Date of Adoption: January 16, 2004.
Purpose: The purpose of the amendments to this rule is to require candidates for the residency teacher certificate to have completed a draft professional growth plan in order for a college/university to verify an individual has completed a teacher preparation program. In addition, effective teaching shall include instructional strategies for students at all levels of academic abilities and talents with an awareness of the influence of culture and gender on student learning.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 180-78A-270.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 28A.410.010.
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 03-23-028 on November 12, 2003.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 1, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 1, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making:
Pilot Rule Making:
or Other Alternative Rule Making:
Effective Date of Rule: Thirty-one days after filing.
January 31, 2004
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-18-037, filed 8/26/02, effective 9/26/02)
WAC 180-78A-270 Approval standard -- Knowledge and skills. Building on the mission to prepare educators who demonstrate a positive impact on student learning based on the Improvement of Student Achievement Act of 1993 (1209), the following evidence shall be evaluated to determine whether each preparation program is in compliance with the program approval standards of WAC 180-78A-220(5):
(1) TEACHER. Teacher candidates will complete a well-planned sequence of courses and/or experiences in which they acquire and apply knowledge about:
(a) The state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements.
(b) The subject matter content for the area(s) they teach, including relevant methods course work and the knowledge and skills for each endorsement area for which the candidate is applying (chapter 180-82 WAC).
(c) The social, historical, and philosophical foundations of education, including an understanding of the moral, social, and political dimensions of classrooms, teaching, and schools.
(d) The impact of technological and societal changes on schools.
(e) Theories of human development and learning.
(f) Inquiry and research.
(g) School law and educational policy, including laws pertaining to school health and safety.
(h) Professional ethics.
(i) The responsibilities, structure, and activities of the profession.
(j) Issues related to abuse including the identification of physical, emotional, sexual, and substance abuse, information on the impact of abuse on the behavior and learning abilities of students, discussion of the responsibilities of a teacher to report abuse or provide assistance to students who are the victims of abuse, and methods for teaching students about abuse of all types and their prevention.
(k) The standards, criteria and other requirements for obtaining the professional certificate, including a draft professional growth plan.
(l) Research and experience-based principles of effective practice for encouraging the intellectual, social, and personal development of students.
(m) Different student approaches to learning for creating instructional opportunities adapted to learners of both sexes and from diverse cultural or linguistic backgrounds.
(n) Areas of exceptionality and learning -- including, but not limited to, learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, and special physical or mental challenges.
(o) Effective instructional strategies for students at all levels of academic abilities and talents with an awareness of the influence of culture and gender on student learning.
(p) Instructional strategies for developing reading, writing, critical thinking, and problem solving skills.
(q) The prevention and diagnosis of reading difficulties and research-based intervention strategies.
(r) Classroom management and discipline, including:
(i) Individual and group motivation for encouraging positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation.
(ii) Effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication for fostering active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interactions in the classroom.
(s) Planning and management of instruction based on knowledge of the content area, the community, and curriculum goals.
(t) Formal and informal assessment strategies for evaluating and ensuring the continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of the learner.
(u) Collaboration with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community for supporting students' learning and well-being.
(v) Effective interactions with parents to support students' learning and well-being.
(w) The opportunity for candidates to reflect on their teaching and its effects on student growth and learning.
(x) Educational technology including the use of computer and other technologies in instruction, assessment and professional productivity.
(y) Strategies for effective participation in group decision making.
(2) PRINCIPAL AND PROGRAM ADMINISTRATOR.
(a) Effective August 31, 1997, through August 31, 2004, principal and program administrator candidates, in order to support student achievement of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements, will complete a well-planned sequence of courses and/or experiences in an approved preparation program which shall include:
(i) Specific performance domains. An approved preparation program shall require the candidate to demonstrate in course work and the internship the following:
(A) Leadership: Formulating goals with individuals or groups; initiating and maintaining direction with groups and guiding them to the accomplishment of tasks; setting priorities for one's school in the context of community and district priorities and student and staff needs; integrating own and others' ideas for task accomplishment; initiating and planning organizational change.
(B) Information collection: Gathering data, facts, and impressions from a variety of sources about students, parents, staff members, administrators, and community members; seeking knowledge about policies, rules, laws, precedents, or practices; managing the data flow; classifying and organizing information for use in decision making and monitoring.
(C) Problem analysis: Identifying the important elements of a problem situation by analyzing relevant information; framing problems; identifying possible causes; identifying additional needed information; framing and reframing possible solutions; exhibiting conceptual flexibility; assisting others to form reasoned opinions about problems and issues.
(D) Judgment: Reaching logical conclusions and making high quality, timely decisions given the best available information.
(E) Organizational oversight: Planning and scheduling one's own and others' work so that resources are used appropriately, and short-term and long-term priorities and goals are met; monitoring projects to meet deadlines.
(F) Implementation: Making things happen; putting programs and plans into action; applying management technologies; applying methods of organizational change including collaborative processes; facilitating tasks; establishing progress checkpoints; considering alternative approaches; providing "mid-course" corrections when actual outcomes start to diverge from intended outcomes; adapting to new conditions.
(G) Delegation: Assigning projects or tasks together with clear authority to accomplish them and responsibility for their timely and acceptable completion.
(H) Instructional program: Envisioning and enabling instructional and auxiliary programs for the improvement of teaching and learning; recognizing the developmental needs of students; insuring appropriate instructional methods that address students' gender and cultural differences; designing positive learning experiences; accommodating differences in cognition and achievement; mobilizing the participation of appropriate people or groups to develop these programs and to establish a positive learning environment.
(I) Curriculum design: Interpreting school district curricula; planning and implementing with staff a framework for instruction that shall include the implementation of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements; initiating needs analyses and monitoring social and technological developments as they affect curriculum; responding to international content levels; adjusting content as needs and conditions change.
(J) Student guidance and development: Providing for student guidance, counseling, and auxiliary services; utilizing community organizations; responding to family needs; enlisting the participation of appropriate people and groups to design and conduct these programs and to connect schooling with plans for adult life; planning for a comprehensive program of student activities.
(K) Staff development: Identifying with participants the professional needs of individuals and groups; planning and organizing programs to improve staff effectiveness; supervising individuals and groups; engaging staff and others to plan and participate in recruitment and development; initiating self-development.
(L) Measurement and evaluation: Determining what diagnostic information is needed about students, staff, and the school environment; examining the extent to which outcomes meet or exceed previously defined standards, goals, or priorities for individuals or groups; drawing inferences for program revisions; interpreting measurements or evaluations for others; relating programs to desired outcomes; developing equivalent measures of competence.
(M) Resource allocation: Planning and developing the budget with appropriate staff; seeking, allocating, and adjusting fiscal, human, and material resources; utilizing the physical plant; monitoring resource use and reporting results.
(N) Motivating others: Building commitment to a course of action; creating and channeling the energy of self and others; planning and encouraging participation; supporting innovation; recognizing and rewarding effective performance; providing coaching, guidance, or correction for performance that needs improvement; serving as a role model.
(O) Sensitivity: Perceiving the needs and concerns of others; dealing with others tactfully; working with others in emotionally stressful situations or in conflict; managing conflict; obtaining feedback; recognizing multicultural sensibilities.
(P) Oral expression: Making oral presentations that are clear and easy to understand; clarifying and restating questions; responding, reviewing, and summarizing for groups; utilizing appropriate communicative aids; adapting for audiences.
(Q) Written expression: Expressing ideas clearly in writing; writing appropriately for different audiences such as students, teachers, and parents; preparing brief memoranda.
(R) Philosophical and cultural values: Acting with a reasoned understanding of the role of education in a democratic society and in accord with accepted ethical standards; recognizing philosophical and historical influences in education; reflecting an understanding of American culture, including current social and economic issues related to education; recognizing global influences on students and society.
(S) Legal and regulatory applications: Acting in accordance with relevant federal and Washington state laws, rules, and policies; recognizing governmental influences on education; working within local rules, procedures, and directives; administering contracts.
(T) Policy and political influences: Identifying relationships between public policy and education; recognizing policy issues; examining and affecting policies individually and through professional and public groups; relating policy initiatives to the welfare of students; addressing ethical issues.
(U) Public and media relationships: Developing common perceptions about school issues; interacting with parental and community opinion leaders; understanding and responding skillfully to the electronic and printed news media; initiating and reporting news through appropriate channels; enlisting public participation; recognizing and providing for market segments.
(ii) Performance assessment. An approved preparation program for principals shall require that prior to the internship each candidate shall engage in a performance assessment through a process determined by each preparation program. The results of this assessment shall be utilized by the college/university supervisor, the cooperating principal, and the principal candidate to cooperatively design the internship plan.
(b) Effective September 1, 2004, principal and program administrator candidates, in order to support student achievement of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements, will complete formalized learning opportunities, including an internship, in an approved program that includes:
(i) Successful demonstration of standards. A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by:
(A) Facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community;
(B) Advocating, nurturing, and sustaining a school culture and instructional program conducive to student learning and staff professional growth;
(C) Ensuring management of the organization, operations, and resources for a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment;
(D) Collaborating with families and community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources;
(E) Acting with integrity, fairness, and in an ethical manner; and
(F) Understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal and cultural context.
(ii) Performance assessment. An approved preparation program for principals shall require that each candidate engage in an assessment process using the standards-based benchmarks approved by the state board of education and published by the office of the superintendent of public instruction. The benchmarks may not be changed without prior state board approval. All candidates shall exit the residency certificate program with a draft professional growth plan.
(3) SUPERINTENDENT. Superintendent candidates, in order to support student achievement of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements, will complete a well-planned sequence of courses and/or experiences in an approved preparation program for superintendents which shall include specific performance domains for superintendents. An approved preparation program for superintendents shall require the candidate to demonstrate in course work and the internship the following:
(a) Strategic leadership: The knowledge, skills and attributes to identify contexts, develop with others vision and purpose, utilize information, frame problems, exercise leadership processes to achieve common goals, and act ethically for educational communities. This includes:
(i) Professional and ethical leadership.
(ii) Information management and evaluation.
(b) Instructional leadership: The knowledge, skills and attributes to design with others appropriate curricula and instructional programs which implement the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements, to develop learner centered school cultures, to assess outcomes, to provide student personnel services, and to plan with faculty professional development activities aimed at improving instruction. This includes:
(i) Curriculum, instruction, supervision, and learning environment.
(ii) Professional development and human resources.
(iii) Student personnel services.
(c) Organizational leadership: The knowledge, skills and attributes to understand and improve the organization, implement operational plans, manage financial resources, and apply decentralized management processes and procedures. This includes:
(i) Organizational management.
(ii) Interpersonal relationships.
(iii) Financial management and resource allocation.
(iv) Technology and information system.
(d) Political and community leadership: The knowledge, skills and attributes to act in accordance with legal provisions and statutory requirements, to apply regulatory standards, to develop and apply appropriate policies, to be conscious of ethical implications of policy initiatives and political actions, to relate public policy initiatives to student welfare, to understand schools as political systems, to involve citizens and service agencies, and to develop effective staff communications and public relations programs. This includes:
(i) Community and media relations.
(ii) Federal and Washington state educational law, public policy and political systems.
(4) SCHOOL COUNSELOR. School counselor candidates, in order to support student achievement of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements, will complete a well-planned sequence of courses and/or experiences in which they acquire and apply knowledge about:
(a) Human growth and development (studies that provide an understanding of the nature and needs of individuals at all developmental levels).
(b) Social and cultural foundations (studies that provide an understanding of issues and trends in a multicultural and diverse society).
(c) Helping relationships (studies that provide an understanding of counseling and consultation processes).
(d) Group work (studies that provide an understanding of group development, dynamics, counseling theories, group counseling methods and skills, and other group work approaches).
(e) Career and lifestyle development (studies that provide an understanding of career development and related life factors).
(f) Appraisal (studies that provide an understanding of individual and group approaches to assessment and evaluation), including assessment of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements.
(g) Research and program evaluation (studies that provide an understanding of types of research methods, basic statistics, and ethical and legal considerations in research).
(h) Professional orientation (studies that provide an understanding of all aspects of professional functioning including history, roles, organizational structures, ethics, standards, and credentialing).
(i) Foundations of school counseling including:
(i) History, philosophy, and trends in school counseling;
(ii) Role and function of the school counselor in conjunction with the roles of the professional and support personnel in the school;
(iii) Knowledge of the school setting and curriculum including the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements;
(iv) Ethical standards and guidelines of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA);
(v) State and federal policies, laws, and legislation relevant to school counseling; and
(vi) Implications of sociocultural, demographic, and lifestyle diversity relevant to school counseling.
(j) Studies that provide an understanding of the coordination of counseling program components as they relate to the total school community including:
(i) Referral of children and adolescents for specialized help;
(ii) Coordination efforts with resource persons, specialists, businesses, and agencies outside the school to promote program objectives;
(iii) Methods of integration of guidance curriculum in the total school curriculum;
(iv) Promotion of the use of counseling and guidance activities and programs by the total school community to enhance a positive school climate; and
(v) Methods of planning and presenting guidance-related educational programs for school personnel and parents.
(k) Theory, knowledge and skills for the practice of school counseling including:
(i) Program development, implementation and evaluation. Studies in this area include:
(A) Use of surveys, interviews, and needs assessments;
(B) Design, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive, developmental school program;
(C) Implementation and evaluation of specific strategies designed to meet program goals and objectives;
(D) Preparation of a counseling schedule reflecting appropriate time commitments and priorities in a developmental school counseling program; and
(E) Use of appropriate technology and information systems.
(ii) Counseling and guidance. Studies in this area include:
(A) Individual and group counseling and guidance approaches appropriate for the developmental stage and needs of children and adolescents;
(B) Group guidance approaches that are systematically designed to assist children and adolescents with developmental tasks;
(C) Approaches to peer helper programs;
(D) Issues which may affect the development and function of children and adolescents (e.g., abuse, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, exceptionality, substance abuse, violence, suicide, dropout);
(E) Developmental approaches to assist students and parents at points of educational transition (e.g., postsecondary education, career and technical education, and career options);
(F) Crisis intervention and referral; and
(G) System dynamics, including family, school, community, etc.
(iii) Consultation. Studies in this area shall include:
(A) Methods of enhancing teamwork within the school community; and
(B) Methods of involving parents, teachers, administrators, support staff and community agency personnel.
(5) SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST. School psychologist candidates, in order to support student achievement of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements, will complete a well-planned sequence of courses and/or experiences in which they acquire and apply knowledge about:
(a) Knowledge of the field. The candidate has knowledge and skill in relevant fields of study, including:
(i) Learning theory.
(ii) Personality theory and development.
(iii) Individual and group testing and assessment.
(iv) Individual and group counseling and interviewing theory and techniques.
(v) Basic statistics.
(vi) Child development.
(vii) Exceptional children.
(viii) Social and cultural factors.
(ix) Deviant personality.
(x) Curriculum, including the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements.
(xi) Research design.
(xii) Physiological and biological factors.
(b) Assessment and diagnosis. The candidate has knowledge and skill necessary to select, administer, score, and interpret instruments and techniques in the following areas:
(i) Intellectual and cognitive assessment.
(ii) Individual and group academic skills: Standardized norm-referenced and criteria-referenced measurements and curriculum-based measurements.
(iii) Personality assessment.
(iv) Assessment of perceptual skills.
(v) Assessment of adaptive behavior; assessment of language skills.
(c) Behavioral observation and analysis. The candidate has knowledge and skill in behavior observation, including:
(i) Data taking.
(ii) Frequency measures.
(iii) Qualitative and quantitative analysis of classroom behavior.
(iv) Developmental and personality analysis, including perceptual, cognitive, social, and affective and language development in children.
(d) Counseling and interviewing. The candidate has the knowledge and skill necessary to:
(i) Provide individual and group counseling to students and parents.
(ii) Conduct interviews essential to information collecting from parents, teachers, and other professionals.
(e) Program development. The candidate has the knowledge and skill to make educational prescriptions, including specification of remedial environmental changes, both curricular and behavioral, for a particular student.
(f) Consultation. The candidate has the knowledge and skill to:
(i) Function on multidisciplinary teams in evaluating and placing students.
(ii) Confer with and make recommendations to parents, specialists, teachers, referral personnel, and others relative to student's characteristics and needs in the educational and home environments.
(g) Program evaluation and recordkeeping. The candidate has the knowledge and skill necessary to develop and implement program evaluation and maintain required records.
(h) Professionalism. The candidate has knowledge of professional standards regarding ethical and legal practices relevant to the practice of school psychology. The candidate demonstrates knowledge and skill in written and oral reporting of assessment and remedial recommendations which will meet ethical and legal standards.
(i) Research. The candidate has knowledge and skill to:
(i) Evaluate and perform research.
(ii) Apply school-oriented research.
(iii) Construct criterion-referenced instruments with reference to such educational decisions as:
(A) Retention in grade.
(B) Acceleration and early entrance.
(C) Early entrance.
(6) SCHOOL SOCIAL WORKER. School social worker candidates, in order to support student achievement of the state learning goals and essential academic learning requirements, will complete a well-planned sequence of courses and/or experiences in which they acquire and apply knowledge about:
(a) Knowledge for social work practice. The candidate has knowledge and skills in relevant fields of study including:
(A) Knowledge of profession including values, skills, and ethics; and
(B) National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Code of Ethics and school social work guidelines for practice.
(ii) Human behavior and the social environment.
(A) Community theory and community change (e.g., community organization and development, social planning, networking, and case management);
(B) Systems and organizational theory (e.g., school as a bureaucracy);
(C) Social disorganization (e.g., poverty, family and community violence, unemployment, addictions, multiple losses), and context of family in a changing society;
(D) Family dynamics and theories of family therapy;
(E) Human/child growth and development;
(F) Diverse populations of: Race, culture, social class, life style, age, gender and the disabled;
(G) Theories of personality; and
(H) Use of computer technology for social work practice.
(b) Service delivery and program development. The candidate will have knowledge and skills in the following activities:
(i) Direct practice.
(A) Referring, developing, and coordinating resources and services in the local education agency and community;
(B) Knowledge and skills related to families;
(C) Case management;
(D) Working with vulnerable and "hard to reach" individuals and families, including those from diverse populations;
(E) Crisis intervention, conflict resolution, stress management and decision-making skills;
(F) Individual and group counseling to improve students' self-knowledge and interactional skills for personal empowerment;
(G) Interviewing and counseling students in relation to social-personal problems adjudged to be impairing student's ability to learn;
(H) Family interventions including parent education; referral to resources; family counseling;
(I) Teaching children communication and interpersonal relationship skills through individual/group/classroom interventions;
(J) Collaborating and consulting with parents and community to assure readiness to learn for all students;
(K) Multidimensional assessment of student's social-emotional adjustment, adaptive behaviors, individual strengths, and environmental assets;
(L) Intervention case planning processes; and
(M) Career and academic guidance to students in their school to work transitions.
(ii) Indirect practice.
(A) Liaison and facilitator between and among home, school and community;
(B) Collaborate and consult with other educational staff to assure student progress;
(C) Use computer technology for practice and efficiency;
(D) Develop strategies for increased parental and community involvement with the school;
(E) Develop programs of remediation for students and their families;
(F) Design, coordinate and facilitate programs such as suicide prevention, truancy and drop-out prevention, and prevention of teenage pregnancy;
(G) Provide staff development programs;
(H) Work collaboratively with educational staff to develop programs to address school-community identified needs; and
(I) Function as change agents.
(c) Research and evaluation. The candidate will have necessary skills and knowledge to:
(i) Collect and interpret data in order to evaluate student, school, and community needs;
(ii) Evaluate own practice;
(iii) Become consumer of research findings;
(iv) Understand use of program evaluation methods; and
(v) Utilize computer technology for research and evaluation.
(d) Context for educational system. The candidate will have necessary knowledge and skills to apply the following:
(i) State learning goals and essential academic learning requirements;
(ii) Theories of learning;
(iii) School law and professional ethics;
(iv) Computer technology in the workplace; and
(v) Understanding of policies, laws, and procedures.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 28A.305.130 and 28A.410.010. 02-18-037, § 180-78A-270, filed 8/26/02, effective 9/26/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 28A.410.010 and 28A.305.130 (1) through (4). 02-04-018, § 180-78A-270, filed 1/24/02, effective 2/24/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 28A.410.010 and 28A.305.130 (1) and (2). 99-23-023, § 180-78A-270, filed 11/9/99, effective 12/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 28A.305.130 (1) and (2), 28A.410.010 and 28A.150.220(4). 99-01-174, § 180-78A-270, filed 12/23/98, effective 1/23/99.]