LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 03-07-072.
Title of Rule: Chapter 296-45 WAC, Safety standards for electrical workers.
Purpose: To eliminate confusion about the location of a standby employee(s) when required, length of a hot stick, describe what constitutes a multiphase electrical feed, update national consensus standards, and to correct some references.
WAC 296-45-045 NESC applicable.
• Subsection (1) updated a reference to a national consensus standard and an address.
WAC 296-45-255 Protective equipment.
• Subsection (1) rewrote for clarity and updated two national consensus standards.
WAC 296-45-325 Working on or near exposed energized parts.
• Subsection (2)(e) corrected a reference, rewrote a note for clarity, added a note, and changed a number on a note. Specified that a hot stick must not be more than twelve feet in length. Allows the standby employee to be stationed at the lower lift controls when a worker is installing or removing a hot line clamp on a multiphase system, provided the connection or disconnection does not pick up a load. Requires that the hot line clamp and connecting jumper be constructed so it cannot come in contact with any other energized part. Stipulates that the work cannot be performed above lines or apparatus energized at more than 600 volts.
• Subsection (3)(c) Rewrote for clarity and added two notes. Stipulates that the hot line clamp and connecting jumper must be constructed so it cannot make contact with any other energized parts. This applies to a multiphase feed only when one single-phase line or apparatus is present on the load side.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Summary: Standby employees may now remain at the lower controls of the lift while a worker is lifting a hot line clamp on a multiphase system, but this work may not be performed above lines or apparatus energized at more than 600 volts; a hot stick must be no longer than twelve feet in length; a hot line clamp or jumper must be constructed so they cannot make contact with any other energized parts; updated consensus standards for rubber insulating blankets and hoods.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: The issue was contentious and caused a rift between labor and management in the utility industry. The department has worked extensively with the Electrical Utility Safety Advisory Committee (EUSAC) in developing the proposed wording amendments.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, Tumwater, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Michael A. Silverstein, Tumwater, (360) 902-5495.
Name of Proponent: Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, governmental.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: To eliminate confusion about the location of a standby when required, length of a hot stick, describe what constitutes a multiphase electrical feed, update national consensus standards, and to correct some references. See Purpose above.
Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: Standby employees may now remain at the lower controls of the lift while a worker is lifting a hot line clamp on a multiphase system, but this work may not be performed above lines or apparatus energized at more than 600 volts; a hot stick must be no longer than twelve feet in length; a hot line clamp or jumper must be constructed so they cannot make contact with any other energized parts; updated consensus standards for rubber insulating blankets and hoods.
No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. The proposed rules regarding a multiphase electrical feed and housekeeping changes which will correct the dates of national consensus code references do not impose costs on any business, since one is a definitional [definition] change and the other is a technical correction for consensus code dates. The proposed rule regarding the location of the standby person merely specifies the location of the standby person and would not impose costs. The proposed rule in regards to the length of a hot stick was determined to impose zero costs after conducting a telephone survey of affected businesses. Therefore no small business economic impact statement is required because the costs associated with the proposed rules do not place more than a minor impact on business in the electrical utilities industry.
RCW 34.05.328 applies to this rule adoption. Significant rule-making criteria does apply to these rule changes.
Hearing Location: Department of Labor and Industries, 7273 Linderson Way S.W., Auditorium, Tumwater, WA 98501, on June 18, 2003, at 9:00 a.m.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Sally Elliott by June 9, 2003, (360) 902-5484.
Submit Written Comments to: Sally Elliott, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44620, Tumwater, WA 98506-4620, e-mail email@example.com, fax (360) 902-5529, by June 25, 2003.
Date of Intended Adoption: August 1, 2003.
May 6, 2003
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-09-080, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99)
WAC 296-45-045 NESC applicable. (1) All electric utilities and entities operating transmission and distribution facilities within the state of Washington must design, construct, operate, and maintain their lines and equipment according to the requirements of the ((
1997)) 2002 National
Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), parts (1), (2), and
The department has copies of the NESC available for review at each service location across the state.
To purchase a copy, write to:
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE, Inc.)
345 East 47th Street)) 445 Hoes Lane ((
New York, NY 10017-2394)) Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
(2) The employer must ensure that climbing space is provided on all poles and structures. The climbing space must meet the requirements of the 1997 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), except that Rule 236H does not apply.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-09-080, § 296-45-045, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-07-009, § 296-45-045, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]
|Rubber Insulating Gloves||(ASTM) D 120-87|
|Rubber Matting for Use||(ASTM) D 178-88|
|Around Electrical Apparatus|
|Rubber Insulating Blankets||(ASTM) D ((
|Rubber Insulating Hoods||(ASTM) D ((
|Rubber Insulating Line Hose||(ASTM) D 1050-90|
|Rubber Insulating Sleeves||(ASTM) D 1051-87|
(2) No protective equipment or material other than rubber shall be used: Provided, That such other nonconductive equipment may be used if it provides equal or better (dielectric) electrical and mechanical protection than rubber protective equipment: Provided, That the employer obtain before placing in service, manufacturer's data or other data to demonstrate that such nonrubber protective equipment provided equal or better electrical and mechanical protection than approved rubber equipment.
(3) Protective equipment shall not be used at voltages in excess of that for which the manufacturer has supplied data to the employer demonstrating that it is fit for such voltages.
(4) No protective equipment shall be modified, altered, or used for purposes other than those for which it is designed unless and until the manufacturer has, in writing, agreed or suggested that there be such modification, alteration, or use.
(5) Each rubber glove before it is used shall be inspected for defects and an approved air test performed. If, upon inspection, rubber gloves are either defective or appear to be defective, they shall not be used.
(6) Before being placed in service, all rubber protective equipment shall be numbered and records kept for test purposes and assignment.
(7) Rubber protective equipment shall not be used unless it has been dielectrically tested within six months and bears marking or identification of the date of the test or the expiration date.
(8) Protector gloves must be worn over insulating gloves.
Protector gloves need not be used with Class 0 gloves, under limited-use conditions, where small equipment and
parts manipulation necessitate unusually high finger dexterity.
Extra care is needed in the visual examination of the glove and in the avoidance of handling sharp
(9) Rubber gloves when not in use shall be carried in an approved bag provided and designed for that purpose. It shall be provided by the employer and made available to the employees.
(10) Approved rubber gloves and carrying bag shall be assigned to each employee who works with, or is exposed to energized parts.
(11) Rubber protective equipment shall not be vulcanized or patched.
(12) A compartment or box shall be provided on each electric line truck, which box or compartment shall be used for storing rubber protective equipment. No equipment shall be stored in said compartment or box which can or could cause damage to the rubber equipment or goods placed in the compartment or box. Additionally, a separate container or compartment shall be provided for rubber blankets.
(13) Line hose shall not be doubled on themselves at any time. All blankets before storage must be wiped clean and rolled, not folded, before being placed in the container or box.
(14) Protective line equipment of material other than rubber shall be kept clean and visually inspected before each use.
(15) If protective line equipment of material other than rubber is found to be substantially defective or unsuitable for the purpose for which it is designed and intended, said protective line equipment shall not be used for personal protection of employees as may be required in Table 1 of this chapter. Said protective line equipment shall be marked defective but may be otherwise used unless the defect or damage to said protective line equipment creates additional safety hazards.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-07-009, § 296-45-255, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]
(1) General. Only qualified employees may work on or with exposed energized lines or parts of equipment. Only qualified employees may work in areas containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of equipment operating at 50 volts or more. Electric lines and equipment shall be considered and treated as energized unless the provisions of WAC 296-45-175 through 296-45-17565 or 296-45-335 have been followed.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, at least two qualified employees shall be present while the following types of work are being performed:
(a) Installation, removal, or repair of lines that are energized at more than 600 volts;
(b) Installation, removal, or repair of de-energized lines if an employee is exposed to contact with other parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(c) Installation, removal, or repair of equipment, such as transformers, capacitors, and regulators, if an employee is exposed to contact with parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(d) Work involving the use of mechanical equipment, other than insulated aerial lifts, near parts energized at more than 600 volts; and
(e) Other work that exposes an employee to electrical
hazards greater than or equal to those posed by operations
that are specifically listed in subsection (2)(a) through
(e))) (d) of this section.
One employee ((
shall)) will serve principally as a standby person who (( shall)) must be so located that
they may physically reach the other employee in the event of an accident either with their hand or
with a hot stick twelve feet or less in length. The stand-by (( shall)) will be so positioned as to be able
to observe the other employee, their bodily movements, and verbally warn of any impending dangers.
In no case when working in pairs (( shall)) will employees work simultaneously on energized wires or
parts of different phases or polarity; Note 2:
When installing or removing a hot line clamp connection on a multiphase system, it is permissible for
the second employee to stand by at the lower controls of the aerial lift provided the connection or
disconnection does not interrupt or pick up load. The hot line clamp and connecting jumper must be
constructed so it cannot make contact with any other energized parts. The work must not be
performed above lines or apparatus energized at more than 600 V.
2)) 3: In cases of necessity the stand-by person may temporarily assist the other employee provided that
they both work on wires or parts of the same phase or polarity. Both employees shall so position
themselves so that the presence of the second person does not increase the hazard.
(3) The provisions of WAC 296-45-325(2) do not apply in the following circumstances:
(a) When re-fusing circuits or equipment with a hot stick.
(b) When operating switches by means of operating handle or switch sticks.
(c) When installing or removing a hot line clamp
connection with an approved hot stick on a single-phase line
or apparatus, providing that the connection or disconnection
does not interrupt or pick up a load.
|Note 1:||The hot line clamp and connecting jumper must be constructed so that it cannot make contact with any other energized parts.|
|Note 2:||On a multiphase feed this applies only when one single-phase line or apparatus is present on the load side.|
(e) Emergency repairs to the extent necessary to safeguard the general public.
(4) "Minimum approach distances." The employer shall ensure that no employee approaches or takes any conductive object closer to exposed energized parts than set forth in Table 1 through Table 4, unless:
The employee is insulated from the energized part
(insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves worn in
accordance with subsection ((
(7))) (6) of this section are
considered insulation of the employee only with regard to the
energized part upon which work is being performed); or
The energized part is insulated from the employee and
from any other conductive object at a different potential.
WAC 296-45-475 (5)(a) and 296-45-48525(1) contain requirements for the guarding and isolation of
live parts. Parts of electric circuits that meet these two provisions are not considered as "exposed"
unless a guard is removed or an employee enters the space intended to provide isolation from the live
When an employee is required to work on or within reach of any unprotected conductors that are or
may become energized at more than 50 volts and less than 600 volts between phases, they shall take
the following precautions:
They shall wear approved insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves during the time they are
working on such conductor, or
They shall cover, with approved devices, any adjacent unprotected conductor that could be touched by
any part of their body, and use insulated tools.
Cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized, shall be considered as
an effective barrier to protect the employees and Table 1 need not apply.
(5) Initial determination.
(a) Before any work is performed, the location of energized lines and their condition, the location and condition of energized equipment, the condition of the poles, the location of circuits and equipment including power communication lines, CATV and fire alarm circuits, shall be determined as shall any other particular hazard of a particular work site.
(b) No work shall be performed on energized lines or parts until the voltage of such equipment and lines is determined.
(6) Type of insulation. If the employee is to be
insulated from energized parts by the use of insulating gloves
(under subsection (4)((
(a))) of this section), insulating
sleeves shall also be used. However, insulating sleeves need
not be used under the following conditions:
(a) If exposed energized parts on which work is not being performed are insulated from the employee; and
(b) If such insulation is placed from a position not exposing the employee's upper arm to contact with other energized parts.
(7) Working position. The employer shall ensure that each employee, to the extent that other safety-related conditions at the worksite permit, works in a position from which a slip or shock will not bring the employee's body into contact with exposed, uninsulated parts energized at a potential different from the employee.
(8) Making connections. The employer shall ensure that connections are made as follows:
(a) In connecting de-energized equipment or lines to an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall first attach the wire to the de-energized part;
(b) When disconnecting equipment or lines from an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall remove the source end first; and
(c) When lines or equipment are connected to or disconnected from energized circuits, loose conductors shall be kept away from exposed energized parts.
(9) Rubber gloves can only be used on 5,000 volts or less between phases.
(10) It shall not be permissible to consider one part of a high voltage switch or disconnect as de-energized for the purpose of doing work on it if the remainder of the switch or disconnect remains energized unless approved barriers are erected which will prevent employees who are doing the work on such equipment from coming in direct contact with the energized parts.
(11) Conductor support tools such as link sticks, strain carriers, and insulator cradles may be used: Provided, That the clear insulation is at least as long as the insulator string or the minimum distance specified in Table 1 for the operating voltage.
(a) When work is performed within reaching distance of exposed energized parts of equipment, the employer shall ensure that each employee removes or renders nonconductive all exposed conductive articles, such as key or watch chains, rings, or wrist watches or bands, unless such articles do not increase the hazards associated with contact with the energized parts.
(b) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs in the hazards involved.
(c) The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of injury that would be sustained by the employee.
|Note:||Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibited by this subsection, unless the employer can demonstrate that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered or that the clothing is worn in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved: Acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon.|
(13) Fuse handling. When fuses must be installed or removed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts or with exposed parts energized at more than 50 volts, the employer shall ensure that tools or gloves rated for the voltage are used. When expulsion-type fuses are installed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears eye protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-45-25505(1), uses a tool rated for the voltage, and is clear of the exhaust path of the fuse barrel.
(14) Covered (noninsulated) conductors. The requirements of this section which pertain to the hazards of exposed live parts also apply when work is performed in the proximity of covered (noninsulated) wires.
(15) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts. Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment or devices, such as transformer cases and circuit breaker housings, shall be treated as energized at the highest voltage to which they are exposed, unless the employer inspects the installation and determines that these parts are grounded before work is performed.
(16) Opening circuits under load. Devices used to open circuits under load conditions shall be designed to interrupt the current involved.
|Table 1: AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance|
|Distance to employee|
|Voltage in kilovolts phase to phase*||Phase to ground||Phase to Phase|
|0 to 0.050||not specified||not specified|
|0.051 to 0.300||avoid contact||avoid contact|
|0.301 to 0.750||0.31||1-0||0.31||1-0|
|0.751 to 15||0.65||2-2||0.67||2-3|
|15.1 to 36.0||0.77||2-7||0.86||2-10|
|36.1 to 46.0||0.84||2-9||0.96||3-2|
|46.1 to 72.5||1.00**||3-3**||1.20||3-11|
|72.6 to 121||0.95**||3-2**||1.29||4-3|
|138 to 145||1.09||3-7||1.50||4-11|
|161 to 169||1.22||4-0||1.71||5-8|
|230 to 242||1.59||5-3||2.27||7-6|
|345 to 362||2.59||8-6||3.80||12-6|
|500 to 550||3.42||11-3||5.50||18-1|
|765 to 800||4.53||14-11||7.91||26-0|
|*For single-phase systems, use the highest voltage available.|
|For single-phase lines off three phase systems, use the phase-to-phase voltage of the system.|
|**The 46.1 to 72.5 kV phase-to-ground 3-3 distance contains a 1-3 electrical component and a 2-0 inadvertent movement component while the 72.6 to 121 kV phase-to-ground 3-2 distance contains a 2-2 electrical component and a 1-0 inadvertent movement component.|Note 1:
These distances take into consideration the highest switching surge an employee will be exposed to on
any system with air as the insulating medium and the maximum voltages shown.
The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
See Appendix B to this section for information on how the minimum approach distances listed in the
tables were derived.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-09-080, § 296-45-325, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-07-009, § 296-45-325, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]