Date of Adoption: April 27, 2001.
Purpose: To define terms used throughout the board's rules, chapter 4-25 WAC.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 4-25-410 Definitions.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 18.04.055(11).
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 01-07-033 on March 15, 2001.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 1, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 1, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 1, Repealed 0. Effective Date of Rule: June 30, 2001.
May 18, 2001
Dana M. McInturff, CPA
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-12-020, filed 5/27/98, effective 6/27/98)
WAC 4-25-410 Definitions. For purposes of these rules the following terms have the meanings indicated:
(1) "Act" means the Public Accountancy Act codified as chapter 18.04 RCW.
(a))) "Attest services" are services performed by a
licensee in accordance with:
(a) Statements on Auditing Standards and related Auditing Interpretations issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) including subsequent amendments;
(b) Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services and related Accounting and Review Services Interpretations issued by the AICPA including subsequent amendments; and
(c) Statements on Standards for Attestation Engagements and related Attestation Engagements Interpretations issued by the AICPA including subsequent amendments.
(3) "Audit," "review," and "compilation" are terms reserved
by the public accountancy profession to identify forms of
reports on financial statements that express differing levels of
assurance. Professional standards setting bodies, such as the
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA),
specify form and content of these reports.
(b) "Attest services" include services performed by a certified public accountant in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, standards for attestation engagements and standards for accounting and review services)) for use by licensees under the act.
(3))) (4) "Board" means the board of accountancy created
by RCW 18.04.035.
(4))) (5) "Certificate" means a certificate as a certified
public accountant issued under (( this chapter)) the act, or a
corresponding certificate issued by another state or foreign
jurisdiction that is recognized in accordance with the
reciprocity provisions of (( RCW 18.04.180 and 18.04.183. "Valid
CPA certificate" means the holder has fully complied with
continuing professional education requirements or the board has
granted specific exemption from continuing professional education
requirements, with or without restricting use of the CPA title))
(5))) (6) "Client" means the person or entity that retains
a (( CPA)) certified public accountant (CPA), or the CPA's firm or
organization, through other than an employer/employee
relationship(( , for the performance of professional services)).
(6))) (7) "Commissions and referral fees" are compensation
(a) The primary contractual relationship for the product or service is not between the client and the CPA;
(b) The CPA is not primarily responsible to the client for the performance or reliability of the product or service;
(c) The CPA adds no significant value to the product or service; or
(d) A third party instead of the client pays the CPA for the products or services.
(8) "Contingent fees" are fees established for the performance of any service pursuant to an arrangement in which no fee will be charged unless a specified finding or result is attained, or in which the amount of the fee is otherwise dependent upon the finding or result of such service.
(9) "CPA" or "certified public accountant" means a person holding a certificate under this act.
(10) "CPE" means continuing professional education (see also "Interactive CPE").
(7))) (11) "Enterprise" means any person or entity,
whether organized for profit or not, with respect to which a CPA
performs professional services.
(8))) (12) "Firm" means (( a sole proprietorship, a
corporation, a limited liability company, or a partnership)) an
entity licensed under the provisions of this chapter.
(9))) (13) "Generally accepted accounting principles"
(GAAP) is (( a technical)) an accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted
accounting practice at a particular time. It includes not only
broad guidelines of general application, but also detailed
practices and procedures. Those conventions, rules, and
procedures provide a standard by which to measure financial
(10))) (14) "Generally accepted auditing standards" (GAAS)
are (( broad conceptual)) guidelines and procedures, promulgated
by the (( American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
())AICPA(( ))), for conducting individual audits of historical
financial statements. (( They include general standards,
standards of field work, and reporting standards.
(11))) (15) "Holding out" means any representation to the
public by the use of restricted titles as set forth in ((
RCW 18.04.345)) the act by a person or firm that the person or firm
is a certified public accountant and that the person or firm
offers to perform any professional services to the public as a
certified public accountant. "Holding out" shall not affect or
limit a person not required to hold a certificate under this
chapter or a person or firm not required to hold a license under
this chapter from engaging in practices identified in (( RCW 18.04.350(6))) the act.
(12))) (16) "Interactive self-study program" means a CPE
program designed to use (( interactive)) learning methodologies
that simulate a classroom learning process by employing software
or administrative systems that provide significant ongoing
interactive feedback to learners regarding their learning
(13))) (17) "Licensee" means the holder of a valid license
issued under (( chapter 18.04 RCW)) the provisions of this act.
(14))) (18) "Public practice" or the "practice of public
accounting" means performing or offering to perform by a person
or firm holding (( itself)) out to the public as a licensee, for a
client or potential client, one or more kinds of services
involving the use of accounting or auditing skills, including the
issuance of "audit reports," "review reports," "compilation
reports," or "attestation reports" on financial statements, or
one or more kinds of management advisory, or consulting services,
or the preparation of tax returns, or the furnishing of advice on
(15))) (19) "Quality assurance review" (QAR) (( means a))
is the process, established by and conducted at the direction of
the board, of study, appraisal, or review of one or more aspects
of the professional work of a (( person)) licensee or firm (( in
the practice of public accountancy)), by a (( person or persons))
licensee(s) who (( hold certificates and who are)) is not
affiliated with the (( person)) licensee or firm being reviewed.
(16))) (20) "Quality review" means a study, appraisal, or
review of one or more aspects of the professional work of a
(( person)) licensee or firm (( in the practice of public
accountancy)), by a (( person or persons)) licensee(s) who (( hold
certificates and who are)) is not affiliated with the (( person))
licensee or firm being reviewed, including a peer review, or any
internal review or inspection intended to comply with quality
control policies and procedures but not including a "quality
(17))) (21) "Reciprocity" means board recognition of
licenses, certificates or other professional accounting
credentials that the board will rely upon in full or partial
satisfaction of CPA certification or licensing requirements. (( This board may grant reciprocity, by rule, to CPAs from other
states or to certain professional accountants from countries
whose credentials are recognized by this board. Board
recognition of professional credentials issued by other state
accountancy boards or foreign credentialing bodies is conditioned
on those bodies' agreements to grant reciprocity to this board's
(18))) (22) "Referral fees" see definition of "commissions and referral fees" in subsection (7) of this section.
(23) "Reports on financial statements" means any reports or
opinions prepared by ((
certified public accountants)) licensees,
based on services performed in accordance with generally accepted
auditing standards, standards for attestation engagements, or
standards for accounting and review services, as to whether the
presentation of information used for guidance in financial
transactions or for accounting for or assessing the status or
performance of commercial and noncommercial enterprises, whether
public, private, or governmental, conforms with generally
accepted accounting principles or other comprehensive bases of
accounting. The term does not include incidental financial data
included in management advisory services reports to support
recommendations to a client.
(19))) (24) "Rules of professional conduct" means
principles and rules adopted by the board to govern (( CPAs')) the
conduct of CPAs while representing themselves to others as CPAs. The rules apply to (( CPAs whether engaged in public practice or
otherwise engaged in providing professional services while)) all
persons using the CPA title.
(20))) (25) "Statements on standards for accounting and
review services" (SSARS) are standards, promulgated by the
(( American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
())AICPA(( ))), to give guidance to (( CPAs)) licensees who are
associated with the financial statements of nonpublic companies
and issue compilation or review reports.
(21))) (26) "Statements on standards for attestation
engagements" are guidelines, promulgated by the (( American
Institute of Certified Public Accountants ())AICPA(( ))), for use
by (( CPAs)) licensees in attesting to assertions involving
matters other than historical financial statements and for which
no other standards exist.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 18.04.055(11). 98-12-020, 4-25-410, filed 5/27/98, effective 6/27/98; 94-23-071, 4-25-410, filed 11/15/94, effective 12/16/94.]