio communication there must be a designated signal person.

(9) Developed hand signals must be clearly communicated and understood by all persons working in the area who may be affected by their use.

(10) Riding the load or hook of a helicopter is prohibited except in an emergency.

(11) Unauthorized employees must not be allowed to approach within fifty feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning.

(12) Every practical precaution must be taken to provide for the protection of employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash.

(13) Loads must be properly slung. Tag lines used by ground personnel to position loads must be of a length that will not permit their being drawn up into rotors. Pressed sleeve, swaged eyes, or equivalent means must be used for all freely suspended loads to prevent hand splices from spinning open or cable clamps from loosening.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-581, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58110
Helicopter logging--Landing.

(1) The landing drop zone must be large enough for the longest logs to be landed without endangering the landing crew.

(2) Landing crew must remain in the clear until the load is placed flat on the ground and chokers are released from the hook.

(3) Landings must be constructed with minimal slope for drainage in the drop zone and a decking area to prevent logs from rolling.

(4) The approach to the landing must be kept clear and long enough to prevent tree tops from being pulled into the landing.

(5) Landing personnel must be notified when chokers are being picked up.

(6) If the load will not release from the hook, the hook must be on the ground or at eye level, whichever is safer, before employees approach to release the hook manually.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58120
Helicopter logging--Yarding.

(1) Helicopters must not work in areas near enough to cutters to cause the rotor wash to affect a cutter's ability to safely control a tree or to cause dislodging of limbs.

(2) The yarding helicopter must be equipped with a siren to warn employees of any hazardous situation.

(3) Log pickup must be arranged so that the hookup crew will not work on slopes below fell and bucked timber that appears unstable and likely to roll.

(4) If the load must be lightened by the hooker, the hooker must remain on the uphill side of the load and slack given to the entire load before releasing the hook.

(5) If the load must be aborted or lightened by the pilot, the hooker must be in the clear before releasing the hook.

(6) Employees must remain in the clear as chokers are being delivered. Under no circumstances can employees move under the chokers being delivered or take hold of the chokers before they are placed on the ground.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58130
Helicopter logging--Fueling area.

(1) Separate areas must be designated for landing logs and for fueling helicopter(s).

(2) Refueling any helicopter with either aviation gasoline or Jet B (turbine) type fuel while the engine is running is prohibited.

(3) Helicopters using Jet A (turbine-kerosene) type fuel may be refueled with engines running provided the following criteria are met:

(a) Unauthorized employees must not be allowed within fifty feet of the refueling operation or fueling equipment; and

(b) Fire extinguishers must be strategically located in the fueling area and must have a combined rating of at least 20A:120BC.

(4) All fueling employees must be thoroughly trained in the refueling operation and in the use of the available fire extinguishing equipment they may be expected to use.

(5) The following are prohibited within fifty feet of the fueling area or fueling equipment:

• Smoking;

• Open flames;

• Exposed flame heaters;

• Flare pots; and

• Open flame lights.


EXCEPTION: Aircraft preheaters are not prohibited. However, no fueling may be performed while the heaters are in operation.

(6) The fueling area must be posted with "no smoking" signs.

(7) Because there are many causes of static electricity, fueling employees must assume that it is present at all times. Before starting refueling operations, the fueling equipment and the helicopter must be bonded and the fueling nozzle must be electrically bonded to the helicopter. Using conductive hose is not an acceptable method of bonding. All grounding and bonding connections must be electrically and mechanically firm to clean unpainted metal parts.

(8) To control spills, fuel must be pumped either by hand or power; pouring or gravity flow is prohibited. Self-closing nozzles or deadman controls must be used and must not be blocked open. Nozzles must not be dragged along the ground.

(9) In case of a spill, the fueling operation must be immediately stopped until the person in charge determines that it is safe to resume.

(10) Helicopters with their engines stopped while being refueled with aviation gasoline or Jet B (turbine) type fuel, must comply with subsection (4) through (9) of this section.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-583
((Stationary log truck trailer)) Loading logs.

(((1) All loading devices shall be designed, constructed, and maintained in such a manner as to have a five to one safety factor for its rated load capacity.

(2) Loaders shall be constructed of such height and width that they can be safely used to load the maximum-sized trailers they will be expected to handle without hanging up or striking the equipment.

(3) Electric-powered trailer loading devices shall be equipped with a switch or device which will govern the upper direction of travel of the load line to a safe limit.

(4) Electric motors used for hoisting purposes shall be equipped with approved overload switches or breakers.

(5) All electrical switch controls shall not exceed twenty-four volts.  All control switches shall be of the momentary contact type which require continuous manual pressure for hoist to operate.

(6) Pendent-type control switches shall be suspended by a chain or other suitable device which will prevent placing a strain on the electrical cable.

(7) Pendents shall be so installed that when retracted the control switch shall not touch the ground.

(8) All electrical equipment shall be weatherproof-type or adequately protected from the weather, and shall meet or exceed the requirements of the National Electrical Code as promulgated by the director of the department of labor and industries pursuant to RCW 19.28.060.

(9) Trailer loaders, except A-frame type or bridge crane, shall be equipped with reach guides or devices which will keep reach in proper alignment.  A tag rope or other safe guidance device shall be used to guide trailers being loaded by use of an A-frame type loader.

(10) Access roads and the area around the trailer loading devices shall be kept free of standing water and debris and maintained in good repair.

(11) The maximum capacity load to be lifted shall be posted in a conspicuous location where it can be easily seen by any person operating the hoist.

(12) Trailer loading equipment shall be periodically inspected at least every thirty days and shall be maintained in good repair.  A written report shall be made and signed by the person making the inspection and kept on file by the company for twelve months.

(13) A lifting test shall be conducted annually on each loading device and a written record showing the date, name of person conducting the test, amount of weight lifted and results shall be kept in the office of the employer or at the site.  The test weight shall be at least one hundred twenty-five percent of the maximum rated load but not more than one hundred thirty percent of the maximum rated load.

(14) Each drum shall be designed and arranged in such a manner that the line will maintain lead and spool evenly without chafing, crossing or kinking.

(15) A braking system shall be installed which shall have the capability of safely braking and holding one and one-half times weight of the full rated load.

(16) When trailers are to be loaded after dark, sufficient lights shall be provided for a safe operation.)) (1) A positive means of communication must be established and used between the truck driver and the employee loading logs to control the movement of the log truck being loaded.

(2) Employees must not be permitted alongside or underneath trucks being loaded or on the load until communication has been established with the loading machine operator and the truck driver, and the employee is assured that it is safe to be there.

(3) Logs being moved or loaded must not pass over any employee or an occupied vehicle, equipment or truck cab.

(4) Standing between a truck cab and a log being loaded or unloaded is prohibited.

(5) Logs must not be lowered to the bunk while bunk or block adjustments are being made or until the employee making these adjustments is in the clear.

(6) Standing underneath a suspended trailer or its reach is prohibited.

(7) Loads must be built up or loaded in a manner to be stable without the use of wrappers. Wrappers are considered only as precautionary measures to ensure stability of the load.

(8) Where there is a danger of the grapple slipping off of logs, straps must be used in loading logs that are too large for the grapple or tongs and must be hung in both eyes.

(9) Logs must be loaded in a manner to prevent excessive strain on wrappers, binders, bunk stakes, bunk chains or straps.

(10) Logs in any tier or layer unsecured by stakes or cheese blocks must be well saddled and have their diameter centers inside the diameter centers of the outer logs of the next lower tier or layer.

(11) Bunk and wing logs must extend at least twelve inches beyond the front and rear bunks or stakes. When fixed bunks are used, logs must extend at least six inches beyond the front and rear bunk or stake.

(12) Double-ended logs above the stakes must not be loaded on the side of the load from which the binders or wrappers are intended to be released.

(13) Logs must be loaded so that no more than one-third of the weight of any log extends beyond the end of the logs or bunk supporting it.

(14) Logs must be loaded in a manner that will not impair full and free movement of the truck.

(15) Each log not contained within the stakes must be secured with at least two wrappers before the truck leaves the vicinity of the landing/loading area.

(16) All of the required wrappers must be placed on the load within sight of the landing/loading area so immediate emergency assistance can be given if necessary.

(17) Loads or logs must not be moved or shifted while binders are being applied or adjusted.

(18) The transport vehicle must be positioned to provide working clearance between the vehicle and the deck.

(19) All limbs or knots that would project beyond the stakes or legal height must be removed before the log is loaded on the car or truck.


Note: This does not apply to incidental limbs/knots placed on loads during the normal loading process.

(20) Power saws must not be operated on top of loaded logging trucks.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-583, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-584
Tongs, hooks, grapples.

(1) Tongs must be maintained in good condition, properly aligned and with sharp points.

(2) Tongs must not be carried by being rested on both shoulders with the tong points around the neck.

(3) When loading logs, straps of sufficient size and length must be used where there is a danger of tongs or hooks pulling out of the log.

(4) When loading logs, tongs may be used on large logs if the logs are barked and notched to ensure a secure hold.

(5) The closing line must be securely attached to the grapple according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.

(6) Loading hooks and tongs must be securely attached on the loading line with screw shackles or equivalent devices.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-585
((Log unloading, booms, and rafting grounds--Storage and sorting areas--General requirements.)) Cross-haul systems.

(((1) At no time shall one person be permitted to work alone.

(2) (a) Employees working on over or along water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with and shall wear approved personal flotation devices.

(b) Employees are not considered exposed to the danger of drowning when:

(i) The water depth is known to be less than chest deep on the exposed individual;

(ii) When working behind standard height and strength guardrails;

(iii) When working inside operating cabs or stations which eliminate the possibility of accidentally falling into the water;

(iv) When wearing approved safety belts with lifeline attached so as to preclude the possibility of falling into the water.

(c) Prior to and after each use, personal flotation devices shall be inspected for defects which would reduce their designed effectiveness.  Defective personal flotation devices shall not be used.

(d) To meet the approved criteria required by subdivision (a), a personal flotation device shall be approved by the United States Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD, or Type V PFD, or their equivalent, pursuant to 46 CFR 160 (Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications) and 33 CFR 175.23 (Coast Guard table of devices equivalent to personal flotation devices).  Ski belt or inflatable type personal flotation devices are specifically prohibited.

(3) In operations where regular logging machinery, rigging, etc., is used, the applicable sections of these rules shall apply.

(4) Artificial lights shall be provided and used where work is to be done between the hours of sunset and sunrise.  Such lights shall be located in a manner that will be reasonably free of glare and provide uniform distribution of illumination and avoid sharply defined shadows.

(5) On all log dumps, adequate power for the method used for unloading shall be provided.  All machines used for hoisting, reloading or lowering purposes shall be of approved design and sufficient power to control or hold the maximum load imposed in mid-air.

(6) Binders shall not be released from any load until an effective safeguard is provided.

(7) All mobile log handling machines shall be equipped with a means or mechanism which will prevent the logs from accidentally leaving the forks, and shall be used.

(8) The operator of the unloading machine shall have an unobstructed view of the unloading area or shall make certain no one is in the area where the logs are to be unloaded.  Rearview mirrors shall be installed on mobile log handling equipment to assist the operator in ascertaining that the area behind the machine is clear before backing up.

(9) Unloading lines shall be so arranged that it is not necessary for the workman to attach them on the pond or dump side of the load.

(10) Life rings with a minimum of ninety feet of one-fourth-inch line with a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds attached, shall be provided at convenient points adjacent to water which is five feet or more in depth.  Life rings shall be a minimum of thirty inches outside diameter and seventeen inches inside diameter and be maintained so as to retain a thirty-two pound positive buoyancy.)) (1) In cross-haul (parbuckle) or roll-on loading systems, the skid timbers must be strong enough to support the logs being loaded and long enough to remain in place while the log is being loaded.

(2) Loaders on cross-haul systems must work beyond the ends of the logs being loaded.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-585, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-587
((Water dumps.)) Self-loading log trucks.

(((1) All water dumps shall have brow logs except when logs are lifted from the load.  If portable equipment is used, adequate stops shall be provided to prevent equipment from running off the dump.

(2) Where necessary for persons to walk alongside loads and equipment on trestles or fills, a minimum twenty-two inch wide walkway shall be provided, unless otherwise specified.

(3) All decks and plankways on log dumps must be kept in good repair and free from bark and other debris.  Roadways shall not be inclined more than one inch to twelve inches across the driving surface.

(4) The use of small bridge-over logs, planking or timbers, between regular foot logs, or walkways, which will not support the weight of at least three persons are prohibited.  All regular foot logs shall be barked on upper side.

(5) Electric powered hoists using hand-held cord remote controls in grounded locations, shall be actuated by circuits operating at no more than twenty-four volts.  All control switches shall be of the momentary contact type which requires continuous manual pressure for the hoist to operate.

(6) Roadbeds at log dumps shall be hard packed gravel, heavy planking, or equivalent material, and shall be of sufficient width and even surface to insure safe operation of equipment.

(7) Where logs are unloaded on to rollways, sufficient space shall be provided between the top of the skids and the ground to clear the body of a person.

(8) When a brow log is used with a parbuckle system, all persons are prohibited from going between the brow log and the load of logs at any time.

(9) A positive safeguard shall be provided to prevent logs from leaving the loads on the side opposite the dump.  Unloading lines, crotch lines or equally effective means shall be arranged and used in a manner to prevent any log from swinging or rolling back.

(10) All persons shall remain in the clear until all moving equipment has come to a complete stop.

(11) Logs shall not be unloaded by peaves or similar manual methods, unless means are provided and used that eliminate the danger from rolling or swinging logs.)) (1) A safe means of access and egress must be provided to the operator's loading work station.

(2) Self-loading log truck operators must not unload their own load unless a positive means of securing the logs is provided when binders and wrappers are removed.

(3) New self-loading log trucks purchased and put in operation after January 1, 1980, must be equipped with:

(a) A check valve installed on the jib boom; and

(b) A seat that is offset from the point of attachment of the boom. The seat and boom structure must rotate concurrently.

(4) The operator of a self-loading log truck must not heel the log over the operator's work station.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-587, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-589
((Boom and rafting grounds.)) Log trucks--General.

(((1) Breaking of log jams by peavy method is prohibited, except in river drive or when jam occurs away from mechanical means or the dump.

(2) Wooden pike poles shall be of continuous, straight-grained No. 1 material.  Defective poles, blunt or dull pikes shall not be used.  Conductive pike poles shall not be used where there is a possibility of coming in contact with energized electrical conductors.

(3) Stiff booms shall be made by fastening not less than two boom sticks together.  The width of a stiff boom shall be not less than thirty-six inches measured outside to outside of the logs.  The boom sticks shall be fastened together with not less than 4" x 6" cross ties, or cable lashings notched into the boom sticks may be used when stiff booms are exposed to heavy swells.  Stiff booms shall be kept free of loose bark and shall be maintained in good repair.

(4) A walkway thirty-six inches wide with standard hand railing shall be provided from the shore end of stiff boom to shore.

(5) All sorting gaps shall have a substantial stiff boom on each side of gaps.  Such stiff booms or walkways shall be planked over.

(6)(a) Boom sticks shall be reasonably straight with no protruding knots or loose bark.  They shall be capable of supporting above the water line at either end the weight of one worker and equipment or two hundred fifty pounds.

(b) Foot logs shall be reasonably straight with no protruding knots or loose bark and shall be of sufficient size to support above the water line at either end the weight of two workers and equipment or five hundred pounds.

(7) Boom sticks which have been condemned as unsafe shall be marked by three chopped crosses ten feet from the butt end, and such sticks shall not be used as boom sticks.

(8) Gaps between boom sticks shall not exceed twenty-four inches.  All wire shall be removed from boom sticks and boom chains before they are re-used or hung in rafting stalls.

(9) When permanent cable swifters are used they shall be arranged so that they are within easy reach of rafter without rolling boom sticks on which they are fastened.  When cables become hazardous to use because of jaggers, they shall be discarded.

(10) When floating donkeys or other power-driven machinery is used on boom, it shall be placed on a raft or float with enough buoyancy to keep the deck of such raft or float well above water.  Wherever persons walk, the deck of the raft or float shall be planked over with not less than two inch planking, and kept in good repair.

(11) When doglines used in rafting, brailing or stowing logs become hazardous to use because of jaggers, they shall be discarded.

(12) Storing, sorting or any boom work, other than boom boat operations, shall require a minimum of two persons.

(13) Sufficient walkways and floats shall be installed and securely anchored, to provide safe passage for workers.

(14) Walkways alongside sorting gaps shall not be less than four feet wide.  Other walkways shall be not less than twenty-two inches wide.)) (1) Prior to use, the operator must make a complete daily inspection of the truck and trailer with particular attention to:

• Steering apparatus;

• Lights and reflectors;

• Brake boosters;

• Brake hoses and connections;

• Reaches;

• Hitches (couplings);

• Bunks;

• Stakes;

• Bunk blocks.

The brakes must be tested before and after movement of the vehicle. The operator must submit a written list of necessary repairs to a person designated by the employer.

(2) Any defective parts that would make the vehicle unsafe to operate, must be replaced or repaired before the vehicle is placed in service.

(3) Motor vehicles used on roads not under the control of the state department of transportation, counties, or cities must be equipped with accessories necessary for a safe operation including:

(a) Operable head lamps;

(b) At least two tail lamps and brake lamps that emit a red light plainly visible from a distance of one thousand feet to the rear; and

(c) Two reflectors visible at night from three hundred fifty feet when directly in front of properly adjusted motor vehicle head lamps.

(4) The driver must do everything reasonably possible to keep the truck under control at all times and must not operate in excess of a speed at which the driver can stop the truck in one-half the visible distance.

(5) The area between the truck frame members, extending from the cab rearward as far as necessary to provide a safe work area, must be covered with suitable nonslip type material.

(6) Log trucks that have logs scaled at stations must have a platform on each side extending outward from the frame members at least eighteen inches, and must be eighteen inches long or as near to eighteen inches as the design of the truck permits. The treading surface of the platforms must be of nonslip material and the platform must be able to safely support a five hundred pound load.

(7) To protect the operator of vehicles from loads, there must be a substantial bulkhead behind the cab that extends up to the height of the cab.

(8) When at the dump or reload or where logs are scaled or branded on the truck, the logs must be scaled or branded before the binders are released.

(9) All vehicles, where vision of the operator in the direction of travel is impaired by the load or vehicle, must be moved only on a signal from a worker who has a clear view in the direction in which the vehicle is to be moved.

(10) Where a bridge or other roadway structure is posted with a load limit sign, log truck drivers or operators of other heavy equipment are prohibited from driving a load in excess of the posted limit over such a structure.

(11) All passengers must ride in the cab of the log truck.

(12) All trucks must keep to the right side of the road except where the road is plainly and adequately posted for left side travel.

(13) A method must be provided to ensure that the trailer will remain mounted on the truck while driving on highways or logging roads.

(14) When trucks are towed on any road, the person guiding the vehicle being towed must, by prearranged signals, govern the speed of travel. Vehicles must be towed at a reasonable speed and in a prudent manner. A tow cable or chain over fifteen feet in length must have a white flag attached at the approximate center, however, it is recommended that a rigid tow bar be used for this purpose.

(15) All rubber-tired motor vehicles must be equipped with fenders. Mud flaps may be used instead of fenders whenever the motor vehicle is not designed for fenders.

(16) All trucks must be equipped with doors with operable latches, or a safety bar or strap.

(17) Log trucks must not approach a landing while there is danger from incoming logs.

(18) While en route, the operator must check and tighten the wrappers/binders whenever there is reason to believe that the wrappers/binders have loosened or the load has shifted.

(19) Persons must not enter the area below a suspended load of logs.

(20) All trucks must be equipped with a means to protect the operator from inclement weather.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-589, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58910
Log trucks--Brakes.

(1) Motor logging trucks and trailers must be equipped with brakes or other control methods that will safely stop and hold the maximum load on the maximum grade.

(2) All trucks with air brakes must be equipped with a readily visual or audible low air pressure warning device in good working order.

(3) An air loss rate out-of-service condition exists if an air leak is discovered and the reservoir pressure is not maintained when:

(a) The governor is cut in;

(b) Reservoir pressure is between 80 and 90 psi;

(c) Engine is at idle; and

(d) Service brakes are fully applied.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58920
Log trucks--Trailer hitches and safety chains.

(1) All log truck and trailer combinations must be equipped with approved hitches (couplings) which must:

(a) Be capable of withstanding, in any direction, the potential stresses imposed;

(b) Be of a design which would not be rendered inoperative by dirt and debris and must be locked securely and positively; and

(c) Be attached to the truck frame or extension of the truck frame by means of not less than four machine bolts and nuts (120,000 psi material or better) inch diameter or larger, secured by lock nuts. Other means of attachment furnishing strength equal to or greater than the above may be accepted if of approved design and application.

(2) Hitches (couplings) or parts that are broken, cracked, excessively worn, or otherwise defective hitches must be repaired before use.

(3) Each log truck and trailer combination or log truck and independent trailer combination must be provided with two or more safety chains or cables with a rated breaking strength of at least the gross weight of the towed vehicle, and:

(a) Able to hold the trailer in line in case of failure of the hitch assembly;

(b) Permanently attached to the frame of the truck or an extension of the truck frame;

(c) Form a separate continuous connection between the truck frame or extension of the truck frame and the reach or trailer;

(d) Attached not more than twelve inches from the eye of the reach or trailer;

(e) Short enough to prevent the trailer reach or tongue from contacting the ground in the event of disengagement from the truck;

(f) Designed to provide a positive connection that cannot be made inoperative by any condition of use or exposure.

(4) Safety chains and cables must be replaced immediately if they contain cut, cracked, or excessively worn links, or frayed, stranded, or otherwise defective wire rope.

(5) Butt welding of safety chain links to reach truck frame, or extension of truck frame is prohibited.

(6) Repairs to safety chains, such as cold shuts, are prohibited.

(7) Frames must not be welded or drilled into if the manufacturer recommends against it.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58930
Log trucks--Reaches and bunks.

(1) Log trailers must be connected to tractors by reaches of a size and strength to withstand all normal imposed stresses.

(2) Hand-holds or other facilities must be installed on trailer tongues or trailer reaches if workers are required to manually assist in coupling them to their tractors or trucks.

(3) The reaches of unloaded trailers being towed must have and use a minimum one-inch pin near the end or an equally effective means to prevent pulling or stripping through the tunnel.

(4) Reach locks, clamps, or tighteners must be of the type that will securely lock the reach in the tunnel.

(5) All reaches must be the maximum size usable in the tunnel of a trailer.

(6) Altering a trailer tunnel to permit reduction of reach size is prohibited.

(7) Every truck or truck and trailer engaged in transporting logs loaded lengthwise must be equipped with bunks and chock blocks or stakes.

(8) Log bunks or any part of a bunk assembly bent enough to cause bunks to bind, must be straightened. Bunks must be sharp enough to prevent logs from slipping.

(9) All trucks with swivel bunks must have bunk locks or an equivalent system of holding the bunks in place while loading logs.

(10) The bunks or bolsters of any truck or trailer must be either curved upward or straight. Bunks with ends lower than their centers are prohibited.

(11) Enough clearance must be maintained between the bunk and the bunk rider to prevent bunk binding.

(12) Trailer bunks must have a false or tilt bunk. The channel of the bunk must be kept reasonably free of debris.

(13) Stakes and stake extensions must be installed and maintained so that the angle between bunks and stakes (and extensions if used) do not exceed ninety degrees when loaded.

(14) Frames, bunks, and running gear of log trucks must be maintained free of cracks, breaks and defects. If defects are found, they must be immediately repaired or the part replaced.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58940
Log trucks--Stakes, stake extensions and chock blocks.

(1) Trucks and trailers must be equipped with bunk stakes or chock blocks of strength and sized material to perform their intended function.

(2) All stakes, stake extensions, and bunks installed on log trucks and trailers, together with the means to secure and lock the stakes in hauling position, must be designed and constructed of materials of such size and dimension that will withstand operational stresses without yield or permanent set.

(3) Stake extensions made from axle shafts or other brittle material are prohibited.

(4) The linkage used to support the stakes or chocks must be of adequate size and strength to withstand the maximum imposed impact load. Molles or cold shuts are prohibited in chains or cables used for linkage.

(5) Stake chains or cables must be equal to or better than "high test" steel chain or "plow steel" wire rope, and of a size necessary to meet the requirements of a safe working load of at least six thousand six hundred pounds. (3/8-inch alloy chain, 7/16-inch high test chain of welded link construction, and 5/8 inch improved plow steel cable in 6x19 and 6x37 construction meet this requirement.)

(6) Bunk chains containing cut, cracked, excessively worn, or otherwise defective links, must be immediately removed from service. Molles, cold shuts (welded or otherwise), or bolts are not permitted in bunk chains.

(7) The use of frayed, stranded, or otherwise defective wire rope for chock block cable or stake straps is prohibited.

(8) Only chain links approved for welding (and properly welded) or approved repair links that will develop strength equivalent to the chain, are permissible for repairs or attachments to stake chains or binder chains.

(9) Chains or cables used to secure stakes or chock blocks must be secured in a way that does not require hammering directly on them to release the stakes or blocks. Keyhole slots and similar methods of securing chains are prohibited.

(10) Deformed or defective stakes, stake securing or stake locking devices, or bunks must be immediately repaired or removed from service.

(11) Each stake and chock used to trip loads must be constructed so that the tripping mechanism is activated on the side opposite the release of the load.

(12) Trip type stakes must be properly secured and locked in a manner that will prevent them from accidentally tripping or falling.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58950
Log trucks--Wrappers and binders.

(1) On log trucks equipped with stakes, the following requirements must apply:

(a) In the hauling of a one log load, one wrapper chain or cable must be required and secured to the rear bunk. The log must be properly blocked or secured in a manner which will prevent it from rolling or shifting. An additional wrapper secured to the front bunk is optional.

(b) In the hauling of two log loads, not less than two wrapper chains or cables must be used to secure the load. The logs must be properly blocked to prevent them from rolling or shifting.

(c) On loads consisting of three or four logs not over forty-four feet in length, the load must be secured by not less than two properly spaced wrapper chains or cables. Ends of short logs not secured by such wrappers must be secured with extra wrappers. If any log is over forty-four feet in length, the load must be secured by not less than three properly spaced wrappers.

(d) Loads consisting of five or more logs, when the logs are all seventeen feet or less in length, must be secured by not less than two properly spaced wrappers. Loads consisting of five or more logs, when any log is over seventeen feet in length, must be secured by not less than three properly spaced wrappers.

(2) On log trucks equipped with chock blocks the following requirements must apply:

(a) In the hauling of a one log load, one wrapper chain or cable shall be required and secured to the rear bunk and the log must be properly blocked in a manner to prevent it from rolling or shifting.

(b) One additional wrapper chain or cable shall be required on log trucks using chock blocks over and above the requirements in subsection (1)(c) and (d) of this section.

(3) In the case of short logs loaded crosswise, the following method of securing the load must be used if the truck or trailer is not provided with solid ends of a height sufficient to prevent any log in the load from rolling off:

Not less than two chock blocks must be used at each open end of the vehicle and the load must be held with at least two wrapper chains or cables. The wrappers must be firmly attached to the end of the truck or trailer. Rigid standards or stakes may be used in lieu of chock blocks but each such standard or stake must be either rigidly connected to the bed of the truck or trailer or must be placed in a tight-fitting socket at least 12 inches in depth. Other means furnishing equivalent security may be acceptable.

(4) When two wrappers are required, they must be applied within six feet of the front and rear bunks. When more than two wrappers are required, the front and back binder must be applied within six feet of the front and rear bunks.

(5) To properly secure short logs, binders must be placed near the end, not less than twelve inches from the end of the log.

(6) Log(s) loaded on top or in outside saddles of a load must not be transported unless secured by at least two wrapper chains or cables, one of which must be placed near each end of such log.

(7) All wrappers and binders must be fastened in place prior to tightening to prevent the displacement of logs on the top of the load.

(8) All wrapper chains or cables, except in the case of one log load, must entirely surround the load. This does not apply to gut-wrappers.

(9) Gut-wrappers, when used, must be adjusted so as to be tightened by, but not carry the weight of the logs above them.

(10) A warning must be given before throwing wrappers over the load and care must be taken to avoid striking other persons with the wrapper.

(11) Each log not contained within the stakes must be secured with at least two wrappers before the truck leaves the vicinity of the landing/loading area.

(12) While moving logs, poles, or log chunks within sorting or mill yards, that could roll or slide off the truck due to snow or ice conditions, or the logs or log chunks do not extend beyond the stakes, at least two wrappers and binders must be used regardless of the height of the load.

(13) Wrapper chains or cables, binders, fasteners, or attachments thereof, used for any purpose as required by these standards must have a minimum breaking strength of not less than fifteen thousand pounds and must be rigged so that it can be safely released.


Note: 3/8-inch hi-test steel chain, 7/16-inch improved plow steel wire rope of 6x19 or 6x37 construction, or materials having equivalent strength, when in compliance with the requirements herein contained, will be acceptable. (The diameter of the wire rope is immaterial as long as it meets the minimum breaking strength requirements.)

Note: Nylon straps and ratchet binders having an equivalent breaking strength may be used when securing loads on (hay rack) log hauling systems.

(14) A loaded logging truck required to have wrappers by this section, may be moved within the loading area without wrappers only if such movement does not present a hazard to workers.

(15) For the purposes of this standard, applied bundle straps or banding are not acceptable as wrappers and binders.

(16) All loose ends of wrapper chains or cables must be securely fastened so as to prevent their swinging free in a manner that will create a hazard.

(17) Binders for securing wrappers on logging trucks must be fitted with hooks of proper size and design for the wrapper chain being used.

(18) Wrappers must be removed from service when any of the following conditions exist:

(a) Excessively worn links on chains;

(b) Deformed or stretched chain links;

(c) Cracked chain links; or

(d) Frayed, stranded, knotted, or otherwise defective wire rope.

(19) Pipe extension handles (swedes) for tightening or securing binders must be no longer than thirty-six inches. Care must be taken that a sufficient amount of the pipe extends over the binder handle.

(20) Defective binders must be immediately removed from service.


Note: See Figures 25 through 35 for illustrations of placement and number of wrappers.


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Note: All loads of logs on logging trucks equipped with chock blocks instead of stakes, must have at least one additional wrapper over and above the requirements for trucks equipped with stakes, except on one and two log loads and trucks with short logs loaded crosswise.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58960
Log trucks--Miscellaneous requirements.

(1) A truck wheel must not have more than twenty-five percent of the lugs missing or defective.

(2) All truck wheels must be maintained free of cracks, breaks, or defects.

(3) Windshields on all equipment must have windshield wipers in good working condition.

(4) Mule train trailers must have a platform on the trailer tongue at least twelve inches by twenty-four inches made of nonslip material and able to support at least three hundred pounds. The platform must be self-cleaning.

(5) Trailer loading and unloading straps, links, or chains must be fastened securely to the trailer frame and used in hoisting the trailer. The connections must be maintained in good condition and not be attached to the trailer bunk. Using molles for this purpose is prohibited.

(6) When unloading trailers from trucks, the trailers must be hoisted clear, the truck driven forward a safe distance, and the trailer lowered to within one foot of the roadway before persons approach the trailer or reach.

(7) Trailer hoisting or unloading straps must be constructed and installed in a manner enabling the loading or unloading machine to engage the strap without manual personal contact.

(8) All motor vehicles must be equipped with a horn that is audible above the surrounding noise level. The horn must be sounded before operating the vehicle in reverse gear and when necessary to alert employees.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-58970
Log trucks--Steered trailers.

Steered trailers, not controlled from the truck cab, must be designed, constructed, and operated as follows:

(1) A secure seat with substantial foot rest must be provided for the operator at the rear of the bunk. Any arrangement that permits the operator to ride in front of the bunk is prohibited unless a false bunk or other adequate protection is provided for the operator.

(2) The seat for the operator must be so arranged that he has an unobstructed exit from both sides and the rear.

(3) The bunk support must be so constructed that the operator has a clear view ahead at all times.

(4) Adequate means of communication must be provided between the operator and the truck driver.

(5) Eye protection and respirator must be provided for the operator.

(6) The trailer must be equipped with fenders or splash plates to protect the operator from mud and dust so far as possible.

(7) If used during periods of reduced visibility on roads not under the control of the state department of transportation, counties, or cities, the trailer must be equipped with head, tail, turn and stop lights.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-591
((Boats and mechanical devices on waters.)) Stationary log truck trailer loading.

(((1) Prior to starting the boat motor, any spilled fuel shall be removed and vapors shall be exhausted from any area in which they may accumulate.

(2) The bilge area shall be kept clean and oil, grease, fuel, or highly combustible materials shall not be allowed to accumulate.

(3) Adequate ventilation equipment shall be provided and used for the bilge area to prevent the accumulation of toxic or explosive gases or vapors.

(4) Adequate ventilation equipment shall be provided and used for the cabin area on enclosed-cabin type boats to prevent an accumulation of harmful gases or vapors.

(5) Deck and cabin lighting shall be provided and used where necessary to provide safe levels of illumination aboard boats.  Boats operated during the period from sunset to sunrise, or in conditions of restricted visibility, shall display navigation lights as required by the United States Coast Guard.  Searchlights or floodlights shall be provided to facilitate safe navigation and to illuminate working or boarding areas adjacent to the craft.

(6) On craft used by workers wearing calked shoes, all areas where the operator or workers must stand or walk shall be made of or be covered with wood or other suitable matting or nonslip material and such covering shall be maintained in good condition.

(7) Each boat shall be provided with a fire extinguisher and life ring with at least fifty feet of one-fourth inch line attached.  On log broncs, boomscooters, or other small boomboats where all occupants are required to wear life saving devices and a life ring would present a tripping hazard, the life ring may be omitted.

(8)(a) Along docks, walkways, or other fixed installations on or adjacent to open water more than five feet deep, approved life rings with at least ninety feet of one-fourth inch line attached, shall be provided.  The life rings shall be spaced at intervals not to exceed two hundred feet and shall be kept in easily visible and readily accessible locations.

(b) When employees are assigned work at other casual locations where exposure to drowning exists, at least one approved life ring with at least ninety feet of line attached, shall be provided in the immediate vicinity of the work assigned.

(c) Where work is assigned over water where the vertical drop from an accidental fall would exceed fifty feet, special arrangements shall be made with and approved by the department of labor and industries prior to such assignment.

(d) Lines attached to life rings on fixed installations shall be at least ninety feet in length, at least one-fourth-inch in diameter, and have a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds.  Similar lines attached to life rings on boats shall be at least fifty feet in length.

(e) Life rings must be United States Coast Guard approved thirty-inch size.

(f) Life rings and attached lines shall be maintained to retain at least seventy-five percent of their designed buoyancy and strength.

(9) Log broncs, boomscooters, and boomboats shall not be loaded with personnel or equipment so as to adversely affect their stability or seaworthiness.

(10) Boats shall not be operated at an excessive speed or handled recklessly.)) (1) All loading devices must be designed, constructed and maintained so as to have a five to one safety factor for the rated load capacity.

(2) Loaders must be high and wide enough so they can safely load the maximum-sized trailers they are expected to handle without hanging up or striking the equipment.

(3) Electric-powered trailer loading devices must be equipped with a switch or device that will safely limit the upper direction of travel of the load line.

(4) Electric motors used for hoisting must be equipped with approved overload switches or breakers.

(5) Electrical switch controls must not exceed twenty-four volts. All control switches must be the momentary-contact type that require continuous manual pressure for the hoist to operate.

(6) Pendent control switches must be suspended by a chain or other suitable device that will prevent placing a strain on the electrical cable.

(7) Pendents must be installed so that the control switch does not touch the ground when retracted.

(8) All electrical equipment must be weatherproof-type or adequately protected from the weather, and must meet or exceed the requirements of the National Electrical Code as promulgated by the director of the department of labor and industries pursuant to RCW 19.28.060.

(9) Trailer loaders, except A-frames or bridge crane, must be equipped with reach guides or devices that will keep the reach in proper alignment. A tag rope or other safe guidance device must be used to guide trailers being loaded by an A-frame loader.

(10) Access roads and the area around the trailer loading devices must be kept free of standing water and debris and maintained in good repair.

(11) The maximum capacity load to be lifted must be posted in a conspicuous location where it can be easily seen by any person operating the hoist.

(12) Trailer loading equipment must be periodically inspected at least every thirty days and must be maintained in good repair. A written report must be made and signed by the person making the inspection and kept on file by the company for twelve months.

(13) The employer must conduct an annual lifting test on each loading device and maintain a written record of the test.

(a) The written record must contain:

• The date of the test;

• The name of person conducting the test;

• The amount of weight lifted; and

• The results kept in the office of the employer or at the site.

(b) The test weight must be at least one hundred twenty-five percent of the maximum rated load and a maximum of one hundred thirty percent of the maximum rated load.

(14) Each drum must be designed and arranged in such a manner that the line will maintain lead and spool evenly without chafing, crossing, or kinking.

(15) A braking system must be installed that has the ability to safely brake and hold one and one-half times weight of the full rated load.

(16) When trailers are to be loaded after dark, sufficient lights must be provided for a safe operation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-591, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-593
((Dry land sorting and storage.)) Log unloading, booms, and rafting grounds--Storage and sorting areas--General.

(((1) Unauthorized foot and vehicle traffic shall not be permitted in the sorting or storage area.

(2) Logs shall be stored in a safe and orderly manner.  Roadways and traffic lanes shall be kept clear of protruding ends of logs and debris.

(3) Dry deck log storage areas shall be kept orderly and maintained in a condition conducive to safe operation of mobile equipment.  Roadways and walkways shall have a smooth hard-packed surface wide enough to permit a safe operation.  Bark, mud, and other debris shall not be allowed to accumulate to the extent it constitutes a hazard to the operation.

(4) At log dumps, sorting and storage areas, an effective means shall be provided and used to control dust.

(5) Only an authorized person shall operate or ride any lift truck, log stacker, or log unloader.

(6) Signaling log unloader operators at dry deck areas by throwing bark or chips in the air is prohibited.  Hand, horn signals or other safe, effective means shall be used at all times.

(7) Unnecessary talking to operator while engaged in operating controls of log stacker or log unloader is forbidden.

(8) Lift forks and arms of unloading machines shall be lowered to their lowest position, and all equipment brakes set prior to the operator leaving the machine unattended.

(9) Log unloaders or stackers shall not be moved about the premises for distances greater than absolutely necessary with the lift extended above the drivers head or with loads lifted higher than is necessary for vision.

(10) When truck drivers are out of the cab, they shall be in the clear, and in view of the log unloader before the lift forks are moved under the load and the lift is made.

(11) Where logs are offloaded onto a dry deck by means of unloading lines, a mechanism shall be used which is self-releasing.  Employees shall be prohibited from ascending dry decks to release unloading lines.

(12) Persons shall not position themselves in the hazardous area near or under loads of logs being lifted, moved or suspended.

(13) Jackets or vests of fluorescent or other high visibility material shall be worn by persons working on dry land log storages.  Hard hats shall be of a contrasting color or shall have high visibility tape affixed thereon.

(14) Log unloaders and log stackers designed in a manner whereby logs being handled may jeopardize the safety of the operator shall be provided with overhead protection and any other safeguards needed to afford adequate protection.

(15) Log unloaders and log stackers shall be equipped with a horn or other audible warning device.  If vision is impaired or restricted to the rear, the warning device shall be sounded before operating the vehicle in reverse gear and sounded intermittently during the entire backing operation.  The warning device shall be maintained in an operative condition.

(16) Each log-handling machine shall be equipped with a braking system which is capable of stopping and holding the machine with maximum load on any grade on which it may be required to work.

(17) A limit stop, which will prevent the lift arms from over-traveling, shall be installed on electric powered log unloaders.

(18) Shear guards shall be installed on unloading machines and similar types of equipment on which the arms pivot and move alongside the operator creating a pinch point at that location.

(19) All forklift type machines shall be equipped with grapple arms and the arms shall be used whenever logs are being moved.

(20) When log trucks are loaded by the use of a log stacker and the lay of any log is higher than the stakes, the log stacker shall remain against the completed load, or other suitable protection provided, to prevent the logs from falling until at least two wrappers and binders have been applied.

(21) All binders and wrappers shall remain on the load until an approved safeguard has been provided to prevent logs from rolling off the side of the truck or trailer when binders are released.  A shear log, or equivalent means, shall be provided to ensure the log truck will be stationed close enough to the wrapper rack so that a log cannot fall between the log truck and the wrapper rack when removing binders and wrappers.  At least one binder shall remain secured while relocating or tightening other binders.  Crotch lines, forklifts, log stackers, log unloaders, or other effective means shall be used for this purpose.

(22) An extra wrapper or metal band of equal strength shall be placed to hold the logs when it is necessary to remove a wrapper to prevent it from being fouled by the unloading machine.

(23) Machines of the type having arms which block the regular exit when in the up position, shall have an emergency exit installed.

(24) Seat provided.  Riding on any part of a log handling machine except under the canopy guard is prohibited.

(25) Identification tags shall not be applied or pulled unless logs are resting in a stationary place, such as bunks, cradles, skids, or sorting tables.

(26) No person shall approach the immediate vicinity of a forklift-type log handling machine without first notifying the operator of the person's intention and receiving an acknowledgement from the operator.

(27) When forklift-type machines are used to load, unload, or handle trailers, a positive means of holding the lifting attachment to the fork shall be installed and used.

(28) When dry land log dumps use unloading methods similar to those of water dumps, the safety standards for water dumps shall apply to dry land dumps.

(29) When logs are handled between the hours of sunset and sunrise or other periods of poor visibility, illumination shall be provided consistent with WAC 296-62, general occupational health standards, pertaining to illumination.

(30) Air operated stake releases shall be in conformity with the following requirements:

(a) The air supply shall be taken from the "wet" air reservoir or from the accessory air line to a spring loaded, normally closed control valve.

(b) The control valve shall be located in the cab, positioned so that it is accessible only from the operator's position.

(c) The control valve shall be fitted with a spring loaded cover or be otherwise guarded against inadvertent operation.

(d) A separate air line shall extend from the control valve to the tractor and trailer stake release chambers.  The air line shall be clearly identified or installed in such a manner as to preclude it from being mistaken for the service or emergency air line.

(31) Each deck shall be constructed and located so it is stable and provides each employee with enough room to safely move and work in the area.)) (1) At least two persons must be present for all storing, sorting, or boom work, except for boomboat operations.

(2) In operations where regular logging machinery, rigging, etc., is used, the applicable rules apply.

(3) The employer must provide and ensure the use of artificial lights where employees work between the hours of sunset and sunrise. The lights must be located in a manner that will:

• Be reasonably free of glare;

• Provide uniform distribution of illumination; and

• Avoid sharply defined shadows.

(4) On all log dumps, adequate power for the unloading method used must be provided. All machines used for hoisting, reloading, or lowering must be of an approved design and have enough power to control or hold the maximum load imposed in mid-air.

(5) Methods of unloading logs must be arranged and used in a manner to provide full protection to all employees.

(6) Binders must not be released from any load until an effective safeguard is provided.

(7) All mobile log handling machines must be equipped with a means to prevent the logs from accidentally leaving the forks, and it must be used.

(8) The operator of the unloading machine must have an unobstructed view of the unloading area or must make certain no one is in the area where the logs are to be unloaded. Rearview mirrors must be installed on mobile log handling equipment to assist the operator in determining that the area behind the machine is clear before backing up.

(9) Unloading lines must be arranged so that it is not necessary for an employee to attach them on the pond or dump side of the load.

(10) Life rings with a minimum of ninety feet of 1/4-inch line with a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds attached, must be provided at convenient points adjacent to water that is five feet or more in depth. Life rings must be a minimum of thirty inches outside diameter and seventeen inches inside diameter and be maintained so as to retain a thirty-two pound positive buoyancy.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-593, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-593, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-593, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59310
Log unloading, booms, and rafting grounds--Water dumps.

(1) All water dumps must have brow logs except when logs are lifted from the load. If portable equipment is used, adequate stops must be provided to prevent equipment from running off the dump.

(2) Where necessary for employees to walk alongside loads and equipment on trestles or fills, a minimum twenty-two inch wide walkway must be provided, unless otherwise specified.

(3) All decks and plankways on log dumps must be kept in good repair and free from bark and other debris. Roadways must not be inclined more than one inch to twelve inches across the driving surface.

(4) The use of small bridge-over logs, planking, or timbers between regular foot logs, or walkways, which will not support the weight of at least three persons are prohibited. All regular foot logs must be barked on the upper side.

(5) Electric-powered hoists using hand-held cord remote controls in grounded locations must be actuated by circuits operating at no more than twenty-four volts. All control switches must be the momentary contact type that require continuous manual pressure for the hoist to operate.

(6) Roadbeds at log dumps must be hard-packed gravel, heavy planking, or equivalent material, and must be of sufficient width and even surface to ensure safe operation of equipment.

(7) Where logs are unloaded on to rollways, enough space must be provided between the top of the skids and the ground to clear the body of a person.

(8) When a brow log is used with a parbuckle system, all persons are prohibited from going between the brow log and the load of logs at any time.

(9) A positive safeguard must be provided to prevent logs from leaving the loads on the side opposite the dump. Unloading lines, crotch lines, or other equivalent means must be arranged and used in a manner to prevent any log from swinging or rolling back.

(10) All employees must remain in the clear until all moving equipment has come to a complete stop.

(11) Logs must not be unloaded by peaves or similar manual methods, unless means are provided and used that eliminate the danger from rolling or swinging logs.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59320
Log unloading, booms, and rafting ground--Boom and rafting grounds.

(1) Breaking of log jams by peavy method is prohibited, except in river drive or when a jam occurs away from a mechanical means or the dump.

(2) Wooden pike poles must be made of continuous, straight-grained No. 1 material.

(a) Defective poles, blunt or dull pikes must not be used.

(b) Conductive pike poles must not be used where there is a possibility of coming in contact with energized electrical conductors.

(3) Stiff booms must be made of at least two boom sticks and must be at least thirty-six inches wide measured outside to outside of the logs. The boom sticks must be fastened with at least 4" x 6" cross ties, or cable lashings notched into the boom sticks may be used when stiff booms are exposed to heavy swells. Stiff booms must be kept free of loose bark and maintained in good repair.

(4) A walkway thirty-six inches wide with standard hand railing must be provided from the shore end of stiff boom to shore.

(5) All sorting gaps must have a substantial stiff boom on each side of gaps. Such stiff booms or walkways must be planked over.

(6) Boom sticks must be reasonably straight with no protruding knots or loose bark. They must be able to support above the water line at either end the weight of one employee and equipment or two hundred fifty pounds.

(7) Foot logs must be reasonably straight with no protruding knots or loose bark and large enough to support above the water line at either end the weight of two employees and equipment or five hundred pounds.

(8) Unsafe boom sticks must be marked by three chopped crosses ten feet from the butt end, and those sticks must not be used as boom sticks.

(9) Gaps between boom sticks must not exceed twenty-four inches. All wire must be removed from boom sticks and boom chains before they are re-used or hung in rafting stalls.

(10) When permanent cable swifters are used, they must be arranged so that they are within easy reach of the rafter without rolling the boom sticks on which they are fastened. When cables become hazardous to use because of jaggers, they must be discarded.

(11) When a floating donkey or other power-driven machinery is used on a boom, it must be placed on a raft or float with enough buoyancy to keep the deck of the raft or float well above water. Wherever employees walk, the deck of the raft or float must be planked over with at least two inch planking, and kept in good repair.

(12) When doglines used in rafting, brailing, or stowing logs become hazardous to use because of jaggers, they must be discarded.

(13) Sufficient walkways and floats must be installed and securely anchored to provide safe passage for employees.

(14) Walkways alongside sorting gaps must be at least four feet wide. Other walkways must be at least twenty-two inches wide.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59330
Log unloading, booms, and rafting grounds--Boats and mechanical devices on waters.

(1) Before starting the boat motor, any spilled fuel must be removed and vapors must be exhausted from any area in which they may accumulate.

(2) The bilge area must be kept clean and oil, grease, fuel, or highly combustible materials must not be allowed to accumulate.

(3) Adequate ventilation equipment must be provided and used for the bilge area to prevent the accumulation of toxic or explosive gases or vapors.

(4) Adequate ventilation equipment must be provided and used for the cabin area on enclosed-cabin boats to prevent an accumulation of harmful gases or vapors.

(5) Deck and cabin lighting must be provided and used where necessary to provide safe levels of illumination aboard boats. Boats operated between sunset to sunrise, or in conditions of restricted visibility, must display navigation lights as required by the United States Coast Guard. Searchlights or floodlights must be provided for safe navigation and to illuminate working or boarding areas adjacent to the craft.

(6) On craft used by employees wearing calked shoes, all areas where employees must stand or walk must be made of or be covered with wood or other suitable matting or nonslip material. The covering must be maintained in good condition.

(7) Each boat must:

(a) Be provided with a fire extinguisher; and

(b) Have a life ring with at least fifty feet of one-fourth inch line attached.


Note: On log broncs, boomscooters, or other small boomboats where all occupants are required to wear life saving devices and a life ring would present a tripping hazard, the life ring may be omitted.

(8) Along docks, walkways, or other fixed installations on or adjacent to open water more than five feet deep, approved life rings with at least ninety feet of one-fourth inch line attached, must be provided. The life rings must be spaced at intervals not exceeding two hundred feet and must be easily visible and readily accessible.

(a) When employees are assigned work at other casual locations where exposure to drowning exists, at least one approved life ring with at least ninety feet of line attached must be provided in the immediate vicinity of the work assigned.

(b) Lines attached to life rings on fixed installations must be at least ninety feet long, at least one-fourth-inch in diameter, and have a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds. Similar lines attached to life rings on boats must be at least fifty feet long.

(c) Life rings must be United States Coast Guard approved thirty-inch size.

(d) Life rings and attached lines must be maintained to retain at least seventy-five percent of their designed buoyancy and strength.

(e) Where work is assigned over water where the vertical drop from an accidental fall would exceed fifty feet, special arrangements must be made with and approved by the department of labor and industries prior to such assignment.

(9) Log broncs, boomscooters, and boomboats must not be loaded with employees or equipment in a way that adversely affects stability or seaworthiness.

(10) Boats must not be operated at excessive speed or handled recklessly.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59340
Log unloading, booms, and rafting grounds--Dry land sorting and storage.

(1) Unauthorized foot and vehicle traffic is prohibited in the sorting or storage area.

(2) Logs must be stored in a safe and orderly manner. Roadways and traffic lanes must be kept clear of protruding ends of logs and debris.

(3) Dry deck log storage areas must be kept orderly and maintained in a condition conducive to safe operation of mobile equipment. Roadways and walkways must have a smooth hard-packed surface wide enough to permit a safe operation. Bark, mud, and other debris must not be allowed to accumulate to the extent they constitute a hazard to the operation.

(4) The employer must implement an effective method to control dust at log dumps and in sorting and storage areas.

(5) Only an authorized person shall operate or ride any lift truck, log stacker, or log unloader.

(6) Signaling log unloader operators at dry deck areas by throwing bark or chips in the air is prohibited. Hand, horn signals or other safe, effective means must be used at all times.

(7) Unnecessary talking to the operator while operating controls of a log stacker or log unloader is prohibited.

(8) Lift forks and arms of unloading machines must be lowered to their lowest position, and all equipment brakes set before the operator leaves the machine unattended.

(9) Log unloaders or stackers must not be moved about the premises for distances greater than absolutely necessary with the lift extended above the driver's head or with loads lifted higher than is necessary for vision.

(10) When truck drivers are out of the cab, they must be in the clear, and in view of the log unloader before the lift forks are moved under the load and the lift is made.

(11) Where logs are offloaded onto a dry deck by unloading lines, a self-releasing mechanism must be used. Employees are prohibited from climbing dry decks to release unloading lines.

(12) Employees must not enter the hazardous area near or under loads of logs being lifted, moved, or suspended.

(13) When log unloaders and log stackers are designed so that logs being handled may jeopardize the safety of the operator, the employer must provide overhead protection and any other necessary safeguards.

(14) Log unloaders and log stackers must be equipped with a horn or other audible warning device. If vision is impaired or restricted to the rear, the warning device must be sounded before operating the vehicle in reverse gear and periodically while backing. The warning device must be operative at all times.

(15) A limit stop, which will prevent the lift arms from over-traveling, must be installed on electric powered log unloaders.

(16) Shear guards must be installed on unloading machines and similar equipment on which the arms pivot and move alongside the operator creating a pinch point at that location.

(17) All forklift log handling machines must be equipped with a grapple arms and the arms must be used whenever logs are being carried.

(18) When log trucks are loaded by a log stacker and the lay of any log is higher than the stakes, the log stacker must remain against the completed load, or other suitable protection provided, to prevent the logs from falling until at least two wrappers and binders have been applied.

(19) All binders and wrappers must remain on the load until an approved safeguard has been provided to prevent logs from rolling off the side of the truck or trailer when binders are released. A shear log, or equivalent means, must be provided to ensure the log truck will be stationed close enough to the wrapper rack so that a log cannot fall between the log truck and the wrapper rack when removing binders and wrappers. At least one binder must remain secured while relocating or tightening other binders. Crotch lines, forklifts, log stackers, log unloaders, or other effective means must be used for this purpose.

(20) An extra wrapper or metal band of equal strength must be placed to hold the logs when it is necessary to remove a wrapper to prevent it from being fouled by the unloading machine.

(21) Machines with arms that block the regular exit when in the up position must have an emergency exit installed.

(22) Riding on any part of a log handling machine except under the canopy guard is prohibited.

(23) Identification tags must not be applied or pulled unless logs are resting in a stationary place, such as bunks, cradles, skids, or sorting tables.

(24) Employees must not approach the immediate vicinity of a forklift-type log handling machine without first notifying the operator of the person's intention and receiving an acknowledgement from the operator.

(25) When dry land log dumps use unloading methods similar to those of water dumps, the safety standards for water dumps apply.

(26) When logs are handled between sunset and sunrise or other periods of poor visibility, the employer must provide illumination that meets the requirements of WAC 296-62-09003 relating to illumination.

(27) Air operated stake releases must meet the following requirements:

(a) The air supply must be taken from the "wet" air reservoir or from the accessory air line to a spring loaded, normally closed control valve;

(b) The control valve must be located in the cab, positioned so that it is accessible only from the operator's position;

(c) The control valve must be fitted with a spring-loaded cover or otherwise guarded against inadvertent operation; and

(d) A separate air line must extend from the control valve to the tractor and trailer stake release chambers. The air line must be clearly identified or installed so that it cannot be mistaken for the service or emergency air line.

(28) Each deck must be constructed and located so it is stable and provides each employee with enough room to safely move and work in the area.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-595
((Railroad operations.)) Transporting crews.

(((1) All persons employed in any service on trains or rail operations, which are not engaged in interstate commerce, are subject to and shall be conversant with all rules and special instructions.

(2) Employees must render every assistance in their power in carrying out these rules and special instructions and must report to the proper official any violation thereof.

(3) Accidents, detention of trains or speeders, failure in supply of fuel or water, defects in track, bridges, or signals, must be properly reported to the supervisor by the quickest possible method.

(4) Any logging railroad may maintain a special set of operating rules applicable to their operation, provided that said rules are acceptable to the division of industrial safety and health, department of labor and industries.

(5) Each logging railroad operation which has more than one piece of railroad equipment in operation, must have a dispatcher on duty.  All equipment must receive clearance from dispatcher.

(6) Train crew size shall be dependent upon the number of persons needed to safely operate the train under all prevailing conditions; however, when necessary to set hand brakes, two or more persons shall be assigned to set the brakes and give signals.

(7) All locomotives shall be equipped with sanding devices for both rails, front and rear, in proper working order.  Clean, dry sand should be used.

(8) Locomotives shall be equipped with power brakes (air or steam) on all driving wheels.  Tenders also shall have power brakes.

(9) All locomotives and speeders, operating between sunset and sunrise or other periods of reduced visibility, shall be equipped with and use head lights which shine in the direction of travel.  The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower so the train can be stopped within range of the light beam.  Cab lights shall be provided and maintained so the operators can see from their required positions the gauges and equipment necessary for operation.

(10) All locomotives shall be equipped with proper grab irons, hand holds, steps, and running boards.

(11) All locomotives shall be equipped with automatic couplers, suitable for low or high draw-bars.

(12) On all rolling stock, wheels which have sharp or badly worn flanges, shall be replaced.  Avoid the use of flat wheels.

(13) All locomotives with tender shall have an apron of proper length and width to insure safety and which shall be roughened to insure secure footing.

(14) Handholds and footboards shall be provided on locomotive cranes, except where cab overhangs end of car.

(15) Trains and speeders shall not exceed a safe speed.

(16) A terminal test of air brakes shall be made by trainmen before leaving the terminal.  Enginemen shall not proceed until they are satisfied by brake action that brakes are able to control the train.

(17) All of the cars in a train shall have their brakes in good operating condition.

(18) On railroads where joint operations of two or more firms are necessary, trains shall not be dispatched less than fifteen minutes apart.  Red lights shall be displayed on the rear of such trains at night or when visibility is poor.

(19) Whenever cars are left on grades, derailers shall be provided.  Derail signs shall be placed near derailers.  In setting out equipment, care shall be used in seeing that proper clearance is provided.

(20) Standard pressure for mountain grades requires a pressure of ninety pounds in train pipe, one hundred ten pounds in main reservoirs (low pressure) and one hundred thirty pounds in high pressure to insure quick releasing of brakes and recharging of auxiliaries.  Engineer shall see that the engine carries these pressures and that sanders, both forward and rear, are in working order.  On all heavy grades the high pressure retaining valve must be used and before train is started from landing, a test of brakes must be made and piston travel adjusted, if necessary, and retaining valves put up.  Engineer shall start train away from landing slowly, giving wheels a chance to roll before applying brakes and, to avoid skidding of wheels, using sand freely.  Brakes should then be applied immediately and released, allowing the retaining valves to hold the train while train pipe and auxiliaries are being recharged.  Train speed should be held to the required rate by setting and releasing brakes as it is necessary to control train.

(21) When it is necessary to leave loads on pass while switching a side, loads must be left close to derailer, air set and sufficient hand brakes set up, before cutting engine from train.

(22) Engineer must see car or signal person when making couplings, giving train crew ample time to align drawheads and open knuckles of coupler, especially on curves, except when using radios.

(23) Drawbars should not be aligned with the foot while cars or engines are in motion.  Train crew shall not climb between cars while in motion.  Engineers shall not drift too close to switches which are to be thrown.  Position of switch points should always be observed after throwing switch.  Switch lever should be pushed firmly into the notch before leaving the switch.  No persons except trainmen, unless authorized, shall ride on engine foot-boards.  No object shall be thrown from train or engine while in motion.  Bell shall be rung or whistle blown, before moving locomotive.

(24) No equipment shall be pushed ahead of locomotive unless a brake tender is on head car in constant view of engineer or second brake tender in position to intercept and pass signal to engineer.

(25) In addition to air brakes, hand brakes must be provided on all cars and maintained in good working order.

(26) Hand brakes must be easily accessible to brake tenders when cars are loaded.  When wheels or staff brakes are used they should be placed on the side opposite the brow log at the dump to prevent their damage when cars are unloaded.  All switch throws, walkways and cleared areas for brake tenders shall be on the hand brake side.

(27) All brake hickeys shall be made from three-fourths inch hexagon steel (high grade) and be twenty-four inches with a good claw on one end to fit the wheel and a knob on opposite end to prevent slipping from brakeman's hand.

(28) All railroad trucks and cars, where brakes are set by hand while in motion, shall have good footboards and toeboards on the brake end.

(29) A ten inch bunk block is recommended on all trucks to prevent logs from slipping over block.

(30) All cars other than logging trucks must have hand hold and foot steps to permit persons to get on and off easily and safely.

(31) All cars and trucks regularly operated must have automatic couplers.

(32) Locomotives and cabooses shall carry the following equipment:

1 red light (lantern type)

3 red flags

At least 3 fuses


(33) When a train stops between telephones, or where the rear of a train extends beyond yard limits, the rear of the train must be properly protected.

(34) Whistle sign board shall be placed one thousand two hundred feet from each side of highway crossings.

(35) A rail clamp shall be placed to hold cars left on a grade on main line or spurs.

(36) All cars and trucks shall be legibly numbered so that those with defects may be reported and taken out of service.  Each locomotive, speeder, or other self-propelled vehicles shall be numbered, or otherwise made readily identifiable.

(37) All cars used for hauling logs shall be equipped with patent stake bunks, or bunks with chock blocks and/or chains, so constructed that block can be released from opposite end of bunk unless solid stakes are used.

(38) All main line trains of more than ten loaded cars shall have a caboose at the rear of the train.

(39) All operations having both truck roads and railroads, shall post signs at intersections same as public crossings.

Engine whistle signals.  The following engine whistle signals are established as standard and are taken from the American Association of Railroads.  The signals prescribed are illustrated by "o" for short sounds and "-" for long sounds.  Audible whistle shall be sounded when approaching camps, junctions, grade crossings and other prescribed places in conformity with the American Association of Railroads:


One short . . . . . . . . . . . . (o) Stop, apply brakes.
Two long . . . . . . . . . . . . (—) Release brakes.
Three long . . . . . . . . . . . . (— –) When running, train parted, to be repeated until answered by hand signal.
Two short . . . . . . . . . . . . (oo) Answer to any signals not otherwise provided for.
Three short . . . . . . . . . . . . (ooo) When train is standing back.
Four short . . . . . . . . . . . . (oooo) Call for signals.
Two long, two short . . . . . . . . . . . . (—oo) Approaching highway crossing at grade.
One long . . . . . . . . . . . . (–) Approaching station, rollway, chute, crossing, junctions, and derailers. When standing, air leak.
Six long . . . . . . . . . . . . (— — —) Repeated at intervals, call for section crew, train derailed.
One long, three short . . . . . . . . . . . . (–ooo) Flagger to go back and protect rear of train.
Four long . . . . . . . . . . . . (— —) Foreman.
Five long . . . . . . . . . . . . (— — –) Flagger to return from any direction.
Long, short . . . . . . . . . . . . (–o–o–o) Repeated four or more times, fire alarm.
Seven long, two short . . . . . . . . . . . . ( — — — – oo) Repeated, person hurt.
One long, one short . . . . . . . . . . . . (–o) Repeated at intervals, closing down.
Groups of shorts repeated . . . . . . . . . . . . (ooooooo) Danger of runaway.
Unnecessary use of whistle is prohibited.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-595, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-595, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-595, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59510
Speeders used to transport crews.

(1) All speeders must be equipped with two separate and independently operated braking systems, either of which must be of sufficient capacity to lock all wheels when speeder is fully loaded;

(2) All speeders used for transporting crews must be equipped with methods for sanding tracks, operative for both directions of travel.

(3) Electric lights of sufficient candle power and range so that vehicle can be stopped within the range of the beam, and which will shine in the direction of travel, must be provided on all speeders.

(4) Adequate tail lights must be installed and maintained in good order.

(5) Automatic windshield wipers of sufficient capacity to maintain clear visibility must be installed on all speeders.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59520
Trailers used to transport crews.

(1) When trailers are coupled behind speeders, they must be equipped with two separate and independent braking systems, either must be of sufficient capacity to lock all wheels when the trailer is fully loaded. One of these must be power operated and must be controlled from the speeder; the other manually operated from the trailer. One person must be designated to operate this brake in case of emergency.

(2) All trailers must be coupled to speeders with metal couplings and safety chains or straps of sufficient strength to withstand the impact caused by a broken coupling.

(3) No trailer shall coast or be used as a crew car without being attached to a speeder.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-597
Railroads ((maintenance--Loading or unloading)).

(((1) Track gangs, bridge crews, etc., when working on railroads in use shall place a yellow caution flag by day and a yellow lantern by night a sufficient distance both directions from the crew to protect them against approaching equipment.  The operator of said equipment shall acknowledge the signal by two short blasts of the whistle or horn and proceed with caution.

When said crews are removing or replacing a rail or are performing any other work that would make it necessary for approaching equipment to come to a stop, they shall place a red flag by day and a red lantern by night in the center of the track a sufficient distance in both directions from the crew to protect them against said equipment.  The operator of approaching equipment shall acknowledge the signal by one short blast of the whistle or horn and shall come to a dead stop and remain standing until the signal is removed by the person who placed it, or until investigation proves that the track is safe for passage.  If a flagger is used, the above provision need not apply.

(2) Where clearance is scant, warning signs or signals shall be posted.

(3) Switch throws should be kept well oiled and targets and signs in good legible condition.

(4) Standard clearances shall be maintained at all points on the right of way except where necessarily restricted where loading or unloading operations are performed or at water tanks, fuel tanks, etc.  Warning signs shall be posted at all such locations.

(5) Whenever workers are repairing, working on or in railroad equipment, loading or unloading cars or performing other duties where there is danger of the railroad equipment being struck by other moving railroad equipment; proper means, methods or safeguards shall be used to protect such workers.  A derail shall be used to prevent other rail equipment from contacting such cars or equipment or endangering the work crew.  After cars are spotted, blue flags shall be placed in the center of the tracks at least fifty feet from the end car during the day and blue lights shall be installed at such locations at night.  Flags, lanterns and derails shall be removed only by the person placing them unless they are to remain posted for a longer period of time, in which case one person on each oncoming shift shall be responsible to ascertain that they are in place and they shall not remove such safeguards until that person investigates to make certain all persons are in the clear.  Operators of approaching equipment shall not pass or remove a flag or lantern which is properly posted.  Cars or other equipment shall not be placed where it will obscure the signal from an operator controlling approaching equipment.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-597, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-597, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59710
Railroad construction and maintenance.

(1) All construction must be according to safe logging practices as to size of rails, ties, track accessories and methods of installing same.

(2) Rail guards must be placed on main lines and spurs, consistent with the type of traffic and general local conditions. (3) Rail anchors of approved design must be installed wherever practicable.

(4) Frogs, switches, and guard rail ends must have either patent or wooden foot guard blocking installed.

(5) Slip plates must be used under all switches and switch points.

(6) All above ground wire for permanent telegraph or telephone lines used for dispatching must be well strung on insulators and must be clear of the ground and obstructions.

(7) Where telephone lines are strung under or near power lines, foot stools mounted on insulators in front of telephone boxes must be used, unless other protection is provided, which affords a substantially equivalent measure of safety.

(8) Foundations, pile trestles, framed bent trestles, mud sills, or other framework of all structures must be adequate to support the maximum imposed loads without exceeding the maximum safe working unit stresses.

(a) The structure must be maintained in good condition and repair.

(b) The structure must be inspected at least annually by a qualified person.

(c) The employer must maintain records of the inspections and make the records available to the department on request.

(9) Outside wooden guard rails must be installed on all railroad bridges except that outside wooden rails will not be required where inside steel guard rails are used;

(a) They must extend not less than six inches above the top of the ties and must be bolted or spiked to ties at intervals of not more than five feet; and

(b) Spacer blocks must be used unless ties are spiked to stringers, or guard rails are dapped to avoid need for spacer blocks.

(10) Guard rails must extend at least six inches above the top of the ties and are bolted or spiked to ties at maximum intervals of five feet. Spacer blocks must be used unless ties are spiked to stringers, or guard rails are dapped to avoid need for spacer blocks.

(11) Regular bridge ties of not less than ten feet in length must be used on all railroad bridges constructed after the effective date of these standards.

(12) Trestles and bridges longer than two hundred fifty feet must have safety platforms with safe standing space for two persons installed. The platforms must be spaced so that a person on the trestle or bridge is never more than one hundred twenty-five feet from a safety platform or the end of the bridge or structure.

(13) All railroad bridges and trestles used regularly as footways must have a plank walkway between the rails that is at least twelve inches wide and two inches thick. The walkway must extend from end to end of the bridge or trestle.

(14) A suitable substantial walkway at least three feet wide with handrail must be installed on bridges or trestles where train crews must perform routine inspection or repair work on trains. Substantial platforms and handrails must be provided where switches are located on bridges or trestles. Adequate clearance must be allowed for the throw of the switch.

(15) All dangerous trees, snags or brush must be cleared a safe distance from both sides of the track. Any obstruction that will create a transportation hazard must be removed.

(16) Material must be provided that will promote secure footing at places alongside the track where employees customarily perform duties, such as inspecting loads, setting brakes by hand, or throwing switches.

(17) The distance between any main tracks and a side track must allow a clearance of four feet between bunk ends and locomotive cabs.

(18) The following clearances must be maintained:

(a) At least eight feet horizontal clearance on each side of the center line of standard gauge mainline railroads; and

(b) At least twenty-two feet vertical clearance above the top of each rail (according to standard railroad engineering practices).

(19) Derailers must be installed as follows:

(a) Derailers must be installed and used on all landings, passing tracks, and spurs where cars are left on a grade.

(b) Derailers must be close to standing equipment.

(c) The operation of a derailer must not create a hazard to buildings and other railroad lines.

(d) Derailers must not be installed on the inside rail on a sharp curve.

(e) Derail signs must be set on both sides of the track even with the derailer.

(f) An unneeded derailer must be removed or rendered inoperative.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59720
Railroad operations.

(1) Employees must report accidents, detention of trains or speeders, failure in supply of fuel or water, defects in track, bridges, or signals to the supervisor by the quickest possible method.

(2) Any logging railroad may maintain a special set of operating rules applicable to their logging operation, provided that said rules are acceptable to the department of labor and industries.

(3) Each logging railroad operation with more than one piece of railroad equipment in operation, must have a dispatcher on duty. All equipment must receive clearance from the dispatcher.

(4) Train crew size must be based on the number of persons needed to safely operate the train under all prevailing conditions. When necessary to set hand brakes, two or more persons must be assigned to set the brakes and to give signals.

(5) All locomotives must be equipped with sanding devices for both rails, front and rear, in proper working order. Clean, dry sand should be used.

(6) Locomotives must be equipped with power brakes (air or steam) on all driving wheels. Tenders must also have power brakes.

(7) All locomotives and speeders, operating between sunset and sunrise or other periods of reduced visibility, must be equipped with and use head lights that shine in the direction of travel. The lights must be bright enough so the train can be stopped within range of the light beam. Cab lights must be provided and maintained so the operators can see from their required positions the gauges and equipment necessary for operation.

(8) All locomotives must be equipped with proper grab irons, hand holds, steps, and running boards.

(9) All locomotives must be equipped with automatic couplers, suitable for low or high draw-bars.

(10) On all rolling stock, wheels with sharp or badly worn flanges, must be replaced. Avoid using flat wheels.

(11) All locomotives with tender must have an apron of proper length and width to ensure safety. The apron must be roughened to ensure secure footing.

(12) Handholds and footboards must be provided on locomotive cranes, except where the cab overhangs the end of the car.

(13) Trains and speeders must not exceed a safe speed.

(14) The trainmen must test the air brakes before leaving the terminal. Enginemen must not proceed until they are satisfied by brake action that the brakes are able to control the train.

(15) All of the cars in a train must have brakes in good operating condition.

(16) On railroads where joint logging operations of two or more firms are necessary, trains must be dispatched at least fifteen minutes apart. Red lights must be displayed on the rear of such trains at night or when visibility is poor.

(17) Whenever cars are left on grades, derailers must be provided. Derail signs must be placed near derailers. In setting out equipment, care must be used in seeing that proper clearance is provided.

(18) Standard pressure for mountain grades requires a pressure of ninety pounds in train pipe, one hundred ten pounds in main reservoirs (low pressure) and one hundred thirty pounds in high pressure to ensure quick releasing of brakes and recharging of auxiliaries. Engineer must see that the engine carries these pressures and that sanders, both forward and rear, are in working order. On all heavy grades the high pressure retaining valve must be used and before train is started from landing, a test of brakes must be made and piston travel adjusted, if necessary, and retaining valves put up. Engineer must start train away from landing slowly, giving wheels a chance to roll before applying brakes and, to avoid skidding of wheels, using sand freely. Brakes should then be applied immediately and released, allowing the retaining valves to hold the train while train pipe and auxiliaries are being recharged. Train speed should be held to the required rate by setting and releasing brakes as it is necessary to control train.

(19) When necessary to leave loads on a pass while switching a side, loads must be left close to the derailer, air set and enough hand brakes set up, before cutting the engine from the train.

(20) The engineer must see the car or signal person when making couplings, giving the train crew enough time to align drawheads and open knuckles of coupler, especially on curves, except when using radios.

(21) Drawbars should not be aligned with the foot while cars or engines are in motion. The train crew must not climb between cars while in motion. Engineers must not drift too close to switches that are to be thrown. The position of switch points should always be observed after throwing switch. The switch lever should be pushed firmly into the notch before leaving the switch. No persons except trainmen, unless authorized, shall ride on engine footboards. Throwing objects from the train or engine while in motion is prohibited. A bell must be rung or whistle blown before moving the locomotive.

(22) Equipment must not be pushed ahead of a locomotive unless a brake tender is on the head car in constant view of the engineer or second brake tender in a position to receive and pass the signal to the engineer.

(23) In addition to air brakes, hand brakes must be provided on all cars and maintained in good working order.

(24) Hand brakes must be easily accessible to brake tenders when cars are loaded. When wheels or staff brakes are used they should be placed on the side opposite the brow log at the dump to prevent their damage when cars are unloaded. All switch throws, walkways, and cleared areas for brake tenders must be on the hand brake side.

(25) All brake hickeys must be made from three-fourths inch hexagon steel (high grade) and be twenty-four inches with a good claw on one end to fit the wheel and a knob on opposite end to prevent slipping from the brakeman's hand.

(26) All railroad trucks and cars, where brakes are set by hand while in motion, must have good footboards and toeboards on the brake end.

(27) A ten-inch bunk block is recommended on all trucks to prevent logs from slipping over block.

(28) All cars other than logging trucks must have hand hold and foot steps to permit employees to get on and off easily and safely.

(29) All cars and trucks regularly operated must have automatic couplers.

(30) Locomotives and cabooses must carry the following equipment:

• 1 red light (lantern type)

• 3 red flags

• At least 3 fuses

(31) When a train stops between telephones, or where the rear of a train extends beyond yard limits, the rear of the train must be properly protected.

(32) A whistle sign board must be placed one thousand two hundred feet from each side of highway crossings.

(33) A rail clamp must be placed to hold cars left on a grade on main line or spurs.

(34) All cars and trucks must be legibly numbered so that those with defects may be reported and taken out of service. Each locomotive, speeder, or other self-propelled vehicles must be numbered, or otherwise made readily identifiable.

(35) All cars used for hauling logs must be equipped with patent stake bunks, or bunks with chock blocks and/or chains, constructed so that the block can be released from the opposite end of the bunk unless solid stakes are used.

(36) All main line trains of more than ten loaded cars must have a caboose at the rear of the train.

(37) All logging operations having both truck roads and railroads must post signs at intersections same as public crossings.

(38) The following engine whistle signals are established as standard and are taken from the American Association of Railroads. The signals prescribed are illustrated by "o" for short sounds and "-" for long sounds. Audible whistle must be sounded when approaching camps, junctions, grade crossings and other prescribed places as required by the American Association of Railroads:


One short (o) Stop, apply brakes.
Two long (--) Release brakes.
Three long (---) When running, train parted, to be repeated until answered by hand signal.
Two short (oo) Answer to any signals not otherwise provided for.
Three short (ooo) When train is standing back.
Four short (oooo) Call for signals.
Two long, two short (--oo) Approaching highway crossing at grade.
One long (-) Approaching station, rollway, chute, crossing, junctions, and derailers.
When standing, air leak.
Six long (------) Repeated at intervals, call for section crew, train derailed.
One long, three short (-ooo) Flagger to go back and protect rear of train.
Four long (----) Foreman.
Five long (-----) Flagger to return from any direction.
Long, short (-o-o-o) Repeated four or more times, fire alarm.
Seven long, two short (-------oo) Repeated, person hurt.
One long, one short (-o) Repeated at intervals, closing down.
Groups of shorts repeated (ooooooo) Danger of runaway.
Unnecessary use of whistle is prohibited.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-59730
Railroad maintenance--Loading or unloading.

(1) Whenever track gangs, bridge crews, etc., work on railroads that are in use, the following signal systems must be implemented:

(a) A yellow caution flag by day and a yellow lantern by night is placed far enough in each direction from the crew to protect them against approaching equipment. The operator of approaching equipment must acknowledge the signal by two short blasts of the whistle or horn and proceed with caution.

(b) When crews are removing or replacing a rail or performing any other work that would make it necessary for approaching equipment to come to a stop, a red flag during daytime work and a red lantern during nighttime work is placed in the center of the track far enough in each direction from employees to protect them against approaching equipment. The operator of approaching equipment must:

(i) Acknowledge the signal by one short blast of the whistle or horn;

(ii) Come to a dead stop; and

(iii) Remain standing until the signal is removed by the person who placed it, or until investigation proves that the track is safe for passage.

(c) The employer may choose to use a flagger in place of meeting the above requirements.

(2) Where clearance is scant, warning signs or signals must be posted.

(3) Switch throws should be kept well oiled and targets and signs in good legible condition.

(4) Standard clearances must be maintained at all points on the right of way. However, if clearance is necessarily restricted in loading or unloading areas or at water tanks, fuel tanks, etc., then warning signs must be posted at these locations.

(5) The employer must provide adequate safeguards to protect employees performing the following tasks:

• Repairing railroad equipment;

• Working on or in railroad equipment;

• Loading or unloading cars; or

• Performing other duties where there is danger of the railroad equipment being struck by other moving railroad equipment.

(a) A derail must be used to prevent other rail equipment from contacting such cars or equipment or endangering employees. After cars are spotted, blue flags must be placed in the center of the tracks at least fifty feet from the end car during the day and blue lights must be installed at such locations at night.

(b) Flags, lanterns, or derails must be removed only by the person placing them unless they are to remain posted for a longer period of time. In which case one person on each oncoming shift must determine that they are in place and they must not remove the safeguards until certain that all employees are in the clear.

(c) Operators of approaching equipment must not pass or remove a flag or lantern that is properly posted. Cars or other equipment must not be placed where they will obscure the signal from an operator controlling approaching equipment.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-601
Signals and signal systems.

(((1) Standard hand or whistle signals as described or illustrated herein, shall be used for the movement of rigging, logs, or equipment when using a high lead, slackline, or cable skidder system for yarding.  For hand signal illustrations, see Figure 4.

(2) Voice communications may be used for yarding under the following conditions:

(a) Voice communications by use of radio frequencies may be used to transmit instructions and directions to the yarder operator when using a grapple type logging system, providing no person is in a hazardous area near live rigging.

(b) Voice communication may be used to instruct the yarder operator when picking up an occasional log with the use of a choker on a grapple system, providing the grapple is on the ground prior to the setting of the choker and that no lines are moved by the operator until the person setting the choker has returned to a safe location away from any running lines.  At no time shall chokers be used on the grapple system during the hours of darkness or during periods of reduced visibility to such extent that the yarder operator cannot clearly see the setting of the choker.  When a number of logs are required to be yarded by using chokers instead of the grapple, the requirements specified for high lead type of logging shall apply.

(c) Voice communications by use of radio frequencies may be used to transmit instructions and directions to the yarder operator when using a balloon system for yarding.  The person operating the radio shall ascertain that all crew members are in the clear before transmitting instructions which would cause any line or turn to move.  The person giving such instructions shall keep the crew members informed as to which movements will commence.  The whistle shall be blown before moving any running line.

(d) The Federal Communications Commission rules require that assigned call letters be used in conjunction with voice communications.

(3) Voice communications on the same radio frequencies used to transmit skyline, highlead, slackline, or skidder whistle signals (154.57 and 154.60 MHz channels), shall be prohibited.


Note: If voice is received on 154.57 or 154.60 MHz channels, it is recommended the Assistant Director, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44650, Olympia, Washington 98504-4650 (phone (360) 902-5428) be contacted as soon as possible to enable the department to ascertain the source of the voice transmission.


(4) If a standard signal is not listed for an unusual or new situation, a hand or whistle signal other than any listed for the type of yarding being done may be used for the specific situation only.  Any special signals so developed shall be understood by all persons required to work in the area which may be affected by their use.

(5) A copy of the standard hand and whistle signals shall be posted on the yarder and at places where crews congregate.  For tractor logging operations, hand signals shall be posted at places frequented by the crew members such as in crew buses, etc.

(6) Only one person in any crew shall give signals at the point where chokers are being set.  Any person is authorized to give a stop signal when a person is in danger or other emergency condition is apparent.

(7) Hand signals are permitted only when the signal person is in plain sight of the machine operator and when visibility is such that the signals are discernible.  Hand signals may be used at any time as an emergency stop signal.

(8) Throwing of any type of material as a signal is prohibited.

(9) The use of a jerk wire signal system for any type of yarding operation is prohibited.

(10) All persons shall be in the clear before any signal is given to move the rigging, logs, or turns, and movement of rigging, logs, or turns shall not commence until after the proper signals have been given.

(11) Machine operators shall not move any line unless the signal received is clear and distinct.  If in doubt, the operator shall repeat the signal as understood and wait for confirmation.

(12) A horn or whistle which is automatically activated by the radio or electric signaling system shall be used on each yarder used for skyline, high lead, skidder or slackline system of yarding, except where hand signals are permissible.  The horn or whistle shall emit a sound which will be clearly audible to all persons in the affected area.  Such a horn or whistle shall also be required on combination yarding and loading machines and tree pullers.  Audible signals are not necessary on grapple or other yarding systems where persons are not exposed to the movement of logs or rigging.

(13) Each unit of the signal or control system in use, shall be tested daily before operations begin.  Audible signals used for test purposes shall not include signals used for the movement of lines or materials.

(14) Citizen band (CB) radios shall not be used to activate any signal, machine, or process, either automatically or by voice.  This shall not prohibit the use of CB radios for communication between sides, vehicles, work units, or for emergency situations.

(15) When audible whistle signals are being used simultaneously by yarding and loading machines at a landing, signal whistle or horn tones used in connection with machine movements shall be so differentiated as to distinctively identify any intended work movement of either machine.)) (1) Standard hand or whistle signals as described in this chapter must be used for the movement of rigging, logs, or equipment when using a high lead, slackline, or cable skidder system for yarding. For hand signal illustrations, see appendix 1.

(2) Voice communication may be used to move rigging and control movement of logs, provided a standard audible whistle signal is sounded before any line is moved.


Note: Subsections (1) and (2) of this section do not apply to grapple or other special yarding systems where employees are not exposed to the movement of logs or rigging.

(3) Voice communications may be used for grapple yarding under the following conditions:

(a) Voice communications by use of radio frequencies may be used to transmit instructions and directions to the yarder operator when using a grapple type logging system, if no employee is in a hazardous area near live rigging.

(b) Voice communication may be used to instruct the yarder operator when picking up an occasional log with the use of a choker on a grapple system, if the grapple is on the ground before the setting of the choker and no lines are moved by the operator until the person setting the choker has returned to a safe location away from any running lines. When a number of logs must be yarded by using chokers instead of the grapple, the requirements for high lead logging apply.

(4) Voice communication on the same radio frequencies used to transmit skyline, high-lead, slackline or skidder whistle signals (154.57 and 154.60 MHz channels), must be limited to reporting injuries, fire, and emergency situations where special tools or precautions are needed to prevent or alleviate a hazardous situation. In addition:

(a) The rigging crew must call the yarder engineer by name to ensure that proper contact is established;

(b) The yarder engineer must acknowledge the call with a whistle "stop" signal before the caller starts transmitting the voice message;

(c) Voice transmission must be kept as brief and to the point as possible; and

(d) After receiving the voice message, the yarder engineer must again acknowledge with a whistle "stop" signal that the message has been received and is clearly understood.

(5) If a standard signal is not listed for an unusual or new situation, a hand or whistle signal other than any listed for the type of yarding being done may be used for the specific situation only. Any special signals developed must be understood by all persons working in the area who may be affected by their use.

(6) A copy of the standard hand and whistle signals must be posted on the yarder and at places where crews congregate. For tractor logging operations, hand signals must be posted at places frequented by the crew members such as in crew buses, etc.

(7) Only one person in any crew shall give signals at the point where chokers are being set. Any person is authorized to give a stop signal when someone is in danger or another emergency condition is apparent.

(8) Hand signals are permitted only when the signal person is in plain sight of the machine operator and when visibility allows signals to be seen. Hand signals may be used at any time as an emergency stop signal.

(9) Throwing of any type of material or relying on engine noise, such as from a chain saw, as a signal is prohibited.

(10) All persons must be in the clear before any signal is given to move the rigging, logs, or turns. Rigging, logs, or turns must not be moved until after the proper signals have been given.

(11) Machine operators must not move any line unless the signal received is clear and distinct. If in doubt, the operator must repeat the signal as understood and wait for confirmation.

(12) A horn or whistle that is automatically activated by the radio or electric signaling system must be used on each yarder used for skyline, high lead, skidder or slackline system of yarding, except where hand signals or voice communication as described in subsection (2) of this section is permitted. The horn or whistle must emit a sound that is clearly audible to all persons in the affected area and must be sounded before any line is moved. Such a horn or whistle is also required on combination yarding and loading machines and tree pullers. Audible signals are not necessary on grapple or other yarding systems where persons are not exposed to the movement of logs or rigging.

(13) All radio-controlled motorized carriages and skycars must have a warning horn which must be sounded before any lines or loads are moved or an audible whistle must be sounded from the yarder.

(14) Each unit of the signal or control system in use must be tested daily before logging operations begin. Audible signals used for test purposes must not include signals used for the movement of lines or materials.

(15) Citizen band (CB) radios must not be used to activate any signal, machine, or process, either automatically or by voice. CB radios may be used for communication between sides, vehicles, work units, or for emergency situations.

(16) When audible whistle signals are being used simultaneously by yarding and loading machines at a landing, signal whistle or horn tones used in connection with machine movements must be so differentiated as to distinctively identify any intended work movement of either machine.

(17) When the normal crew configuration consists of two or more persons at the point where chokers are being set, they must each carry an operable transmitter on their person. Only one transmitter is required if:

(a) The signal person has no other duties and remains in an area where there are no hazards created by the moving rigging or logs; or

(b) The rigging crew is comprised of only one employee.

(18) The use of a jerk wire whistle system for any type of yarding operation is prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-601, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.050, RCW 49.17.240, chapters RCW 43.22 and RCW 42.30 RCW.  80-11-057 (Order 80-15), § 296-54-601, filed 8/20/80.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-601, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-603
Electric signal systems.

(((1) Where an electrical signal system is used, all wire and attachments shall be of the weatherproof type and all connections shall be weatherproof.

(2) Electric signal systems shall be properly installed and adjusted.  They shall be protected against accidental signaling and shall be maintained in good operating condition at all times.  Sufficient signal wire shall be provided to enable good voice contact between the whistle punk and rigging crew at all times.)) (1) Where an electrical signal system is used, all wires, attachments, and connections must be weatherproof.

(2) Electric signal systems must be properly installed and adjusted. They must be protected against accidental signaling and must be maintained in good operating condition at all times. Enough signal wire must be provided to enable good voice contact between the whistle punk and rigging crew at all times.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-603, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-604
Radio signaling permits.

To apply for a new radio signaling permit, to request a change in a permit, or to request a change in the use area for any permitted system, write to:

WISHA Services Division--Permits

Department of Labor & Industries

P.O. Box 44650

Olympia, WA 98504-4650

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-22-013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-54-605
Radio systems used for voice communication, activation of audible signals, or control of equipment.

(((1) Every employer who uses a radio signaling or control system (voice or functions) shall comply with or exceed the minimum requirements specified in this section.

(2) A valid operating permit shall be obtained by the owner from the department of labor and industries, prior to putting into use any radio signaling or control system (voice or functions) intended to be used in conjunction with any type of cable logging operation.  Permits will be issued only for systems licensed for such use and using those carrier frequencies as authorized by the Federal Communications Commission.  In addition, permits will be granted only when tone or function frequencies are compatible with other radio systems in use and when in compliance with all other applicable requirements contained in this safety standard.

(3) The department of labor and industries reserves the right to designate the use of radio frequencies for certain purposes or functions, for example, certain frequencies may be used for voice transmission of instruction, others for tone coded functions, or activation of signaling devices.  No single tone sets shall be permitted for logging purposes.  The department may also designate which tone frequencies may be used for the activation of a signaling device or for control of equipment on certain federal communication assigned carrier frequencies.

(4) A list of tone frequencies which may be used with any Federal Communications Commission assigned carrier frequencies will be made available by the department to any interested person, firm, or corporation upon request.

(5) The department shall assign the area or areas in which a radio signaling system may be used and shall so mark on the permit.  Radio signaling systems shall not be used in any area other than indicated on the permit.  (See Figure 10 for map of areas.)

(6) The person or firm name on the permit shall be the same as the person or firm operating the radio signaling system except for loaner or rental sets.  A person or firm using a loaner or rental set shall be responsible for the radio signal system as if they were the owner of the set.  The application for a permit to use a radio signaling system shall contain the following information:

(a) Name and address of applicant.

(b) The radio frequencies of the radio signaling device in MHz.

(c) The tone frequency or frequencies of the radio signaling system used to activate a horn, whistle, or control equipment in Hz.  The security gate, or pulse tone, shall be shown first.

(d) The name of the manufacturer of the radio signaling system.

(e) The serial number of the receiving unit.

(f) The state assigned area or location in which the unit will operate.

(g) Indicate type of signaling used.

(h) From whom the system was purchased or acquired, and the date of acquisition of the system.

(i) Intended use and function of system.

(7) The permit granted by the department shall be attached to the case of the receiver of the radio signaling system for which it is granted.

(8) Each radio receiver shall have its radio carrier frequency in MHz and tone frequency(s) in Hz indicated on the outside case of the receiver.  The manufacturer's name and serial number shall also be permanently indicated on the outside of the case.  When the duration or width of the tone frequencies performs a function, the one duration/width shall also be permanently indicated on the outside of the receiver case.  Each transmitter shall be identified with its receiver.  Two or more receivers in operation simultaneously on the same tone frequency shall be prohibited.

(9) It shall be the responsibility of the owner of any radio signaling system to notify the department of labor and industries, immediately, if the signal system is:

(a) Permanently retired (in what manner and date retired).

(b) Sold (submit name and address of purchaser and date sold).

(c) Removed from the state (name of state to which moved and date moved).

(d) Stolen (date).

(10) Two operable transmitters shall be carried by separate individuals at the point where chokers are being set at all times when transmitters are being used for tone signaling by persons around the live rigging in the choker setting area.  Only one radio transmitter shall be required if in the possession of a signalperson who has no other duties and remains in an area where there are no hazards created by the moving rigging or logs.  If the total crew consists of a yarder operator and one person in the rigging, only one transmitter is required provided a positive system is instituted and used to check on the well-being of the person in the rigging.

(11) When interference, overlap, fadeout, or blackout of radio signals is encountered, the use of the device shall be discontinued immediately.  The use of the device shall not be resumed until the source of trouble has been detected and corrected.

(12) All radio signaling systems put into use for the first time after the effective date of these safety standards, shall meet or exceed the minimum performance specifications contained in WAC 296-54-607 of these safety standards, and, when altered or repaired, shall continue to meet such specifications.

(13) At least one make and model of each signaling system shall be tested and certified that it meets or exceeds the minimum requirements for performance as specified in WAC 296-54-607.  A copy of such performance report shall be signed by the person or persons who tested the unit or components and shall be sent to the Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44650, Olympia, Washington 98504-4650.

(14) Radio equipment shall not be used without displaying a permit as required by this standard.  The permit shall be prominently displayed on the outside case of the receiver of the unit or, for radio controlled carriages, on the transmitter in the yarder.

(15) Adjustments, repairs, or alterations of radio signaling devices shall be done only by or under the immediate supervision and responsibility of a person holding a first-class or second-class commercial radio operator's license, either radio-telephone or radio-telegraph, issued by the Federal Communications Commission.  Persons who do not possess the technical ability or do not have the proper equipment to cause the signaling systems to function within required tolerances shall not attempt to repair, alter, or adjust such systems.

(16) Radio frequencies assigned to systems for which voice communications may be used to give signals to the yarder operator, shall not be the same frequencies as those assigned for whistle signals used in skyline, highlead, slackline, or cable skidder systems.

(17) When hazardous interference is created by moving a voice communication system into an area where a system is already in use on the same frequency, use of the newly-moved system shall be immediately discontinued until the problem of interference has been corrected.

(18) Before moving any unit from one assigned geographical area to another (see area map, Figure 10 following this section), a new permit shall be applied for and secured from the Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44650, Olympia, Washington 98504-4650.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

AREAS FOR USE OF RADIO SIGNALING SYSTEMS FOR

LOGGING OPERATIONS


Place illustration here.

State of Washington

Department of Labor and Industries

Division of Industrial Safety and Health



A permit issued by the department of labor and industries shall be attached to the outside of the receiver which shall indicate the area in which the radio signaling equipment may be used.)) (1) A valid operating permit must be obtained by the owner from the department of labor and industries, prior to putting into use any radio signaling or control system intended to be used in conjunction with any type of cable logging operations.

(a) Permits will be issued only for systems licensed for such use and using those carrier frequencies as authorized by the Federal Communications Commission.

(b) Permits will be granted only when tone or function frequencies are compatible with other radio systems in use and when in compliance with all other applicable requirements of this chapter.

(2) The department of labor and industries reserves the right to designate the use of radio frequencies for specific purposes or functions. For example: Frequencies may be specified for voice transmission of instruction, others for tone-coded functions, or activation of signaling devices.

(a) Single tone coded functions must not be used on radio equipment designed to initiate whistle signals, or to activate or control any machine, material-handling device, or other equipment hazardous to employees.

(b) The department may also designate which tone frequencies may be used for the activation of a signaling device or for control of equipment on certain federal communication assigned carrier frequencies.

(3) A list of tone frequencies that may be used with any Federal Communications Commission assigned carrier frequencies will be made available from the department upon request.

(4) The department will assign the area or areas in which a radio signaling system may be used and mark those areas on the permit. Radio signaling systems must not be used in any area other than the ones indicated on the permit. (See Figure 36: Areas for Use of Radio Signaling Systems for Logging Operations.)

(5) The person or firm name on the permit must be the same as the person or firm operating the radio signaling system except for loaner or rental sets. A person or firm using a loaner or rental set is responsible for the radio signal system as if they were the owner of the set.

(6) The application for a permit to use a radio signaling system must contain the following information (see Figure 37: Application for permit to operate radio signal system in designated area):

(a) Name and address of applicant.

(b) The radio frequencies of the radio signaling device in MHz.

(c) The tone frequencies of the radio signaling system used to activate a horn, whistle, or control equipment in Hz. The security gate, or pulse tone, must be shown first.

(d) The name of the manufacturer of the radio signaling system.

(e) The serial number of the receiving unit.

(f) The state assigned area or location in which the unit will operate.

(g) The type of signaling used.

(h) From whom the system was purchased or acquired, and the date of acquisition of the system.

(i) Intended use and function of the system.

(7) All radio equipment must meet all applicable FCC standards. FCC identifier numbers and required information must be visible when possible.

(8) Radio equipment must not be used without displaying a permit as required by this standard. The permit must be prominently displayed on the outside case of the receiver of the unit or, for radio-controlled carriages, on the transmitter in the yarder.

(9) Each radio receiver must have its radio carrier frequency in MHz and tone frequency(s) in Hz indicated on the outside case of the receiver (see Figure 38: Radio permit):

(a) The manufacturer's name and serial number must be permanently indicated on the outside of the case;

(b) When the duration or width of the tone frequencies performs a function, the one duration/width must also be permanently indicated on the outside of the receiver case;

(c) Each transmitter must be identified with its receiver; and

(d) Two or more receivers in operation simultaneously on the same tone frequencies are prohibited unless one is used for monitoring only.

(10) It shall be the responsibility of the owner of any radio signaling system to notify the department of labor and industries, immediately, if the signal system is:

(a) Permanently retired (in what manner and date retired);

(b) Sold (submit name and address of purchaser and date sold);

(c) Removed from the state (name of state to which moved and date moved); or

(d) Stolen (date).

(11) All radio signaling systems put into use for the first time after the effective date of these safety standards, shall meet or exceed the minimum performance specifications contained in WAC 296-54-607 of these safety standards, and, when altered or repaired, shall continue to meet such specifications.

(12) Adjustments, repairs, or alterations of radio signaling and control devices must be done only by or under the immediate supervision and responsibility of a qualified and certified radio technician with factory training or equivalent certified experience. Anyone without the technical ability or the proper equipment to cause the signaling systems to function within required tolerances must not attempt to repair, alter, or adjust the systems.

(13) When interference, overlap, fadeout, or blackout of radio signals is encountered, the use of the device must be discontinued immediately. Use may not be resumed until the source of trouble has been detected and corrected.

(14) Radio frequencies assigned to systems for which voice communications may be used to give signals to the yarder operator must not be the same frequencies as those assigned for whistle signals or machine control signals used in skyline, highlead, slackline, or cable skidder systems.

(15) When hazardous interference is created by moving a voice communication system into an area where a system is already in use on the same frequency, use of the newly-moved system must be immediately discontinued until the problem of interference has been corrected.

(16) Before moving any unit from one assigned geographical area to another (see area map, Figure 36: Areas for Use of Radio Signaling Systems for Logging Operations), the owner must apply for and receive a new permit from the department.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

Place illustration here.

A permit issued by the department of labor and industries shall be attached to the outside of the receiver which shall indicate the area in which the radio signaling equipment may be used.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [ RCW 49.17].050 and [ RCW 49.17].060.  96-22-013, § 296-54-605, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.  88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-54-605, filed 11/14/88.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-605, filed 9/21/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 79-14, filed 9/21/79)

WAC 296-54-607
Radio signal systems--Specifications and test procedures.

((All radio-signaling systems put into use for the first time after the effective date of these rules shall meet or exceed the following requirements, specifications, tolerance, and tests and such systems, when altered or repaired, shall meet the same minimum requirements.

(1) Radio-signaling systems used to transmit whistle signals or control functions of equipment associated with skyline, highlead, slackline, or cable skidder systems of logging shall transmit and decode only by the use of authorized multi-tone frequencies.  Only sequential tones may be used to transmit signals or control equipment when utilizing carrier frequencies of 154.57 or 154.60 MHz.

(2) The receiver sensitivity shall be capable of attaining .6 microvolt, or greater, for 12 db SINAD ratio for VHF frequencies and .7 microvolt, or greater, for UHF frequencies.  Effective January 1, 1984, all radio systems receiver sensitivity shall be capable of attaining .4 microvolt, or greater, for 12 db SINAD ratio for VHF frequencies and .5 microvolt, or greater, for UHF frequencies.  When interference is a factor, the receiver may be desensitized in the furtherance of safety by a person qualified in accordance with WAC 296-54-605(15).

(3) The receiver spurious attenuation shall be at least 40 db when measured by the 20 db quieting method.  On all new radio systems put into service after the effective date of these standards, the receiver spurious attenuation shall be at least 60 db when measured by the 20 db quieting method.  Effective January 1, 1984, all new radio signal systems shall be required to have receiver spurious attenuation of at least 70 db when measured by the 20 db quieting method and shall have image response attenuation of 60 db when measured by the 20 db quieting method.  Effective January 1, 1989, all radio signal systems shall be required to have receiver spurious attenuation of at least 70 db when measured by the 20 db quieting method and image response attenuation of 60 db when measured by the 20 db quieting method.

Note: Spurious response attenuation is a measure of the receiver's ability to discriminate between a desired signal to which it is resonant and an undesired signal at any other frequency to which it is also responsive.


(4) The receiver selectivity shall be more than 40 db plus or minus 30 KHz.  All new radio signal systems put into service after the effective date of these standards, the receiver selectivity shall be at least 60 db plus or minus 30 KHz.  Effective January 1, 1984, all new radio signal systems purchased and used shall have receiver selectivity of at least 80 db plus or minus 30 KHz.  Effective January 1, 1989, all radio signal systems shall have receiver selectivity of at least 80 db plus or minus 30 KHz, when measured by the E.*I.A. SINAD method.

(5) The receiver-decoder tone frequency stability shall not exceed .006 (.6%) above or below the assigned tone frequency.

(6) The drift of a transmitter-encoder tone shall not exceed .006 (.6%) above or below the assigned tone frequency.

(7) Parts of the radio-signaling system affected by moisture, which may be subjected to the entrance of moisture during use, shall be weatherproofed.  Transmitters shall be tested within fifteen minutes after being subjected to the following conditions and shall have the ability to continue functioning properly.  The transmitter and receiver shall be placed in a humidity chamber for eight hours where the humidity has been maintained at not less than ninety percent and where a 40°C. temperature has been maintained.

(8) Radio-signaling system units shall operate within tolerances specified at any temperature within the range of -30°C. to +60°C.

(9) Switches of transmitters used to send whistle signals or activate equipment associated with high lead, slackline, or cable skidder systems of logging shall be designed in such a manner whereby two buttons, motions or a combination of these shall be required simultaneously to cause activation of the system.  Arrangement of the activating switches shall be such that the operator can transmit signals easily but cannot easily activate a control or command function accidentally.

(10) All receivers intended to be mounted on or in the yarder or similar equipment, and all portable transmitters, shall continue to maintain specified mechanical and electrical performance during and after being subjected to vibration of the magnitude and amplitude as follows:

The equipment shall be vibrated with simple harmonic motion having an amplitude of 0.015" (total excursion 0.03") with the frequency varied uniformly between 10 and 30 Hz and an amplitude of 0.0075" (total excursion 0.015") with the frequency varied uniformly between 30 and 60 Hz.  The entire cycle of frequencies for each group (i.e., 10 to 30 cycles and 30 to 60 cycles) shall be accomplished in five minutes and repeated three times.  The above motion shall be applied for a total period of thirty minutes in each direction, namely, the directions parallel to both axes of the base and perpendicular to the plane of the base.

(11) All portable transmitters shall continue to maintain specified mechanical and electrical performance after being subjected to a shock test as follows:

The equipment shall be dropped once on each of five surfaces from a height of four feet onto a smooth concrete floor.

(12) Transmitters operating on carrier frequencies of 154.57 MHz and on 154.60 MHz shall be limited on maximum power output not to exceed 500 mW measured at the antenna terminals.

(13) To minimize the possibility of interference with other signaling systems, the input power of transmitters operating in the 450 MHz range should be limited to only the amount needed to transmit to the receiver of the system effectively.)) All radio-signaling systems put into use must meet or exceed the requirements of this section. When systems are altered or repaired they must continue to meet these requirements.

(1) Radio equipment in use at cable logging sites, which is primarily used for voice communication, must be on a separately assigned frequency from radio equipment primarily used to initiate whistles or other audible signaling devices or to control any machine, material handling device or other equipment hazardous to employees.

(2) Radio-signaling systems used to transmit whistle signals or control functions of equipment associated with skyline, highlead, slackline, or cable skidder systems of logging must transmit and decode only by the use of authorized multitone frequencies. Only sequential tones may be used to transmit signals or control equipment when using carrier frequencies of 154.57 or 154.60 MHz.

(3) All radio systems receiver sensitivity must be able to attain 0.4 microvolt, or greater, for 12 dB SINAD ratio for VHF frequencies and 0.5 microvolt, or greater, for UHF frequencies. When interference is a factor, the receiver may be desensitized in the furtherance of safety by a person qualified according to WAC 296-54-605(12).

(4) All radio signal systems must have receiver spurious attenuation of at least 70 dB when measured by the 20 db quieting method and image response attenuation of 60 db when measured by the 20 db quieting method. "Spurious response attenuation" is a measure of the receiver's ability to discriminate between a desired signal to which it is resonant and an undesired signal at any other frequency to which it is also responsive.

(5) All radio signal systems must have receiver selectivity of at least 80 db plus or minus 30 KHz, when measured by the E.*I.A. SINAD method.

(6) The receiver-decoder tone frequency stability must not exceed 0.006 (0.6%) above or below the assigned tone frequency.

(7) The drift of a transmitter-encoder tone must not exceed 0.006 (0.6%) above or below the assigned tone frequency.

(8) Parts of the radio-signaling system affected by moisture, which may be subjected to the entrance of moisture during use, must be weatherproofed. Transmitters must be tested within fifteen minutes after being subjected to the following conditions and must have the ability to continue functioning properly. The transmitter and receiver must be placed in a humidity chamber for eight hours where the humidity has been maintained at not less than ninety percent and where a 40 degrees C. temperature has been maintained.

(9) Radio-signaling system units must operate within tolerances specified at any temperature within the range of -30 degrees C. to +60 degrees C.

(10) Switches of transmitters used to send whistle signals or activate equipment associated with high lead, slackline, or cable skidder systems of logging must be designed so that two buttons, motions or a combination of these are required simultaneously to cause activation of the system. Arrangement of the activating switches must allow the operator to transmit signals easily but not easily activate a control or command function accidentally.

(11) All receivers intended to be mounted on or in the yarder or similar equipment, and all portable transmitters, must continue to maintain specified mechanical and electrical performance during and after being subjected to vibration of the magnitude and amplitude as follows:

(a) The equipment must be vibrated with simple harmonic motion having an amplitude of 0.015" (total excursion 0.03") with the frequency varied uniformly between 10 and 30 Hz and an amplitude of 0.0075" (total excursion 0.015") with the frequency varied uniformly between 30 and 60 Hz.

(b) The entire cycle of frequencies for each group (i.e., 10 to 30 cycles and 30 to 60 cycles) must be accomplished in five minutes and repeated three times.

(c) The above motion must be applied for a total of thirty minutes in each direction, that is, the directions parallel to both axes of the base and perpendicular to the plane of the base.

(12) All portable transmitters must be able to maintain specified mechanical and electrical performance after being subjected to a shock test as follows: The transmitter shall be dropped five times from a height of four feet onto a smooth concrete floor. Each drop must impact a different surface of the transmitter.

(13) Transmitters operating on carrier frequencies of 154.57 MHz and on 154.60 MHz must be limited on maximum power output of 500 mW measured at the antenna terminals.

(14) To minimize the possibility of interference with other signaling systems, the input power of transmitters operating in the 450 MHz range should be limited to only the amount needed to transmit to the receiver of the system effectively.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, RCW 49.17.150 and RCW 49.17.240.  79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-607, filed 9/21/79.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-701
Wood spar trees.

(1) Wood spar trees must be of sound material of sufficient size and strength to withstand any stresses which may be imposed by any equipment used for that specific logging operation.

(2) The top of the tree must extend not more than:

(a) Sixteen feet above the top guylines on spar trees over fifty feet tall; and

(b) Eight feet above the top guylines on spar trees less than fifty feet tall.

(3) School marms used as spar trees must be topped at the forks. Spar trees, except cedar, must be barked where guylines, straps, bull blocks, and tree plates are placed.

(4) Spar trees must be topped and limbs must be cut off close so that running lines will not foul or saw on protruding knots.

(5) At least four tree plates must be placed under top guylines on spar trees over fifty feet tall. At least three tree plates must be used on spar trees less than fifty feet tall.

(6) Tree plates must be equipped with lugs or other suitable means to hold them in place.

(7) Before raising spar trees, dummy trees must be topped and guyed with three guylines equivalent in breaking strength to the mainline.

(8) When spar trees are raised, stumps used for snubbing must be properly notched. Guylines must be held by a mechanical means. Snubbing by hand is prohibited.

(9) All rub trees must be limbed and topped.

(10) Loose material such as bark, spikes, straps or chains not in use and slabs caused by bumping logs or chafing straps must be removed from the spar trees. Heavy bark must be removed from trees used for a permanent installation.

(11) A person must ride only the passline to thread lines, to lubricate blocks, or to inspect rigging.

(12) When the friction lever and passline drum are on the opposite side of the machine from the operator, an experienced person must operate the friction lever while the engineer operates the throttle. While being used, the passline drum must be properly attended by another person to guide the passline onto the passline drum with a tool suitable for the purpose.

(13) Using a gypsy drum to handle employees in the tree is prohibited.

(14) A climber's rope must encircle the tree before the climber leaves the ground, except when the climber is riding the passline.

(15) Spikes, used by the climber as a temporary aid in hanging rigging, must be removed before the tree is used for logging.

(16) Topping trees in windy weather is prohibited.

(17) Topping, rigging-up, or stripping is prohibited when visibility is impaired.

(18) When heel tackle is fastened near the machine, a safety line must be placed in such manner that in case of breakage, lines do not strike the power unit and endanger the operator.

(19) Yarding with more than one unit on any one head spar is prohibited.

(20) The angle between the power unit, the high lead block, and the mainline road must not exceed a square lead on rigged spars. When using portable spars or towers, the location of the machine or position of the operator must ensure that the operator is not endangered by incoming logs.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-70110
Wood spar trees--Guylines.

(1) Wood spar trees using a line greater than 7/8-inch and used as loading and yarding trees must have at least six top guys and four buckle guys, if a sail guy is used.

(2) Wood spar trees using a mainline greater than 7/8-inch and used only as yarding trees must have at least six top guys and must use at least three buckle guys.

(3) Wood spar trees using a mainline of 7/8-inch or less must be supported by at least five top guylines or other positive means of supporting the spar.

(4) Wood spar trees used for yarding with light equipment (7/8-inch or smaller mainline) must be guyed so that strains will be imposed on at least two guylines. If less than five top guys are used, guylines must be at least 1/4-inch larger than the mainline.

(5) Wood spar trees used for loading only with crotch line, spreader bar, or swinging boom must have at least four top guys and must use at least three buckle guys.

(6) More guylines must be added if there is any doubt about the stability of a spar tree, raised tree, tail tree, lift tree, or other equipment or rigging they support.

(7) Wood spar trees used for transfer must have at least five top guys and must use at least three buckle guys.

(8) Guylines must alternately be passed around the wood spar in opposite directions to prevent twisting of the spar.

(9) Guylines must be attached to the upper portion of the wood spar by shackles.

(10) When a high lead block is hung below buckle guys, at least three top guys of equal strength to the mainline must be used to keep the top from swaying.

(11) When buckle guys are required, they must be installed on the tree where they will provide the maximum effectiveness.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-70120
Wood spar trees--Passlines.

All spar trees must be equipped with passlines that are:

(1) At least 5/16-inch and a maximum of 1/2-inch in diameter;

(2) Not subjected to sawing on other lines or rigging, and are kept clear of all moving lines and rigging;

(3) A continuous length and in good condition with no splices, knots, molles, or eye-to-eye splices between the ends; and

(4) Long enough to provide three wraps on the drum before the climber leaves the ground.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-70130
Wood spar trees--Straps.

(1) Safety straps of appropriate size must be placed on all high lead blocks; and other blocks whenever practicable. Safety straps must be shackled (with the closed end of the shackle up) to a guyline that extends as near as possible at right angles with the power unit, but must not be on a guyline with an extension within one hundred feet of the tree. When the top guyline on which the safety strap of the high lead block is fastened is changed, the safety strap must be attached to another guyline or the loosened guyline must be tightened after the change.

(2) All tree straps must be at least 1/4-inch larger than the pulling line. If impossible to use a safety strap, all tree straps must be 1/2-inch larger than the pulling line.

(3) Lead blocks used for yarding, swinging, loading, and unloading used in wood spars must be:

(a) Designed and constructed for this purpose;

(b) Bolted with at least two bolts through the shells below the sheaves in a manner that will retain the sheave and line in case of bearing pin failure (this does not apply to haulback lead blocks); and

(c) Mainline blocks have a sheave diameter of at least twenty times the diameter of the mainline.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-705
Truck and equipment maintenance shops.

It is recognized that the usual hazards encountered in maintenance shops performing work on logging and related equipment would be very similar to those found in general repair, machine or welding shops; therefore, the rules contained in WAC 296-24, General safety and health standards and other applicable safety standards promulgated and administered by the department of labor and industries shall apply to such places of work.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-707
Labor camps.

Temporary labor camps for logging operations must meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-125.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 72-14, filed 7/31/72, effective 9/1/72)

WAC 296-54-99002
Appendix((I--Figure 2--High lead yarding system)) 1--Signals.

((Place illustration here.
Figure 2.))

Place illustration here.
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Place illustration here.
Place illustration here.

HIGH LEAD LOGGING WHISTLE SIGNALS

- Means longer spacing between signals.

1 short Stop all lines.
3 short-3 short Ahead slow on mainline.
3 short Ahead on mainline.
2 short Ahead on haulback.
2 short-2 short Ahead slow on haulback.
3 short-1 short Ahead on strawline.
3 short-1 short-3 short Ahead slow on strawline.
4 short or more Slack mainline.
2 short-4 short Slack haulback.
3 short-1 short-4 short Slack strawline.
3 short-2 short Standing tight line.
1 short-1 short Tight line while lines are running, or break if running tight.
3 short When rigging is in: Strawline back on haulback.
3 short / plus "X" number of shorts When rigging is in: Indicates number of sections of strawline back on rigging.
3 short-1 short-2 short Strawline back on rigging.
1 short When rigging is in: Chaser inspect and repair rigging.
2 short When rigging is in: No chokers back.
2 short-1 short / plus "X" number of shorts Number of chokers back.
2 short-4 short When rigging is in: Slack haulback-hold all lines until 2 short blown.
3 medium Hooker.
3 medium-4 short Hooker and that crew.
5 long Climber.
4 long Foreman.
1 long-1 short Start or stop work.
7 long-2 short Person injured, call transportation and stretcher.
1 long-1 short repeated Fire.
Grabinski system
2 short-1 short Slack mainline and haulback together.
2 long Take off or put on rider block.


SKIDDER WHISTLE SIGNALS

- Means longer spacing between signals.

1 short Stops moving carriage-stops or goes ahead on slack puller, as case may be, if carriage is stopped.
2 short Go ahead on skidding line holding carriage.
1 short-2 short Pick up skidding line, easy.
2 short-1 short Shake up carriage to clear choker.
2 short-2 short Ahead on receding line.
3 short Ahead on carriage, holding at present level, using interlock.
3 short-3 short Ahead easy on skidding line.
2 short-2 short-2 short Slack skyline, cable down.
2 short-2 short-2 short-1 short Pick up skyline, cable up.
2 short-2 short-4 short Slack receding line.
2 short-4 short Slack skidding line.
2 short-2 short-1 short Tighten all lines.
1 short-4 short Slack off slack puller.
1 short-2 short Pick up slack puller when slack.
2 short-2 short / plus "X" number of shorts When carriage is in: Number of chokers wanted.
2 short-2 short-1 long Bull choker.
1 short When carriage is in: Inspect butt rigging.
2 short-4 short / 1 short For each additional ten feet of tong line.
1 long / plus "X" number of shorts Number of coils of strawline wanted.
5 medium Tail or second rigger.
5 medium-4 short Tail or second rigger and that crew.
2 medium Skidder head rigger.
3 medium-4 short Hooker and that crew.
2 long Ahead on transfer.
2 long-4 short Slack transfer.
1 short-3 short Ahead on carriage with slack puller line.
1 long Ahead on strawline.
1 long-4 short Slack strawline.
1 long-3 short Ahead easy on strawline.
5 long Climber.
4 long Foreman.
1 long-1 short Start or stop work.
7 long-2 short Person injured, call transportation and stretcher.
1 long-1 short repeated Fire.


SLACKLINE WHISTLE SIGNALS

- Means longer spacing between signals.

2 short-2 short-2 short-1 short First cable up when road has been changed and tail hold made fast.
2 short-2 short-2 short Drop skyline.
1 short Stop any moving line.
1 long When logging, slack skyline.
2 short Ahead on skyline.
1 long-2 short Ahead easy on skyline.
3 short Ahead on skidding line, holding haulback.
3 short-3 short Ahead easy on skidding line with slack haulback.
4 short Slack skidding line.
2 short-2 short /2 short-2 short Ahead easy on haulback with slack skidding line.
2 short-2 short Ahead on haulback.
2 short-2 short-4 short Slack haulback.
2 short / 3 short Pick up skyline and skid.
2 short / 2 short-2 short Pick up skyline and skin.
3 short-1 short When carriage is in: Strawline back on haulback.
3 short-1 short-2 short When carriage is in: Strawline back on carriage.
3 short-1 short When strawline is out: Ahead on strawline.
3 short-2 short Tight line.
3 short-1 short-4 short Slack strawline.
3 short-1 short-3 short Pull easy on strawline.
2 long Ahead on transfer.
2 long-4 short Slack transfer.
2 long-2 short-2 short When carriage is in: Transfer back on carriage.
1 long / plus "X" number of shorts When carriage is in: Number of coils.
2 short-2 short-1 short /plus "X" number

of shorts

When carriage is in: Number of chokers.
1 short When carriage is in: Inspect rigging, repair and send back.
2 short-2 short-4 short When carriage is in: Slack haulback and hold all lines until 1 short is blown-then send back.
3 short-3 short When carriage is in: Send back powder.
5 medium Tail rigger.
5 medium-4 short Tail rigger and that crew.
3 medium Head hooker.
3 medium-4 short Second hooker and that crew.
5 long Climber.
4 long Foreman.
1 long-1 short Start or stop work.
7 long-2 short Person injured, call transportation and stretcher.
1 long-1 short repeated Fire.


RUNNING SKYLINE WHISTLE SIGNALS

- Means longer spacing between signals.

1 short Stop all moving lines.
2 short Skin carriage back.
2 short-1 short Slack haulback.
2 short-2 short Skin carriage easy.
2 short-3 short Standing tight line.
1 short-2 short Ahead on drop line.
4 short Slack drop line.
1 short-4 short Slack both mainlines.
1 short-1 short Stop drop line going up and move carriage forward.
3 short Move carriage forward.
3 short-3 short Move carriage forward easy.
3 short-1 short When strawline is out: Ahead on strawline.
3 short-1 short-4 short Slack strawline.
3 short When carriage is in: Strawline.
3 short-X short When carriage is in: Number sections.
3 short-1 short-2 short When carriage is in: Strawline back on carriage.
2 short-X short When carriage is in: Number of chokers.
4 short When carriage is in: Inspect rigging, repair and send back.
1 short When carriage is in: Hold all lines until 2 shorts, then send back.
3 medium Head hooker.
3 medium-4 short Hooker and that crew.
4 long Foreman.
1 long-1 short Start or stop work.
7 long-2 short Person injured; call transportation and stretcher.
1 long-1 short (repeated) Fire.
3 short-1 long Acknowledged by engineer to signify hazardous turn.


TENSION SYSTEM SIGNALS
4 Release tension.
1 short Stop carriage and start unspooling tong line.
1 short Stop tong line.
1 short Resume unspooling tong line.
1 short Will stop any moving line or slack tong line when carriage is stopped.
2 short-2 short Go into interlock and go back.
2 short-4 short Slack haulback and let carriage down.
After turn is set 2 short Go ahead on tong line.
2 short-3 short Go ahead easy on tong line.
3 short Go into interlock and take carriage to landing.
3 short-3 short Ahead on carriage easy.
1 short-2 short Increase tension on tong line when carriage is going in.
short-1 short Decrease tension on tong line when carriage is going in.

[Order 72-14, Figure 2 (codified as WAC 296-54-99002), filed 7/31/72, effective 9/1/72.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 72-14, filed 7/31/72, effective 9/1/72)

WAC 296-54-99003
Appendix ((I--Figure 3--North Bend yarding system)) 2--Sample minimum lockout/tagout procedure.

((Place illustration here.
Figure 3.))

(Company Name) has established this lockout/tagout program to provide protection for employees performing maintenance or servicing of logging equipment.

Before any employee begins maintenance or servicing of equipment where the unexpected energizing, start-up, or release of stored energy could cause injury, the equipment must be shut down, isolated from all potentially hazardous energy and locked or tagged out.

Employees must not start, attempt to start, energize or use equipment that has been locked or tagged out. Tags and/or padlocks will be provided for tagging and/or locking out logging machinery and will be durable enough to withstand the environment. Tags will contain a legend such as: "Do Not Start" or "Do Not Operate." When tagout is used, tags must be located in a position that will be obvious to anyone attempting to operate the machinery. In lockout, padlocks are commonly used to prevent access to ignition/master switches or battery disconnects.

Employees performing maintenance or servicing must determine which sources of hazardous energy must be disabled for a particular job. The following are examples of hazardous stored energy found on logging equipment:

• Equipment

• Hydraulic or pneumatic pressure

• Mechanical (rotating saws, springs, shafts, gears, etc.)

• Gravity (elevated blades, booms, grapples, saw heads, etc.)

The following steps must be followed for lockout/tagout:

• Ensure that the brakes, swing locks, etc. are applied.

• Place the transmission in the manufacturer's specified park position.

• Lower or secure each moving element such as, but not limited to, blades, booms, grapples, buckets, saws, and shears to prevent a release of stored energy.

• Shut down machinery, and ensure that a responsible person removes and keeps the ignition/master key.

• Engage hydraulic safety locks when applicable.

• Before working on hydraulic or air systems, relieve pressure by bleeding tanks or lines and operate controls to dissipate residual stored energy (pressure).

• Place lockout and/or tagout device.

Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and machinery is started, inspect the work area to ensure all tools have been removed, guards are replaced, and employees are in the clear.

We will provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the lockout/tagout program are understood by employees performing maintenance or repair of equipment.

[Order 72-14, Figure 3 (codified as WAC 296-54-99003), filed 7/31/72, effective 9/1/72.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 72-14, filed 7/31/72, effective 9/1/72)

WAC 296-54-99004
Appendix ((I--Figure 4--Slack skyline yarding system)) 3--Industry consensus standards.

((Place illustration here.
Figure 4.))

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

(212) 591-7000


Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated

SAE

400 Commonwealth Drive

Warrendale, PA 15096-0001

(412) 776-4841


American National Standards Institute

11 West 42nd Street

New York, NY 10036

(212) 642-4900


Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Office of

Publications

OSHA

Room N 3101, 200 Constitution Avenue Northwest

Washington, DC 20210

(202) 219-4667

[Order 72-14, Figure 4 (codified as WAC 296-54-99004), filed 7/31/72, effective 9/1/72.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-99013
Appendix 4--Various types of cable logging systems.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-54-99014
Appendix 5--Wooden tree yarding and loading systems.

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REPEALER

     The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:
WAC 296-54-525 Railroad construction and maintenance.
WAC 296-54-599 Truck and equipment maintenance shops.

NEW SECTION


The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code as amended, are recodified as follows:


Old WAC Number New WAC Number
296-54-531 296-54-521
296-54-521 296-54-523
296-54-529 296-54-527
296-54-527 296-54-529
296-54-533 296-54-531
296-54-535 296-54-533
296-54-523 296-54-535
296-54-559 296-54-54770