WSR 03-13-060



[ June 12, 2003 ]




NO. 25700-A-768

The Washington State Bar Association having recommended the adoption of the proposed amendments to GR 14 and RAP 10.4(g), and the Court having considered the amendments, and having determined that the proposed amendments will aid in the prompt and orderly administration of justice;

Now, therefore, it is hereby


(a) That the amendments as attached hereto are adopted.

(b) That the amendments will be published in the Washington Reports and will become effective September 1, 2003.

DATED at Olympia, Washington this 12th day of June 2003.
Alexander, C. J.

Johnson, J.

Bridge, J.

Madsen, J.

Chambers, J.

Sanders, J.

Owens, J.

Ireland, J.

Fairhurst, J.



(a) - (c) Unchanged.

(d) Citation Format. Citations shall conform with the format prescribed by the Reporter of Decisions. (See Appendix 1.)

NOTE: The WSBA Court Rules and Procedures Committee recommends that the Appendix consist of the Reporter of Decisions "style sheet," and that an updated version be included in the published rule book each year, thereby allowing any changes to be incorporated easily as they are made and providing a ready reference for practitioners.

GR 14 -- Appendix 1

Office of Reporter of Decisions


This style sheet is effective May 15, 2003 and is subject to revision.


1. The Seventeenth Edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is the basic citation resource for Washington appellate court opinions except as noted below.

2. The Practitioners' Notes section of the Bluebook (section P at 10-19 on light blue paper) applies specifically to court documents. BLUEBOOK I.1, at 3 and P at 11. Conflicts between section R of the Bluebook (General Rules of Citation and Style at 20-181) and section P of the Bluebook are resolved in favor of section P with the exception that for typefaces, a manuscript opinion may follow the rules of section P or section R.

3. The latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style is the authority for punctuation and style matters not covered by the Bluebook.

4. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language is the authority for spelling, including spacing and hyphens between nouns (e.g., boyfriend, girl friend, day care, baby-sitter). Where two or more spellings are listed, use Webster's preferred spelling rather than the variant.

5. For matters not covered by the Bluebook, The Chicago Manual of Style, or Webster's, the Office of the Reporter of Decisions applies formal, traditional, noncolloquial English.


The following abbreviations are used for citing to primary Washington legal materials. The list replaces the list of abbreviations for Washington materials found in Bluebook table T.1, at 239.

Washington Constitution Const. art. VI, 1 (amend. 2)
Revised Code of Washington (Official) RCW
Revised Code of Washington Annotated (West) RCWA
Annotated Revised Code of Washington (LEXIS) ARCW
Session Laws Laws of 2002, ch. 107, 3
special sessions Laws of 1995, 2d Spec. Sess., ch. 14, 21
extraordinary sessions Laws of 1963, 1st Ex. Sess., ch. 26
Washington Reports, 2d Series Wn.2d
Washington Reports Wash.
Washington Territory Reports Wash. Terr.
Washington Appellate Reports Wn. App.
Washington Administrative Code WAC
Washington State Register St. Reg.

Early Statutes
Ballinger Code Ball. Code
Code of 1881 Code of 1881
Hill's Code of Procedure Hill's Code of Proc.
Hill's General Statutes Hill's Gen. Stat.
Pierce's Code Pierce's Code
Remington Revised Statutes Rem. Rev. Stat.
Remington's 1915 Code Rem. 1915 Code

Note: "Const.," "Laws," and the names of codes, when used in citations, are printed in the official reports in large and small caps. Ordinary typeface is acceptable in manuscript opinions.


1. Exception to Bluebook practitioners' note P.3, at 14: For Washington cases, jump page (pinpoint) citations are made to Wn.2d or Wn. App.; jump page citations to P., P.2d, or P.3d are optional. For non-Washington cases, jump page (pinpoint) citations are made to the official report or the unofficial report. Maintain consistency throughout the opinion.

2. Exception to Bluebook practitioners' note P.6, at 17-18 and rule 8, at 51-53: Ignore these sections. The Reporter's Office generally follows The Chicago Manual of Style to resolve capitalization issues although, other than capitalizing proper nouns and maintaining consistency throughout the opinion, the judicial author's preference governs.

3. Exception to Bluebook practitioners' note P.7, at 18: Cite court documents without parentheses.

4. Exceptions to Bluebook rule 6.2(a) at 49-50: In text, spell out numbers zero to nine. Use arabic numerals for higher numbers. Use commas in numbers 1,000 and higher (e.g., 9,876) except when citing a page number in a case or court document.

5. Exception to Bluebook rule 6.2(d) at 50: In text, always write out "percent" rather than using a percentage sign (%).

6. Exception to Bluebook rule 10.3.1, at 62: Cite official reports and regional reporters for all cases for which official reports are published. For California, Illinois, and New York, include the state specific reporter (Cal. Rptr. 2d, Ill. Dec., N.Y.S.2d) in addition to the official reports and regional reporters.

7. Exception to Bluebook rule 12.3.2, at 80: Do not add the year in parentheses after a citation to a presently effective version of a statute or code.

8. Exception to Bluebook rule 12.8.2, at 85: Do not add "Wash." for codes and ordinances of Washington local governments.

9. Exception to Bluebook table T.1, at 183: Cite United States Supreme Court cases as follows: __U.S. __, __S. Ct. __, __L. Ed. 2d__ (year).


1. Subsequent history of cases for "review denied" and "review granted": For Washington cases, cite to Wn.2d; citing P.2d in addition to Wn.2d is optional. For non-Washington cases, cite to the regional reporter; citing the official report in addition to the regional reporter is optional. For subsequent history in the United States Supreme Court, cite only to U.S. if therein; otherwise, cite to one of the following: S. Ct., L. Ed. 2d, or U.S.L.W. in that order of preference.

2. Add the following to the list of short citations to cases from the Bluebook practitioners' note P.4, at 15: Smith, 123 Wn.2d 51.

3. Cite a case that, because of an amendment, has a single Wn.2d or Wn. App. citation but two Pacific Reporter citations as follows:

State v. Smith, 123 Wn.2d 45, 895 P.2d 590, 897 P.2d 511 (1994).

Include the year that the opinion was filed, not the year of the amendment.

RAP 10.4


(a) - (f) Unchanged.

(g) [Reserved. See GR 14(d).] Citations. Citations must be in conformity with the form used in current volumes of the Washington Reports. Decisions of the Supreme Court and of the Court of Appeals must be cited to the official report thereof and should include the national reporter citation and the year of the decision. The citation of other state court decisions should include both the state and national reporter citations. The citation of a United States Supreme Court decision should include the United States Reports, the United States Supreme Court Reports Lawyers' Edition, and the Supreme Court Reporter. The citation of a decision of any other federal court should include the federal reporter citation and the district of the district court or circuit of the court of appeals deciding the case. Any citation should include the year decided and a reference to and citation of any subsequent decision of the same case.

(h) - (i) Unchanged.

Reviser's note: The typographical error in the above material occurred in the copy filed by the State Supreme Court and appears in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

Legislature Code Reviser 


Washington State Code Reviser's Office